WorldWideScience

Sample records for household energy air

  1. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, A.

    1997-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  2. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellegaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 μg/m 3 for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  3. Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Du, W; Shen, G; Zhuo, S; Zhu, X; Shen, H; Huang, Y; Su, S; Lin, N; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Implications of Different Household Cooking Energy on Indoor Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Energy is a basic necessity of life for meeting domestic, social and industrial needs of man. ... The cooking methods sampled were firewood stove, kerosene stove, charcoal stove, electricity stove and gas cooker. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND POTENTIAL INDOOR AIR POLLUTION ISSUES IN RURAL INDONESIAN COMMUNITIES USING FUELWOOD ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Setiyo Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two rural communities using fuel wood energy in mountainous and coastal areas of Java island in Indonesia have been surveyed to know their household characteristics and the related potential indoor air pollution issues. By random sampling, we characterized fuel wood users only. The fuel wood use was mainly due to economic reason since some of the users were categorized as low-income families. Communities in the mountainous area were exposed to higher risk of indoor air pollution than those in coastal area due to their house characteristics and behavior during cooking. Both communities, however, were aware of indoor air pollution issues and indicated the sources. They also prioritized the factors to be controlled, which they perceived as the main cause of indoor air pollution problem.

  6. Characteristics Air Flow in Room Chamber Test Refrigerator Household Energy Consumption with Inlet Flow Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Edy; Idrus Alhamid, M.; Nasruddin; Budihardjo

    2018-03-01

    Room Chamber is the most important in making a good Testing Laboratory. In this study, the 2-D modeling conducted to assess the effect placed the inlet on designing a test chamber room energy consumption of household refrigerators. Where the geometry room chamber is rectangular and approaching the enclosure conditions. Inlet varied over the side parallel to the outlet and compared to the inlet where the bottom is made. The purpose of this study was to determine and define the characteristics of the airflow in the room chamber using CFD simulation. CFD method is used to obtain flow characteristics in detail, in the form of vector flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the chamber room. The result found that the position of the inlet parallel to the outlet causes air flow cannot move freely to the side of the floor, even flow of air moves up toward the outlet. While by making the inlet is below, the air can move freely from the bottom up to the side of the chamber room wall as well as to help uniform flow.

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  9. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  10. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  11. Household air pollution, health, and climate change: cleaning the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Martinez-Gomez, Javier; Sagar, Ambuj; Smith, Kirk R.

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution from the use of solid household fuels is now recognized to be a major health risk in developing countries. Accordingly, there has been some shift in development thinking and investment from previous efforts, which has focused only on improving the efficiency of household fuel use, to those that focus on reducing exposure to the air pollution that leads to health impact. Unfortunately, however, this is occurring just as the climate agenda has come to dominate much of the discourse and action on international sustainable development. Thus, instead of optimizing approaches that centrally focus on the large health impact, the household energy agenda has been hampered by the constraints imposed by a narrow definition of sustainability—one primarily driven by the desire to mitigate greenhouse emissions by relying on renewable biomass fueling so-called improved cookstoves. In reality, however, solid biomass is extremely difficult to burn sufficiently cleanly in household stoves to reach health goals. In comparison to the international development community, however, some large countries, notably Brazil historically and more recently, India have substantially expanded the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in their household energy mix, using their own resources, having a major impact on their national energy picture. The net climate impact of such approaches compared to current biomass stoves is minimal or non-existent, and the social and health benefits are, in contrast, potentially great. LPG can be seen as a transition fuel for clean household energy, with induction stoves powered by renewables as the holy grail (an approach already being adopted by Ecuador as also discussed here). The enormous human and social benefits of clean energy, rather than climate concerns, should dominate the household energy access agenda today.

  12. Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use in rural China: the interactions of technology, behavior, and knowledge in health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinlong; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Xining; Cheng, Yibin; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-06-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from household use of biomass and coal is a leading environmental health risk in many developing nations. Much of the initial research on household energy technology overlooked the complex interactions of technological, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural factors that determine the success of environmental health interventions. Consequently, despite enormous interest in reducing the large and inequitable risks associated with household energy use in international development and global health, there is limited empirical research to form the basis for design and delivery of effective interventions. We used data from four poor provinces in China (Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi) to examine the linkages among technology, user knowledge and behavior, and access and infrastructure in exposure to IAP from household energy use. We conclude that broad health risk education is insufficient for successful risk mitigation when exposure behaviors are closely linked to day-to-day activities of households such as cooking and heating, or have other welfare implications, and hence cannot be simply stopped. Rather, there should be emphasis on the economic and infrastructure determinants of access to technology, as well as the details of behaviors that affect exposure. Better understanding of technology-behavior interface would also allow designing technological interventions that account for, and are robust to, behavioral factors or to provide individuals and households with alternative behaviors. Based on the analysis, we present technological and behavioral interventions for these four Chinese provinces.

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  14. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  15. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  16. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  17. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  18. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  19. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  20. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  1. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  2. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour.

  3. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  4. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  5. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  6. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Feedback and household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauser, G A; Kendall, K W; Filiatrault, P

    1979-06-01

    The literature is reviewed relevant to the use of (a) information campaigns through the mass media; and (b) immediate feedback about the results of consumer behavior, to influence consumer energy use. The study focuses on residential energy use. (MHR)

  8. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the

  9. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  10. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  11. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-01-01

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India.

  12. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  13. Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malla, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 87% of Nepal's total final energy is consumed by households. This paper analyzes the patterns of household energy use and associated air pollutant emissions in Nepal based on LEAP framework for thirteen analytical regions and three end-uses. Four scenarios involving different growth paths for socio economic and energy system development through the year 2040 are considered. The study finds that household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates the country's energy-mix. Households' CO 2 emissions are less significant but their local indoor pollutant emissions will continue to rise in the future. To help strengthen government's commitment to the UN's sustainable energy for all initiative, this study devises an energy development index (EDI) to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. The results reveal that the current level of both energy access and energy poverty in the country is below the basic human needs and this situation will improve by little in next 30 years. The paper argues that to improve these situations require more coordinated and innovative plans and policies from the government. The paper suggests that greater emphasis will be needed in reducing dependence of biomass for cooking, promoting domestic alternative energy sources, scaling up biomass improved cookstoves programs and developing periodic regional level energy database. - Highlights: • Household energy use and air pollutant emissions in Nepal are analyzed based on LEAP framework. • Household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates country's energy-mix. • Energy Development Index is devised to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. • Scaling up RETs and biomass ICS programs are suggested. • Coordination with inter-agencies and ODAs is vital in alleviating energy poverty in Nepal

  14. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  15. Estimating energy conservation patterns of Greek households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardianou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical model to investigate the main determinants of household energy conservation patterns in Greece employing cross-section data. In the empirical analysis, household energy-conserving choices models are employed, using a discrete and a latent trait variable respectively as a dependent variable. The results show that socio-economic variables such as consumers' income and family size are suitable to explain differences towards energy conservation preferences. In addition, the results suggest that electricity expenditures and age of the respondent are negatively associated with the number of energy-conserving actions that a consumer is willing to adopt. Finally, other variables such as environmental information feedback and consciousness of energy problems are characteristics of the energy-saver consumer. By evaluating consumer's decision-making process with regards to energy conservation measures, we are able to formulate and propose an effective energy conservation framework for Greece. An energy policy framework is among the main prerequisites not only to achieve sustainable development but also to maintain consumers' quality of life

  16. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  17. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  18. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  19. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  20. Energy consumptions of households in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denjean, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Based on results of a survey, this publication comments data presented under the form of tables and graphs and related to the energy consumption by French households during 2012. It addresses expenses and consumptions for individual housing and for a flat in collective building, analyses the energy consumption with respect to surface in the case of individual housing, discusses the influence of dwelling age on consumption, the influence of geographical location in France, the influence o the residence status (owner or renter), and the influence of dwelling occupation (hours per day), and the distribution of the type of consumed energy (electricity, gas, oil, LPG, wood, other) and the money spent on these different energies. The type of energy is also related to the residence status, to the housing type (house or flat), to the flat surface, to the housing type and age, to the geographical location

  1. Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the 'Energy Services Ladder'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins by defining energy services and identifying how they differ according to sector, urban and rural areas, and direct and indirect uses. It then investigates household energy services divided into three classes: lower income, middle income, and upper income. It finds that the primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items). The study highlights how focusing on energy services reorients the direction of energy policy interventions, that energy services are neither uniform nor innate, and by noting exciting areas of potential research. - Research highlights: → The primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. → Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. → The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items).

  2. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  3. Health and Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use: The Needfor Improved Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nearly half the world’s population relies on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs (e.g., cooking and heating). Resulting air pollution exposures are estimated to cause 3% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resource...

  4. Household energy consumption and consumer electronics: The case of television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of consumer electronics in households. These new technologies and the services that support them enable new highly energy intensive behaviours. Using in-depth interview data collected from 20 households in 2006, this paper explores these energy intensive behaviours, using the example of the use of televisions. In doing so, it illustrates how the design and marketing of consumer electronics, and the services which support them, actively encourage energy intensive behaviours and how householders are reconfiguring their homes and lifestyles to fit these behaviours. This latter point is significant because, as householders change their homes and daily lives to fit energy intensive consuming behaviours, it will become increasingly difficult to encourage people to reduce their household energy consumption. This paper concludes with the implications of the research findings for policies designed to reduce household energy consumption

  5. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  6. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  7. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    The starting point for this paper is the lack of linkage between two of the prominent social agendas of the time – the development of the information society and the question of how to prevent man-made climate change. The paper is intended as a contribution to integrate the two agendas by conside......The starting point for this paper is the lack of linkage between two of the prominent social agendas of the time – the development of the information society and the question of how to prevent man-made climate change. The paper is intended as a contribution to integrate the two agendas...... by considering ICT in an energy perspective. In particular, the paper focuses on the integration of ICT in households and the energy impacts related to changing everyday practices. As this has not received much attention in previous research, the paper has an explorative character. Firstly, the paper reviews...... some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...

  8. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  9. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  10. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni JK

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countrie...

  11. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  12. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  13. Impact of partial fuel switch on household air pollutants in sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumwesige, Vianney; Okello, Gabriel; Semple, Sean; Smith, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas. This study monitored real-time PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in 35 households in Cameroon and Uganda where biogas and firewood (or charcoal) were used. The 24 h mean PM 2.5 concentrations in households that used: (1) firewood and charcoal; (2) both firewood (mean 54% cooking time) and biogas (mean 46% cooking time); and (3) only biogas, were 449 μg m −3 , 173 μg m −3 and 18 μg m −3 respectively. The corresponding 24 h mean CO concentrations were 14.2 ppm, 2.7 ppm and 0.5 ppm. Concentrations of both PM 2.5 and CO were high and exceeded the World Health Organisation guidelines when firewood and charcoal were used. Partially switching to biogas reduced CO exposure to below the World Health Organisation guidelines, but PM 2.5 concentrations were only below the 24 h recommended limits when households fully converted to biogas fuel. These results indicate that partial switching from solid fuels to biogas is not sufficient and continues to produce concentrations of household air pollution that are likely to harm the health of those exposed. Programmes introducing biogas should aim to ensure that household energy needs can be fully achieved using biogas with no requirement to continue using solid fuels. - Highlights: • Air pollution exceeds WHO limits in African households using solid biomass fuels. • A partial switch to biogas reduced CO concentrations to below the WHO limit. • Particulates only fall to

  14. Renewable energy in Dutch households. An online survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mors, B.; Both, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the title survey was to find out how households in the Netherlands can be interested and involved in the use of renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind power and solar energy [nl

  15. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  16. Household air pollution (HAP), microenvironment and child health: Strategies for mitigating HAP exposure in urban Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ipsita; Pedit, Joseph; Handa, Sudhanshu; Jagger, Pamela

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking and heating with solid fuels is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Children under five are particularly at risk for acute lower respiratory infection. We use baseline data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating a household energy intervention in Gisenyi, Rwanda to investigate the role of the microenvironment as a determinant of children’s HAP-related health symptoms. Our sample includes 529 households, with 694 children under five. We examine the association between likelihood of HAP-related health symptom prevalence and characteristics of the microenvironment including: dwelling and cooking area structure; distance to nearest road; and tree cover. We find that children residing in groups of enclosed dwellings, in households that cook indoors, and in households proximate to tree cover, are significantly more likely to experience symptoms of respiratory infection, illness with cough and difficulty breathing. On the other hand, children in households with cemented floors and ventilation holes in the cooking area, are significantly less likely to experience the same symptoms. Our findings suggest that in addition to promoting increased access to clean cooking technologies, there are important infrastructure and microenvironment-related interventions that mitigate HAP exposure.

  17. Model projections for household energy use in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.J.M.; Isaac, M.; van der Sluijs, J.P.; Lucas, P.L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is

  18. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  19. Energy consumption in rural China: A household model for three villages in Jiangxi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2006-01-01

    In China, fuelwood and coal are the most important energy sources for rural households in poor areas. Along with population and economic growth, excessive fuelwood collection is a major cause of deforestation. Burning coal contributes to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and

  20. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Francis I

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015.

  1. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  2. Wood, energy and households: perspectives on rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C; Ensminger, J; O' Keefe, P [eds.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of nine articles on agricultural and pastoral households in Kenya stems from a growing concern about the ability of households to meet their energy needs as the demand for wood resources increasingly outstrips the supply and the potential for securing non-biomass sources appears bleak. The future for most rural households relates to the socio-economic differentiation and the economic condition which exists in most Fourth World countries. The studies reflect the author's diverse interests in ecology, economics, geography, history, and anthropology, but all employ a household-level analysis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the nine chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EPA).

  3. Health and household air pollution from solid fuel use: the need for improved exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maggie L; Peel, Jennifer L; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Breysse, Patrick N; Chillrud, Steven N; Naeher, Luke P; Rodes, Charles E; Vette, Alan F; Balbus, John M

    2013-10-01

    Nearly 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs. The resulting exposure to air pollution causes an estimated 4.5% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resources for research and development have resulted in highly uncertain exposure estimates. We sought to identify research priorities for exposure assessment that will more accurately and precisely define exposure-response relationships of household air pollution necessary to inform future cleaner-burning cookstove dissemination programs. As part of an international workshop in May 2011, an expert group characterized the state of the science and developed recommendations for exposure assessment of household air pollution. The following priority research areas were identified to explain variability and reduce uncertainty of household air pollution exposure measurements: improved characterization of spatial and temporal variability for studies examining both short- and long-term health effects; development and validation of measurement technology and approaches to conduct complex exposure assessments in resource-limited settings with a large range of pollutant concentrations; and development and validation of biomarkers for estimating dose. Addressing these priority research areas, which will inherently require an increased allocation of resources for cookstove research, will lead to better characterization of exposure-response relationships. Although the type and extent of exposure assessment will necessarily depend on the goal and design of the cookstove study, without improved understanding of exposure-response relationships, the level of air pollution reduction necessary to meet the health targets of cookstove interventions will remain uncertain.

  4. The energy requirement of holidays and household reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, M.; Vringer, K.

    1999-12-01

    Like all consumer products and services, holidays require energy. The aim of this study is to give insight to the energy consumption for holidays of Dutch households and to suggest options to reduce this energy demand. To examine the energy consumption for holidays, nine holiday packages are composed, each representing a large group of Dutch vacationers. The packages describe the destination, means of transport, duration, accommodation and number of vacationers. The average energy requirement for the accommodation and transport for long summer holidays is 12.5 GJ per Dutch household, excluding the energy requirement for food and activities. About 10% of the Dutch households, the ones that travel by plane to their holiday destination, consume 70% of the total amount of energy all households require for holiday purposes. This is mainly due to the distance travelled, rather than to the chosen means of transport. If the travelled distances will be reduced by 50% and all nights are spent in a tent, the average household energy requirement would be 6.1 GJ, a reduction of more than 50%. 36 refs

  5. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  6. Switching off or switching source : energy consumption and household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassmann, F.; Tsukada, R.

    2013-01-01

    "Access to energy is fundamental to improving quality of life and is a key imper- ative for economic development" (Energy Poverty Action). This is particularly true in Central Asia where winters are harsh and long. Changes in energy prices affect the purchasing power of households, hitting the poor

  7. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  8. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  9. Household energy studies: the gap between theory and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, T.

    2006-09-15

    At the level of theory it is now widely accepted that energy consumption patterns are a complex technical and socio-cultural phenomenon and to understand this phenomenon, it must be viewed from both engineering and social science perspectives. However, the methodological approaches taken in household energy studies lag behind the theoretical advances made in the last ten or fifteen years. The quantitative research methods traditionally used within the fields of building science, economics, and psychology continue to dominate household energy studies, while the qualitative ethnographic approaches to examining social and cultural phenomena traditionally used within anthropology and sociology are most frequently overlooked. This paper offers a critical review of the research methods used in household energy studies which illustrates the scope and limitations of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in this area of study. In doing so it demonstrates that qualitative research methods are essential to designing effective energy efficiency interventions. [Author].

  10. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  11. Reassessing the 'energy ladder': Household energy use in Maun, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra-van der Horst, Greg; Hovorka, Alice J.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of Sub-Saharan Africa's rapid urbanization, improved insight into urban energy use is increasingly important. Based on the predictions of 'energy transition' theory, a regional shift from biomass to 'modern' fuels has long been expected to occur in tandem with urban growth. However, trends observed in the region's towns and cities have often not followed such patterns and fuelwood continues to be important in most areas. This paper examines the practical relevance of transition theory using a recent case study, conducted by the authors in Maun, Botswana, and results previously reported in the literature. It finds that, despite the long-term link between socio-economic development and increased modern fuel consumption at the national scale, the notion of 'transition' does not accurately reflect ongoing energy-use patterns at lower levels of aggregation. This is chiefly because its model of household fuel switching largely dismisses the importance of active (and strategic) decision making by urban consumers and their responsiveness to structural factors such as relative fuel prices. As the Botswana case illustrates, this weakness can significantly distort expectations and policies around urban fuelwood use

  12. Richer and healthier, but not Greener? Choices concerning household energy use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth Staff; Eskeland, Gunnar S.

    2009-01-01

    India is among the world lowest per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, but rapid increases are expected. At the same time, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates show that 424,000 die prematurely in Indian households each year from air pollution exposure due to solid fuel use. We analyze GHG emissions and health through three policy scenarios for household energy, using projections for population, income and urbanization. In policy scenarios called Business as Usual (BAU), Improved Health, and Green Future, projected per capita household GHG emissions in 2026 increase by 169%, 164% and 139%, respectively, compared to 2001, whereas household mortality rates decrease by 45%, 67% and 45%, respectively. Due to income growth and urbanization, an increase in GHG emissions is likely inevitable, but can be slowed. For health, in contrast, improvements are expected and can be expanded.

  13. Risk factors for indoor air pollution in rural households in Mauche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for indoor air pollution in rural households in Mauche division, Molo ... indoor air pollution, which has been associated with various diseases. Key words: biomass fuel, children, indoor pollution, respiratory infections, ventilation.

  14. A social capital approach to household energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Megan [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of social capital in relation to household energy consumption in an effort to further understand social influences on energy use in the United Kingdom. The considerable focus on building science and technology notwithstanding, it is widely recognised that social factors influence energy use at the household level. Much of the research on changing behaviour has focused on influencing individual actions. Whilst promoting changes in individual behaviour is important, social level analysis provides a broader framework for understanding householder energy use. Social capital broadly refers to the social resources available through networks, social norms and associated levels of trust and reciprocity. The literature of energy, in the form of environmental protection and consumption, is investigated here with regards to social capital to determine the utility of any theoretical and empirical relationship. It is argued that insights from the associations of social and energy consumption can assist energy efficiency practitioners and researchers in understanding the broader social framework that underpins household energy use, but that more robust empirical research is necessary.

  15. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  16. Analysis of the energy requirement for household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated

  17. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  18. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  19. Empirical study on regional differentiation of rural household energy use in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenheng; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiaodong

    2018-02-01

    To better understand regional differentiation of rural household energy use, data of energy use of 232 rural households in the Linwei District located in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected by questionnaires combined with face-to-face interview. Location quotient of energy use (LQEU) method is adopted in the paper. The results show that multiple energy sources are utilized due to market orientation in the plain area, and biogas is prominent as a result of policy orientation in the loess tableland, whereas firewood is dominant due to the influence of natural environment in the Qinling mountainous area. Regional differentiation of energy use is comprehensively affected by income level, air temperature, development conditions, energy policy, etc.

  20. Householder behaviour and domestic energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, A J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of research which points to the importance of behaviour in energy consumption is presented. The literature or ways of controlling energy consumption by behavioural means is reviewed. This thesis investigates the idea that consumption could be reduced through an understanding of people's beliefs. A variety of methodologies was used to this end. As a result of the studies, many suboptimal strategies based on erroneous beliefs came to light. The research has not only enabled practical recommendations to be made for immediate implementation but has also demonstrated the fruitfulness of investigating consumers' understanding of their heating systems as a means of promoting the efficient use of energy.

  1. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of .... 4 A system dynamics model of electricity consumption ...... to base comparisons on overly detailed quantitative predictions of behaviour.

  2. Impact of partial fuel switch on household air pollutants in sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesige, Vianney; Okello, Gabriel; Semple, Sean; Smith, Jo

    2017-12-01

    Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas. This study monitored real-time PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in 35 households in Cameroon and Uganda where biogas and firewood (or charcoal) were used. The 24 h mean PM 2.5 concentrations in households that used: (1) firewood and charcoal; (2) both firewood (mean 54% cooking time) and biogas (mean 46% cooking time); and (3) only biogas, were 449 μg m -3 , 173 μg m -3 and 18 μg m -3 respectively. The corresponding 24 h mean CO concentrations were 14.2 ppm, 2.7 ppm and 0.5 ppm. Concentrations of both PM 2.5 and CO were high and exceeded the World Health Organisation guidelines when firewood and charcoal were used. Partially switching to biogas reduced CO exposure to below the World Health Organisation guidelines, but PM 2.5 concentrations were only below the 24 h recommended limits when households fully converted to biogas fuel. These results indicate that partial switching from solid fuels to biogas is not sufficient and continues to produce concentrations of household air pollution that are likely to harm the health of those exposed. Programmes introducing biogas should aim to ensure that household energy needs can be fully achieved using biogas with no requirement to continue using solid fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  4. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  5. Association between Household Air Pollution Exposure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes in 13 Low- and Middle-Income Country Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Grigsby, Matthew R; Goodman, Dina; Chowdhury, Muhammad; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Gutierrez, Laura; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; van Gemert, Frederick; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2018-03-01

    Forty percent of households worldwide burn biomass fuels for energy, which may be the most important contributor to household air pollution. To examine the association between household air pollution exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes in 13 resource-poor settings. We analyzed data from 12,396 adult participants living in 13 resource-poor, population-based settings. Household air pollution exposure was defined as using biomass materials as the primary fuel source in the home. We used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes, evaluated for interactions, and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our findings. Average age was 54.9 years (44.2-59.6 yr across settings), 48.5% were women (38.3-54.5%), prevalence of household air pollution exposure was 38% (0.5-99.6%), and 8.8% (1.7-15.5%) had COPD. Participants with household air pollution exposure were 41% more likely to have COPD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.68) than those without the exposure, and 13.5% (6.4-20.6%) of COPD prevalence may be caused by household air pollution exposure, compared with 12.4% caused by cigarette smoking. The association between household air pollution exposure and COPD was stronger in women (1.70; 1.24-2.32) than in men (1.21; 0.92-1.58). Household air pollution exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of COPD, particularly among women, and it is likely a leading population-attributable risk factor for COPD in resource-poor settings.

  6. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharinya Supasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximately 30% of total residential energy use, whereas indirect energy consumption was at 70%. During the studied period, the growth in indirect energy use for all household groups was primarily the result of higher consumption of ‘commerce’, ‘air transport’, ‘manufacturing’, ‘food and beverages’ and ‘agriculture’ products. Moreover, each influencing driver contributes differently to each household’s growth in energy demand. The number of households was the leading factor that dominated the increases in residential energy use in the Greater Bangkok and Central regions. Growth in residential energy consumption in the Northern, Northeastern and Southern regions was strongly dominated by changes in income per capita. Consumption structure and using energy-efficient products had a moderate impact on all regions’ energy consumption. Thus, our findings provide additional energy-saving strategies to restrain further growth in residential energy demand.

  7. Cooperative Energy Management for a Cluster of Households Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, consumers become prosumers in which they internally generate and consume energy looking for an autonomous operation. This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating the operation of distributed household prosumers. It was found that better performance is achieved when cooperative...... operation with other prosumers in a neighborhood environment is achieved. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy by comparing the performance of islanded prosumers with the operation in cooperative mode....

  8. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  9. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  10. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  11. Air pollution: Household soiling and consumer welfare losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper uses demand and supply functions for cleanliness to estimate household benefits from reduced particulate matter soiling. A demand curve for household cleanliness is estimated, based upon the assumption that households prefer more cleanliness to less. Empirical coefficients, related to particulate pollution levels, for shifting the cleanliness supply curve, are taken from available studies. Consumer welfare gains, aggregated across 123 SMSAs, from achieving the Federal primary particulate standard, are estimated to range from $0.9 to $3.2 million per year (1971 dollars). ?? 1982.

  12. Household air pollution and childhood pneumonia in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clean/improved cook stoves such as the Uga Cooking Stove (locally made in Uganda, using charcoal) is critical to .... household ventilation or behavior change may reduce levels of HAP or ... Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of.

  13. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  14. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  15. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  16. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jary

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.

  17. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  18. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  19. Energy consumption of the households 1960-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Engsted, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1960s energy consumption of Danish households increased relatively fast, but the oil price shocks of the 1970s and subsequent energy policy changes reversed this development towards stagnation in energy consumption in the recent decades. Using time series data covering the period 1960-1996 the final energy consumption of the residential sector is analysed in the framework of co-integration and error-correction modelling. The long run income and price elasticities are found to be 1.17 and -0.85, respectively, but in the short run energy prices seem to influence consumption less as only income and the weather conditions appear significantly in the short run dynamics of the estimated error-correction model. (au)

  20. Influence of household biogas digester use on household energy consumption in a semi-arid rural region of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenguang; Niu, Hewen; Chen, Jinsong; Du, Jun; Wu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rural household energy mainly derives from available biomass resources. ► Household energy consumption structure experiencing substantial transformation. ► Biogas energy plays an important roles in rural household energy consumption. ► Biogas digester construction has a profound implication for applied energy. -- Abstract: A comprehensive investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of newly installed biogas digesters in saving biomass resources and addressing energy squandering. Compared with traditional coal-based or firewood dominated energy consumption, the biogas digesters economize on energy resources due to higher heat efficiency. Furthermore, since crop residues of straw and other domestic animal and human excreta are effectively recycled and reused as anaerobic fermentation materials of biogas digesters, greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by converting the previous extensive combustion of such into a sustainable and highly efficient practice in the rural region. The results in this study show that total energy consumption is 412 kgce (kgce: 1 kg standard coal. 1 kgce = 29.31 MJ) in Xiyang Township in 2009. The construction of biogas digesters significantly contributes to the transformation of rural household energy consumption structure, though biogas as a renewable energy only accounts for 6.31% of the total household energy consumption. Per capita rural household energy consumption is 393.07 kgce in household with biogas digesters and 437.60 kgce in household without biogas digesters. In addition, application of biogas dregs, slurry, and marsh liquid to the agricultural crops have greatly reduced the expenditure of buying chemical fertilizers. The average commercial fertilizer per mu (0.067 ha) in rural households using biogas digesters is 12.43 kg and the cost per mu is 29.53 yuan (1 yuan = 0.1523 dollar), while rural households without biogas digesters use 25.22 kg of commercial fertilizers and cost 59

  1. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... in households, and provides important clues about the potentiality to anchor energy strategies and plans in the social context of local households....

  2. Air-conditioning Australian households: The impact of dynamic peak pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, Yolande

    2010-01-01

    International mandates for smart metering are enabling variable and real-time pricing regimes such as dynamic peak pricing (DPP), which charges 10-40 times the off-peak rate for electricity during short periods. This regime aims to reduce peak electricity demand (predominantly due to increase in residential air-conditioning usage) and curb greenhouse gas emissions. Although trials indicate that DPP can achieve significant demand reductions, particularly in summer, little is known about how or why households change their cooling practices in response to this strategy. This paper discusses the outcomes of a small qualitative study assessing the impact of a DPP trial on household cooling practices in the Australian state of New South Wales. The study challenges common assumptions about the necessity of air-conditioning and impact of price signals. It finds that DPP engages households as co-managers of their cooling practices through a series of notification signals (SMS, phone, in-home display, email, etc.). Further, by linking the price signal to air-conditioning, some householders consider this practice discretionary for short periods of time. The paper concludes by warning that policy makers and utilities may serve to legitimise air-conditioning usage and/or negate demand reductions by failing to acknowledge the non-rational dynamics of DPP and household cooling practices. - Research highlights: →Most householders consider air-conditioning discretionary during DPP events →DPP engages householders as co-managers of their demand →Notification of an upcoming DPP event is significant to the response →Householders feel obligated to respond to DPP for a range of non-financial reasons

  3. Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A.; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). Objectives: We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. Methods: We used an energy supply–driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. Results: In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. Conclusions: PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed. Citation: Chafe ZA, Brauer M, Klimont Z, Van Dingenen R, Mehta S, Rao S, Riahi K, Dentener F, Smith KR. 2014. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to

  4. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  5. The impact of household energy efficiency measures on health: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidment, Christopher D.; Jones, Christopher R.; Webb, Thomas L.; Hathway, E. Abigail; Gilbertson, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that interventions designed to promote household energy efficiency, like insulation, central heating and double glazing, can help to reduce cold-related illnesses and associated stress by making it easier for residents to keep their homes warm. However, these interventions may also have a detrimental effect on health. For example, the materials used or lower ventilation rates could result in poorer indoor air quality. The present research sought to systematically quantify the impact of household energy efficiency measures on health and wellbeing. Thirty-six studies, involving more than 33,000 participants were meta-analysed. Effect sizes (d) ranged from −0.43 (a negative impact on health) to 1.41 (a substantial positive impact on health), with an overall sample-weighted average effect size (d + ) of 0.08. On average, therefore, household energy efficiency interventions led to a small but significant improvement in the health of residents. The findings are discussed in the context of the health improvements experienced by different groups of participants and the study design factors that influence health outcomes. The need for future studies to investigate the long term health benefits of interventions designed to promote household energy efficiency is identified. - Highlights: • Thirty-six studies, with over 33,000 participants, were meta-analysed. • The sample-weighted average effect was d + =0.08. • Energy efficiency interventions, therefore, had a small, positive effect on health. • Participants with low incomes saw greater benefits. • Larger effects were found in more recent studies and where medical tests were used

  6. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  7. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  8. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae N; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis W; Semmens, Erin O; Ward, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6-2.5), while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6%) was lower than national prevalence estimates. Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  9. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  10. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  11. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  12. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Stephen A.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  13. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Stephen A; Nelin, Timothy D; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants.

  14. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  15. Viewpoint Mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances including room air conditioners. The number of users of air conditioners is predicted to grow dramatically in Malaysian households in the future. To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, the Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in early 2004. This paper attempts to predict the potential mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The calculations were based on the growth of room air conditioners ownership data in Malaysian households. The study found that the energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners would mitigate a significant amount of emissions in this country

  16. The effect of information on household water and energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Liesel

    Water and Energy Utilities are faced with growing demand at a time when supply expansion is increasingly costly, inconsistent and taxing on the environment. Given that supply expansion is limited, to meet future needs utilities need demand-side management policies to result in more reliable and consistent consumer responsiveness. Currently, most households do not have access to the level or type of information needed to respond to price signals in a reliable and effective way. Advanced information technology solutions exist and are being increasingly adopted, but we need to know more about how the informational setting affects decision-making, consumption levels and price responsiveness. This research analyzes the effect of information on household water and energy consumption, which is a decision-making environment characterized by uncertainty and imperfect information. This study also analyzes additional complexities stemming from infrequent billing, non-linear pricing structures, and combined utility bills, each of which may dampen price signals. I first develop a theoretical model of decision-making under uncertainty. I use this model to illustrate the effect of more frequent information, which eliminates uncertainty about past decisions, on remaining decisions within the billing period. The model emphasizes the role of risk preferences and the realization of the uncertain quantity. On average, risk averse consumers will increase consumption when uncertainty is reduced; risk seeking consumers will do the opposite. Introduction of a non-linear rate structure induces behavior that makes individuals appear as if they are risk averse or risk seeking, despite their actual risk preferences. This model highlights the importance of modeling multiple decisions within a billing period and accounting for a spectrum of risk preferences. In Chapter 3, I create a computerized laboratory experiment designed to generate data used to test some of the hypotheses formulated in

  17. Radiopacity of household deodorizers, air fresheners, and moth repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, A D; Saperstein, A; Zawin, J; Cappock, R; Sue, Y J

    1993-01-01

    Household deodorizers and moth repellents are common agents implicated in many childhood poisonings. Their ingredients usually include either paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene compressed into a solid ball or another shape, sometimes with added essential oils and fragrances. Because medically naphthalene is a more important toxin than paradichlorobenzene, with hematologic and nervous system effects, clinicians often seek to discern which product has been ingested. We discovered fortuitously that a mothball swallowed by a retarded adult was radiopaque, and so designed an in vitro experiment to study the radiopacity of a variety of household deodorizers and products. Of 10 products screened for radiopacity by two radiologists, those containing paradichlorobenzene were consistently strongly radiopaque; those containing naphthalene were radiolucent. A third alternative ingredient which is used in some toilet bowl deodorizers, cetrimonium bromide, was also radiopaque. Radiopacity of paradichlorobenzene or cetrimonium bromide-containing products did not dissipate with time. We speculate that the halogen within the chemical structure of these compounds accounts for their radiopacity. We conclude that paradichlorobenzene-containing commercial products can be distinguished clinically from those containing naphthalene by the performance of an abdominal radiograph.

  18. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    indicate that households in the areas with poor supply quality have a high willingness to pay for reliability improvements. However, a relatively small group of households may incur substantial welfare losses from an electricity price increase even when it is combined with a partial reliability improvement. Unlike an earlier assessment of the same reforms in Azerbaijan, analysis in this dissertation clearly shows that targeted investments in improving service reliability may be the best way to mitigate adverse welfare consequences of electricity price increases. Hence, policymakers should focus their attention on ensuring that quality improvements are a central component of power sector reforms. Survey evidence also shows that, although households may incur sizable welfare losses from indoor air pollution when they rely on traditional fuels, they do not recognize indoor air pollution as a factor contributing to the high incidence of respiratory illness among fuel wood users. Therefore, benefits may be greater if policy interventions that improve the reliability of modern energy sources are combined with an information campaign about the adverse health effects of fuel wood use. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the 'Energy Services Ladder'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This article begins by defining energy services and identifying how they differ according to sector, urban and rural areas, and direct and indirect uses. It then investigates household energy services divided into three classes: lower income, middle income, and upper income. It finds that the primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items). The study highlights how focusing on energy services reorients the direction of energy policy interventions, that energy services are neither uniform nor innate, and by noting exciting areas of potential research. - Research highlights: {yields} The primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. {yields} Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. {yields} The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items).

  20. Household pathway selection of energy consumption during urbanization process in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling; Cai, Hongbo; Luo, Zhichao; Li, Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption patterns have long-term impacts on energy demand. • We explore determinants and structure of household energy consumption. • Tobit and OLS models are adopted to explore factors influencing energy expenditure. • Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated using scenario analysis. - Abstract: China’s growing energy demand is driven by urbanization. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, residential energy consumption is a crucial area of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Household energy consumption patterns, which are characterized by effects of “path lock-in”, have long-term impacts on China’s energy demand. Based on the survey data, this paper explores factors that influence household energy consumption and analyzes the structure of residential energy consumption in China. Based on the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper applies the Tobit and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) models to investigate impacts of variables of “the tiered pricing for household electricity (TPHE)”, “solar energy usage”, “automobile ownership”, “rural or urban areas”, “household income” and “city scale” on the residential energy expenditure. In addition, household energy consumption is estimated under different scenarios including improving the utilization of solar energy, rise in energy prices and the increase in automobile ownership. Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated by simulating different models for urban development. Policy recommendations are suggested for China’s urban development strategy, new energy development and household pathway selection of energy consumption

  1. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  2. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  3. Model projections for household energy use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vries, Bert J.M. de; Isaac, Morna; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Lucas, Paul L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is presented and applied to India. Energy use and fuel choice is determined for five end-use functions (cooking, water heating, space heating, lighting and appliances) and for five different income quintiles in rural and urban areas. The paper specifically explores the consequences of different assumptions for income distribution and rural electrification on residential sector energy use and CO 2 emissions, finding that results are clearly sensitive to variations in these parameters. As a result of population and economic growth, total Indian residential energy use is expected to increase by around 65–75% in 2050 compared to 2005, but residential carbon emissions may increase by up to 9–10 times the 2005 level. While a more equal income distribution and rural electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels and reduce poverty, there is a trade-off in terms of higher CO 2 emissions via increased electricity use. - Highlights: ► A bottom-up model for residential energy use was developed and applied to India. ► The model distinguishes five end-use functions and rural/urban income quintiles. ► We explore consequences of income distribution and electrification on energy use. ► Equal income and electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels. ► Higher CO 2 emissions from increased electricity use are a trade-off.

  4. Energy Policy and Long Term Energy Demand in Croatian Households Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puksec, T.; Duic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Households sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with around 75,75PJ, which is almost 29% of Croatia's final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing different mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and process large number of input data. The Model will be compared to Croatian national Energy Strategy and certain difference will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels. (author)

  5. Households as change agents in a Dutch smart energy transition: On power, privacy and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, J.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Hendriksen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the participation of Dutch households in a smart and sustainable energy transition. Particular attention is paid to new forms of cooperation that are arising between households (horizontal opening-up) and between households and service providers (vertical opening-up). Data are

  6. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  7. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution by Methylsiloxane in Household and Automobile Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyong Meng

    Full Text Available This study examines characteristics of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution in indoor settings where interior renovation/redecoration is being undertaken, in addition to ordinary family homes and inside family cars. Concentrations of atmospheric methylsiloxane in these locations were approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in outdoor areas. The average indoor concentration of methylsiloxane where renovation was being undertaken was 9.4 μg/m3, which is slightly higher than that in an ordinary family home (7.88 μg/m3, while samples from family cars showed lower concentration (3.10 μg/m3. The indoor atmospheric concentration during renovation/redecoration work was significantly positively correlated with the duration of the work. The structure of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution is basically the same in these three venues. The concentration of annulus siloxane was much higher than that of linear compounds (85% of the total methylsiloxane concentrations. Household dust in average family homes showed total methylsiloxane concentration of 9.5 μg/m3 (average; the structure mainly consisted of linear siloxane (approximately 98% of total concentration, thereby differing from that of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution. The comparatively high concentration of methylsiloxane in these three venues indicates that interior renovation and decoration work, and even travelling in cars, can involve exposure to more serious siloxane contamination during everyday activities.

  9. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2.5 air pollution and the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank; Smith, Kirk R

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. We used an energy supply-driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed.

  10. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  11. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  12. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  13. [Disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Cai, Y; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Qi, J L; Wang, L J; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates. Results: In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children disease (COPD), 12.0% of ischemic stroke, 14.2% of hemorrhagic stroke, 10.9% of ischemic heart disease, and 13.7% of lung cancer were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age groups, with the highest decline observed in the disease burden

  14. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  15. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  16. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  17. The impact for households of a carbon component in the price of fossil energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Olivier; Thao Khamsing, Willy

    2016-03-01

    A carbon component has been introduced in tax on fossil energies in 2014 in France in order to support energy transition, and resulted in a higher cost of fossil energies for households in their transport and heating expenses. This publication aims at illustrating and commenting these consequences of a carbon component. It shows that expenses increase with the standard of living, that modest households are more affected, notably as far as heating expenses are concerned, that households using domestic fuel for heating and diesel fuel for their vehicles are the most affected, that the additional cost is particularly a burden for single-parent families and singles, and that rural households are more affected. A cross-criterion analysis (household type, location, heating type, fuel type) is proposed to assess the impact of 2016 on the energy bill of typical households. Methodological hypotheses, data origins and calculation method are briefly presented

  18. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  19. Household biomass energy choice and its policy implications on improving rural livelihoods in Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiu; Yang, Haoran; Liu, Tianbiao; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that a switch from traditional biomass energy to modern clean, safe and efficient energy could improve local rural livelihoods by enhancing the access to ‘high quality’ energy and reducing the negative impacts of traditional biomass energy on health, environment and living standards. Hence, in this paper, we used alternative-specific conditional logit model (ASCLM) to examine the rural household energy choice behaviors in Sichuan Province of China from the perspective of revealed and stated preferences. The results show that the fuel switching in our study region is not a simple unidirectional process from traditional biomass energy to modern fuels as incomes improve. Household energy choice behaviors could be not only affected by energy-specific characteristics such as fuel price, smoky level and safety risk, but also influenced by household-specific factors such as income level, age and educational level of the decision maker, household demographic structure, number of people frequently eating at home, distance to the nearest biomass collecting spot and household location, suggesting that government should attach more importance to simultaneously improve energy quality, control energy price and enhance household socio-economic status. - Highlights: •McFadden's choice model was applied to analyze household energy choice in Sichuan. •We examined household revealed and stated preferences for different fuels. •Household fuel switching is not a simple or unidirectional process. •Households prefer to use fuel with lower cost, higher safety and lower indoor pollution. •Household fuel choice is affected by interactions among multiple factors.

  20. Contribution of crude oil price to households' budget: The weight of indirect energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparian, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate the burden of oil price on any set of goods and services, and apply it to French households. This method takes into account the contribution of indirect energy consumption, which constitutes typically one half of the energy used by a typical French household. It yields an average burden of 4.4% in 2006, with a higher relative burden for households with lower income, older members and rural dwelling

  1. Household air pollution, chronic respiratory disease and pneumonia in Malawian adults: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah R; Aston, Stephen; Ho, Antonia; Giorgi, Emanuele; Kalata, Newton; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Mallewa, Jane; Peterson, Ingrid; Gordon, Stephen B; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Four million people die each year from diseases caused by exposure to household air pollution. There is an association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in children (half a million attributable deaths a year); however, whether this is true in adults is unknown. We conducted a case-control study in urban Malawi to examine the association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in adults. Methods: Hospitalized patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia (cases) and healthy community controls underwent 48 hours of ambulatory and household particulate matter (µg/m 3 ) and carbon monoxide (ppm) exposure monitoring. Multivariate logistic regression, stratified by HIV status, explored associations between these and other potential risk factors with pneumonia. Results: 145 (117 HIV-positive; 28 HIV-negative) cases and 253 (169 HIV-positive; 84 HIV-negative) controls completed follow up. We found no evidence of association between household air pollution exposure and pneumonia in HIV-positive (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.00 [95% CI 1.00-1.01, p=0.141]) or HIV-negative (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.99-1.01, p=0.872]) participants. Chronic respiratory disease was associated with pneumonia in both HIV-positive (aOR 28.07 [95% CI 9.29-84.83, ppollution is associated with pneumonia in Malawian adults. In contrast, chronic respiratory disease was strongly associated with pneumonia.

  2. HEALTH STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL LIVING CONDITIONS AND MICROBIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AMONG MIGRANT WORKER HOUSEHOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Suknongbung, Siranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Sujirarut, Dusit

    2017-03-01

    A large number of migrants have move to cities in Thailand seeking employment. These people may be at increased risk for environmental health problems. We studied the health status, environmental living conditions and microbial indoor air quality (IAQ) among selected groups of migrant workers and their households in Mueang District, Samut Sakhon, central Thailand. We conducted a cross sectional study of 240 migrant workers and their households randomly selected by multistage sampling. The person responsible for hygiene at each studied household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Two indoor air samples were taken from each household (480 indoor air samples) to determine bacterial and fungal counts using a Millipore air tester; 240 outdoor air samples were collected for comparison. Ninety-nine point six percent of study subjects were Myanmar, 74.2% were aged 21-40 years, 91.7% had a primary school level education or lower and 53.7% had stayed in Thailand less than 5 years. Eight point three percent had a history of an underlying disease, 20.8% had a recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis in a family member within the previous year. Forty-three point eight percent had a current illness related to IAQ during a previous month. Twenty-one point three were current cigarette smokers, 15.0% were current alcohol consumers, and 5.0% exercises ≥3 times per week. Forty-nine point two percent never opened the windows of their bedrooms or living rooms for ventilation, 45% never cleaned their window screens, and 38.3% never put their pillows or mattresses in the sunlight. The mean(±SD) air bacterial count was 230(±229) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 128±82 CFU/ m3), and the mean fungal count was 630(±842) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 138±94 CFU/ m3). When the bacterial and fungal counts were compared with the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the bacterial counts in 6.5% of houses surveyed and the fungal counts in 28.8% of house

  3. Assessing energy supply security: Outage costs in private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron J.; Hähnel, Alexander; Erdmann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the topic of energy supply security by proposing a Monte Carlo-based and a survey based model to analyze the costs of power interruptions. Outage cost estimations are particularly important when deciding on investments to improve supply security (e.g. additional transmission lines) in order to compare costs to benefits. But also other policy decisions on measures that have direct or indirect consequences for the supply security (e.g. a phasing out of nuclear energy) need to be based on results from outage cost estimations. The main focus of this paper lies with residential consumers, but the model is applied to commercial, industrial and governmental consumers as well. There are limited studies that have approached the problem of evaluating outage cost. When comparing the results of these studies, they often display a high degree of diversification. As consumers have different needs and dependencies towards the supply of electricity because of varying circumstances and preferences, a great diversity in outage cost is a logical consequence. To take the high degree of uncertainties into account, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study for the case of private households in Germany. - Highlights: ► A macroeconomic model to assess outage cost is proposed. ► Possibilities for substitution are considered by analyzing individual preferences for the time-use. ► Uncertainties are taken into account by using a Monte Carlo simulation. ► This study reveals the distribution of outage costs to different electricity consumers. ► Implications for energy policy decisions are discussed.

  4. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  5. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  6. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  7. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  8. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  9. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  10. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  11. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Efficient , energy use, household appliances, power consumption. ... Although the hydro-electric power transmission lines extend the entire length of ..... R. Karri and P. Mishra, “Minimizing Energy Consumption of Secure Wireless ...

  12. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  13. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F; Wallace, C L [ed.

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  14. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  15. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay; Assad, Nour A; Barnes, Peter J; Churg, Andrew; Gordon, Stephen; Harrod, Kevin S; Irshad, Hammad; Kurmi, Om P; Martin, William J; Meek, Paula; Mortimer, Kevin; Noonan, Curtis W; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Smith, Kirk R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impair...

  16. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  17. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  18. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Larissa; Strengers, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  19. Making energy visible: A qualitative field study of how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic energy consumption in a field trial of real-time displays or smart energy monitors. After examining relevant bodies of literature on the effects of energy feedback on consumption behaviour, and on the complex role of energy and appliances within household moral economies, the paper draws on qualitative evidence from interviews with 15 UK householders trialling smart energy monitors of differing levels of sophistication. It focuses specifically on householder motivations for acquiring the monitors, how the monitors have been used, how feedback has changed consumption behaviour, and the limitations to further behavioural change the householders experienced. The paper concludes by identifying significant implications for future research and policy in this area.

  20. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  1. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  2. Review of Renewable Energy Technologies in Zambian Households: Capacities and Barriers Affecting Successful Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kachapulula-Mudenda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern renewable energy has been hailed as one of the prerequisites for fostering green growth and the achievement of sustainable development. Despite efforts to promote the use of renewable energy in households, its adoption has remained fairly low, hence the need for an inquiry into household capabilities needed for the acquisition and adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper reviews the requisite capacities of households for the adoption of renewable energy services and expounds on some of the barriers hampering renewable energy among households. It takes a desk research approach to analyse the capacities which should be possessed by Zambian households and possible barriers constraining the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies. The findings reveal that there is a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of access to renewable energy in order for deployment to be effective. Barriers to the successful adoption of clean energy technologies include underserved populations, policy inadequacies; an underexploited renewable energy sector and heavy reliance on a service-challenged hydro-power utility. Since most of the aforementioned challenges are institutional in nature, the paper concludes with a recommendation of a baseline assessment to understand knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and drivers for renewable energy technology adoption among households.

  3. Regional energy planning on the base of household consumption analysis in the county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstrovic, M.; Goic, R.; Sutlovic, E.

    1999-01-01

    The regional planning concept accepted by the Croatian energy sector demands to establish regional energy centres. The first phase of the project was realized in Dalmatian county as 'Southern Croatian counties energy development strategy' which tasks were to collect data, to make the survey and database and to present the main characteristics of energy consumption in county households. The county was separated into ten zones according to geographic location, living standards and energy consumption. Answers to 79 questions divided into 8 groups (household general data, space heating, water heating and cooking, economic status, household ownership, energy demand, car information and future investments) made the database and the simple model formed 9 tables. The second phase consists of industrial, service and traffic sector analysis. Table data for the total energy consumption per zones, per inhabitant and zones, by energy mode and by energy use. This database and further information development will contribute to better energy planning

  4. Energy requirements of household consumption : a case study of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesiot, W; Noorman, K.J.

    This article describes the results of several research programmes that together aim at the development and application of methodologies that enable the study of long-term environmental effects (mainly related to the total household energy demand) of household consumption in relation to other

  5. Biogas Stoves Reduce Firewood Use, Household Air Pollution, and Hospital Visits in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica J; Hollingsworth, John W; Chartier, Ryan T; Cooper, Ellen M; Foster, William Michael; Gomes, Genna L; Kussin, Peter S; MacInnis, John J; Padhi, Bijaya K; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Rodes, Charles E; Ryde, Ian T; Singha, Ashok K; Stapleton, Heather M; Thornburg, Jonathan; Young, Cora J; Meyer, Joel N; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2017-01-03

    Traditional cooking using biomass is associated with ill health, local environmental degradation, and regional climate change. Clean stoves (liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, and electric) are heralded as a solution, but few studies have demonstrated their environmental health benefits in field settings. We analyzed the impact of mainly biogas (as well as electric and LPG) stove use on social, environmental, and health outcomes in two districts in Odisha, India, where the Indian government has promoted household biogas. We established a cross-sectional observational cohort of 105 households that use either traditional mud stoves or improved cookstoves (ICS). Our multidisciplinary team conducted surveys, environmental air sampling, fuel weighing, and health measurements. We examined associations between traditional or improved stove use and primary outcomes, stratifying households by proximity to major industrial plants. ICS use was associated with 91% reduced use of firewood (p biogas stoves in a context in which traditional stove use persists, although pollution levels in ICS households still remained above WHO guidelines.

  6. Household energy consumption versus income and relative standard of living: A panel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, Roselyne; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Our fundamental premise is that energy consumption at the household level is a key indicator of standard of living. We employ state-of-the-art panel cointegration techniques to evaluate the nature of the relationship between income measures and energy consumption measures for seven East Indian Ocean countries. The general finding is that income and household electricity consumption are not cointegrated. Given this finding, we conclude that standard of living measures that rely on income measures and do not include household-level energy consumption information will necessarily miss important indications of both levels and changes of standard of living

  7. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  8. The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, Jean-Michel; Maizi, Nadia; Marchand, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to characterise quantitatively the impact of income on household energy consumption in the residential and transport sectors. Starting from the data collected in a paper survey, we analyse the extent of the constraint experienced by households in terms of equipment purchasing behaviour and daily energy consumption. This analysis shows that the least well-off households are particularly constrained since the share of their budget represented by these energy services is very large (15–25%), and this corresponds to a level of energy service well below that of the better-off households. The case of space-heating shows a factor of 2 in terms of level of comfort achieved between the extreme 10-percentiles. These households also face a strong capital constraint for equipment purchases. This leads either to a large increase in the required rate of return or to a reduction in the proportion of households that are prepared to replace their equipment earlier. The least well-off households are thus doubly constrained, since it is more difficult for them to invest. In our opinion, it is crucial to take into account this observation in the context of political measures aimed at reducing households’CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► Realisation of a survey to quantify the impact of income on energy consumption. ► There is a factor of 2 in the level of comfort achieved by extreme income households. ► Analysis of discount rates demanded by households according to income and end-use. ► Influence of income on intensity of use of energy services and energy management.

  9. The effects of the energy price reform on households consumption in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The substantial subsidizing of energy prices over the years has led to high energy consumption, inefficiencies, fiscal pressures, and environmental problems in Iran. To address the increasing socio-economic problems associated with the energy subsidies, the government embarked on an aggressive energy price reform through which energy subsidies were removed and cash handouts were given to all households in 2010. In this paper, I analyze the effectiveness of the energy price reform in Iran by estimating energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups. I apply a two-stage consumer optimization model and estimate the system of energy expenditures shares using the household budget survey data for the period 2001–2008. The results show that the overall price elasticities of demand are small, but income elasticities are close to one. The results also indicate heterogeneous responses to energy price and income changes in different income groups. Specifically, the urban households show stronger response to price changes, but rural households, particularly mid-income households, to income changes. These findings suggest that the current policy of price increases would not solely be able to reduce energy consumption and, therefore, it should be geared towards increasing energy efficiency through a series of price and non-price measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the recent energy price reform in Iran is analyzed. • Energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups are estimated. • A two-stage optimization model was applied to estimate the system of equations using micro-data for 2001–2008. • The price elasticities are small and income elasticities rather large, but responses are heterogeneous. • A price and non-price reform policy package is needed for different income groups and regions

  10. Power to change: Analysis of household participation in a renewable energy and energy efficiency programme in Central Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, Lisa; Ballweg, Julie; Penna, Chris; Race, Digby

    2015-01-01

    The Australian government funded a national Solar City program (2008–2013) to support communities to increase adoption of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technology. One community was Alice Springs, a town with about 9000 households in the geographic centre of Australia. The programme offered a package of support: free energy audits, discounts for the purchase of renewable energy technology and energy efficiency measures, and ongoing information. Households that adopted solar hot water and photovoltaic systems reduced their electricity usage immediately after adoption by 10% and 34% respectively, and this was maintained in the long term. A small rebound effect of 15% was observed in the photovoltaic adopters. It was observed that, on average, households that adopted only energy efficiency measures did not have a significant reduction in their electricity usage over the long term. However, consistent with expectations, this study did show that there was a significant correlation between the number of energy efficiency measures adopted and the greatest household reduction in electricity usage. These contrary results indicate that there are additional factors involved. The connection between the effective use of measures, coincident behavioural change or increased energy awareness and greater energy reduction is discussed. - Highlights: • Households adopting solar hot water systems reduced total electricity usage by 10%. • Households adopting photovoltaic systems reduced total electricity usage by 34%. • 15% rebound effect in electricity usage by adopters of photovoltaic systems. • Excluding renewable energy no significant reduction in average electricity use.

  11. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  12. The impact of domestic energy efficiency retrofit schemes on householder attitudes and behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Young, W.; Webber, P.; Gouldson, A.; Harwatt, H.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofitting existing housing stock to improve energy efficiency is often required to meet climate mitigation, public health and fuel poverty targets. Increasing uptake and effectiveness of retrofit schemes requires understanding of their impacts on householder attitudes and behaviours. This paper

  13. Evaluating the direct and indirect rebound effects in household energy consumption behavior: A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Biying; Zhang, Junyi; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether increases in energy efficiency of major household items cause additional short-run utilization of these end uses and other end uses for households in Beijing. An integrated model is first developed by combining a Logit model and a resource allocation model, where the former represents the choice of end-use ownership and the latter describes the end-use usage. The rebound effects are finally obtained from calculating the own- and cross-elasticities based on the prediction. The empirical results show that for refrigerators, electric fans, gas showers, TVs, and PCs, no evident rebound occurs; while for air conditioners, clothes washers, microwave ovens, and cars, either a direct rebound effect or an indirect rebound effect exists significantly. The respective average upper bound of direct rebound effects for them are 60.76%, 106.81%, 100.79%, and 33.61%, suggesting a possibility of backfire for the clothes washers and microwave ovens, while the respective upper bound of total rebound effects are 88.95%, 100.36%, 626.58%, and 31.61%. Furthermore, increasing the efficiency of air conditioners and cars can definitely reduce the total household energy consumption during the use phase. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the direct and indirect rebound effects for household energy consumption. ► Provide an evidence for rebound effect for the developing countries. ► Build an integrated model jointly representing end-use ownership and usage behavior. ► Significant rebound effects are found only for ACs, microwave ovens, washers and cars. ► Applicable policies for reducing residents' energy consumption in Beijing are given

  14. Initiative EnergieEffizienz : An information campaign on energy efficiency for private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricola, Annegret-Cl.; Ahrens, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Unnecessary energy consumption can be avoided easily by making intelligent decisions when buying and using household equipment and hence cut the electricity bill and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This is the key message imparted by the information campaign on energy efficiency for private households. The campaign addresses three main topics: the reduction or avoidance of stand by energy consumption of consumer electronics and IT-equipment, energy efficient high quality lighting and energy efficiency in the white goods sector. Consumers are addressed via a broad range of communication measures highlighting the efficiency issue. These instruments include advertisement in nationwide print media, regular press releases, public relations activities etc. Special information material are made for young people as well as for the Turkish minority in Germany. The main strategy of the campaign is to co-operate with retailers: consumers are to gain information on energy efficiency at the point of sale where domestic appliances and lighting equipment are sold. The campaign offers information for the point of sale including brochures for customers as well as for sales assistants. By December 2004 approximately 7,200 points of sale all over in Germany were equipped with the campaign's information. The German national energy agency (dena) runs the information campaign in co-operation with the German associations of power suppliers, the German foundation for environmental protection and the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour. The campaign started in 2002. Its aims are to arise consumers' awareness, to inform consumers on energy efficient appliances and give motivation when buying and using them. Through these aims the campaign should contribute to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the private sector In order to measure the campaign's impact a quantitative analysis is carried out. First results show a change in public's awareness and attitude towards energy efficiency

  15. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  16. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Hokao, Kazunori [Department of Civil Engineering, Saga University, Saga, 840-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause - rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior. (author)

  17. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen; Hokao, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause-rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior.

  18. Indoor air quality scenario in India-An outline of household fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohra, Himanshi; Taneja, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Most of the research around the world has been on outdoor air pollution, but in India we have a more severe problem of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP). The foremost factor cited for is burning of fossil fuels for cooking. Among the 70% of the country's rural population, about 80% households rely on biomass fuel making India to top the list of countries with largest population lacking access to cleaner fuel for cooking. 4 million deaths and 5% disability-adjusted life-years is an upshot of exposure to IAP from unhealthy cooking making it globally the most critical environmental risk factor. India alone bears the highest burden (28% needless deaths) among developing countries. Moreover, about ¼ of ambient PM2.5 in the country comes from household cookfuels. These considerations have prompted the discussion of the present knowledge on the disastrous health effects of pollutants emitted by biomass combustion in India. Additionally, Particulate Matter as an indoor air pollutant is highlighted with main focus on its spatial temporal variation and some recent Indian studies are further explored. As there are no specific norms for IAP in India, urgent need has arisen for implementing the strategies to create public awareness. Moreover improvement in ventilation and modification in the pattern of fuel will also contribute to eradicate this national health issue.

  19. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  20. Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimei; Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu

    2017-10-01

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

  1. A Micro grid design for a kind of household energy efficiency management system based on high permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhuochu; Wang, Min; Yue, Liang

    2017-05-01

    After the access of household distributed photovoltaic, conditions of high permeability generally occur, which cut off the connection between distributed power supply and major network rapidly and use energy storage device to realize electrical energy storage. The above operations cannot be adequate for the power grid health after distributed power supply access any more from the perspective of economy and rationality. This paper uses the integration between device and device, integration between device and system and integration between system and system of household microgrid and household energy efficiency management, to design household microgrid building program and operation strategy containing household energy efficiency management, to achieve efficient integration of household energy efficiency management and household microgrid, to effectively solve problems of high permeability of household distributed power supply and so on.

  2. Household Air Pollution and Under-Five Mortality in Bangladesh (2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Naz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among children under five years in Bangladesh. This study investigates the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS datasets over the period 2004–2011 (n = 18,308 children, and the extent to which this association differed by environmental and behavioral factors affecting level of exposure. The association between HAP and neonatal (age between 0–28 days, infant (age between 0 and 11 months and under–five (age between 0 and 59 months mortality was examined using multilevel logistic regression models. HAP was not strongly associated with overall neonatal (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.01–2.22, p = 0.043, infant (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.91–1.77, p = 0.157 or under-five mortality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83–1.55, p = 0.422 in the context of overall decreasing trends in under-five mortality. The association was stronger for households with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuels, and in women who had never breastfed. Reductions in exposure to pollution from cooking fuel, given it is a ubiquitous and modifiable risk factor, can result in further declines in under-five mortality with household design and behavioural interventions.

  3. Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

  4. Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    It is an ongoing debate how to increase the adoption of energy-efficient light bulbs and household appliances in the presence of the so-called ‘energy efficiency gap’. One measure to support consumers’ decision-making towards the purchase of more efficient appliances is the display of energy-related

  5. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only

  6. Indirect and direct energy requirements of city households in Sweden - Options for reduction, lessons from modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, A; Engstrom, R; Kok, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the potential for lowering household energy use given existing local support systems, in this case in the Stockholm inner city with the aid of the Dutch energy analysis program (EAP) that was adapted to Swedish conditions and that portrays total energy use

  7. DoMUS a model to communicate energy issues in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, René; Kok, Rixt

    1999-01-01

    Simulation models and games can be a valuable tool to communicate complex issues. Environmental problems in general and the problem described here in particular, are not always easily to explain. To communicate the issue of household energy use, energy reduction and shifting of energy expenditures

  8. Keeping energy visible? Exploring how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors in the longer term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how, over a 12-month period, UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic electricity consumption in a field trial of real time displays or smart energy monitors. Drawing on the findings of 11 follow-up qualitative interviews with householders involved in a ‘Visible Energy Trial’, the paper suggests that: (i) over time, smart energy monitors gradually become ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines and practices; (ii) the monitors do increase householders’ knowledge of and confidence about the amount of electricity they consume; (iii) but, beyond a certain level and for a wide variety of reasons, the monitors do not necessarily encourage or motivate householders to reduce their levels of consumption; and (iv) once equipped with new knowledge and expertise about their levels of electricity consumption, household practices may become harder to change as householders realise the limits to their energy saving potential and become frustrated by the absence of wider policy and market support. The paper concludes by reflecting on the policy and research implications of these findings in relation to future transition pathways to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► We interviewed 11 householders who had used a smart energy monitor for 12 months. ► The monitors did help interviewees learn about their energy use. ► Over time, the monitors became ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines. ► After early behaviour changes, the monitors did not motivate further energy saving. ► The monitors may ‘harden’ energy use patterns in the absence of wider support.

  9. Supplementing energy demand of rural households in Bangladesh through appropriate biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Rafiqul Hoque, A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has sought to show the potential of energy recovery from rurally available agro and household organic wastes and thus, the possible impact on supplementing energy demand, reducing deforestation, and replacing fossil fuel as well as avoided greenhouse gases. Results show that co......-digestion of a wide range of manure, crop residues and household wastes with cow manure was successful to produce increased gas yield than what would be if cow dung is digested separately and the energy value from this can supplement 57–79% of the rural energy demand, depending on the methane yield from organic waste...

  10. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  11. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  12. An analysis of monthly household energy consumption among single-family residences in Texas, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Carlos; Valencia, Alelhie; White, Steve; Jordan, Jeffrey A.; Cano, Stephanie; Keating, Jerome; Nagorski, John; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and housing characteristics influence variation in household energy consumption. By combining household-level utility, public, and proprietary data, we examine predictors of household energy consumption in a Texas urban area. Using quantile regression, this analysis assesses the relationship between energy consumption and predictors at the middle and both ends of the distribution (10th and 90th percentiles). Results indicate potential opportunities to lower consumption among the highest energy-consuming households including those with pools, with non-central cooling, with people working from home, those built on pier/post foundation, and those that are renter-occupied. These findings suggest significant opportunities to reduce consumption and demand as in the study area, almost 10% of housing units are renter-occupied, 18% percent are without central cooling, and 7% have pools. Capturing a significant portion of these homes for retrofit conservation efforts through marketing has potential to produce substantial results. Producing a better understanding of determinants of household energy consumption using the methods presented has potential to assist development and implementation of strategies to reduce consumption and increase efficiency. - Highlights: • Data on energy use is combined with housing and demographic characteristics. • Quantile regression is used to examine relationships among key variables. • Less efficient homes have pools, no central HVAC, and pier/post foundations. • Houses with persons working at home and renter occupied homes were less efficient. • Energy conservation strategies are discussed and suggested for each element

  13. Economic, demographic and social factors of energy demand in Mexican households, 2008-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Pena, Rafael

    This research project focuses on estimating the effect of economic, demographic, and social factors in residential energy demand in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. Therefore, it estimates demand equations for electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), coal and natural gas using Mexican household data from 2008 to 2014. It also applies accessibility theory and it estimates energy access indicators using different specifications of demand for LPG in 2014. Sprawl measures, gravity model, and central place theory are the accessibility theory supporting the energy access indicators. Results suggest the greater the household income, the population size, the educational level of the householder, the energy access, and the lower the energy price and the household size, the greater the demand for energy in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. The greater the education, the lower the demand for firewood and coal. LPG and firewood have a monopolistically competitive market structure. Energy access indicators informed by accessibility theory are statistically significant and show the expected sign when applied to LPG in Mexican household in 2014.

  14. Wood, Energy and Households. Perspectives on Rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C; Ensminger, J; O' Keefe, P [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The studies in this volume reflect a wide diversity of disciplinary backgrounds and interests among the contributors. Ecology, economics, geography, history and anthropology are all presented. The studies themselves, however, have a number of foci in common. All to some extent employ a household-level analysis and almost all of the studies derive some measure of household woodfuel use and analyze factors which determine the supply and demand for wood and other fuels. Many of the studies deal at some length with the availability of woodfuel, and specifically, the amount of time spent in procurement. As fuelwood is still in many areas available for gathering at no cash cost, its real cost is usually the value of women's labour spent in its collecting, and this has been discussed in many of the papers. Where woodfuel has become a commercial product, its pricing and availability on the market are also discussed. In all areas wood supply has competing demands, most commonly for building purpose. In many cases kerosene is now being used for light in place of open fires and torches inside houses. A number of the studies discuss the availability, cost, use and effects of such substitution on national balance of payments. Not surprisingly, most studies find a relationship between the availability of woodfuel and the level of use. Many also relate usage to changing diet.

  15. Special charges related to household energy use. Documentations 1970-2012; Saeravgifter relatert til husholdningenes energiforbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessmann, Sandra; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-11-15

    This paper provides an overview of special charges related to household energy use in Norway from 1970 to 2012. Excise duties are presented by the object they apply (rather than to describe the fee arrangements separately). Moreover, they are categorized into three groups: tax on stationary energy, taxes on mobile purposes relating to the ownership and usage-dependent charges on mobile applications. Chapter 2 collects taxes in the first category. The author describes the special taxes imposed on households' stationary energy, such as heating the home. Chapter 3 discusses the various fees imposed on the owner of the vehicle, and how these fees are independent of the amount of transport used. Chapter 4 describes the history of usage-dependent charges on mobile purposes, which include taxes on fuel. This paper is intended to be an encyclopedia for use in future analyzes of the Special Tax behavioral effects in Norwegian households. It is first and foremost in the project households respond to energy and environmental policy measures, funded by the Research Council of the project is not only to look at the excise taxes separately but also how various energy and environmental policy instruments work together. This is one of the reasons for the division of special taxes that have been made in the note. Household energy use contributes to a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and a reduction in household energy consumption is an important goal of climate policy. A number of policy instruments have been eager cat to move household energy consumption away from fossil fuels to renewable energy and increase energy efficiency in Norwegian homes. To ensure the effectiveness of current and future policies, and minimize adverse behavioral effects, information from analyzes of several means changing household adaptation would be of great importance. Project Support: The work of this paper is funded within the Research Council Renergie program (project {sup H}ousehold

  16. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  17. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Conditioners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Conditioners that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  20. Estimating Household Travel Energy Consumption in Conjunction with a Travel Demand Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garikapati, Venu M. [Systems Analysis and Integration Section, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; You, Daehyun [Maricopa Association of Governments, 302 North First Avenue, Suite 300, Phoenix, AZ 85003; Zhang, Wenwen [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Pendyala, Ram M. [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 660 South College Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85281; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, 685 Cherry Street, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; Dilkina, Bistra [School of Computational Science and Engineering, 266 Ferst Drive, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the consumption of household travel energy at the level of the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in conjunction with information that is readily available from a standard four-step travel demand model system. This methodology embeds two algorithms. The first provides a means of allocating non-home-based trips to residential zones that are the source of such trips, whereas the second provides a mechanism for incorporating the effects of household vehicle fleet composition on fuel consumption. The methodology is applied to the greater Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region in the United States and is found to offer a robust mechanism for calculating the footprint of household travel energy at the level of the individual TAZ; this mechanism makes possible the study of variations in the energy footprint across space. The travel energy footprint is strongly correlated with the density of the built environment, although socioeconomic differences across TAZs also likely contribute to differences in travel energy footprints. The TAZ-level calculator of the footprint of household travel energy can be used to analyze alternative futures and relate differences in the energy footprint to differences in a number of contributing factors and thus enables the design of urban form, formulation of policy interventions, and implementation of awareness campaigns that may produce more-sustainable patterns of energy consumption.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of household and community energy storage for residential prosumers with smart appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, Sander; Alskaif, T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411176455; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of Decentralized Energy Resources (DERs) and rising electricity demand are known to cause grid instability. Additionally, recent policy developments indicate a decreased tariff in the future for electricity sold to the grid by households with DERs. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) combined

  2. The role of technology, product lifetime, and energy efficiency in climate mitigation: A case study of air conditioners in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on the life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from a specific durable good (i.e., household air conditioners in this study) of industrial technology changes, product lifetime changes, and energy efficiency improvements. I proposed a comprehensive structural decomposition analysis including two factors of average lifetime and energy efficiency trend of household air conditioners and applied the decomposition method to the Japanese environmental input-output tables of 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. The empirical results show that “Household air-conditioner sector” itself contributed to reducing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners, while other sectors such as “On-site power generation sector” and “Retail trade sector” contributed to increasing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners. I also conducted combined scenario analysis about reduction potential of product lifetime and energy efficiency of air conditioners and the results showed the reduction rate of energy efficiency necessary for maintain CO_2 emissions in 2005 at 1990 level on each average lifetime scenario. (e.g. if average lifetime of air conditioners is shortened by 1 year, energy efficiency of air conditioners have to be further improved by 20.6% from current level. - Highlights: • This study provides a decomposition framework for air conditioner’s CO_2 emissions. • Technology, product lifetime and energy efficiency are considered in the framework. • “Household air conditioner” sector contributed to reducing CO_2 emissions largely. • “On-site power generation” indirectly contributed to increasing CO_2 emissions. • I showed the improvement rates of energy efficiency to achieve a reduction target.

  3. Characterization of particulate-bound PAHs in rural households using different types of domestic energy in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Liu, Xueping; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of sixteen PAHs adsorbed to respirable particulate matter (PM10≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5≤2.5 μm) were determined during autumn and winter in rural households of Henan Province, China, which used four types of domestic energy [crop residues, coal, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity] for cooking and heating. The present results show that there were significantly (pkitchens, sitting rooms and outdoors were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn, except those in the kitchens using coal. The present study also shows that there were obvious variations of particulate-bound PAHs among the four types of domestic energy used in the rural households. The households using LPG for cooking can, at least in some circumstances, have higher concentrations of PAHs in the kitchens than using crop residues or electricity. In addition, using coal in the sitting rooms seemed to result in apparently higher concentrations of particulate-bound PAHs than using the other three types of domestic energy during winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchens using LPG in winter, where the daily mean concentrations of PM2.5-bound PAHs were up to 762.5±931.2 ng m(-3), indicating that there was serious health risk of inhalation exposure to PAHs in the rural households of Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs in kitchens would be roughly reduced by 69.8% and 85.5% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity in autumn. The pilot research would provide important supplementary information to the indoor air pollution studies in rural area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  5. Household air pollution is a major avoidable risk factor for cardiorespiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Kevin; Gordon, Stephen B; Jindal, Surinder K; Accinelli, Roberto A; Balmes, John; Martin, William J

    2012-11-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuels, coal, and kerosene burned in open fires, primitive stoves, and lamps causes at least 2 million deaths per year. Many of these deaths occur in children <5 years of age with pneumonia and in women with COPD, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease. HAP is inextricably linked to poverty, with activities to obtain fuel consuming a large proportion of the time and financial resources of poor households. Thus, fewer resources used in this way means less is available for basic needs like food, education, and health care. The burden of work and the exposure to smoke, particularly during cooking, are predominantly borne by women and children. Although historically HAP has not received sufficient attention from the scientific, medical, public health, development, and policy-making communities, the tide has clearly changed with the broad-based support and launch of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves in 2010. There is now considerable reason for optimism that this substantial cause of cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality will be addressed comprehensively and definitively. Drawing on our experience from four continents, we provide background information on the problem of HAP, health impacts of HAP, opportunities for research, and the current best solutions.

  6. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  7. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Assad, Nour A; Barnes, Peter J; Churg, Andrew; Gordon, Stephen B; Harrod, Kevin S; Irshad, Hammad; Kurmi, Om P; Martin, William J; Meek, Paula; Mortimer, Kevin; Noonan, Curtis W; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Smith, Kirk R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Ward, Tony; Balmes, John

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects. Lung pathological findings in HAP-exposed individuals demonstrate greater small airways fibrosis and less emphysema compared with cigarette smokers. Field studies using questionnaires, air pollution monitoring and/or biomarkers are needed to better establish human risks. Some, but not all, studies suggest that improving cookstove efficiency or venting emissions may be associated with reduced respiratory symptoms, lung function decline in women and severe pneumonia in children. Current studies focus on fuel switching, stove technology replacements or upgrades and air filter devices. Several governments have initiated major programmes to accelerate the upgrade from solid fuels to clean fuels, particularly liquid petroleum gas, which provides research opportunities for the respiratory health community. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  8. Performance gaps in energy consumption : household groups and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brom, P.I.; Meijer, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy-performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental

  9. Dispatch Strategy Development for Grid-tied Household Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Joseph

    The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent "uncontrolled" nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves--namely, distributed controls. Building energy management systems are being employed to control localized energy generation, storage, and use to reduce disruption on the net utility load. One such example is VOLTTRONTM, an agent-based platform for building energy control in real time. In this thesis, algorithms developed in VOLTTRON simulate a home energy management system that consists of a solar PV array, a lithium-ion battery bank, and the grid. Dispatch strategies are implemented to reduce energy charges from overall consumption (/kWh) and demand charges (/kW). Dispatch strategies for implementing storage devices are tuned on a month-to-month basis to provide a meaningful economic advantage under simulated scenarios to explore algorithm sensitivity to changing external factors. VOLTTRON agents provide automated real-time optimization of dispatch strategies to efficiently manage energy supply and demand, lower consumer costs associated with energy usage, and reduce load on the utility grid.

  10. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    ... of employment affects the choice of fuel used for cooking and the type preferred. ... In India, use of biomass. Nigerian Journal of ... of poverty in Nigeria which has favoured the choice of firewood energy ... The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive ... cooking energy and the value of men or women's time.

  11. The determinants of household energy demand in rural Beijing: Can environmentally friendly technologies be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingchao; Kotani, Koji

    2012-01-01

    With the recent rapid economic growth, total energy demand in rural China has increased dramatically, and the energy structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources. Simultaneously, it is expected that households in rural areas will face energy shortages and additional environmental problems unless they have more access to renewable energy technologies. However, little is known about (i) the transition of energy use patterns and (ii) whether introduced technologies have been effective. To analyze these issues, we estimated the energy demands of rural households by using survey data taken from Beijing's ten suburban districts. The data contain information on both non-commercial and commercial energy use, key characteristics of the households and several renewable energy technologies. Our empirical analysis yielded three main results. First, the per capita income is a key factor in the per capita energy consumption. More specifically, the marginal increase (or marginal change) in per capita coal consumption strongly diminishes (or declines) as per capita income increases. Second, coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) prices do not exhibit substitution effects, but an increase in these prices has strong negative effects on the use of these energy resources. Third, renewable energy technologies are identified to reduce coal consumption and to improve energy efficiency. Overall, these findings suggest a positive perspective: if the Chinese government were to design appropriate policies associated with renewable energy technologies and related energy prices, then coal consumption can be reduced in the near future, and the substitution to cleaner energy use will accelerate. Therefore, a smooth energy transition in rural China could be made in a more environmentally sustainable manner. - Highlights: ► Energy demands of non-commercial/commercial sources are examined in rural Beijing. ► Income and energy prices are key determinants of the energy

  12. Household air pollution: a call for studies into biomarkers of exposure and predictors of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Gordon, Stephen B; Naeher, Luke P; Patel, Archana; Balmes, John R; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Rogalsky, Derek K; Martin, William J

    2013-05-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor burning of biomass or coal is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, mostly due to its association with acute respiratory infection in children and chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in adults. Interventions that have significantly reduced exposure to HAP improve health outcomes and may reduce mortality. However, we lack robust, specific, and field-ready biomarkers to identify populations at greatest risk and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions. New scientific approaches are urgently needed to develop biomarkers of human exposure that accurately reflect exposure or effect. In this Perspective, we describe the global need for such biomarkers, the aims of biomarker development, and the state of development of tests that have the potential for rapid transition from laboratory bench to field use.

  13. Energy saving in Swedish households. The (relative) importance of environmental attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Lundqvist, Lennart J.; Sundstroem, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from 2004 to 2007 to explore the potential for achieving those targets. Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter. In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income. We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. - Highlights: → We use Swedish survey data to analyse the determinants of household energy saving. → Housing type plays a crucial role for individuals' propensity to save energy. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important in high-income households. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important for people in apartment blocks.

  14. Long-term trends in direct and indirect household energy intensities: a factor in dematerialisation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2000-01-01

    Dematerialisation is assumed to contribute significantly to the alleviation of environmental problems. One of the possible causes of dematerialisation is a change in the consumption patterns of households. The aim of this article is to analyse changes in consumption patterns of Dutch households in the period between 1948 to 1996 in order to discover whether these changes have influenced the energy intensity of society. Due to the rise in consumption, the total household energy requirement per capita grew on average by 2.4 per cent per year over a period of 48 years (this figure ignores efficiency changes in the supplying sectors). In the same period the total energy intensity of households fluctuated but on average changed from 5.6 to 6.3 MJ/NLG, an increase of 0.25 per cent per year. If we exclude the direct energy consumption we find a slight decline in the indirect energy intensity, namely from 3.8 to 3.6 MJ/NLG ( - 0.14 per cent per year). No significant trends to a lower energy intensity are found and there is no indication of dematerialisation of the consumption patterns. If governments pursue a policy of sustainable development they have to take into account the fact that dematerialisation of the consumption pattern does not seem to be an autonomous process. (author)

  15. The pro-economical behaviour of households and their knowledge about changes in the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropuszyńska-Surma Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of energy and heat consumers is an important and interesting topic. For a long time the energy market was the classical example of a monopoly. In general, households are weak partners for energy companies, but energy markets are changing all over the world. This trend is noticeable in Poland too, but it is not as strong as in Germany or other countries where renewable energy sources (RES are very popular and widely used. So, here we investigate why the development of RES in Poland is so weak. The main aim of the paper is to highlight the key factors, especially ecological and economic ones, determining households’ decisions about installing RES in Poland. An additional aim is to present the level of energy awareness of households. We conducted a survey of Lower Silesia’s households in November and December 2015. Economic factors are the best motivators for households to install RES. Among the economic aspects, the respondents indicated potential savings and potential profits.

  16. Regional Disparities in Emissions of Rural Household Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the emissions status of multiple rural areas from the perspective of a field survey and make up for the defects of the traditional emission cognition of single type of area. The basic data in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected through household questionnaire surveys, and emissions from rural household energy consumption were calculated in the paper. In addition, the grey relational analysis method was used to identify influential factors of emission disparities. The results show that the total emissions of the plain, loess tableland, and Qinling piedmont areas are 1863.20, 1850.43, and 2556.68 kg, respectively. Regional disparities in emissions of rural household energy consumption vary greatly. CO2 emissions are highest in the Qinling piedmont area, followed by the loess tableland area. For other emissions, there is no fixed order of the three areas, which suggests that disparities in emissions are connected with the dominant type of energy consumption. Diversification of energy use might not necessarily produce higher emissions, but the traditional biomass energy pattern does generate more emissions. The regional supply capacity of household energy is the original influence factor of disparities in emissions, and factors that influence these disparities are directly related to differences among farmers, followed by the age structure, educational background, income level, occupation, and so on.

  17. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure of pregnant women to cookstove-related household air pollution in urban and periurban Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Cassidy, Brandon; Bayer, Charlene W; Hendry, Robert; Hall, Daniel B; Naeher, Luke P

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, pregnant women's exposure to household air pollution in developing countries is understudied. Personal exposures of pregnant women (N = 100) in Trujillo, Peru, to air pollutants and their indoor concentrations were measured. The effects of stove-use-related characteristics and ambient air pollution on exposure were determined using mixed-effects models. Significant differences in 48-hour kitchen concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were observed across fuel types (p health risks even in homes where cleaner burning gas stoves were used.

  19. A Study on the Impact of Household Occupants’ Behavior on Energy Consumption Using an Integrated Computer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin eLin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several models are integrated into a thermal model to study the impact of occupants’ behaviors on the building energy consumption. An air flow model is developed to simulate ventilation related to the occupant’s patterns of window opening and closing. An electric consumption model is developed to simulate the usage pattern and the electricity input to household electric appliances. The thermostat setpoint temperature and window shading schemes are varied with different occupants’ behavior norms and are included in the model. The simulation was applied to a typical household located in the city of Oshawa in Ontario, Canada. The results show that the window opening has the greatest impact on the energy consumption during the heating season, and the shading scheme has the greatest impact on the A/C energy consumption during the cooling season. The electricity consumption of the A/C can be significantly reduced by appropriately applying the shading and opening schemes and resetting the thermostat setpoint temperature to a slightly higher degree. Keeping the windows closed and allowing the solar radiation to be transmitted through the window in winter help reduce the energy usage to heat the house.

  20. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    2005) observed that about 70% of the population of Africa live in rural areas, with a majority of this population depending on the forest and, to a lesser extent, on crop residue for their daily domestic energy needs. From this backdrop, forest size ...

  1. Effect of Firewood Energy Consumption of Households on Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing population of Ethiopia has resulted in excessive forest clearing for agricultural purpose, overgrazing and exploitation of the existing forests for fuel. The Environmental impact of over dependence on forest resources for energy source was not studied in sufficient detail in Debis watershed. Thus study was ...

  2. Hybrid energy fuel cell based system for household applications in a Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nižetić, S.; Tolj, I.; Papadopoulos, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system was proposed, combining a HT-PEM fuel cell system and a standard split heat pump system with heat recovery for household applications. • The hybrid energy system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat, electricity and cooling capacity. • The system showed high overall energy efficiency and a favorable environmental aspect. • The calculated cost of overall produced energy proved to be competitive in comparison with the average cost of electricity for households. - Abstract: In this paper, a specific hybrid energy system was proposed for household applications. The hybrid energy system was assembled from a HT-PEM fuel cell stack supplied by hydrogen via a steam reformer, where finally the majority of produced electricity is used to drive a modified split heat pump system with heat recovery (that is enabled via standard modified accumulation boilers). The system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat output (in the form of hot water), cooling thermal output and electricity. Performance analysis was conducted and the specific hybrid energy system showed high value for overall energy efficiency, for the specific case examined it reached 250%. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) analysis was also carried out and the proposed hybrid energy system’s cost is expected to be between 0.09 €/kW h and 0.16 €/kW h, which is certainly competitive with the current retail electricity price for households on the EU market. Additionally, the system also has environmental benefits in relation to reduced CO 2 emissions, as estimated CO 2 emissions from the proposed hybrid energy system are expected to be at around 9.0 gCO 2 /kW h or 2.6 times less than the emissions released from the utilization of grid electricity.

  3. Housing Conditions and the Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Households of Senior Citizens in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zalega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The article aims to show the housing situation, satisfaction with housing conditions and place of residence, and the use of renewable energy sources in urban households of Polish seniors. Design/methodology/approach - Direct research in the form of a survey questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 2537 households in 2014-2015 in ten Polish cities of various populations and sizes. In accordance with the research assumptions, the sample included persons over 65 years of age who took independent purchasing decisions in the market. In order to select the sample, the selective quota sampling procedure was used. The survey was conducted among participants of the University of the Third Age at state universities in: Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, Toruń and Wrocław, as well as among members of parochial clubs in parishes located in the Archdioceses of Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Białystok, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Wrocław and the Dioceses of Warsaw-Praga and Toruń. Findings - The survey reveals that more than half of seniors' households are satisfied with both the place of residence and housing conditions. The use of RES in seniors' households looks slightly worse. Only 1.5% of all the surveyed households of persons aged 65+ invest in alternative energy sources to produce electricity and heat. Financial problems are the key barrier to the development of RES-related projects in their households. Research implications/limitations - Given the limited financial capacities, the study of housing conditions and the use of RES among people aged 65+ was confined solely to seniors' households in the largest Polish cities. In those households, a relatively low share of RES often results from inadequate technical conditions for the connection of RES installations. Rural households generate slightly more electricity and heat from RES Originality/value/contribution - This is one of the first

  4. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-06

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  5. How Third World rural households adapt to dietary energy stress

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip; Lipton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    People can adjust to environmental changes by calling on a wide range of physical attributes, capabilities, and behaviors. For survival, probably the most important are those that make it possible to prevent serious imbalances between food energy needs and the amount of food that can be acquired at acceptable cost. Those who formulate food and agricultural policies need to know the scope, costs, and benefits of the more common adaptive strategies used by poor people, who are normally at great...

  6. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  7. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Renzi, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO 2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  8. Reducing carbon emissions through improved household energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.; Hargreaves, C.

    2002-01-01

    A number of schemes to increase household energy efficiency have operated in the UK over the last 5-10 years. This paper evaluates their effectiveness in terms of reducing household energy use, carbon emissions and fuel poverty. It then draws on the quantitative results of these schemes, and published plans for their continuation, to model an extended and expanded Household Energy Efficiency Scenario to 2020, using an integrated economy-energy-environment model of the UK. The results suggest that while such schemes can play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions from households, much more ambitious schemes than those currently implemented will be necessary to offset the underlying growth in these emissions. Finally, the results are compared with the UK government's own estimates, in its Climate Change Programme, of carbon emission reductions from such schemes to 2010. The paper concludes that the government's estimates are somewhat optimistic, and that it will need substantial new policy measures beyond those already announced if its carbon reduction targets in this area are to be met. (author)

  9. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  10. Reporting 1998 - households[Energy consumption and consequences for Norway]; Rapportering 1998 - husholdinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-07-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership.

  11. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  12. Household air pollution from solid fuel use and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Quansah, Reginald; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    About 41% of households globally, mainly in developing countries rely on solid fuels for cooking with consequences for fetal growth and development. Previous reviews were limited in scope, assessing only two outcomes (birth weight, stillbirth). With important evidence accumulating, there is a need to improve the previous estimates and assess additional outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the quality and strength of available evidence on household air pollution (HAP) and the whole range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and CINAHL were searched from their inception to the end of April 2013. All epidemiological study designs were eligible for inclusion in the review. The random-effects model was applied in computing the summary-effect estimates (EE) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 1505 studies screened, 19 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Household combustion of solid fuels resulted in an 86.43 g (95% CI: 55.49, 117.37) reduction in birth weight, and a 35% (EE = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.48) and 29% (EE = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.41) increased risk of LBW and stillbirth respectively. Combustion of solid fuels at home increases the risk of a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Access to clean household energy solutions is the surest way to combat HAP and mitigate their adverse effects.

  13. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  14. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  15. Bio-Wastes as an Alternative Household Cooking Energy Source in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking in rural Africa. Due to the ongoing deforestation, households need to change to other energy sources. To cover this need, a large amount of people are using residues from agriculture (straw, manure instead. However, both straw and manure also have a function in agriculture for soil improvement. Using all the straw and manure will seriously affect the food production. In this paper we first determine the amount of energy that households need for cooking (about 7 GJ per year. Then we estimate the amount of residues that can be obtained from the agricultural system and the amount of energy for cooking that can be derived from this amount when different conversion techniques are used. The amount of residues needed is strongly affected by the technology used. The traditional three stone fires require at least two times as much resource than the more advanced technologies. Up to 4 ha of land or 15 cows are needed to provide enough straw and manure to cook on the traditional three stone fires. When more efficient techniques are used (briquetting, biogas this can be reduced to 2 ha and six cows. Due to large variation in resource availability between households, about 80% of the households own less than 2 ha and 70% holds less than four cows. This means that even when modern, energy efficient techniques are used the largest share of the population is not able to generate enough energy for cooking from their own land and/or cattle. Most rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa may share similar resource holding characteristics for which the results from the current findings on Ethiopia can be relevant.

  16. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  17. House Owners’ Interests and Actions in Relation to Indoor Temperature, Air Quality and Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    in saving energy for the sake of the environment and for their own economy, and quite a lot of households indicate that they know their own energy consumption, though only few follow it closely. Thus being concerned about energy is not necessarily related to an interest in detailed feedback on one’s own......In order to make better and more realistic predictions of energy consumption in dwellings, more knowledge is needed about how individuals and households control the indoor environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the objective of studying the interest and actions taken in relation...... to indoor temperature, air quality and energy consumption by Danish house owners living in single-family detached houses with district heating. The house owners state that they are interested in, and concerned about, the indoor temperature and air quality and that it is an important element in caring...

  18. Follow-up study of the preparatory study for Ecodesign and Energy Label for Household Dishwashers

    OpenAIRE

    BOYANO LARRIBA ALICIA; MOONS HANS; VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK ALEJANDRO; GRAULICH KATHRIN; RÜDINAUER INA; ALBORZI FARNAZ; HOOK INA; STAMMINGER RAINER

    2017-01-01

    Starting in 2014, the Commission has undertaken a review study of the household dishwashers regulations (Ecodesing regulation and Energy Label regulation). The conclusions of this study are updated in this report and will be presented to stakeholders at the meeting of the Consultation Forum established under Article 18 of the Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC, to be held 22th November 2017. In addition, this report includes new forecast scenarios at the light of the release of the Energy Labell...

  19. Investment inefficiency and the adoption of eco-innovations: The case of household energy efficiency technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors determining household adoption of energy efficiency eco-innovations. We do so by testing hypotheses grounded in diffusion and finance theory and the literature on the barriers to energy efficiency. Using two large surveys of UK households, we explore the adoption of nine technologies. Our results indicate ‘investment inefficiency’ amongst household adopters occurs for two reasons. First, contrary to notions of rational choice, we find a negative relationship between the investment return of technologies and their level of diffusion. Second, we show adopters of these technologies display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory, contradicting the prediction of finance theory that investment return, not individual characteristics, should drive adoption. We also find that policy has played a role in inducing the diffusion of these technologies and that tenure and spill-over effects are important in adoption. Finally, adoption is motivated more by a desire to save money than by environmental concern. We conclude by giving examples of how our research can lead to better policy timing and targeting. -- Highlights: •We explore the factors driving household adoption of energy efficiency technologies. •We employ two high quality nationally representative cross sectional surveys. •There is a negative relationship between investment return and level of diffusion. •Adopters display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory. •Policy interventions, tenure effects and spill-over effects also influence adoption

  20. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  1. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  2. Households' use of information and communication technologies - a future challenge for energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten (Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)). e-mail: joj@sbi.dk; Roepke, Inge (Dept. of Management Engineering, Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting that in a few years on average ICT will make up half of household electricity consumption. Recent initiatives from various actors to prevent this development are presented and discussed, and difficulties in regulating this area, as compared to other parts of household electricity consumption are highlighted. Through presentation and discussion of qualitative interviews with families having extensive ICT use in their everyday lives, the interviews illustrate how users domesticate and use technologies in many different ways. The interviews reveal a variety of practices and dynamics in different aspects of everyday life, including sport, shopping, entertainment and different hobbies. The growing electricity consumption related to ICT is thus as dependent on the consumers' use and domestication of the technologies as on the energy efficiency of the appliances. By analysing the interviews with the use of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.

  3. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ting; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  4. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...

  5. Women's Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David

    2018-02-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  6. Air pollution and inhalation exposure to particulate matter of different sizes in rural households using improved stoves in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Yilong; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Huang-Fu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Wu, Fuyong; Wong, Minghung

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is considered to be among the top environmental risks in China. To examine the performance of improved stoves for reduction of indoor particulate matter (PM) emission and exposure in rural households, individual inhalation exposure to size-resolved PM was investigated using personal portable samplers carried by residents using wood gasifier stoves or improved coal stoves in a rural county in Central China. Concentrations of PM with different sizes in stationary indoor and outdoor air were also monitored at paired sites. The stationary concentrations of size-resolved PM in indoor air were greater than those in outdoor air, especially finer particles PM 0.25 . The daily averaged exposure concentrations of PM 0.25 , PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and total suspended particle for all the surveyed residents were 74.4±41.1, 159.3±74.3, 176.7±78.1 and 217.9±78.1μg/m 3 , respectively. Even using the improved stoves, the individual exposure to indoor PM far exceeded the air quality guideline by WHO at 25μg/m 3 . Submicron particles PM 1.0 were the dominant PM fraction for personal exposure and indoor and outdoor air. Personal exposure exhibited a closer correlation with indoor PM concentrations than that for outdoor concentrations. Both inhalation exposure and indoor air PM concentrations in the rural households with gasifier firewood stoves were evidently lower than the reported results using traditional firewood stoves. However, local governments in the studied rural areas should exercise caution when widely and hastily promoting gasifier firewood stoves in place of improved coal stoves, due to the higher PM levels in indoor and outdoor air and personal inhaled exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  8. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  9. A comparative multivariate analysis of household energy requirements in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzen, M. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Wier, M. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark). Danish Research Institute of Food Economics; Cohen, C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia; Hayami, Hitoshi [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Keio Economic Observatory; Pachauri, S. [Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Schaeffer, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). COPPE

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we appraise sustainable household consumption from a global perspective. Using per capita energy requirements as an indicator of environmental pressure, we focus on the importance of income growth in a cross-country analysis. Our analysis is supported by a detailed within-country analysis encompassing five countries, in which we assess the importance of various socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of household energy requirements. We bring together family expenditure survey data, input-output tables, and energy statistics in a multivariate analysis. Instead of a uniform Kuznet's curve, we find that the effect of increasing income varies considerably across countries, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variations. The latter variables show similar influences, but differing importance across countries. (author)

  10. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  11. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  12. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  13. Potential CO{sub 2} reduction by implementing energy efficiency standard for room air conditioner in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Choudhury, I.A.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2001-09-01

    This study attempts to predict the environmental impact of implementing an energy efficiency standard for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The ownership of room air conditioners has increased tremendously in this country. At present, there are about 528,792 room air conditioners in Malaysian households. In the year 2020, it will be about 1,511,276. The potential carbon dioxide reduction is based on the predicted electricity savings from implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for room air conditioners. The electricity savings are calculated based on the predicted electricity consumption by a single air conditioner in the Malaysian household. The replacement of less efficient units of this appliance is reflected in reduced electricity consumption and emissions from power plants. The energy efficiency provisions of this regulation and agreement provide targets to save money, energy and, most importantly, to protect the environment. (Author)

  14. Energy deprivation dynamics and regulatory reforms in Europe: Evidence from household panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Ambra; Florio, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The typical ingredients of energy reforms in the European Union (EU) in the 1990s were full or partial privatization, vertical disintegration and liberalization. This paper analyses the effects of energy reforms on the probability of households experiencing deprivation, defined as difficulty in paying the bills. We use two sets of micro-data. First, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a large EU survey, offers evidence on people who report having been unable to pay scheduled utility bills. We consider seven European countries: Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and eight ECHP waves (1994-2001), with around 28,000 observations. Second, we also use micro-data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) 2004-2005, with around 84,000 observations. The countries included are Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden. As indicators of regulatory reforms in the same countries and years we use ECTR (formerly REGREF), a database provided by the OECD. In both samples we find evidence that privatization increases the probability of households experiencing deprivation. Vertical disintegration has a similar effect and also increases the persistence in the status of household deprivation. Liberalization has no statistically significant effect. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings.

  15. Energy deprivation dynamics and regulatory reforms in Europe: Evidence from household panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Ambra [Department of Economics, University of Milan-Bicocca and LABORatorio Revelli, Collegio C. Alberto (Italy); Florio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.florio@unimi.i [Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, University of Milan, Via Conservatorio 7, 20122 Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The typical ingredients of energy reforms in the European Union (EU) in the 1990s were full or partial privatization, vertical disintegration and liberalization. This paper analyses the effects of energy reforms on the probability of households experiencing deprivation, defined as difficulty in paying the bills. We use two sets of micro-data. First, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a large EU survey, offers evidence on people who report having been unable to pay scheduled utility bills. We consider seven European countries: Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and eight ECHP waves (1994-2001), with around 28,000 observations. Second, we also use micro-data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) 2004-2005, with around 84,000 observations. The countries included are Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden. As indicators of regulatory reforms in the same countries and years we use ECTR (formerly REGREF), a database provided by the OECD. In both samples we find evidence that privatization increases the probability of households experiencing deprivation. Vertical disintegration has a similar effect and also increases the persistence in the status of household deprivation. Liberalization has no statistically significant effect. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings.

  16. Energy deprivation dynamics and regulatory reforms in Europe. Evidence from household panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Ambra [Department of Economics, University of Milan-Bicocca and LABORatorio Revelli, Collegio C. Alberto (Italy); Florio, Massimo [Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, University of Milan, Via Conservatorio 7, 20122 Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The typical ingredients of energy reforms in the European Union (EU) in the 1990s were full or partial privatization, vertical disintegration and liberalization. This paper analyses the effects of energy reforms on the probability of households experiencing deprivation, defined as difficulty in paying the bills. We use two sets of micro-data. First, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a large EU survey, offers evidence on people who report having been unable to pay scheduled utility bills. We consider seven European countries: Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and eight ECHP waves (1994-2001), with around 28,000 observations. Second, we also use micro-data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) 2004-2005, with around 84,000 observations. The countries included are Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden. As indicators of regulatory reforms in the same countries and years we use ECTR (formerly REGREF), a database provided by the OECD. In both samples we find evidence that privatization increases the probability of households experiencing deprivation. Vertical disintegration has a similar effect and also increases the persistence in the status of household deprivation. Liberalization has no statistically significant effect. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings. (author)

  17. 'Green' on the ground but not in the air: Pro-environmental attitudes are related to household behaviours but not discretionary air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Tim; Coldwell, Deborah F; Gribble, Matthew O; Evans, Karl L; Corner, Adam; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from air travel could be reduced by individuals voluntarily abstaining from, or reducing, flights for leisure and recreational purposes. In theory, we might expect that people with pro-environmental value orientations and concerns about the risks of climate change, and those who engage in more pro-environmental household behaviours, would also be more likely to abstain from such voluntary air travel, or at least to fly less far. Analysis of two large datasets from the United Kingdom, weighted to be representative of the whole population, tested these associations. Using zero-inflated Poisson regression models, we found that, after accounting for potential confounders, there was no association between individuals' environmental attitudes, concern over climate change, or their routine pro-environmental household behaviours, and either their propensity to take non-work related flights, or the distances flown by those who do so. These findings contrasted with those for pro-environmental household behaviours, where associations with environmental attitudes and concern were observed. Our results offer little encouragement for policies aiming to reduce discretionary air travel through pro-environmental advocacy, or through 'spill-over' from interventions to improve environmental impacts of household routines.

  18. ‘Green’ on the ground but not in the air: Pro-environmental attitudes are related to household behaviours but not discretionary air travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P.; Taylor, Tim; Coldwell, Deborah F.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Evans, Karl L.; Corner, Adam; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from air travel could be reduced by individuals voluntarily abstaining from, or reducing, flights for leisure and recreational purposes. In theory, we might expect that people with pro-environmental value orientations and concerns about the risks of climate change, and those who engage in more pro-environmental household behaviours, would also be more likely to abstain from such voluntary air travel, or at least to fly less far. Analysis of two large datasets from the United Kingdom, weighted to be representative of the whole population, tested these associations. Using zero-inflated Poisson regression models, we found that, after accounting for potential confounders, there was no association between individuals' environmental attitudes, concern over climate change, or their routine pro-environmental household behaviours, and either their propensity to take non-work related flights, or the distances flown by those who do so. These findings contrasted with those for pro-environmental household behaviours, where associations with environmental attitudes and concern were observed. Our results offer little encouragement for policies aiming to reduce discretionary air travel through pro-environmental advocacy, or through ‘spill-over’ from interventions to improve environmental impacts of household routines. PMID:28367001

  19. Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers. Function derivation based on household and climate characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, J.; Letschert, V. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hopkins, A. [Vermont Department of Public Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Blasnik, M. [Blasnik Consulting, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Field-metered energy use data for 1,467 refrigerators and 185 freezers from seven studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 were used to calculate usage adjustment factors (UAFs), defined as the ratio of measured to tested annual energy use. Multiple regressions of UAFs against several household and climate variables were then performed to obtain separate predictive functions for primary (most-used) refrigerators, secondary (second most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residual differences between observed and modeled UAFs were fit to log normal distributions. These UAF functions were used to project energy use in the more than 4,000 households in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, a statistical representation of US homes. These energy use projections formed the basis of calculating lifecycle energy savings for more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as national energy and cost savings. Results were compared with previous published work by the Department of Energy, demonstrating how UAFs impact energy and cost savings. Such an approach could be further improved with additional data and adapted for other appliances in future analyses.

  20. Developing the home energy report: An everyday householder-centred approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, R.; Popovic Larsen, O. [Sheffield Univ., School of Architecture, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    A compulsory home energy report (Her) is to be introduced by the government in England and Wales as part of the Home Information Pack. This will, in part, meet the requirements of the European Directive on The Energy Performance of Buildings, providing energy performance certificates for dwellings when sold on the open market and information on measures to improve energy performance. This paper presents the results of a study, which explored the effectiveness of an Her in use. The study found that householders intended to take-up 27.1% ({+-}5.7%; n = 231, p < 0.05) of the recommended measures and 46.3% ({+-}6.4%; n = 231, p < 0.05) of householders intended to install at least one recommended measure within a year. However, preliminary findings suggest that actual take-up is lower than the intended rate and measures adopted tend to be those that are least effective. The paper draws on an everyday householder-centred framework in order to make proposals for the improved effectiveness of the HER programme in England and Wales. These recommendations have implications for: the report's motivational content; the presentation of information; and the environment in which information is delivered and action is supported. (Author)

  1. Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Meena; Rizwan, Suliankatchi Abdulkader; Krishnan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass cooking fuel use is an important risk factor for a range of diseases, especially among adult women who are primary cooks, in India. About 80% of rural households in India use biomass fuel for cooking. The aim of this study is to estimate the attributable cases (AC) for four major diseases/conditions associated with biomass cooking fuel use among adult Indian women. We used the population attributable fraction (PAF) method to calculate the AC of chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis (TB), cataract, and stillbirths due to exposure to biomass cooking fuel. A number of data sources were accessed to obtain population totals and disease prevalence rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) for strength of association. Using this, PAF and AC were calculated using a standard formula. Results were presented as number of AC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The fixed effects pooled OR obtained from the meta-analysis were 2.37 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.54) for chronic bronchitis, 2.33 (1.65, 3.28) for TB, 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) for cataract, and 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for stillbirths. PAF varied across conditions being maximum (53%) for chronic bronchitis in rural areas and least (1%) for cataract in older age and urban areas. About 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.1) of 5.6 m cases of chronic bronchitis, 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) of 0.76 m cases of TB, 5.0 (2.8, 6.7) of 51.4 m cases of cataract among adult Indian women and 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) of 0.15 m stillbirths across India are attributable to HAP due to biomass cooking fuel. These estimates should be cautiously interpreted in the light of limitations discussed which relate to exposure assessment, exposure characterization, and age-specific prevalence of disease. HAP due to biomass fuel has diverse and major impacts on women's health in India. Although challenging, incorporating the agenda of universal clean fuel access or cleaner technology within the broader framework of rural

  2. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  3. Assessing the extent and intensity of energy poverty using Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index: Empirical evidence from households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadath, Anver C.; Acharya, Rajesh H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have made a comprehensive assessment of the extent and various socio-economic implications of energy poverty in India. Amartya Sens's capability approach to development underpins the analysis of household-level data taken from the India Human Development Survey-II (IHDS-II), 2011-12 using the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI). The overall results show that energy poverty is widespread in India and the existence of energy poverty also coincides with the other forms of deprivations such as income poverty and social backwardness. For example, Dalits (Lower Caste) and Adivasis (Tribal) are found to be extremely energy poor compared to the other social groups in India. The results also reveal that it is the responsibility of women to manage the domestic chores such as collection of firewood and making of dung cake in traditional Indian households. Inefficient use of such biomass fuels is found to cause health hazards. - Highlights: • Energy poverty in India is assessed based on Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI). • Energy poverty is widespread in India with large geographical variation across states. • Energy poverty coincides with socioeconomic backwardness of people. • Energy poverty is associated with health hazards like Asthma and Tuberculosis. • Access to energy may increase labor market participation of women.

  4. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  5. Effect of fuelwood scarcity and socio-economic factors on household bio-based energy use and energy substitution in rural Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Dawit Diriba

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia biomass is predominantly utilized for household energy needs often using inefficient rudimentary stoves which cause adverse environmental and welfare effects. This paper examined the contribution of biomass resources to rural household energy use and energy substitution. The analysis applied the ordinary least square in the final stage estimation of fuelwood and overall biomass energy consumption by using predicted shadow prices. The paper used Tobit model to estimate charcoal and agricultural fuel consumption due to the presence of censoring. An increase in fuelwood shadow price was associated with reduced household fuelwood consumption with price elasticity of −0.38. The cross price elasticity between fuelwood and agricultural fuels revealed no evidence of energy substitution, which conforms to the findings of previous studies. Household access to electricity was associated with lower household biomass energy utilization but kerosene was not fuelwood substitute. Household energy use conformed to the ‘fuel stacking’ or ‘multiple fuel use’ concept, but households preferred modern energy options as welfare increased in areas where modern energy is available. This suggests that there is a promising prospect for fuel-transition, but access to modern energy and economic growth have key roles. The findings suggest that a concerted policy effort is required that would help diversify rural livelihoods, improve living standards and encourage economic growth, encourage inter-fuel substitution through improved modern energy access and afforestation to increase biomass supply. - Highlights: • The paper examined household biomass energy use and energy substitution. • Fuelwood use declined with increases in fuelwood scarcity or its shadow price. • Fuelwood and charcoal use increased with increase in household wealth. • Biomass energy consumption declined with an increase in household electricity use. • The result indicated agricultural fuel and

  6. Efficiency snakes and energy ladders: A (meta-)frontier demand analysis of electricity consumption efficiency in Chinese households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadstock, David C.; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers presently lack access to quantified estimates – and hence an explicit understanding – of energy consumption efficiency within households, creating a potential gap between true efficiency levels and the necessarily assumed efficiency levels that policy makers adopt in designing and implementing energy policy. This paper attempts to fill this information gap by empirically quantifying electricity consumption efficiency for a sample of more than 7,000 households. Adopting the recently introduced ‘frontier demand function’ due to Filippini and Hunt (2011) but extending it into the metafrontier context – to control for structural heterogeneity arising from location type – it is shown that consumption efficiency is little more than 60% on average. This implies huge potential for energy reduction via the expansion of schemes to promote energy efficiency. City households, which are the wealthiest in the sample, are shown to define the metafrontier demand function (and hence have the potential to be the most efficient households), but at the same time exhibit the largest inefficiencies. These facts together allow for a potential refinement on the household energy ladder concept, suggesting that wealth affords access to the best technologies thereby increasing potential energy efficiency (the ‘traditional view of the household energy ladder), but complementary to this these same households are most inefficient. This has implications for numerous areas of policy, including for example the design of energy assistance schemes, identification of energy education needs/priorities as well more refined setting of subsidies/tax-credit policies. - Highlights: •Frontier demand functions are estimated for a sample of 7102 Chinese households. •Metafrontier methods capture heterogeneity arising from urban form (e.g. cities, towns and villages). •Wealthier houses have higher efficiency potential, but are in fact less efficient in their consumption of

  7. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions via system dynamics and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Davis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of electricity is described in this paper. A literature review of past research is used to build an initial integrated model of household consumption, and this model is used to generate a small number of research hypotheses about how households possessing different characteristics might react to various types of interventions. These hypotheses are tested using data gathered from an efficiency intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more efficient compact fluorescent lamp light bulbs. Our experiences are (a that a system dynamics approach proved useful in advancing a non-traditional point of view for which, for historical and economic reasons, data were not abundantly available; (b that, in areas where traditional models are heavily quantitative, some scepticism to a system dynamics model may be expected; and (c that a statistical comparison of model results by means of empirical data may be an effective tool in reducing such scepticism.

  8. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Delan Devakumar; Zeshan Qureshi; Jenevieve Mannell; Manju Baruwal; Neha Sharma; Eva Rehfuess; Naomi M. Saville; Dharma S. Manandhar; David Osrin

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the ...

  9. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  10. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K. [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, 2450 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important, both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included in future policy if energy demand is actually to be reduced. Furthermore, it is also argued that not only individual behaviour is relevant, but also a broader perspective on collectively shared low-carbon practices has to be promoted.

  11. Exploring the potential for energy conservation in French households through hybrid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan; Guivarch, Céline; Quirion, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although the building sector is recognized as having major potential for energy conservation and carbon dioxide emission mitigation, conventional bottom–up and top–down models are limited in their ability to capture the complex economic and technological dynamics of the sector. This paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. Res-IRF, a bottom–up module of energy consumption for space heating, has several distinctive features: (i) a clear separation between energy efficiency, i.e. investment in energy efficient technologies, and sufficiency, i.e. changes in the utilization of energy consuming durables which allows the rebound effect to be assessed; (ii) the inclusion of barriers to energy efficiency in the form of intangible costs, consumer heterogeneity parameters and the learning-by-doing process; (iii) an endogenous determination of retrofitting which represents trade-offs between retrofit quantity and quality. Subsequently, Res-IRF is linked to the IMACLIM-R computable general equilibrium model. This exercise shows that, compared to a 37% reduction in final energy demand achievable in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050, an additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to efficiency and sufficiency were overcome. - Highlights: ► The paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. ► The model offers a clear separation between investment in energy efficient technologies and changes in their utilization. ► Intangible costs, heterogeneous discount rates and learning-by-doing functions mimic some barriers to energy efficiency. ► Simulations show that a 37% energy demand reduction could be achieved in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050. ► An additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to energy conservation were overcome.

  12. Wind power - energy from air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1998-01-01

    The wind conditions for wind power generation are favourable on the coast, in the archipelagos and in the fell areas of Finland. About 7 MW of wind power has been constructed in Finland, with the investment support of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. In 1995 about 11 GWh were produced by wind energy. A number of wind power plants are under design on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia as well as on the Aaland Islands. The first arctic wind park was constructed in Lapland in September 1996

  13. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Muralidharan, Krishna [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  14. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  15. A Study of Household Energy Consumption and Road Trafin Bra_ov, Using West-European Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Meer, Erwin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the project were reflected in the research question which was formulated as: "What type of methodologies applicable to end-use household energy-consumption, environmental awareness, and road-traffic analysis are suitable to apply in Eastern-European cities and households, under which

  16. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.; Claxton, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  17. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G H.G.; Ritchie, J R.B.; Claxton, J D

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  18. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  19. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  20. Flow, stock, and impact assessment of refrigerants in the Japanese household air conditioner sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Kojima, Naoya; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2017-05-15

    Refrigerants provide society with great benefits while have the potential to cause adverse effects on the environment and human health. The present study estimated time-dependent flows and stocks and assessed the effects of refrigerants (R-22, R-410a, and R-32) in household air conditioners in Japan. It was found that stock of R-22 and R-410a peaked at 49,147t in 2000 and 55,994t in 2017, respectively. The largest flow of R-22 and R-410a to waste phase occurred at 3417t/yr. in 2005 and 4011t/yr. in 2023, respectively. The total global warming potential (GWP) due to refrigerant emissions increased from 3.6kt CO 2 eq. in 1952 to 6999kt CO 2 eq. in 2019, and then decreased to 5314kt CO 2 eq. in 2030. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) peaked at 141t CFC-11 eq. in 2002. When substituting R-410a for R-22, the ODP decreased 50% while the GDP increased 8%. When substituting R-32 for R-410a, there was no effect on the ODP while the GDP decreased 6%. The human health damage due to the global warming effect of refrigerant emission was much higher than that due to the ozone depleting effect. The refrigerant emission in use and waste management phases dominated the human health damage. The dynamic estimation not only allows us to evaluate the performance of past policies but also supports the future sustainable management associated with the health effects of refrigerants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Household air pollution following replacement of traditional open fire with an improved rocket type cookstove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Caroline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Tonne, Cathryn

    2017-02-15

    Cooking with biomass fuel is an important source of household air pollution (HAP) in developing countries, and a leading risk factor for ill-health. Although various designs of "improved cookstoves" (ICS) have been promoted as HAP interventions in these settings, few of them have undergone in-field evaluation, partly due to the challenge of conducting field measurements in remote settings. In this study we assessed the change in carbon monoxide (CO) exposure following the replacement of the traditional three-stone stove with a popular ICS in 49 homes in Western Kenya. We also assessed the suitability of using kitchen CO as a proxy for kitchen PM 2.5 . Reduction in 48h mean kitchen CO was 3.1ppm (95% CI: -8.1, 1.8) and in personal CO was 0.9ppm (95% CI: -4.3, 2.6) following stove replacements. Overall, 48-h kitchen and personal CO exposures were lower after stove replacement (28% and 12%, respectively) but with wide confidence intervals that also suggested possible increases in exposure. There were statistically significant reductions in peak kitchen and personal CO concentrations represented by the 8-h 95th percentile: reductions of 26.1ppm (95% CI: -44.6, -7.6) and 8.0ppm (95% CI: -12.2, -3.8), respectively. This is equivalent to 53% reduction in kitchen CO and 39% reduction in personal CO. We found good correlation between kitchen CO and PM 2.5 concentrations overall (r=0.73, n=33 over averaging periods approximating 1day), which varied by time of day and exposure setting. These variations limit the applicability of CO as a proxy measure for PM 2.5 concentrations. A combination of interventions, including better designed stoves, improved ventilation and cleaner fuels, may be needed to reduce HAP to levels that are likely to improve health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A framework for targeting household energy savings through habitual behavioural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitou, Mary; Kolios, Athanasios J.; Varga, Liz; Gu, Sai

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews existing up-to-date literature related to individual household energy consumption. The how and why individual behaviour affects energy use are discussed, together with the principles and perspectives which have so far been considered in order to explain the habitual consuming behaviour. The research gaps, which are revealed from previous studies in terms of the limitations or assumptions on the methodology to alter individuals' energy usage, give insights for a conceptual framework to define a comprehensive approach. The proposed framework suggests that the individual energy perception gaps are affected by psychological, habitual, structural and cultural variables in a wider-contextual, meso-societal and micro-individual spectrum. All these factors need to be considered in order for a variety of combined intervention methods, which are discussed and recommended, to introduce a more effective shift in the conventional energy-consuming behaviour, advancing insights for successful energy policies.

  3. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  4. The flame dilemma: A data analytics study of fireplace influence on winter energy consumption at the residential household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afamia Elnakat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of the presence of fireplaces at the household level independent of the function of ambiance and indoor air quality. The focus of this study is on the winter heating energy use of homes with and without fireplaces to promote energy conservation. Three years of winter energy usage (2011–2013 of 365,190 single-family homes are analyzed and compared. The data is further segmented by fuel type, all-electric versus dual-fuel homes as well as by size and vintage. On average, homes with fireplaces used 23,650 kBtu, source energy, for heating purposes during the winter months versus 18,055 kBtu (p≤0.0001 during the same time period, January, February, and December. There is a significant 31% increase in energy use in homes with fireplaces. In conclusion, policy prescriptions and retrofits are recommended during new home construction permits, renovations, and utility rebate outreach programs to encourage more efficient and cleaner fireplace technology applications.

  5. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption. (letter)

  6. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  7. Influencing households' energy behaviour-how is this done and on what premises?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyberg, Per; Palm, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the discourse that the idea of efficiency is built upon according to different actors trying to influence households' energy behaviour in Sweden. The focus is on information from authorities as well as from interest organisations and energy companies. Information directed to households often contains a strong idea that the individual has to take responsibility for his/her own choices, and that it is through consumer choices the energy system will become more sustainable. The reasons given for changing one's behaviour are motivated both by lower energy costs and a reduced impact on the environment. Common advice for energy reduction is to change to a more energy-efficient apparatus. In this sense efficiency is a way of not changing lifestyle but instead changing technical equipment and user routines. Only the LA21 project questions the need for all the apparatus as well as the possibility to improve existing artifacts, pointing to a need to change our lifestyle. The strong belief in science and technology results in a definition of the problem as a lack of knowledge, where the only solution is to fill this gap.

  8. Estimation of main greenhouse gases emission from household energy consumption in the West Bank, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Madi, Maher; Rayyan, Ma'moun Abu

    2013-01-01

    The main GHGs (CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 ) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO 2 emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO 2 . Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- Highlights: •We quantified the CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 based on national statistics. •Wood is the most polluting in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission. •Electricity is the most polluting in terms of SO 2 emission. •Households' energy consumption contributes with 0.016% to global CO 2 emission. •We present key measures to reduce GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- The most polluting energy sources that produce most of the CO 2 and SO 2 emissions in the West Bank are wood and electricity

  9. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of two-way communication infrastructure and bidirectional energy trading between utility companies and customers in the future smart grid (SG, autonomous energy management programs become crucial to the demand-side management (DSM. Most of the existing autonomous energy management schemes are for the scenario with a single utility company or the scenario with one-way energy trading. In this paper, an autonomous household energy management system with multiple utility companies and multiple residential customers is studied by considering the bidirectional energy trading. To minimize the overall costs of both the utility companies and the residential customers, the energy management system is formulated as a double cooperative game. That is, the interaction among the residential users is formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the customers and the strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances; and the interaction among the utility companies is also formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the suppliers and the strategies are the proportions of the daily total energy they provide for the customers. Without loss of generality, the bidirectional energy trading in the double cooperative game is formulated by allowing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs to discharge and sell energy back. Two distributed algorithms will be provided to realize the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs, which can be guaranteed at the Nash equilibriums of the formulated cooperative games. Finally, simulation results illustrated that the proposed double cooperative game can benefit both the utility companies and residential users significantly.

  11. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, G; Kramer, C; Schwartz, LC

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  13. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  14. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  15. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  16. Waste energy driven air conditioning system (WEDACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, R.H.L.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the port injected Spark Ignition (SI) engine, the single greatest part load efficiency reducing factor are energy losses over the throttle valve. The need for this throttle valve arises from the fact that engine power is controlled by the amount of air in the cylinders, since combustion occurs

  17. Householder engagement with energy consumption feedback: the role of community action and communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, Kevin; Rettie, Ruth; Roberts, Tom C.

    2016-01-01

    The provision of energy consumption feedback on in-home displays (IHDs) has a prominent role in government strategies for domestic energy demand reduction. Research suggests that IHDs can support energy consumption reduction, but also that engagement with IHDs can be limited to men and is often short-term. In this paper, we draw on research carried out in Smart Communities, a two-year project in which electricity and gas consumption feedback played a key role. This study was distinctive because it was accompanied by a weekly email communications programme and was provided within the context of community action. Project findings suggest that, although by no means panaceas, approaches such as these can support long-term engagement with energy consumption feedback, including by women, and can support behaviour change. - Highlights: • We examine the challenge of householder engagement with energy consumption feedback. • The potential of ‘community action’ and ‘communications’ is explored. • These approaches are shown to support long-term engagement by householders. • These approaches are also shown to support greater engagement by women. • Recommendations for future IHD platforms and smart meter roll-outs are presented.

  18. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  19. Solar energy storage in German households: profitability, load changes and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschub, Thomas; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The developments of battery storage technology together with photovoltaic (PV) roof-top systems might lead to far-reaching changes in the electricity demand structures and flexibility of households. The implications are supposed to affect the generation mix of utilities, distribution grid utilization, and electricity price. Using a techno-economic optimization model of a household system, we endogenously dimension PV system and stationary battery storage (SBS). The results of the reference scenario show positive net present values (NPV) for PV systems of approx. 500–1,800 EUR/kW_p and NPV for SBS of approx. 150–500 EUR/kWh. Main influences are the demand of the households, self-consumption rates, investment costs, and electricity prices. We integrate electric vehicles (EV) with different charging strategies and find increasing NPV of the PV system and self-consumption of approx. 70%. With further declining system prices for solar energy storage and increasing electricity prices, PV systems and SBS can be profitable in Germany from 2018 on even without a guaranteed feed-in tariff or subsidies. Grid utilization substantially changes by households with EV and PV-SBS. We discuss effects of different incentives and electricity tariff options (e. g. load limits or additional demand charges). Concluding, solar energy storage systems will bring substantial changes to electricity sales. - Highlights: • Domestic photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems are techno-economically analyzed. • PV & storage are profitable in the medium term due to high self-consumption rates. • Controlled electric vehicle charging improves load flexibility and self-generation. • External procurement of electricity drastically changes and decreases to 48–58%. • Dynamic tariffs e. g. with load limits or demand charges incentivize load shifting.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Conservation for Households - an Internet Site; Energispartips och energitester foer hushaall - en Internet hemsida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Internet site gives advice for energy conservation in households e.g. on space heating, lighting et cetera. You can also find energy tests of electric appliances, energy impacts of life styles, contact information for your local energy advisor and other information

  1. Analysis of energy poverty intensity from the perspective of the regional administration: Empirical evidence from households in southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, Sabina; Rivera-Torres, Pilar; Suárez-Perales, Inés; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The current economic situation has increased the number of households in Europe experiencing restrictions and/or limitations of affordability of energy services, demonstrating the urgent need to intervene in those extreme cases in which households suffer the daily consequences of what is internationally defined as energy poverty. In such a context, this paper presents the results obtained in a case study characterising a sample of 615 households with demonstrated energy poverty in the region of Aragón (Spain). In parallel, the intensity of energy poverty in the studied cases is examined by measuring the percentage of energy expenditures with respect to income in the households that suffer it, and a descriptive analysis of the main determinants of energy poverty in the homes studied is presented as well as the policy implication at regional level. - Highlights: • New approach to energy poverty through the collaboration with social services. • Regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed at the regional level. • Household's conditions in accredited energy poverty have been measured. • A comprehensive analysis of the energy poverty at Regional level in the Southern Europe.

  2. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    is analysed with regard to the Danish energy system. In Denmark, wind power supplies 20% of the electricity demand and 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The operation of CAES requires high electricity price volatility. However, in the Nordic region, large hydro capacities have so far kept......Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  3. Norwegian households' perception of wood pellet stove compared to air-to-air heat pump and electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Skjevrak, Geir; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the high dependency on electric heating combined with the high electricity price prompted a significant number of Norwegian households to consider alternative heating systems. The government introduced economic support for wood pellet heating and heat pumps. In contrast to the fast growing heat pump market, this financial support has not resulted in a widespread adoption of wood pellet heating. This paper studies factors that influence the choice of heating system based on Norwegian households' perceptions. Electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were compared, with a special focus on wood pellet heating. This study was conducted as a questionnaire survey on two independent samples. The first sample consisted of 188 randomly chosen Norwegian households, mainly using electric heating; the second sample consisted of 461 households using wood pellet heating. Our results show that socio-demographic factors, communication among households, the perceived importance of heating system attributes, and the applied decision strategy all influence the Norwegian homeowners. The significance of these factors differs between the two samples and the preferred type of anticipated future heating system. Strategies for possible interventions and policy initiatives are discussed.

  4. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  5. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  6. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  7. Understanding household energy consumption patterns: When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D., E-mail: marlyne.sahakian@graduateinstitute.c [Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Development Studies, 20 rue Rothschild, 1207 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization-understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. - Research highlights: {yields}Metro Manila household electricity consumption is environmentally significant. {yields}The meaning given to electricity services varies by socio-economic group. {yields}Structural conditions, such as building type, can lock-in energy consumption. {yields}Global flows-people, ideas, remittances-influence local consumption patterns. {yields}Social networks, rather than the individual consumer, can influence change.

  8. Understanding household energy consumption patterns: When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization-understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. - Research highlights: →Metro Manila household electricity consumption is environmentally significant. →The meaning given to electricity services varies by socio-economic group. →Structural conditions, such as building type, can lock-in energy consumption. →Global flows-people, ideas, remittances-influence local consumption patterns. →Social networks, rather than the individual consumer, can influence change.

  9. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  10. Biomass energy, air pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the negative effects on human health due to the use of biomass for energy. In addition to the emission of nitrogen oxides and of metals, these effects result largely from an incomplete combustion, generating various air pollutants: fine particles, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Four situations are discussed: indoor air pollution due to cooking in developing countries, residential wood combustion for heating, the use of biofuels, and waste incineration. In all cases, negative health effects have been demonstrated, but they can be prevented by appropriate strategies. (author)

  11. Rural-urban household energy use and inter-relation in the Central Region of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgizouli, I.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Urban and rural household energy consumption accounts for the major part of total energy consumption in most African countries. It ranges between 50 and 70 percent in African countries with medium per capita incomes and between 58 and 93 percent in those with low per capita incomes. Satisfying household energy needs takes up a substantial portion of the income of the urban household, while in the rural areas much time and effort are spent collecting wood instead of in more productive activities. Woodfuel meets over 85 percent of household energy demand in most African countries. This high level of consumption will remain, irrespective of the country's per capita income: woodfuel will continue to play a major role in the economics of developing countries and especially in the living standards of both rural and urban poor. The two major issues which must be considered are whether the forest resources are going to meet the future demand for woodfuel and whether prices will remain affordable to the low income groups. This paper deals with household energy issues with special reference to the Central Region in the Sudan. It assesses local resources in the region, analyzes consumption patterns of both rural and urban households, and discusses possible solutions to the impact of current energy practices

  12. Rural energy and the quality of air : with special reference to a tribal area in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanpal, D.

    1992-01-01

    Not much attention has been paid to rural energy and its related environmental problems; and studies on air pollution due to burning of fuelwood for cooking purpose seem to be inadequate. The present study aims to measure the amount of fuelwood used by households and to estimate the amount of pollutants emitted from burning of firewood for cooking. For the present study, 85 households in a tribal panchayat called Sittillngi in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu state, were surveyed. Results indicate that the sampled households burn 254 tonnes of fuelwood annually. Correlation analysis shows that annual income and firewood consumption of households are negatively correlated (r=-0.11) or the income and pollutants are negatively correlated . Some suggestions are given to minimize air pollution resulting from fuelwood burning. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Unintended benefits: leadership skills and behavioral change among Guatemalan fieldworkers employed in a longitudinal household air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Devina; Thompson, Lisa M; Lee, Amy; Romero, Carolina; Smith, Kirk R

    2010-01-01

    The RESPIRE and CRECER studies measured the effects of reduced household air pollution (HAP) from wood-fired cookstoves on respiratory health in rural highland Guatemala. This article examines behavior change and leadership skill development in local community members who were hired as fieldworkers to assist with research. Fieldworkers administered household questionnaires, shared functions similar to community health workers, and bridged health resources to communities. A mixed-methods design for data collection (in-depth interviews, focus groups, impact drawings, knowledge questionnaire, and retrospective pre-test) was used. Purposive sampling included 10 fieldworkers and 13 local service providers. Fieldworkers showed an increase in knowledge, positive attitudes, and practices around HAP. They developed new technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills. Fieldworkers played a crucial role in building confianza (trust) with the community, bridging resources, and improving outside researchers' relationships with locals. Recommendations for future researchers include inclusion of additional training courses and adoption of community participatory approaches.

  14. UNINTENDED BENEFITS: LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AMONG GUATEMALAN FIELDWORKERS EMPLOYED IN A LONGITUDINAL HOUSEHOLD AIR POLLUTION STUDY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUO, DEVINA; THOMPSON, LISA M.; LEE, AMY; ROMERO, CAROLINA; SMITH, KIRK R.

    2015-01-01

    The RESPIRE and CRECER studies measured the effects of reduced household air pollution (HAP) from wood-fired cookstoves on respiratory health in rural highland Guatemala. This article examines behavior change and leadership skill development in local community members who were hired as fieldworkers to assist with research. Fieldworkers administered household questionnaires, shared functions similar to community health workers, and bridged health resources to communities. A mixed-methods design for data collection (in-depth interviews, focus groups, impact drawings, knowledge questionnaire, and retrospective pre-test) was used. Purposive sampling included 10 fieldworkers and 13 local service providers. Fieldworkers showed an increase in knowledge, positive attitudes, and practices around HAP. They developed new technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills. Fieldworkers played a crucial role in building confianza (trust) with the community, bridging resources, and improving outside researchers’ relationships with locals. Recommendations for future researchers include inclusion of additional training courses and adoption of community participatory approaches. PMID:22192940

  15. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Balachandra, P.

    2009-01-01

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  17. An evaluation of the impact of reducing energy subsidies on living expenses of households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboohi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A policy of subsidizing energy has been pursued in the Islamic Republic of Iran to help the poor and to utilize the relative advantages of the country. But it has been realized that energy subsidy has led to market distortion and welfare loss. Hence, elimination of energy subsidy is considered as a crucial matter. Changes in energy policy are hindered by the uncertainty on the impact of reducing energy subsidy on the living expenses of population. In the present article the distribution of resources through energy subsidy is evaluated; and the direct and indirect effect of eliminating energy subsidies on the living expenses is estimated with the help of an analytical tool that has been developed. It is then concluded that additional financial resources obtained from reduction of energy subsidies could be allocated for compensating the decrease in purchasing power of households. The results of analysis reveal that more egalitarian distribution of resources and helping the poor could be achieved through implementation of a progressive policy of social security that is supported by financial resources available from elimination of energy subsidies. (author)

  18. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...... of the storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...

  19. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  20. Factors Influencing the Spatial Difference in Household Energy Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxia Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What factors determine the spatial heterogeneity of household energy consumption (HEC in China? Can the impacts of these factors be quantified? What are the trends and characteristics of the spatial differences? To date, these issues are still unclear. Based on the STIRPAT model and panel dataset for 30 provinces in China over the period 1997–2013, this paper investigated influences of the income per capita, urbanization level and annual average temperature on HEC, and revealed the spatial effects of these influencing factors. The results show that the income level is the main influencing factor, followed by the annual average temperature. There exists a diminishing marginal contribution with increasing income. The influence of urbanization level varies according to income level. In addition, from the eastern region to western region of China, variances largely depend upon economic level at the provincial level. From the northern region to southern region, change is mainly caused by temperature. The urbanization level has more significant impact on the structure and efficiency of household energy consumption than on its quantity. These results could provide reference for policy making and energy planning.

  1. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  2. Understanding household energy consumption patterns. When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D. [The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Development Studies, 20 rue Rothschild, 1207 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization - understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. (author)

  3. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  4. Energy-microfinance intervention for below poverty line households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Young Doo; Byrne, John B.

    2009-01-01

    More than 72% of India's population resides in rural India and it also has a high concentration of people living under abject poverty. Of the total rural population 27.1-28.3% lives below the poverty line (BPL). A lack of energy-finance options is hampering the 'quality of life' of the BPL community. The members of this disadvantaged household which forms 27.1% and 23.6% of the India's rural and urban population has no ready access to mainstream finance or know-how of sustainable energy products nor do they have access to energy service providing agency. This lack of energy-finance options has provided the marginalized population little means to break the conventional energy paradigm and the corresponding poverty cycle. Considering the afore-mentioned problem we propose an energy-microfinance intervention or a model that encompasses two independent entities. One has an energy expertise and the other possesses finance management skills. Alternately, we also propose a special purpose entity that comprises of these two entities. This entity fosters different institutional, technical and financial engineering approaches to the provision of energy, finance and infrastructure services necessary for poverty alleviation.

  5. The renewable energy household lighting for Chibayish inhabitant’s in Iraq★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Furat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable and clean energy is one of the major goals for global sustainable development. Lighting is a major aspect of human energy consumption and access to quality lighting is one of the most important indicators of human development. Like other countries around the world, the Iraqi government has realized the importance of climate change and the necessity for clean energy which has led them to officially ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in January 2008. However, it is challenging to implement a clean and renewable energy lighting system for a small community like Chibayish in the Iraqi marshes. The Chibayish unique house building technique of man-made islands (floating baskets, results that these floating houses are not connected to the Iraqi national grid. The villagers in Chibayish require artificial light for their indoor living areas after dark and also for night fishing, which is a common practice. In this research study, various renewable energy resources have been examined in order to identify the most locally practical renewable energy technology for household lighting needs. The solar irradiance profile in the area showed the viability of solar energy in comparison to other renewable energy sources considered within these specific environmental conditions. An analysis carried out using HOMER Pro simulator shows that the solar photovoltaic is an affordable and reliable option for this community.

  6. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    equipment, and habitat destruction from general construction (DoE, “ Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats,” pgs 2-4). Another...utility-resource-efficiency>, accessed 16 December 2014. Department of Energy, Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats... Wind power is a mature technology, with wind turbines first being used for electricity in the late 19th century. The Air Force operates two wind

  7. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  8. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  9. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  10. What do people living in deprived communities in the UK think about household energy efficiency interventions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Fiona L.; Jones, Christopher R.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    While physical interventions such as external wall cladding can improve the energy efficiency of domestic properties, how residents think about and respond to such interventions can influence both their uptake and impact on the household’s energy use. The present research investigated what residents living within deprived communities in Yorkshire and the Humber (United Kingdom) thought about a number of household energy efficiency interventions proposed as part of a project known as “The BIG Energy Upgrade”. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used as a framework for investigating residents' beliefs. Residents generally felt positive about the proposed interventions and expected that they would lead to financial savings, improve the appearance and warmth of their homes, and sense of pride in the local community. However, while residents intended to adopt energy efficiency interventions if offered them, they were less willing to personally invest in them. Home ownership and the belief in humans' ability to tackle climate change were found to predict willingness to invest. These findings help to understand responses to initiatives that seek to improve the energy efficiency of hard-to-treat homes. - Highlights: • We investigate beliefs about energy efficiency interventions in deprived areas. • Residents felt positive and predicted considerable financial savings. • Improved appearance, warmth and pride in place were important for residents • Home ownership predicted willingness to invest in interventions • Belief in humans' ability to tackle climate change predicted willingness to invest

  11. Household energy consumption pattern and socio-cultural dimensions associated with it: A case study of rural Haryana, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joon, Vinod; Chandra, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas 110 016, New Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, M. [National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka 110067, New Delhi (India)

    2009-11-15

    A survey of household energy consumption pattern was carried out in a village of Jhajjhar district of Haryana, India in the year 2007. The households surveyed covered heterogeneous population belonging to different income, educational and social groups. There was more availability and utilization of solid biomass fuels as energy resources in domestic sector as compared to the commercial fuels. Dung cakes, crop residues and firewood were found to be the three main fuels used for cooking, though LPG was also used along with biomass fuels. But complete conversion to cleaner fuels has not taken place yet even in households that has been using LPG for many years. Income was an important factor determining the choice of fuel for cooking, but there were some socio-cultural factors which were equally important in making fuel preferences at household level. (author)

  12. Inspecting what you expect: Applying modern tools and techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of household energy interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Ajay

    Exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) resulting from solid fuel use for household energy needs - including cooking, heating, and lighting - is one of the leading causes of ill-health globally and is responsible for approximately 4 million premature deaths and 84 million lost disability-adjusted life years globally. The well-established links between cooking and ill-health are modulated by complex social, behavioral, technological, and environmental issues that pose unique challenges to efforts that seek to reduce this large health burden. Despite growing interest in the field - and numerous technical solutions that, in the laboratory at least, reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants from solid fuel combustion - there exists a need for refined tools, models, and techniques (1) for measuring environmental pollution in households using solid fuel, (2) for tracking adoption of interventions, and (3) for estimating the potential health benefits attributable to an intervention. Part of the need for higher spatial and temporal resolution data on particular concentrations and dynamics is being met by low-cost sensing platforms that provide large amounts of time-resolved data on critical parameters of interest, including PM2.5 concentrations and time-of-use metrics for heat-generating appliances, like stoves. Use of these sensors can result in non-trivial challenges, including those related to data management and analysis, and field logistics, but also enables novel lines of inquiry and insight. Chapter 2 presents a long-term deployment of real-time PM2.5 sensors in rural, solid-fuel-using kitchens, specifically seeking to evaluate how well commonly measured 24 or 48-hour samples represent long-term means. While short-term measures were poor predictors of long-term means, the dataset enabled evaluation of numerous sampling strategies - including sampling once per week, month, or season - that had much lower errors and higher probabilities of estimating the true mean

  13. Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households" explains how the Town of Carrboro used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  14. Our Breaths We Take: Outdoor Air Quality, Health, and Climate Change Consequences of Household Heating and Cooking with Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoe Anna

    Worldwide, nearly 3 billion people--40% of the global population--burn wood, coal, and other solid fuels every day to cook their food; this number is even larger when including those who heat their homes with solid fuels as well. Exposure to pollution from heating and cooking fires causes about 3 million deaths each year, making it one of the biggest environmental health problems the world faces. The harm from this smoke is not restricted to those who breathe it, however: it contains gases and particles that contribute to global climate change as well. Chapter 2 shows that household cooking with solid fuels caused an estimated 12% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 worldwide in 2010. Exposure to this air pollution caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in the same year. In Chapter 3 I demonstrate that household heating with solid fuels caused an estimated 21% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 in 2010 in Central Europe, 13% in Eastern Europe, 12% in Western Europe, and 8% in North America. Exposure to this air pollution results caused approximately 60,000 premature deaths in Europe, and nearly 10,000 deaths in North America, as well as an estimated 1.0 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe and 160,000 DALYs in North America. Chapter 4 addresses drivers of household wood combustion pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the sector is the largest source of PM 2.5 and regulators recently introduced amendments to wood burning rules for the airshed. Fireplaces are the source of the vast majority (84%) of PM 2.5 from residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area, despite their use primarily as an aesthetic or recreational combustion activity. By evaluating hypothetical fuel and combustion device changeouts, I find that replacing fireplaces with gas would yield significant health and economic benefits. Specifically, retrofitting frequently used fireplaces (300,000 units

  15. Optimal Intra-Urban Hierarchy of Activity Centers—A Minimized Household Travel Energy Consumption Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers interconnected by non-motorized and public transportation is broadly believed to be the ideal urban spatial structure for sustainable cities. However, the proper hinterland area for centers at each level lacks empirical study. Based on the concentric structure of everyday travel distances, working centers, shopping centers, and neighborhood centers are extracted from corresponding types of POIs in 286 Chinese cities at the prefectural level and above. A U-shaped curve between Household Transportation Energy Consumption (HTEC per capita and center density at each of the three levels has been found through regression analysis. An optimal intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers is suggested to construct energy-efficient cities.

  16. Designing the Desirable Smart Home: A Study of Household Experiences and Energy Consumption Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Hagensby; Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that desirable designs shape the use and experiences people have when interacting with technology. Nevertheless, how desirability influences energy consumption is often overlooked, particularly in HCI studies evaluating the sustainability benefits of smart home technology....... In this paper, we present a qualitative study with 23 Australian households who reflect on their experiences of living with smart home devices. Drawing on Nelson and Stolterman’s concept of desiderata we develop a typology of householders’ desires for the smart home and their energy implications. We structure...... these desires as three smart home personas: the helper, optimiser and hedonist, which align with desiderata’s three approaches to desire (reason, ethics and aesthetics). We use these insights to discuss how desirability can be used within HCI for steering design of the smart home towards sustainability....

  17. Smart grid, household consumers and asymmetries: Energy visualization and scripting of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    This paper will focus on the asymmetries that occur when different consumer groups are presented to the same energy visualisation equipment. The studied technology is home automation/control equipment, designed to contribute to the general set up of smart grid (facilitate a flexible use......-technologies applied in the human actor's homes) and how the consumers interpret the technology (the De-scription of the object). In relation to the general goals of smart grid to change the consumption of electricity into being more flexible, it is relevant to investigate if different consumer groups accept...... of electricity and accommodate demand response). Large smart grid pilot projects suggest that energy visualisation technology will be a common part of households in the future. There exist numerous different visualisation technologies within the area of electricity and private consumers today.This study seeks...

  18. Investigation of the economic possibilities regarding the reduction of energy intensity for electrical household appliances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, G

    1980-01-01

    Investigation results concerning the analysis of the energy application for electrical household appliances have not been available up to now. The investigation had the purpose of analysing the energy consumption of energy-intensive household appliances so that energy conservation possibilities with regard to the effectiveness may be developed. The parts of the effective and of the lost energy are being experimentally determined for the following appliances: large-scale hot water tank, washing machine, laundry drier, dish washer, electric hearth, coolers and refrigerators. The influence of the utilization habits on the specific energy consumption and the relationship between the energy application and the application properties are being investigated. On the basis of the investigation results the different possibilities of energy conservation are shown, together with some aspects of economical operation. On the basis of the investigation results also, the potential of the energy conservation, related to practical consumption values, is estimated at about 5-40%, depending on the appliance.

  19. Analysis of energy saving performance for household refrigerator with thermal storage of condenser and evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Ding, Miao; Yuan, Xu-dong; Han, Bing-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel refrigerator with both HSC and CSE is proposed. • The operational characteristics of novel refrigerator is analyzed. • The comparison of CSE, HSC and DES refrigerators is analyzed. • DES refrigerator has a largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3. • DES refrigerator has the best electrical energy saving performance (32%). - Abstract: The heat transfer performances of evaporators and condensers significantly affect the efficiency of household refrigerators. For enhancing heat transfer of the condensers and evaporators, a novel dual energy storage (DES) refrigerator with both heat storage condenser (HSC) and cold storage evaporator (CSE) is proposed. The performance comparison of three kinds of energy storage refrigerators: HSC refrigerator, CSE refrigerator and DES refrigerator is analyzed by establishing dynamic simulation models. According to the simulation results, the DES refrigerator combines the advantage of HSC refrigerator and CSE refrigerator, it has more balanced operational cycle and higher evaporation pressure and temperature. The DES refrigerator shows a best energy saving performance among the three energy storage refrigerators with largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3 and the electrical consumption saving can reach 32%, which is greater than the sum (28%) of the other two kinds of energy storage refrigerators.

  20. Willingness-to-pay for renewable energy. Primary and discretionary choice of British households' for micro-generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Willis, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the policy context of renewable energy production in the European Union. The research adopts a choice experiment approach to investigate households' WTP for these renewable energy technologies in the UK. The micro-generation technologies comprise solar photovoltaic, micro-wind, solar thermal, heat pumps, and biomass boilers and pellet stoves. The study compares the results from conditional and mixed logit models, which estimate the distribution of utility coefficients and then derives WTP values as a ratio of the attribute coefficient to the price coefficient, with a model in which the WTP distribution is estimated directly from utility in the money space. The results suggest that whilst renewable energy adoption is significantly valued by households, this value is not sufficiently large, for the vast majority of households, to cover the higher capital costs of micro-generation energy technologies. (author)

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  2. Energy service satisfaction in two Mexican communities: A study on demographic, household, equipment and energy related predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravioto, Jordi; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2014-01-01

    In an age where energy consumption is the major source of environmental impacts, the comprehension on how energy use affects quality of life is ever more relevant. Multiple elements in the link may act as a barrier, except for one crucial concept often ignored: Energy Services (ES), the closest contact between end-uses of energy and human satisfaction. This study explores the link through such concept by analysing how 17 predictors associate to six dimensions of ES satisfaction in two income groups. Data is gathered from two locations within one political region (Mexico), so as to control for culture and climate, and the analysis is made based on regional comparisons of principal component analyses and regressions on the data. The findings suggest that ES and commodities are prioritised differently as income rise, and that materially-based gains on ES show general decreasing returns to scale, being largest on “essential” ES in the lower incomes. Additionally, household characteristics seem to be the most relevant within these material predictors, placing energy use and commodities (including better technology) second in importance. These results suggest crucial theoretical and policy implications on development strategies also discussed in the study. - Highlights: • ES and commodities shift from hierarchical to horizontal importance as income increase. • Material units serve partially as surrogates of ES satisfaction. • ES satisfaction has decreasing returns to scale as income increase. • Material improvements only explain the gains on “essential” ES in lower incomes. • The most important material predictor: household characteristics; energy and commodities ranked second

  3. Biomass energy use at the household level in two villages of Bangladesh: assessment of field methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, M.N.; Bangladesh Agricultural University; Hall, D.O.; Lucas, N.J.D.; Hossain, S.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess biomass energy supply and use in two villages in different agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh using three different techniques: broad questionnaire survey, sample questionnaire survey, and physical monitoring in order to see which methodology was more appropriate for the accurate assessment of biomass cooking energy supply and demand. The study included four broad socio-economic groups, i.e. large, medium, small and landless households. It was found that, per capita cooking energy demand varied significantly between the villages, socio-economic groups, and the first two methods of survey. Energy used was found to be strongly correlated with family size and energy use decreased according to landholding size. The broad questionnaire survey showed an average cooking energy use of 11.8 and 10.1 GJ per capita/year, for Kazirshimla and Noagaon village, respectively, while the sample questionnaire survey estimated energy use at 9.2 an 8.5 GJ per capita/year. With physical monitoring, however, the respective figures were found as 9.0 and 8.2 GJ per capita/year. It was also found that energy use was at the subsistence level in both villages. In Kazirishimla village biomass supply was found to be marginally surplus to use, while Noagaon had a supply deficit. The study showed that a broad questionnaire survey gives a fairly general picture of both biomass supply and use, but to assess cooking energy use more accurately successive sample questionnaire surveys followed by physical monitoring are more effective. (author)

  4. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  5. Assessing the Impact of Energy Access on Households in Kyrgyzstan: Government Rhetoric Versus Daily Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alyssa

    While significant literature enumerates the impacts of electrification on development, the impact of energy insecurity on daily life and governance is comparatively poorly understood. In post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, I will argue that this question is of critical importance for two reasons. First, if one were to only study state rhetoric on the subject, one might believe it to be self-evident that Kyrgyzstan is energy secure and even exporting excess hydroelectric production to its neighbors. In actuality, as I will illustrate by comparing household accounts of the impact of energy supply intermittencies on daily life to government rhetoric on energy, the sector's exports are only indicative of the government's lack of concern for domestic demand and desperate need for revenue. Yet, given that a similar mismatch in the resource allocation priorities of Kyrgyzstani citizens and those of their government created context for revolution in 2010, this finding has serious implications for the political stability of the country. Second, with the progression of global climate change, the population's struggle to access already restricted resource bases will only be further complicated by climate-induced vulnerabilities and resource degradation. Particularly in the short-term, while such a mismatch persists, consumer-driven, community-level interventions must play a key role in improving the energy access, capacity to adapt to climate change, and economic well-being of Kyrgyzstani citizens.

  6. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m 3 /year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  7. Energy consumption practices of rural households in north China: Basic characteristics and potential for low carbon development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Spaargaren, G.; Heerink, N.; Mol, A.P.J.; Wang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the climate impact of rural household energy consumption in China is complicated since it is bound up with deeply routinized daily practices and dependent from existing infrastructural systems of energy supply. To assess the potential for low carbon development we first estimate the overall

  8. How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households' direct and indirect energy use and savings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Households constitute an important target group for energy conservation. They not only use energy in a direct way (gas, electricity and fuel) but also in an indirect way (embedded in the production, consumption and disposal of goods). During a period of five months (viz., October 2002-March 2003),

  9. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  10. Measuring effects of climate change and energy efficiency regulations in U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Bishwa Shakha

    The first chapter explains the human causes of climate change and its costs, which is estimated to be about 3.6% of GDP by the end of 21 st century (NRDC, 2008). The second chapter investigates how projected July temperatures will increase the demand for electricity in the U.S. by 0.8%, while projected January temperatures will decrease the demand for natural gas and heating oil by 1% and 2.3%, respectively. This chapter further examines effects of the energy-efficiency building codes: IECC 2003 and IECC 2006 in the U.S. in reducing the energy consumption in the U.S. households. This study finds that these state-level building codes are effective in reducing energy demand. Adoption of these codes reduces the electricity demand by 1.8%, natural gas by 1.3% and heating oil by 2.8%. A total of about 7.54 MMT per year emission reduction of CO2 is possible from the residential sector by applying such energy-efficiency building codes. This chapter further estimates an average of 1,342 kWh/Month of electricity consumption, 3,429 CFt/Month of natural gas consumption and 277 Gallon/Year of heating oil consumption per household. It also indentifies the existence of state heterogeneity that affects household level energy demand, and finds that assumption of independence of error term is violated. Chapter 3 estimates the implicit prices of climate in dollar by analyzing the hedonic rent and wage models for homeowners and apartment renters. The estimated results show that January temperature is a disamenity for which both homeowners and renters are being compensated (negative marginal willingness to pay) through U.S. by 16 and 25 at the 2004 price level per month, respectively. It also finds that the January temperature is productive, whereas the July temperatures and annual precipitation are amenities and less productive. This study suggests that households would be willing to pay for higher temperature and increased precipitation; the estimated threshold point for July

  11. Energy vulnerability. Far from urban centres, space heating and fuel costs weigh heavily on the household budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  12. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  13. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  14. Effectiveness of Six Improved Cookstoves in Reducing Household Air Pollution and Their Acceptability in Rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo, Jennifer D; Schrag, Stephanie; Stanistreet, Debbi; Christensen, Bryan; Yip, Fuyuen; Nyagol, Ronald; Quick, Robert; Sage, Mike; Bruce, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel burning is linked to poor health outcomes. Improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) have the potential to improve HAP. A pre-/post- intervention study assessed the impact of six ICS on indoor air quality and acceptability of ICS to local users in rural Western Kenya. We measured mean personal and kitchen level concentrations of particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5, μg/m3) and carbon monoxide (CO, ppm) during the 48-hour period of each ICS use in 45 households. We compared these levels to those observed with traditional 3-stone fire (TSF) use. We assessed ICS acceptability through interviews and focus groups. We evaluated association of stove type, fuel use, and factors related to cooking practices with mean kitchen PM2.5 and CO using multivariable regression. Stove type, exclusive ICS use (vs. concurrent TSF use), and the amount of fuel used were independently associated with kitchen PM2.5 and CO levels. Reductions (95%CI) in mean PM2.5 compared to TSF, ranged by ICS from 11.9% (-2.8-24.5) to 42.3% (32.3-50.8). Reductions in kitchen CO compared to TSF, ranged by ICS from -5.8% (-21.9-8.2) to 34.5% (23.2-44.1). Mean kitchen PM2.5 ranged from 319μg/m3 to 518μg/m3 by ICS. Women thought ICS were easy to use, more efficient, produced less smoke, and cooked faster, compared to TSF. Women also reported limitations for each ICS. We documented reductions in HAP from ICS compared to TSF. The PM2.5 levels with ICS use were still considerably higher than WHO indoor air quality guidelines. Achieving maximal potential of ICS requires adherence to more exclusive use and addressing user reported ICS limitations.

  15. Metal-air batteries with high energy density: Li-air versus Zn-air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Sun, Tai Kim; Cao, Ruiguo; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae; Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been exciting developments in the field of lithium ion batteries as energy storage devices, resulting in the application of lithium ion batteries in areas ranging from small portable electric devices to large power systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, the maximum energy density of current lithium ion batteries having topatactic chemistry is not sufficient to meet the demands of new markets in such areas as electric vehicles. Therefore, new electrochemical systems with higher energy densities are being sought, and metal-air batteries with conversion chemistry are considered a promising candidate. More recently, promising electrochemical performance has driven much research interest in Li-air and Zn-air batteries. This review provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the area of Li-air and Zn-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the new electrochemical systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. The direct and indirect household energy requirements in the Republic of Korea from 1980 to 2000 - An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2007-01-01

    As energy conservation can be realized through changes in the composition of goods and services consumed, there is a need to assess indirect and total household energy requirements. The Korean household sector was responsible for about 52% of the national primary energy requirement in the period from 1980 to 2000. Of this total, more than 60% of household energy requirement was indirect. Thus, not only direct but also indirect household energy requirement should be the target of energy conservation policies. Electricity became the main fuel in household energy use in 2000. Households consume more and more electricity intensive goods and services, a sign of increasing living standards. Increases in household consumption expenditure were responsible for a relatively high growth of energy consumption. Switching to consumption of less energy intensive products and decrease in energy intensities of products in 1990s contributed substantially to reduce the increase in the total household energy requirement. A future Korean study should apply a hybrid method as to reduce errors occurred by using uniform (average) prices in constructing energy input-output tables and as to make energy intensities of different years more comparable. (author)

  17. ``Sober or enjoying`` - Energy consumption and everyday life in Norwegian households; Noektern eller nytende. Energiforbruk og hverdagsliv i norske husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, Margrethe

    1998-12-31

    This Dr.polit. thesis studies the energy consumption in houses and transport in Norway and contributes to a new sociological understanding of the role of energy in everyday life. It discusses energy consumption and everyday life both individually and their interplay. Private cars provide 86% of all passenger transport. The efforts taken to influence the behaviour of the energy consumers have not been very successful as far as the measures aimed at the households are concerned. If the aim is to decrease the energy consumption in Norwegian households, for environmental protection, then clearly increased knowledge is needed about the extent and complexity of the implications of behaviour for the technological conditions. Thus the thesis examines the interrelationship between everyday life and energy consumption. 165 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. ``Sober or enjoying`` - Energy consumption and everyday life in Norwegian households; Noektern eller nytende. Energiforbruk og hverdagsliv i norske husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, Margrethe

    1997-12-31

    This Dr.polit. thesis studies the energy consumption in houses and transport in Norway and contributes to a new sociological understanding of the role of energy in everyday life. It discusses energy consumption and everyday life both individually and their interplay. Private cars provide 86% of all passenger transport. The efforts taken to influence the behaviour of the energy consumers have not been very successful as far as the measures aimed at the households are concerned. If the aim is to decrease the energy consumption in Norwegian households, for environmental protection, then clearly increased knowledge is needed about the extent and complexity of the implications of behaviour for the technological conditions. Thus the thesis examines the interrelationship between everyday life and energy consumption. 165 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  20. The value of social networks in the diffusion of energy-efficiency innovations in UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, Megan; Shipworth, David

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government has policy goals for increasing energy efficiency in existing homes. However, there are doubts that standard technology and behavioural innovations will be adopted widely enough in time to achieve the targets. Diffusion of innovation theory states that the communication of information on innovations through a social system encourages adoption. Social capital theory states that interpersonal communication is a key means of gaining resources, such as information on energy-efficiency innovations, for attaining certain goals. Case study research of three British communities was conducted in 2009 in order to understand the influence of social capital on information diffusion regarding the adoption of household energy-efficiency measures. The findings show that while standard campaigns may account for two-thirds of information-seeking behaviour, they may not be addressing up to one-third of information-seekers who would prefer to speak to people they know. Findings also indicate that seeking information amongst personal contacts is often associated with adoption of energy-efficiency innovations, increasing the likelihood of adoption by up to four times, but that there are important differences between types of innovations and communities. Tailoring campaigns to communities' communication channels is therefore imperative. These findings have important implications for informing community-based energy-efficiency programmes. - Highlights: ► Case study research suggests social capital is important for home energy innovations. ► One-third of respondents indicated a preference for speaking to people they know. ► Those who sought information were up to four times more likely to adopt innovations. ► Results varied by innovation and by each community case study. ► Tailoring campaigns to communities' communication channels is imperative.

  1. Informatics Solution for Energy Efficiency Improvement and Consumption Management of Householders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica Oprea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in 2012 the European Union (EU has promoted energy efficiency in order to ensure a gradual 20% reduction of energy consumption by 2020, its targets related to energy efficiency have increased and extended to new time horizons. Therefore, in 2016, a new proposal for 2030 of energy efficiency target of 30% has been agreed. However, during the last years, even if the electricity consumption by households decreased in the EU-28, the largest expansion was recorded in Romania. Taking into account that the projected consumption peak is increasing and energy consumption management for residential activities is an important measure for energy efficiency improvement since its ratio from total consumption can be around 25–30%, in this paper, we propose an informatics solution that assists both electricity suppliers/grid operators and consumers. It includes three models for electricity consumption optimization, profiles, clustering and forecast. By this solution, the daily operation of appliances can be optimized and scheduled to minimize the consumption peak and reduce the stress on the grid. For optimization purpose, we propose three algorithms for shifting the operation of the programmable appliances from peak to off-peak hours. This approach enables the supplier to apply attractive time-of-use tariffs due to the fact that by flattening the consumption peak, it becomes more predictable, and thus improves the strategies on the electricity markets. According to the results of the optimization process, we compare the proposed algorithms emphasizing the benefits. For building consumption profiles, we develop a clustering algorithm based on self-organizing maps. By running the algorithm for three scenarios, well-delimited profiles are obtained. As for the consumption forecast, highly accurate feedforward artificial neural networks algorithm with backpropagation is implemented. Finally, we test these algorithms using several datasets showing their

  2. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  3. Sources of household air pollution: The association with lung function and respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devien, Laurent; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Cuny, Damien; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Edmé, Jean Louis; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sources of household air pollution, respiratory symptoms and lung function. 3039 adults aged from 40 to 65 participated in the 2011-2013 ELISABET cross-sectional survey in northern France. Lung function was measured using spirometry. During a structured interview, respiratory symptoms, household fuels, exposure to moulds, and use of ventilation were recorded on a questionnaire. The self-reported presence of mould in at least two rooms (not including the bathroom and the kitchen) was associated with a 2.5% lower predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (95% confidence interval, -4.7 to -0.29; p-trend respiratory disease. Our results suggest that the presence of mould (known to be associated with more severe asthma symptoms) could also have an impact on respiratory symptoms and lung function in the general population and in populations without known respiratory disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rojas, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes; Hobbs, Peter; Joseph, Stephen; Neufeldt, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolytic cook stoves in smallholder farms may require different biomass supply than traditional bioenergy approaches. Therefore, we carried out an on-farm assessment of the energy consumption for food preparation, the biomass availability relevant to conventional and pyrolytic cook stoves, and the potential biochar generation in rural households of western Kenya. Biomass availability for pyrolysis varied widely from 0.7 to 12.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 with an average of 4.3 Mg ha -1 y -1 , across all 50 studied farms. Farms with high soil fertility that were recently converted to agriculture from forest had the highest variability (CV = 83%), which was a result of the wide range of farm sizes and feedstock types in the farms. Biomass variability was two times lower for farms with low than high soil fertility (CV = 37%). The reduction in variability is a direct consequence of the soil quality, coupled with farm size and feedstock type. The total wood energy available in the farms (5.3 GJ capita -1 y -1 ) was not sufficient to meet the current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves depending on their energy efficiency. However, the biomass that is usable in pyrolytic cook stoves including crop residues, shrub and tree litter can provide 17.2 GJ capita -1 y -1 of energy for cooking, which is well above the current average cooking energy consumption of 10.5 GJ capita -1 y -1 . The introduction of a first-generation pyrolytic cook stove reduced wood energy consumption by 27% while producing an average of 0.46 Mg ha -1 y -1 of biochar. -- Highlights: → Total energy from wood fuel available on smallholder farms in Western Kenya was not sufficient to meet current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves. → Feedstock options acceptable to pyrolysis cook stoves which includes crop residues, exceeded the energy needs required for daily

  5. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md.Danesh; Foysal, Muhammad Abul; Koike, Masao; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month -1 in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month -1 . This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: →The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. → Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. → Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).→ Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.→ The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  6. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  7. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...... to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo...

  8. Sustainable Energy - Without the hot air

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Dan

    2009-11-01

    Reader John Roeder writes about a website associated with David MacKay's book Sustainable Energy-Without the hot air. The book is a freely downloadable PDF (or purchasable) book describing an analysis detailing a low-carbon renewable energy transformation route for a large, modern first world industrial country (the United Kingdom). Written for the layman, the work uses vernacular language, e.g., energy consumption and production in a series of bar charts detailing the impacts of necessary strategies such as population reduction, lifestyle changes, and technology changes. MacKay notes that most reasonable plans have large nuclear and ``clean coal'' or other carbon capture components, lots of pumped heat, wind, and much efficiency improvement. He debunks some sacred cows (roof-mounted micro-turbines; hydrogen-powered cars) while pointing out simple effective technologies such as roof-mounted solar water heaters. Similar modest changes in the U.S. (painting roofs white in the southern half of the country) have strong impacts. MacKay claims that he ``doesn't advocate any particular plan or technology,'' but ``tells you how many bricks are in the lego box, and how big each brick is'' so readers can start making planning decisions.

  9. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  10. Online Air-Conditioning Energy Management under Coalitional Game Framework in Smart Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the potential ability of air conditioning (A/C units in demand response, this paper explores how to utilize A/C units to increase the profit of a smart community. A coalitional game between the households and the load serving entity (LSE in a smart community is studied, where the LSE joins by selling renewable energy to householders and providing an energy saving service to them through an A/C controller. The A/C controller is designed to reduce the amount of electricity purchased from the main grid by controlling A/C units. An online A/C energy management algorithm is developed, based on Lyapunov optimization, that considers both the A/C energy consumption and the thermal comfort level of consumers. In order to quantify the contribution of A/C units, the Shapley value is adopted for distribution of the reward among the participating householders and the LSE, based on their contribution. The simulation result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed coalitional game for a smart community and the algorithm for A/C.

  11. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  12. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  13. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, pcooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  14. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  15. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Van Ruijven, Bas J; Van Vuuren, Detlef P; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku

    2013-01-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US$ 2005 65–86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially. (letter)

  16. Influence of consumer behaviour on the energy requirement of private households. Einfluss des Verbraucherverhaltens auf den Energiebedarf privater Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The papers read at the meeting deal with the causes and effects of consumer tendencies towards careful use of energy in private households. The technical, social, and economic marginal conditions are thereby set into relief. Specific statements have only become possible since social scientists and engineers have jointly evolved practicable methods to analyze consumer behaviour.

  17. Smart households and home energy management systems with innovative sizing of distributed generation and storage for customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdinc, O.; Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Bui, T.X.; Sprague, Jr. R.H.

    2015-01-01

    As a recently increasing trend among different applications of smart grid vision, smart households as a new implementation area of demand response (DR) strategies have drawn more attention both in research and in engineering practice. On the other hand, optimum sizing of renewable energy based small

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  19. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policy from Singapore’s southwest Eco-living Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.Z.; Kua, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a district-level energy intervention and conservation program designed and implemented with the help of community stakeholders, which include students and staff of an educational institution, the National University of Singapore, a local non-governmental environmental group in Singapore and the district government. The program – known formally as the Eco-living Program – was funded by the district government and implemented in the Hong Kah North Residential Council in the south western part of Singapore. The research objectives are three-fold: (1) compare the effectiveness of different intervention methods, based on self-reported behavior scores and actual electricity reduction; (2) investigate how behavior and electricity consumption are influenced by values, situational and psychological factors; (3) assess the effectiveness of different methods of intervention and provide recommendations for improvement. It was found that a combined use of leaflets and stickers resulted in highest (that is, 15.8%) reduction in average consumption. Ease of practicing the recommended energy conservation actions is a strong motivators to change energy consumption behavior. This program exemplifies the important role that community-initiated bottom-up programs can play in promoting sustainable consumption with the financial support from the local (district) government. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 151 households. ► Outreach methods included stickers, leaflets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Actual reduction was correlated to large housing apartments not in control group. ► Intervention program found to be cost effective and promote stakeholder engagement

  20. The impacts of household retrofit and domestic energy efficiency schemes: A large scale, ex post evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Phil; Gouldson, Andy; Kerr, Niall

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the ability of retrofit schemes to shape domestic energy use in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon emissions. Although much has been written on the topic, there have been few large-scale ex post evaluations of the actual impacts of such schemes. We address this by assessing domestic energy use before and after the Kirklees Warm Zone (KWZ) scheme, which by fitting insulation in 51,000 homes in the 2007–2010 period is one of the largest retrofit schemes completed in the UK to date. To do this, we develop and apply a new methodology that isolates the impacts of retrofit activity from broader background trends in energy use. The results suggest that the actual impacts of the KWZ scheme have been higher than predicted, and that the scale of any performance gaps or rebound effects have been lower than has often been assumed. They also suggest that impacts on energy use in lower income areas are consistent with predictions, but that impacts in middle and higher income areas are higher than predicted. These findings support the case for the wider and/or accelerated adoption of domestic retrofit schemes in other contexts. -- Highlights: •A large scale, ex post evaluation of the impacts of a household retrofit scheme. •A new methodology to separate retrofit impacts from background trends. •Shows impacts of retrofit have been 1.2–1.7 times higher than predicted. •Impacts as predicted in lower income areas, higher in middle and upper income areas. •Findings support the case for the wider and faster adoption of domestic retrofit

  1. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Biomass-Burning Cookstoves and HbA1c and Diabetic Status among Honduran Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Clark, Maggie L; Young, Bonnie N; Benka-Coker, Megan L; Bachand, Annette M; Brook, Robert D; Nelson, Tracy L; Volckens, John; Reynolds, Stephen J; L'Orange, Christian; Good, Nicholas; Koehler, Kirsten; Africano, Sebastian; Osorto Pinel, Anibal B; Peel, Jennifer L

    2018-06-13

    Household air pollution from biomass cookstoves is estimated to be responsible for more than two and a half million premature deaths annually, primarily in low and middle-income countries where cardiometabolic disorders, such as Type II Diabetes, are increasing. Growing evidence supports a link between ambient air pollution and diabetes, but evidence for household air pollution is limited. This cross-sectional study of 142 women (72 with traditional stoves and 70 with cleaner-burning Justa stoves) in rural Honduras evaluated the association of exposure to household air pollution (stove type, 24-hour average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter [PM 2.5 ] mass and black carbon) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and diabetic status based on HbA1c levels. The prevalence ratio [PR] per interquartile range increase in pollution concentration indicated higher prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes (versus normal HbA1c) for all pollutant measures (e.g., PR per 84 μg/m 3 increase in personal PM 2.5 , 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 - 2.01). Results for HbA1c as a continuous variable were generally in the hypothesized direction. These results provide some evidence linking household air pollution with the prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes, and, if confirmed, suggest that the global public health impact of household air pollution may be broader than currently estimated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Implications of Combined Exposure to Household Air Pollution and HIV on Neurocognition in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Suter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure and HIV infection can each cause neurocognitive insult in children. The purpose of this study was to test whether children with combined high air pollution exposure and perinatal HIV infection have even greater risk of neurocognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-uninfected unexposed (HUU and HIV-infected children and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a detailed neuropsychological battery to evaluate neurocognitive functioning in several domains. We measured caregiver 24-h personal CO exposure as a proxy for child CO exposure and child urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Median 24-h caregiver CO exposure was 6.1 and 3.7 ppm for 45 HIV-infected (mean age 6.6 years and 49 HUU (mean age 6.7 years, respectively; 48.5% of HIV-infected and 38.6% of HUU had caregiver 24-h CO levels exceeding the WHO recommended level. Median 1-OHP exposure was 0.6 and 0.7 µmol/mol creatinine among HIV-infected and HUU children, respectively. HIV-infected children with high urinary 1-OHP (exceeding 0.68 µmol/mol creatinine had significantly lower global cognition (p = 0.04, delayed memory (p = 0.01, and attention scores (p = 0.003. Among HUU children, urinary 1-OHP and caregiver 24-h caregiver CO were not significantly associated with neurocognitive function. Our findings suggest that combined chronic exposure to air pollutants and perinatal HIV infection may be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes. High prevalence of air pollution exposure highlights the need to reduce these exposures.

  3. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  4. 45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Archer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM and energy expenditure in women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing, clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry, and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. RESULTS: The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001. HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day (P<0.001, whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day (P<0.001. The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined. The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during

  5. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  6. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM 2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM 2.5 , Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  7. Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Yousefi, Paul; Peñaloza, Reneé; Balmes, John; Holland, Nina

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether null polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), specifically GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in infants or mothers, modify the association between high exposures to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking fires and birth weight. Pregnant women in rural Guatemala were randomized to receive a chimney stove or continue to use open fires for cooking. Newborns were measured within 48 h of birth. 132 mother-infant pairs provided infant genotypes (n=130) and/or maternal genotypes (n=116). Maternal null GSTM1 was associated with a 144 g (95% CI, -291, 1) and combined maternal/infant null GSTT1 was associated with a 155 g (95% CI, -303, -8) decrease in birth weight. Although there was a trend toward higher birth weights with increasing number of expressed GST genes, the effect modification by chimney stove use was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the energy consumption of households in a liberalized energy market. Effects on purchasing and consumption behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Boots, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The study on the title subject focuses on effects on purchase behaviour and changes in hours of usage of domestic appliances. It is concluded that prices for natural gas are expected to rise considerably, as a result of the application of the Commodity Distribution System (CDS) and the increase in taxes on energy and VAT (value-added taxes). Compared to prices of natural gas in 2000, prices are expected to increase by 45% in 2004. As a result of increasing competition due to the liberalisation of the energy market, electricity prices (before tax) in 2004 are expected to decrease by 15% compared to 2000. However, as a result of the increase in taxes (VAT as well as the Regulating Energy Tax (REB)), the total electricity price increases slightly (+3%). Especially for low-income households, the expenditures on energy as percentage of the disposable income increase significantly. By means of price elasticities, the effects of changes in energy prices on the development of residential energy use are estimated. In order to be able to translate the price elasticities to the future Dutch situation, attention is paid to the way the reported values of the price elasticities are determined. In general, price elasticities are based on historical data. However, the availability of energy conservation options as well as the knowledge of consumers with respect to the application of energy saving options may be of influence on the value of the price elasticities. It is expected that within the period up to 2010, the difference between reference technologies and more efficient energy conservation options will decrease. Therefore, it is expected that the price elasticities based on historical data are an upper estimate of the future long-term price elasticities. A delayed purchase or not purchasing an appliance at all is expected to be of more significance on the development of residential energy use than a change in purchase behaviour towards more efficient appliances. However

  9. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  10. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  11. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-07-15

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The experimental investigation of refrigerant distribution and leaking characteristics of R290 in split type household air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Weier; He, Guogeng; Cai, Dehua; Zhu, Yihao; Zhang, Aoni; Tian, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new quasi-liquid nitrogen method (QLNM) was proposed and firstly applied in experiments. • The R290 distribution was investigated by QLNM and the results proved the validation. • A solenoid valve was proposed to install near the capillary in STHAC in order to reduce risk factor. • R290 leaking rate was firstly measured by QLNM before and after the installation a solenoid valve. - Abstract: As a high-profile replacement for R22 split type household air conditioner (STHAC), R290 has several advantages in terms of thermodynamic properties, environmental characteristics, and cost. However, the obvious shortcoming of R290 is its flammability, which has a potential fire risk to the building. At present, the most important measure to ensure the safety of a R290 STHAC is to limit the refrigerant charge by domestic and international standards. But in fact, when the leakage of R290 occur from a STHAC, the distribution of R290 in STHAC, and the leaking rate also will seriously affect the safety of an R290 STHAC. In this study, a new quasi-liquid nitrogen method (QLNM) has been proposed in order to investigate the refrigerant distribution in R290 STHACs and the leaking rate under various conditions, and the experiments have been conducted. The experimental results of distribution proved the validation of the QLNM and showed that a large portion of the refrigerant distributed in the condenser when the air conditioner is on running stage and the refrigerant will migrate from the condenser to the evaporator when the air conditioner is on closed stage. Based on this, the installation of a solenoid valve near the capillary has been proposed. The comparison of experimental results of R290 leaking rate before and after the installation of a solenoid valve showed it will obviously reduce the leaking rate and thereby improve the safety of the R290 STHACs.

  13. A Systematic Review of Innate Immunomodulatory Effects of Household Air Pollution Secondary to the Burning of Biomass Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Kinney, Patrick; Chillrud, Steve; Jack, Darby

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP)-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause 455,000 deaths and a loss of 39.1 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of HAP are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of all studies examining the mechanisms underlying the relationship between HAP secondary to solid fuel exposure and acute lower respiratory tract infection to evaluate current available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities. We conducted and report on studies in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In all, 133 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely study design and outcome, including in vivo versus in vitro and pollutants analyzed. Thirty-six studies were included in a nonexhaustive review of the innate immune system effects of ambient air pollution, traffic-related air pollution, or wood smoke exposure of developed country origin. Seventeen studies investigated the effects of HAP-associated solid fuel (biomass or coal smoke) exposure on airway inflammation and innate immune system function. Particulate matter may modulate the innate immune system and increase susceptibility to infection through a) alveolar macrophage-driven inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of barrier defenses; b) alterations in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing; and c) increased susceptibility to infection via upregulation of receptors involved in pathogen invasion. HAP secondary to the burning of biomass fuels alters innate immunity, predisposing children to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Data from biomass exposure in developing countries are scarce. Further study is needed to define the inflammatory response, alterations in phagocytic function, and upregulation of receptors important in bacterial and viral

  14. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  15. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  16. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  17. The energy market research of 1991. Method of segmenting households into ''life style groups''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljones, A.; Doorman, G.

    1992-09-01

    The report discusses a method of classifying households into life style groups based on the individuals' needs, wishes and attitudes. Seven such groups have been defined based on nation-wide research among 1022 households in 1991. These groups are described with respect to a number of factors of attitude, housing conditions, socio-economic characteristics, use of media etc. This way of segmenting the households may give the power companies a better understanding of what kind of ''products'' and services their customers would like to have and how to market them efficiently. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.D.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Crivelli, E.S.; Gortari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m 2 per year, while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m 2 per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable

  19. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj and their 95% confidence intervals (CI.Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98, bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00. Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00, secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94, and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99. Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  20. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  1. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  2. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  3. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  4. The Influence of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategies on Household Energy Consumption in the Eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an essential factor for sustainable development, energy plays a very important role in sustaining a modern lifestyle, particularly in poor rural areas. Considering that farmers’ livelihood in such areas is enormously dependent on services provided by environmental resources, it makes sense to investigate the relationships and interactions between farming households’ livelihood strategies and their energy consumption. The findings and outcomes would be expected to contribute to the body of knowledge and benefit local policy-making toward sustainable transformation in the long run. Taking Gannan as an example, this study employed a participatory rural appraisal approach, with first-hand data mainly from field surveys, using a stratified random sampling method to illustrate the influence of farmers’ livelihood strategies for household energy consumption in the eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Seven townships in Gannan were covered, three of them in pure pastoral areas, two in farming-pastoral areas, and two in farming areas. From these, 230 households were selected as study samples, with a valid return of 217 questionnaires, among which 78 came from pure pastoral areas, 60 from farming-pastoral areas, and 79 from farming areas. The results show that livelihood has a significant impact on farmers’ household energy consumption patterns, and increasing family income level and education level and improving the availability of commodity energy resources will help farmers reduce the proportion of biomass energy consumption and increase the proportion of commodity energy consumption. Furthermore, measures such as developing nonagricultural industries, improving the energy infrastructure, and enhancing farmers’ energy-saving awareness should be seriously considered to optimize farmers’ living energy consumption patterns in these poverty-stricken and eco-frangible regions.

  5. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Nagda, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  6. Climate, air and energy - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled international objectives (Kyoto protocol), European objectives (directives related to energy efficiency and renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes) and French national (plans, laws) and sector-based objectives (for buildings, transports, agriculture, renewable energies, industry, office building and local communities, air quality), this publication presents and comments numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding energy consumptions and intensities (primary and final energy), greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, emissions of pollutants and air quality in France and in European countries, but also the implementation of various plans and tools (Agenda 21 for example), the creation of specific public bodies, jobs and markets related to renewable energies in France. The other chapters propose detailed data related to energy consumption or production, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on for different sectors: housing, tertiary sector, transport, industry, agriculture and forest, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, individuals

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  8. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  9. 光伏并网式家用空调系统性能的实验研究%Experimental Investigation on the Performance of Household Air Conditioning System with Grid-connected Photovoltaic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金听祥; 徐笑锋

    2015-01-01

    With the base of traditional air conditioning system, the grid-connected photovoltaic household air conditioning sys-tem based on the solar photovoltaic power generation technology is designed in this paper. The power with the solar photovoltaic power generation technology is transformed into the household power of 220 V and 50 Hz by inverter. The household air condi-tioning system is then driven by the transformed power and national grid. The performance of the photovoltaic grid-connected household air conditioning system was tested by Enthalpy Difference Lab under the different power ( 100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels. The experimental results show that under normal cooling conditions, the average power consumption of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 52 W, 78 W and 104 W lower than that of the traditional air conditioning system respectively. Similarly, energy efficiency ratios of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 4. 2%, 5. 5% and 10. 2% lower than that of the tra-ditional air conditioning system respectively. Under heating mode, the average power consumption of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 68 W, 84 W and 116 W lower than that of the tradi-tional air conditioning system, and the coefficients of performances are 6. 4%, 8% and 11% lower than that of the traditional air conditioning system. It can be concluded that the photovoltaic grid-connected household air conditioning system is feasible.%针对目前的家用空调系统,本文设计了一种以太阳能光伏发电技术为基础,与国家电网并网,共同驱动空调工作的系统,称为光伏并网式家用空调系统。利用光伏发电技术,通过逆变器将太阳能提供的电力转变为220 V、50 Hz家用电源,实现与市电电网的并网,来共同驱动空调运行。利用焓差实验室,

  10. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  11. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Osrin, David

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions. PMID:29389909

  12. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  13. How do policies for efficient energy use in the household sector induce energy-efficiency innovation? An evaluation of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research on innovation induced by climate-mitigation policy has been focused predominantly on the supply side of the energy system. Despite considerable climate-mitigation potential on the demand side, less attention is given to the innovation effect of policies addressing the household sector. Based on a comprehensive data set, including 550 policy measures over 30 years (1980–2009) and covering 21 European countries, we find—based on econometric estimations—that policies targeting efficient energy use in the household sector significantly increase the number of patented energy-efficiency inventions. A comparison of the different policy types reveals a particularly strong influence from financial subsidies and energy labels. The results indicate that policies supporting early market adoption of energy-efficient technologies are effective in fostering innovation. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency policy on energy-efficiency innovation. • The dataset covers patents and policies for 1980–2009 in 21 European countries. • Household policies show a positive influence on innovation activity (patented inventions). • The influence is most pronounced for financial subsidies and energy labels.

  14. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  15. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  16. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences

  17. High-energy metal air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  18. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-09-09

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  19. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  20. Residential energy consumption and conservation programs: A systematic approach to identify inefficient households, provide meaningful feedback, and prioritize homes for conservation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsleyne, Amelia Chadbourne Carus

    There are three main objectives for residential energy conservation policies: to reduce the use of fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce the energy costs seen by the consumer (U.S. Department of Energy: Strategic Objectives, 2006). A prominent difficulty currently facing conservation policy makers and program managers is how to identify and communicate with households that would be good candidates for conservation intervention, in such a way that affects a change in consumption patterns and is cost-effective. This research addresses this issue by separating the problem into three components: how to identify houses that are significantly more inefficient than comparable households; how to find the maximum financially-feasible investment in energy efficiency for a household in order to reduce annual energy costs and/or improve indoor comfort; and how to prioritize low-income households for a subsidized weatherization program. Each component of the problem is presented as a paper prepared for publication. Household consumption related to physical house efficiency, thermostat settings, and daily appliance usage is studied in the first and second paper by analyzing natural gas utility meter readings associated with over 10,000 households from 2001-2006. A rich description of a house's architectural characteristics and household demographics is attained by integrating publicly available databases based on the house address. This combination of information allows for the largest number of individual households studied at this level of detail to date. The third paper uses conservation program data from two natural gas utilities that administer and sponsor the program; over 1,000 weatherized households are included in this sample. This research focuses on natural gas-related household conservation. However, the same principles and methods could be applied for electricity-related conservation programs. We find positive policy implications from each of

  1. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, Timothy; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.; Bai Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: → We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. → Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. → Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. → We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. → A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  2. Inequality in the distribution of expense allocated to the main energy fuels for Mexican households. 1968-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico); Morillon Galvez, David; Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Energy is a decisive and essential factor to provide quality of life, technological development related to its use, and an economic development overview of a given country. This essay presents the expense distribution allocated to the main fuel sources used at Mexican households. The essay herein was carried out for the 1968-2006 period. The main purpose of this essay is to determine the expense allocation of the main energy fuels (electricity, gas, firewood, kerosene, gasoline).The methodology used in this essay is based on the Lorenz curves and Gini coefficient. (author)

  3. Demographic determinants of energy demand of households in Germany; Demografische Determinanten der Energienachfrage der Haushalte in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Kerstin

    2010-05-28

    This thesis investigates in demographic determinants of energy demand of households in Germany, with focus on space heating and individual motor car traffic. Result of this thesis is a simulation model based on the approach of system dynamics, which is used to simulate two scenarios. The first scenario, called the reference scenario, is based on demographic data of the next decades, which is assumed to be realistic. The second alternative scenario runs without the probable demographic changes. By comparing the scenarios the role of demography in the range of energy demand is quantified. (orig.)

  4. On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo A. Mäkiharju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.

  5. Blowing the smoke out of the kitchen : core issues in household energy and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2002-01-01

    A literature search for papers on the theme “Household Energy” finds most researchers equate the term with cooking and stoves, issues strongly identified with women. However, a number of researchers have taken a broader definition (see for example Clancy, 1998, Klingshirn 2000) to encompass all the

  6. THE USE OF AIR LAYERS IN BUILDING ENVELOPES FOR ENERGY SAVING DURING AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are no large natural energy resources in Belarus, energy savings ought to be a point of the special attention. With this regard it is important to develop modern ways of savings during the process of air conditioning inside new buildings with an air layer in the enclosure, especially in translucent ones. The system of ventilation of air layers in the enclosure of a building has been introduced in which air movement is caused by the gravitational and aerodynamic forces. It makes it possible to arrange further ventilation – a natural, forced or a hybrid one. With the purpose of increasing and streamlining natural draught the partitions are used separating the different parts of air layers. For natural ventilation with the use of gravitational forces the holes in the upper and lower parts of the partitions between adjacent air layers are applied. Natural ventilation in the holes of the partitions is regulated by movable shutters, blinds or other adjusting devices. For combined or forced air exchange between adjacent zones of air layers fans are used pumping air from the air layer zones with a higher temperature to zones of air layers with lower temperature and vice versa. When air exchange is forced, in order to intensify the infiltration of air into zones of air layers jets are laid on a hard surface. In order to cool a multi-layered enclosure of a building, where the movement of air between the air layers (that have been formed by internal partitions is being fulfilled by a natural, forced or combined mode, a part of the air or the total air processed inside the building (i.e. conditioned or non-conditioned air cooler as compared with the outside one is being sent to these strata. Combined or forced flow of the air processed inside the building into the air layers is done through the ducts associated with the output channels of the air conditioners. The internal partitions are equipped with the air valve hole.

  7. U.S. Air Force Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Winglets Manufacturing Methods Propulsion Integration Alt Fuels Analysis New Efficient Engines Legacy Aircraft Energy Harvesting Weight-optimized...Composites Notional Energy S&T Roadmap Aerodynamics A roadmap of science and technology focus areas to optimize energy efficiency in current, next

  8. Modeling the potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a hypothetical liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Kirby, Miles; Peel, Jennifer; Clark, Maggie; Checkley, Will; Chang, Howard H; Clasen, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Improved biomass and advanced fuel cookstoves can lower household air pollution (HAP), but levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) often remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended interim target of 35μg/m 3 . Based on existing literature, we first estimate a range of likely levels of personal PM 2.5 before and after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention. Using simulations reflecting uncertainty in both the exposure estimates and exposure-response coefficients, we estimate corresponding expected health benefits for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults, birthweight, and pneumonia incidence among children LPG stove intervention would decrease personal PM 2.5 exposure from approximately 270μg/m 3 to approximately 70μg/m 3 , due to likely continued use of traditional open-fire stoves. We estimate that this decrease would lead to a 5.5mmHg lower SBP among women over age 50, a 338g higher birthweight, and a 37% lower incidence of severe childhood pneumonia. We estimate that decreased SBP, if sustained, would result in a 5%-10% decrease in mortality for women over age 50. We estimate that higher birthweight would reduce infant mortality by 4 to 11 deaths per 1000 births; for comparison, the current global infant mortality rate is 32/1000 live births. Reduced exposure is estimated to prevent approximately 29 cases of severe pneumonia per year per 1000 children under 2, avoiding approximately 2-3 deaths/1000 per year. However, there are large uncertainties around all these estimates due to uncertainty in both exposure estimates and in exposure-response coefficients; all health effect estimates include the null value of no benefit. An LPG stove intervention, while not likely to lower exposure to the WHO interim target level, is still likely to offer important health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

    2013-03-01

    In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

  10. Household air pollution and chronic hypoxia in the placenta of pregnant Nigerian women: A randomized controlled ethanol Cookstove intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anindita; Khramtsova, Galina; Brito, Katherine; Alexander, Donee; Mueller, Ariel; Chinthala, Sireesha; Adu, Damilola; Ibigbami, Tope; Olamijulo, John; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adigun, Kehinde; Pruitt, Liese; Hurley, Ian; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Rana, Sarosh; Olopade, Christopher O

    2018-04-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigate impact of in-utero HAP exposure on placental development and chronic hypoxia. Markers of chronic placental hypoxia [Hofbauer cells (HBC), syncytial knots (SK), chorionic vascular density (cVD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)] were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and/or immunohistochemically in placenta samples collected from firewood-/kerosene-users (A,n=16), and ethanol-users (B,n=20) that participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial in Ibadan, Nigeria. A third group of non-smoking and presumed natural gas-using Chicago women (C,n=12) were included in this exploratory pilot to assess for possible differences in placenta histology between similar racial groups. All patients had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered at term. HBC, SK and cVD were significantly increased among firewood-/kerosene-users compared to ethanol-users and natural gas-using Chicago women (HBC medians 5.5, 3.5, and 2.0, respectively; SK means 55.6, 41.8 and 30.1; cVD means 8.8, 6.2, and 5.2; all pfirewood/kerosene-users compared to ethanol-users with less HAP exposure and Chicago women with no presumed HAP exposure. Presence of chronic hypoxic signature in placenta of women exposed to HAP has implications for adverse pregnancy complications and future growth and development of the young children. Future larger studies need to focus on HAP exposure and placental disorders like preeclampsia and long-term health impact of in-utero exposure to HAP. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Actual interaction effects between policy measures for energy efficiency-A qualitative matrix method and quantitative simulation results for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the conditions for a successful implementation of saving options, a general framework was developed to investigate possible interaction effects in sets of energy policy measures. Interaction regards the influence of one measure on the energy saving effect of another measure. The method delivers a matrix for all combinations of measures, with each cell containing qualitative information on the strength and type of interaction: overlapping, reinforcing, or independent of each other. Results are presented for the set of policy measures on household energy efficiency in the Netherlands for 1990-2003. The second part regards a quantitative analysis of the interaction effects between three major measures: a regulatory energy tax, investment subsidies and regulation of gas use for space heating. Using a detailed bottom-up model, household energy use in the period 1990-2000 was simulated with and without these measures. The results indicate that combinations of two or three policy measures yield 13-30% less effect than the sum of the effects of the separate measures

  12. Reduced energy reqirement for air conditioning by using air diffusion with air flow from floor to ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H; Dittes, W; Mangelsdorf, R; Detzer, R; Jungbaeck, E; Fitzner, K; Radtke, W; Soethout, F

    1982-02-01

    The condition of the air in the occupied zone in airconditioned rooms is influenced by the mixing of supply air with room air. When supplying air from the ceiling there is a mixing all over the room, when supplying from the floor or from desks there is a mixing region only in the lower area. Above this their is warm air from which the return air is drawn. For air supply from below the cooling load can be decreased. In combination with the possible enthalpy difference between room air and supply air this decrease of the cooling load influences the necessary air rate. The interdependence of various air conditioning systems and various air temperatures is shown with a computer program. The load factor for various air distribution system at various cooling loads have been measured in a room of (8 x 5)m/sup 2/ x 3m. Experiments in a smaller model room (scale 1:3) showed how the heat was transported from the mixing region to the stratification region. The theoretically gained influence of the supply air jets of the height of the mixing region and on the load rate could be verified by the experiments. For the design of the fresh air rate, experience has been gained by measurements with tracegas (N/sub 2/O) in a third room. In comparing calculations the annual energy consumption has been computed for a building assuming various air conditioning systems and typical operation data. From experience with the existing systems the conclusions have been drawn how air distribution from floor to ceiling can be installed and operated.

  13. Utilization of Solar Energy for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Juwari Purwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to do a system simulation of air conditioning utilizing solar energy with single effect absorption refrigeration method, analyze the coefficient of performance (COP for each absorbent-refrigerant variable and compare the effectivity of every absorbent-refrigerant variable used. COP is a constant that denotes the effeciency of a refrigeration system, that is ratio of work or useful output to the amount of work or energy input. The higher the number of COP, the more efficient the system is. Absorbent-refrigerant (working fluids variables used in this research depend on its chemical and thermodynamics properties. Steps in this research are including data collection and tabulation from literature and do a simulation of air conditioning system both commercial air conditioning system (using electrical energy and solar energy air conditioning system with Aspen Plus software. Next, run the simulation for each working fluid variables used and calculate the COP for each variable. Subsequently, analyze and compare the effectivity of all variables used from COP value and economical point of view with commercial air conditioning system. From the result of the simulation, can be concluded that solar air conditioning can achieve 98,85 % of energy savings than commercial air conditioning. Furthermore, from the calculation of COP, the highest COP value is achieved by solar conditioning system with LiNO3-NH3 as working fluid where 55% of the composition is the refrigerant and 45% of absorbent.

  14. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  15. Air to air fixed plate enthalpy heat exchanger, performance variation and energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, Mohammad Shakir [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Alwaked, Rafat [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Behnia, Masud [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Morrison, Graham [The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The thermal performance of a Z shape enthalpy heat exchanger utilising 70 gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface has been investigated. Effects of different inlet air humidity ratio conditions on the heat exchanger effectiveness and on the energy recovered by the heat exchanger have been the main focus of this investigation. A typical air conditioning cooling coil which incorporates an enthalpy heat exchanger has been modelled for tropical climate. Under test conditions, results have shown that latent effectiveness and the moisture resistance coefficient have strong dependency on the inlet air humidity ratio. Moreover, the latent effectiveness has been found to be strongly dependent on the moisture resistance coefficient rather than the convective mass transfer coefficient. Finally, annual energy analysis for Singapore weather conditions have also shown that energy recovered under variable inlet air conditions is 15% less than that recovered under constant inlet air conditions for the same heat exchanger.

  16. Optimal Sizing of Decentralized Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage Units for Malaysia Residential Household Using Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hasimah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s fuel sources are decreasing, and global warming phenomena cause the necessity of urgent search for alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic generating system has a high potential, since it is clean, environmental friendly and secure energy sources. This paper presents an optimal sizing of decentralized photovoltaic system and electrical energy storage for a residential household using iterative method. The cost of energy, payback period, degree of autonomy and degree of own-consumption are defined as optimization parameters. A case study is conducted by employing Kuala Lumpur meteorological data, typical load profile from rural area in Malaysia, decentralized photovoltaic generation unit and electrical storage and it is analyzed in hourly basis. An iterative method is used with photovoltaic array variable from 0.1kW to 4.0kW and storage system variable from 50Ah to 400Ah was performed to determine the optimal design for the proposed system.

  17. Development of energy consumption in households. Relations with domestic behavior; Ontwikkeling energiegebruik in de huishouding. Relaties met huishoudelijk gedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot-Marcus, J.P.; Scherhorn, E.

    1999-07-01

    The development of technology, technological innovations and demographic developments are known factors with respect to their impact on energy consumption. However, it is not yet very clear to what extent behavioral changes play a part in favor or to the detriment of energy consumption. In this report an outline is given of developments with respect to the level of provisions, services, amenities, etc. and related domestic behavior, as far as it concerns the consumption of energy of private households in the Netherlands in the second part of the 20th century. Therefore, this study is not about the impact of technological innovations, but about technological changes and changes in the materialistic environment, which resulted in an adjustment of the domestic situation and of several types of domestic behavior, and thus, also resulted in effects on energy consumption. Concrete subjects that are dealt with are the house, heating, personal care, and laundry. 60 refs.

  18. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: Levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, M; Wyart, G; Le Ponner, E; Ramalho, O; Ribéron, J; Mandin, C

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), radon, temperature, and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during 1 week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household, and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, that is, alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration, and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  20. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  1. Annual energy balances of CHP-units supplying households; Jahresenergiebilanzen von KWK-Anlagen zur Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, B.; Muehlbacher, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2008-07-01

    A method to balance CHP-units for use in households on an annual basis has been developed. Seasonal as well as intraday fluctuations of the CHP-units are accounted for in the model. The results of this new method were validated in a test facility for certain days. Together with experimentally obtained data from a CHP-unit, the potential for technical improvements and a more favourable operational mode can be derived from the model. (orig.)

  2. Clean air and energy: from conflict to reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Schulze, W.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Unconstrained energy resource development in the Rocky Mountain west is likely to threaten the environment and the health and well-being of the people. Impacts may be associated with visibility degradation, toxic concentrations of gases, and deposition of acidic or toxic substances. Because the possible benefits of energy development in the region are very large, there is great concern that constraints imposed by air quality regulation may preclude the use of important resources or make unduly expensive energy produced from the region. The conflict between energy and clean air in the region is exacerbated by non-energy sources, such as copper smelters and urban areas, that already pose significant environmental threats. The hard policy question is not how to preserve clean air resources or how to develop energy but how to achieve and balance both goals. The effects and regulatory costs and benefits of air pollution control are discussed, and policy directions to protect air quality while pursuing energy development are presented

  3. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse concerning

  4. The structure of energy efficiency investment in the UK households and its average monetary and environmental savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic and behavioural variables that influence the household’s adoption of energy efficiency measures such as cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are identified, contrary to previous literature. By extending Brechling and Smith’s (1994) and Hassett and Metcalf's (1995) models, it is shown that the application of the Energy Act 2011, which contains provisions on the Green Deal, the new Energy Company Obligation (ECO) and the private rented sector, needs to follow a tailored strategy to reach the low adoption households identified by my model. Moreover, for the current adopters of the analysed measures, average monetary and environmental adoption benefits are estimated based on Parti and Parti’s (1980) demand model. These estimates are smaller than their expected values showing an important energy efficiency gap in the sector. Particularly low cost measures can bring important savings that can help to meet the ''pay as you save'' rule (i.e., the Golden rule) of the new regulation. My model also shows that a poor state of dwelling repair can reduce the adoption benefits increasing the need of subsidies that will be financed through consumer’s energy bills. However, this can increase the number of households in fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► Analysis of socioeconomic and behavioural factors that can affect the Green Deal uptake. ► The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) needs to follow a tailored strategy. ► Average adoption benefits of cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are estimated. ► There is an important energy efficiency gap in the UK domestic sector. ► A poor state of dwelling repair could bring financial pressure to the ECO program.

  5. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  6. Households under the impression of the energy turnaround. Development of electricity demand and load profiles; Die Haushalte im Zeichen der Energiewende. Entwicklung der Stromnachfrage und Lastprofile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Gnann, Till; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hartel, Rupert; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)

    2013-01-15

    One of the central components of the energy turnaround is the improvement of energy efficiency. Households play a key role in this connection, not only due to their high potentials for saving energy and shifting loads, but also because of the growing importance of electricity as an energy carrier. This makes it interesting to explore how the continuing dissemination of efficient energy applications, electromobility and decentralised electricity production through photovoltaics will impact on load and electricity production profiles in the German household sector until the year 2040. The results show that with ambitious energy policy goals it will be possible to lower the electricity demand of households by 30%. However, this decrease could be more than undone by electromobility.

  7. Energy turnaround for air pollution abatement; Energiewende dank dreckiger Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Ralph; Blume, Jutta

    2011-04-01

    In the Czech town of Lidomerice, geothermal heat and hydropower will provide clean air and stable energy rates from 2014. At the same time, the Czech government is using the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources to discourage private initiatives.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion.

  9. Desalinasi Air Laut Berbasis Energi Surya Sebagai Alternatif Penyediaan Air Bersih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Yogi Dewantara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berkonsentrasi pada kemampuan alat desalinasi tipe solar still dalam menyerap energi kalor matahari dan penggunaannya dalam proses kondensasi guna memproduksi air tawar untuk keperluan masyarakat. Alat desalinasi ini terdiri dari kotak distiller dengan plat absorber dan kain yang terdapat di dalamnya, serta kaca sebagai pentransmisian. Sistem kerja berawal dari air diteteskan melalui pipa dan jatuh pada kain yang akan menyerap air. Radiasi matahari akan memanaskan plat absober melalui kaca kemudian panas plat memanaskan air pada kain hingga menjadi uap dan menempel pada permukaan dalam kaca hingga terkonsensasi menjadi air suling. Pengukuran volume minimal dan maksimal alat sebesar 5 lt dan 7 lt dilakukan selama 4 hari. Melalui penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa intensitas matahari telah ada saat cahaya matahari mulai terlihat pada pukul 6 pagi dan difusi energi kalor matahari telah mulai dimanfaatkan pada waktu tersebut. Akan tetapi kinerja alat desalinasi masih sangat rendah, hal ini terlihat dari angka efisiensi yang hanya mencapai 4,45%.

  10. Price elasticities, policy measures and actual developments in household energy consumption - A bottom up analysis for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands it seems likely that the large number of new policy measures in the past decade has influenced the response of households to changing prices. To investigate this issue the energy trends in the period 1990-2000 have been simulated with a bottom-up model, applied earlier for scenario studies, and extensive data from surveys. For a number of alternative price cases the elasticity values found are explained using the bottom-up changes in energy trends. One finding is that the specific set of saving options defines for a great part the price response. The price effect has been analysed too in combination with the policy measures standards, subsidies and energy taxes. The simulation results indicate that the elasticity value could be 30-40% higher without these measures. (author)

  11. Description and application of the EAP computer program for calculating life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of household consumption items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, R.M.J.; Wilting, H.C.; Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation

  12. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state states understand the methods, models, opportunities, and issues associated with assessing the GHG, air pollution, air quality, and human health benefits of clean energy options.

  13. Clean Energy for Development: The Environmental and Socioeconomic Benefits of Ethanol as a Household Cooking Fuel In Ethiopia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debebe, M.; Lambe, F. (Gaia Association, Bole Subcity, P.O.Box 13493, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)). e-mail: gaiaassociation@ethionet.et

    2008-10-15

    The overwhelming dependence of the household sector on traditional fuels (solid biomass) and kerosene for cooking is having a hugely negative impact on health, the environment and the economy in Ethiopia. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation associated with harvesting biomass for cooking, are contributing to climate change and environmental degradation. Moreover, indoor air pollution from the burning of traditional fuels indoors causes numerous serious health problems for those exposed - in most cases, women and children. Ethiopian families cook using these fuels because they have no alternatives. Gaia Association, an Ethiopian NGO, and its partners are working to increase access to ethanol fuelled cooking stoves for households at all income levels and have conducted an extensive pilot study to assess the impact of the ethanol fuelled CleanCook stove on Ethiopian homes in a variety of locations. The favourable study results were used to inform a detailed business plan outlining the strategies for local commercialisation of the stove and fuel. Adoption of this alternative clean cooking technology has been shown to address the health, environmental and socioeconomic problems associated with heavy reliance on traditional cooking fuels.

  14. The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in household energy consumption-prospects for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martiskainen, M.; Coburn, J. [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), University of Sussex, Freeman Centre, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex, BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Growing concerns about climate change and energy security have led to a strong focus on energy demand reduction and energy efficiency within United Kingdom (UK) energy policy. At the same time, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become pervasive in society and this has brought with it new policy options which use them as enabling technologies. One such policy option planned for implementation in the UK is the use of smart meters and real-time displays to encourage people to become more aware of their energy consumption and possibly change their energy-related behaviours. Smart meters and display units by definition link individuals, technologies and society, and their effectiveness is influenced by a range of factors. Ten semi-structured stakeholder interviews with industry, government and academia and a review of literature were conducted in order to identify which factors are most likely to contribute to the effectiveness of implementing smart meters and real-time displays in the UK. Further analysis showed a number of key themes and perspectives on behavioural change, particularly as they relate to household electricity use and the role of smart meters in the UK energy policy, including the role of ICTs in energy demand reduction more generally.

  15. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  16. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  17. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tharinya Supasa; Shu-San Hsiau; Shih-Mo Lin; Wongkot Wongsapai; Jiunn-Chi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximatel...

  18. Trigenerative micro compressed air energy storage: Concept and thermodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea L.; Sánchez, David; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The trigenerative-CAES concept is introduced. • The thermodynamic feasibility of the trigenerative-CAES is assessed. • The effects of the relevant parameter on the system performances are dissected. • Technological issues on the trigenerative-CAES are highlighted. - Abstract: Energy storage is a cutting edge front for renewable and sustainable energy research. In fact, a massive exploitation of intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and sun, requires the introduction of effective mechanical energy storage systems. In this paper we introduce the concept of a trigenerative energy storage based on a compressed air system. The plant in study is a simplified design of the adiabatic compressed air energy storage and accumulates mechanical and thermal (both hot and cold) energy at the same time. We envisage the possibility to realize a relatively small size trigenerative compressed air energy storage to be placed close to the energy demand, according to the distributed generation paradigm. Here, we describe the plant concept and we identify all the relevant parameters influencing its thermodynamic behavior. Their effects are dissected through an accurate thermodynamic model. The most relevant technological issues, such as the guidelines for a proper choice of the compressor, expander and heat exchangers are also addressed. Our results show that T-CAES may have an interesting potential as a distributed system that combines electricity storage with heat and cooling energy production. We also show that the performances are significantly influenced by some operating and design parameters, whose feasibility in real applications must be considered.

  19. Implementation of the new statistics approach on final energy consumption of biomass in household sector in three countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos Grabar Robina, Vlatka; Kinderman Lončarević, Alenka

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved way of collection of data on fuelwood consumption in households. • Quality and accuracy of statistical energy balance can be improved. • Accurate energy statistics is necessary for analysis of future energy demand. • Survey results and methods applied are presented for three selected countries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an improved way of collection and compilation of data about solid biomass consumption in households in order to improve accuracy of official energy statistics data. The accurate, timely and reliable energy data significantly contribute to the consistency in national energy statistics, energy balance, as well as for many other obligatory reporting procedures which are requested and prescribed by national and international standards. When compiling energy statistics, statistics on renewables, particularly biomass consumption, it is often the most questionable as little or no available official data exists in the country. According to the international standards and definitions, solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production or electricity generation. In households, the most commonly used biomass are fuelwood and wood residues. In the process of compiling national energy statistics, national institutions responsible for official energy statistics usually estimate biomass consumption based on the reports on fuelwood cuts in state forests and official biomass production, although it is known that consumption is much higher. Over the past two decades, Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar worked intensively on the energy consumption data collection and particularly on the development of the tailored-made surveying methods for different final energy consumption sectors, particularly for the household sector. The similar methods were recommended to national statistics institutes in the countries in the region when providing technical

  20. The structures of energy consumption and emissions into air in Finnish economy in 1990. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Tervo, H.

    1994-01-01

    The structures of utilization of primary energy, final consumption of electricity, and the main emissions into the air in Finnish economy in 1990 have been derived in this report on the basis of input-output analysis. By using an input-output model it is possible to calculate what is the productional content of different products, i.e. how much in total, directly or indirectly, work of different fields of production is needed for production of commodities. Energy and emissions into air can be assumed as basic inputs of the production. By