WorldWideScience

Sample records for household electricity savings

  1. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  2. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  3. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  4. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  5. Electricity saving in households. A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, John; Groenhoej, Alice [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. (author)

  6. Estimating the potential for electricity savings in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Improving efficiency in the use of energy is an important goal for many nations since end-use energy efficiency can help to reduce CO_2 emissions. Furthermore, since the residential sector in industrialised countries requires around one third of the end-use electricity, it is important for policy makers to estimate the scope for electricity saving in households to reduce electricity consumption by using appropriate steering mechanisms. We estimate the level of technical efficiency in the use of electricity using data from a Swiss household survey. We find an average inefficiency in electricity use by Swiss households of around 20 to 25%. Bottom-up economic-engineering models estimate the potential in Switzerland to be around 15%. In this paper we use a sub-vector input distance frontier function based on economic foundations. Our estimates lie at the upper end of the electricity saving potential estimated by the afore-mentioned economic-engineering approach. - Highlights: • We estimate the level of efficiency in the use of electricity by Swiss households. • We apply a non-radial input distance function and stochastic frontier methods. • We use data from two waves of a Swiss household survey conducted in 2005 and 2011. • We find an inefficiency in the use of electricity of around 20–25%.

  7. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  8. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  9. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  10. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  11. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  12. The devil is in the details: Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  13. The devil is in the details. Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Economics Unit, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field. (author)

  14. The devil is in the details: Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.ek@ltu.s [Economics Unit, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soederholm, Patrik, E-mail: Patrik.Soderholm@ltu.s [Economics Unit, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  15. Providing feedback as a means to empower householders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Grønhøj, Alice

    Studies show that the electricity consumption in private households could be substantially reduced (5 - 25%) without the loss of comfort by using best practice technology and care (Birch & Krogboe A/S, 2004). A number of reasons for the squandering of electricity have been pointed out: the force...... of habit, lack of attention towards the issue, lack of motivation due to an unfavorable cost/benefit ratio, uncertainty about the environmental consequences of the squandering of electricity and about the effects of possible conservation efforts. Based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory......, this paper outlines a conceptual framework for understanding private consumers' (lack of) energy saving effort. The framework is tested based on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers and it is concluded that the impediments that now makes electricity saving difficult are a key action point...

  16. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  17. Evaluation of subsidy for electricity savings in households; Evaluering av tilskuddsordning for elektrisitetssparing i husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    Ramboll Management Consulting (Ramboll) has on behalf of Enova SF (Enova) conducted an evaluation of the 'Grant Scheme for electricity savings in households'. The evaluation is conducted in the period January to March 2009, Ramboll is solely responsible for all the analysis, conclusions and recommendations in the report. The evaluation conducted on the basis of a review of the grant assessed on the basis of six evaluation themes. The evaluation will form the basis for further work on the grant by Enova and in their reporting to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (OED). (AG)

  18. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  19. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non......-exclusively tested on the Danish energy system under different scenarios, and computational experiments show that several energy efficiency measures in the household sector should be regarded as valuable investments, while others would require some form of support to become profitable. The analysis also reveals...

  20. User-driven Points for Feedback Motivated Electricity savings in Private Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    This paper reports from a study of design and exploration of feedback for motivated electricity consumption to private households based on user-driven innovation. Traditionally feedback is designed on the basis of technical possibilities and/or theories on consumer behavior. In this study we...

  1. Providing feedback as a means to empower householders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Grønhøj, Alice

    of habit, lack of attention towards the issue, lack of motivation due to an unfavorable cost/benefit ratio, uncertainty about the environmental consequences of the squandering of electricity and about the effects of possible conservation efforts. Based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory...

  2. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  3. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  4. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  5. Modelling of electricity savings in the Danish households sector: from the energy system to the end-user

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    sectors, has been extended in order to endogenously determine the best possible investments in more efficient home appliances. Second, we propose a method to relate the optimal energy system solution to the end-user choices by incorporating consumer behaviour and electricity price addition due to taxes...... of support to become profitable. The analysis quantifies energy and economic savings from the consumer side and reveals the impacts on the Danish power system and surrounding countries. Compared to a business-as-usual energy scenario, the end-user attains net economic savings in the range of 30–40 EUR per...

  6. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  7. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  8. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  9. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  10. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  11. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  12. HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of scientists in definition of the household savings, the motives of their creation and the role they perform are identified; the role of household savings in the economy is described; the importance of household saving transformation from unorganized to organized forms is analyzed; the size of saving in financial and nonfinancial forms, its dynamics and structure are characterized; comparison between household savings and main macroeconomic indicators is conducted; ways of investment of households savings are discussed; the dynamics of deposits in banks and credit unions, the participation of households in collective investment schemes (private and corporate investment funds is characterized; the dynamics of household deposits in national and foreign currencies is shown; the dynamics of nominal value of investment fund’s securities, that have been placed among resident individuals are characterized; the dynamics of deposit accounts and the number of credit unions members are described; the comparative characteristics of different ways to invest money is given; the reasons of unorganized savings existence are marked; barriers to convert savings into investments and the ways of overcoming them are identified.

  13. Determinants of Household Savings in Turkey Except for Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞENGÜR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household has an extremely important place in the division of income for the economies. It plays a decisive role in personal consumption, investment, and savings. This study aims to identify the determinants of household savings except for income. In this study, "Household Budget Survey" conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2002-2013 is used. Survey data has been analyzed by logistic regression models. The results of the study show that house ownership, having an extra house, having annual disposable income of over 10.000 ₺, education level also have a positive effect on household savings. On the other hand, the number of family members, car ownership, temporary or seasonal employment, and living in rural areas affect household savings in a negative way.

  14. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  15. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    and portfolio choice taking into account differences in preferences for saving. The model is a non-cooperative game in which each person can use their own current income to contribute to current (household) consumption or to a range of assets. The results derived are in marked contrast to 'unitary' models...... on the distribution of income within the household. It is also shown that the introduction of an actuarially fair state pension scheme may have non-neutral effects on saving. Finally it is shown that households may invest in both an annuity and insurance for the same person which is not possible in a unitary model...

  16. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  17. Differences in Household Saving between Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…

  18. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  19. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  20. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  1. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  2. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  3. The effect of providing free autopoweroff plugs to households on electricity consumption - a field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do not have......Experimental evidence of the effect of providing cheap energy saving technology to households is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs are provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...... increase efficiency of programmes....

  4. SAVINGS BEHAVIOUR IN HOUSEHOLDS OF FARMERS AS COMPARED TO OTHER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Savings generated by the sector of households constitute an important growth factor in every economy. They are the basic source of capital accumulation, determining investment opportunities of the economy. Financial behaviour of households in terms of the accumulation of savings is infl uenced  by numerous factors, both internal, i.e. connected directly with a given household, and external, independent of it. The aim of this paper was to analyse savings behaviour of households of farmers as compared to the other socio-economicgroups in Poland in the years 2003 and 2013. Analyses were conducted on saving propensity, savings rates, and objectives and forms of savings accumulation by households of various socio-economic groups. Analyses showed that in 2013, saving propensity and savings rates in households of farmers were relatively low in comparison to other household groups. In households of farmers the objective of savings was, more frequently than in the other socio-economic groups of households, to ensure provisions for running consumption expenditure, purchase durable goods and expand their economic activity. In contrast, in comparison to the other households, farmers less frequently saved money for recreation and physical therapy.

  5. Mobile recommender application for promoting electricity saving among Iraqis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.

  6. How to Organize Electricity Savings in a Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of Integrated Ressource Planning is described and it is demonstrated how this is in conflict with the sub-optimizing necessary in a liberalized market. Afterwards are outlined how the measuring of savings energy consumption constitutes a fundamental problem. Finally are dicussed...... the future actors in the electricity sector and their roles in implementing electricity savings, followed by some proposals for an energy policy....

  7. Financing aspects of electricity saving's in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, S.A.; Sauer, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Programs regarding to energy saving in Brasil arised by the early 80's from the concern with oil products consumption. The situation has changed and electricity is growing in importance when energy conservation is discussed. Thus, the government, following examples from abroad, has been trying to overcome the barriers that obstruct a massive process evolution towards energy saving, since the potential is spread out in many society segments. One important issue is related to financing energy conservation. This paper attempts to analyze the utilities efforts allied to public and private banks investments towards energy conservation financing. (author)

  8. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  9. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  10. Adolescents and electricity consumption; Investigating sociodemographic, economic, and behavioural influences on electricity consumption in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, Hannah; Nachreiner, Malte; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    With respect to changes in the energy systems of many countries, electricity consumption in households is an important topic. Extensive research has investigated the various determinants of electricity consumption. However, insights into how specific sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal determinants influence residential electricity consumption are still scarce. In this study, we used hierarchical regression analysis to systematically investigate these determinants (including household engagement in electricity saving) along with a wide range of other measures in a sample of German households (N=763). Special attention was given to households with adolescents and children by analysing the influence of the number of adolescents on electricity consumption in a path model. Our results indicate that sociodemographic influences can be explained by the purchasing and use behaviours of residents. Our findings also suggest that the use of behavioural information provides a more detailed picture of the conditions of electricity consumption and thus allows for more appropriate policy planning. - Highlights: •We examined causal drivers of sociodemographic influences on electricity consumption •Sociodemographic influences can be explained by behaviour •Influence of adolescents is mediated by their purchases of IT appliances •It is necessary to also use behavioural information for policy planning

  11. Analysis of energy saving performance for household refrigerator with thermal storage of condenser and evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Ding, Miao; Yuan, Xu-dong; Han, Bing-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel refrigerator with both HSC and CSE is proposed. • The operational characteristics of novel refrigerator is analyzed. • The comparison of CSE, HSC and DES refrigerators is analyzed. • DES refrigerator has a largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3. • DES refrigerator has the best electrical energy saving performance (32%). - Abstract: The heat transfer performances of evaporators and condensers significantly affect the efficiency of household refrigerators. For enhancing heat transfer of the condensers and evaporators, a novel dual energy storage (DES) refrigerator with both heat storage condenser (HSC) and cold storage evaporator (CSE) is proposed. The performance comparison of three kinds of energy storage refrigerators: HSC refrigerator, CSE refrigerator and DES refrigerator is analyzed by establishing dynamic simulation models. According to the simulation results, the DES refrigerator combines the advantage of HSC refrigerator and CSE refrigerator, it has more balanced operational cycle and higher evaporation pressure and temperature. The DES refrigerator shows a best energy saving performance among the three energy storage refrigerators with largest off-time to on-time ratio of 4.3 and the electrical consumption saving can reach 32%, which is greater than the sum (28%) of the other two kinds of energy storage refrigerators.

  12. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  13. Distributed Coordination of Household Electricity Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Teixeira, Andre; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a distributed framework for coordination of flexible electricity consumption for a number of households in the distribution grid. We conduct coordination with the purpose of minimizing a trade-off between individual concerns about discomfort and electricity cost, on the one hand......, and joint concerns about grid losses and voltage variations on the other. Our contribution is mainly to illustrate how to conduct distributed coordination when consumers are jointly coupled by grid losses and voltage variations. In addition we illustrate the benefit of including consumption management...... in the grid operation, and how different types of consumption may present various benefits....

  14. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  15. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  16. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  17. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  18. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  19. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  20. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  1. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  2. Low interest rates - do they revise household saving motives in the Euro area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochaniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of decreasing MFI interest rates on household deposits and saving goals in 12 Monetary Union member countries in the years 2009-2015. It analyses tendencies in household deposits (overnight, with agreed maturity and redeemable at notice, and attempts to link them with certain household saving motives (target, retirement and precautionary. The paper identifies those deposit categories which appeared as sensitive to declining interest rates and indicates the Eurozone countries whose populations are expected to revise their savings plans. Precise implications are drawn for target saving motives of households in Austria, Cyprus and Malta. However, in the case of two other motives, the analysis does not conclude on the impact of decreasing MFI interest rates.

  3. Does Consumer Confidence Forecast Household Saving and Borrowing Behavior? Evidence for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Aneta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumer confidence plays an important role in households' decision-making processes. This study investigates the effects of consumer confidence on household saving and borrowing behavior that are unsatisfactorily considered in previous discussions. The questions of interest are first, whether indexes of consumer confidence have any predictive power on their own for future household saving and borrowing rates, and second, whether they contain information about future household saving and borrowing rates aside from the information contained in other available indicators. In addition to aggregate confidence indicators, their components are used to provide more precise information. Overall, the multiple linear regression analysis (OLS technique) of Polish time-series data gives positive answers to both questions. This finding supports the recommendation of combining the strengths of objective indicators (such as economic fundamentals) and subjective indicators (such as consumer confidence) to improve household financial behavior forecasts.

  4. Household Consumption and Savings Around the Time of Births and the Role of Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines households’ financial situation around the time of births using a panel of Dutch households over the period 1987-1993. I find that at all levels of education households accumulate wealth before and draw on their liquid savings after having given birth to their first child.

  5. Household consumption and savings around the time of births and the role of education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines households’ financial situation around the time of births using a panel of Dutch households over the period 1987-1993. I find that at all levels of education households accumulate wealth before and draw on their liquid savings after having given birth to their first child.

  6. FACTORS DECREASING HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY DEMAND – A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon ELBAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption through changes in individual consumers’ behaviors is one of the most important challenges of the present society and near future. Our qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, deals with the investigation of household consumer behavior, in order to explore ways for reducing the electricity demand, in the particular cultural context of a country with high levels of energy consumption in both summer and winter times – Israel. Various approaches, coming from economics, sociology, psychology or education were tested, for limiting the use of a particular, invisible and intangible merchandise - electricity. The main objective of the present study was to determine consumers’ perceptions about the various approaches that could be used to decrease the domestic demand and consumption of electricity. A secondary objective was to identify, based on consumers’ perceptions, the factors of influence that could be used in future quantitative researches and governance strategies. We found out that investigated families have a high level of education in the field of electricity consumption and marketing campaigns, which would make the classic energy educational approach less efficient. Household electricity consumers in Israel have awareness and willingness not to waste or consume electricity beyond what is necessary, but the necessary level is positioned quite high. The social comparison approach appears to be ineffective, as well, even if it proved its efficiency in other cultures. The psychological and the economic approach could be partially efficient, if certain influence factors are widely used. These factors include mainly the magnitude of the savings, the perceived behavioral control, the personal thermal comfort and the pro-environmental attitude. The most important managerial implication concerns the strategies that could be conceived by electricity companies and national authorities – based on un

  7. Efficient use of power. Directory for private households to save power without renunciation of comfort; Strom effizient nutzen. Wegweiser fuer Privathaushalte zur wirtschaftlichen Stromeinsparung ohne Komfortverzicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration is a guide for private households for an economically efficient conservation of electricity without renunciation of comfort. At first, reasons for saving electricity are presented. The approach to reduce power consumption consists of an inventory of electricity consumers, establishment of measures to save electricity as well as a selection of suitable measures. Tables are presented for the determination of the power consumption and costs for electricity in the actual and target state as well as for the determination of the economic efficiency.

  8. The risk of divorce and household saving behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad González; Berkay Özcan

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the impact of an increase in the risk of divorce on the saving behaviour of married couples. From a theoretical perspective, the expected sign of the effect is ambiguous. We take advantage of the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous increase in the likelihood of marital dissolution. We analyze the saving behaviour over time of couples who were married before the law was passed. We propose a difference-in-differences approach where we use as comparison groups e...

  9. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  10. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy saving in Swedish households. The (relative) importance of environmental attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Lundqvist, Lennart J.; Sundstroem, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from 2004 to 2007 to explore the potential for achieving those targets. Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter. In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income. We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. - Highlights: → We use Swedish survey data to analyse the determinants of household energy saving. → Housing type plays a crucial role for individuals' propensity to save energy. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important in high-income households. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important for people in apartment blocks.

  12. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ting; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  13. Public administration electricity savings. Offentlige energibesparelser; Nyere danske erfaringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelstrup, G

    1991-01-01

    Analysis on how different types of public authorities experienced carrying out electricity savings showed that the individual public authority's internal political-administrative organizational form is of major importance for the possibilities of realizing potential electricity savings. In addition, it can be concluded that only certain public authorities have utilized external assistance in connection with effecting electricity savings. In these cases there has been some accordance between the particular authority's internal, political-administrative, organization and the organizational form presupposed in the external assistance offered. In spite of this, the public authorities in question have, in general, not progressed very far with electricity savings. Part of the reason for this lies namely in the fact that the special importance the mode of organization has for electricity savings, has been overlooked in this type of assistance. (CLS) 43 refs.

  14. Public administration electricity savings. Offentlige energibesparelser; Nyere danske erfaringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelstrup, G.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis on how different types of public authorities experienced carrying out electricity savings showed that the individual public authority's internal political-administrative organizational form is of major importance for the possibilities of realizing potential electricity savings. In addition, it can be concluded that only certain public authorities have utilized external assistance in connection with effecting electricity savings. In these cases there has been some accordance between the particular authority's internal, political-administrative, organization and the organizational form presupposed in the external assistance offered. In spite of this, the public authorities in question have, in general, not progressed very far with electricity savings. Part of the reason for this lies namely in the fact that the special importance the mode of organization has for electricity savings, has been overlooked in this type of assistance. (CLS) 43 refs.

  15. Preliminary Study of Perception and Consumer Behaviour Towards Energy Saving for Household Appliances: A Case of Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Akil, Yusri; Mangngenre, Saiful; Mawar, Sri; Amar, Kifayah

    2018-03-01

    Electricity load has tendency to increase over the time. Therefore, efforts to maintain a balance between electricity supply and demand such as increasing energy saving related to the use of home electricity appliances are urgently needed. In general, one of the household appliances which consumes relatively high electricity energy is refrigerator. The purpose of this study is to analyze residential consumers perceptions and their behaviours about electricity energy saving in relation to the usage of household appliances in Makassar, Indonesia particularly for refrigerator. Moreover, typical relationship between perceptions and consumers behaviours is also analyzed by composed two regression models, namely model for usage behaviour (UREFm model) and model for habitual behaviour (HREFm model) by using general perception, specific perception, and external factors as explanation variables. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed for survey which involved 40 respondents as a preliminary study and then statistical tests including regression analysis were applied to analyze usable data. The target of respondent was an owner of a house in Makassar with installed power capacity at least 900 VA. Reliability test shown that all items in the developed questionnaire can be used for main survey as obtained Cronbach’s alpha values were above 0.6. Evaluation for consumers perceptions on energy saving in relation to demographic aspect using mean and Standard Deviation values indicated some significant differences. Other results regarding regression analysis shown that both composed models were well validated and had quite good fitness degree with adjusted R-squared values around 49.31% for UREFm model and 80.90% for HREFm model. Among considered variables, specific perception, and external factors were found have significant influence to the usage and habitual behaviours of consumers as confirmed by their p-values in each model below 0.05. Findings of this research can be

  16. Household consumption of electricity in Brazil between 1985 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal, Maria José Charfuelan; Moreira, João Manoel Losada

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the electricity consumption in Brazilian residences between 1985 and 2013 through linear regressions. The explanatory variables considered were the number of households, effective consumption of families as a proxy for family income, and electricity tariff for households. To deal with the power generation crisis of 2001 we have introduced a dummy variable in the form of a step function. With such explanatory variables, we were able to account for the reduction of household electricity consumption caused by the policies conducted in 2001 and their permanent consequences. The regression presented coefficient of determination of 0.9892, and the several statistic tests conducted assured the existence of long-term relation between the electricity consumption in residences and the explanatory variables. The obtained elasticities for the household consumption of electricity with respect to number of residences, family income and residential tariff of electricity were 1.534±0.095, 0.189±0.049, and −0.230±0.060, respectively. These results allowed understanding the evolution over time of the household consumption of electricity in Brazil. They suggest that the electric sector in Brazil should pursue an active policy to manage demand of residential electricity using tariffs as a means to control it. - Highlights: •Brazilian residential electricity sector. •Special Features and structure of the residential electricity consumption. •Representation and modeling of electrical energy consumption. •Elasticities consumption-tariff; consumption-income; consumption- households.

  17. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  18. Networking in private households. Impacts on electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    With the rapidly increasing use of the Internet for private purposes, it is possible that the concept of the 'intelligent home', which has been a matter of wishful thinking for many years now, will become reality in the near future. The fusion of the various media is both the catalyst and, at the same time, the first visible sign of this evolution. The development of user-friendly people-to-machine interfaces and new services, together with the possibility to 'have a look' back home and intervene from there at any time and from any location, will also foster the interconnection of white goods and the intelligent control of other building equipment and services. The impact of this development on energy demand are wide-ranging and could take on considerable dimensions. Inside the house, the induced increase in energy demand is probably far more significant than the quantity of energy saved by more efficient control. It is estimated that electricity demand in the private households sector will increase by a maximum of 1.3% per annum over the next two decades. Even if this Internet-induced increase should only be half as fast, the interconnection of equipment and services would still be the most important driver of electricity demand in the household sector. The most promising measure to slow down this increase consists in minimising the electricity consumption of components and equipment in standby and off modes, We recommend an internationally co-ordinated procedure supported by national information and education campaigns. (author)

  19. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  20. Household portfolio allocation in the Netherlands : Saving accounts versus stocks and bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.; Alessie, R.J.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the portfolio structure of households in the Netherlands. It considers the allocation of financial wealth to two major asset categories, namely saving accounts on the one hand and stocks and bonds on the other hand. The latter category is considered to be more risky than the

  1. TRENDS IN RETIREMENT SAVING: EVIDENCE FROM AN ONLINE SURVEY OF ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURAN (TEODORESCU ILEANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the population aging and the demographic crisis throughout Europe and the developed world, the public pension systems will become increasingly strained as the proportion of pensioners to the working population will continue to increase. Empirical evidence shows that individuals fail to save enough for retirement to compensate for the less than optimal level of public pensions, and thus are facing the risk of a decrease in the standard of living in their post-retirement years. This larger context makes the study of retirement saving behavior an important matter. The objective of this paper is to document current trends in retirement saving behavior from the data collected through an online survey of Romanian households. The survey was distributed as an online questionnaire that collected 1285 of responses. The survey’s objective was to document households’ financial situation, as well as other psychological and social factors that might explain saving behavior. The analysis of the survey results indicates that there is a gap between intentions and actions when it comes to retirement saving. This gap and the resulting suboptimal retirement saving rates are explained in behavioral economics literature by anomalies in the inter-temporal choices of individuals, subject to self-control issues. We will see to what extent this gap is due to self-control issues and to what extent it is explained by the current financial situation of individuals. We will also conclude about possible retirement saving behavior influencing factors and motives.

  2. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  3. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    In the past, several electricity demand studies have been published for India based on aggregate macro data at the country or sub-national/state level. Since the underlying theory of consumer demand is based on the behaviour of individual agents, the use of micro data, which reflects individual and household behaviour, more closely, can shed greater light on the nature of consumer responses. In this paper, seasonal price and income elasticities of electricity demand in the residential sector of all urban areas of India are estimated for the first time using disaggregate level survey data for about 30,000 households. Three electricity demand functions have been econometrically estimated using monthly data for the winter, monsoon and summer season in order to understand the extent to which factors like income, prices, household size and other household specific characteristics, influence variations observed in individual households' electricity demand. The results show electricity demand is income and price inelastic in all three seasons, and that household, demographic and geographical variables are significant in determining electricity demand

  4. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorić, Jelena; Hrovatin, Nevenka

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The results confirm that age, household income, education and environmental awareness play the most important role in explaining household attitudes to green electricity programmes. While the willingness to participate in green electricity programmes is influenced by education and environmental awareness, the willingness to pay for green electricity predominantly depends on household income. The results imply that green marketing should be accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns and should target younger, well-educated and high-income households. The expressed median willingness to pay is found to exceed the current level of mandatory charges for green electricity. Nevertheless, recent increases in final electricity prices might have already exhausted the capacity for additional voluntary contributions. - Highlights: ► Paper analyses attitudes to green electricity in one of the new EU member states. ► Willingness to participate is primarily influenced by education and environmental awareness. ► In contrast, willingness to pay for green electricity depends on household income. ► Both decisions are negatively influenced by age. ► Due to the recent price increases there may be no room left for additional voluntary contributions.

  5. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  6. LED Lightbulbs as a Source of Electricity Saving in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today a number of renewable energy technologies are available for power generation, but fossil fuels are still providing a dominant share nevertheless. In order to decrease the electric bill and save our environment, energy conservation is always crucial. In this paper a very interesting idea is presented which is economically viable to reduce electricity usage in our buildings. An effort has been made to estimate the amount of energy that could be saved in the dormitory section of the IMOP building in Russia. Although there are many ways to reduce the consumption of electricity in this building but here the emphasis is on changing light bulbs inside the rooms, kitchen, toilet and bathroom of each apartment. The scope of the study is to figure out monthly electricity saving by replacing traditional light bulbs by LED light bulbs in the building under consideration. The total investment required and the payback period is also presented.

  7. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  8. Electricity demand and basic needs: Empirical evidence from China's households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoping; Reiner, David

    2016-01-01

    An increasing block tariff (IBT) has been implemented nationwide in the residential sector in China since 2012. However, knowledge about IBT design is still limited, particularly how to determine the electricity volume for the first block of an IBT scheme. Assuming the first block should be set based on some measure of electricity poverty; we attempt to model household electricity demand such that the range of basic needs can be established. We show that in Chinese households there exists a threshold for electricity consumption with respect to income, which could be considered a measure of electricity poverty, and the threshold differs between rural and urban areas. For rural (urban) families, electricity consumption at the level of 7th (5th) income decile households can be considered the threshold for basic needs or a measure of electricity poverty since household electricity demand in rural (urban) areas does not respond to income changes until after 7th (5th) income decile. Accordingly, the first IBT block for some provinces (e.g., Beijing) appears to have been set at a level that is too high. Over time however, given continued rapid growth, the IBT will begin to better reflect actual basic needs. - Highlights: • Basic electricity needs of a household are investigated with survey data. • The Basic electricity needs differ between the rural and urban households. • The first block of the IBTs in China has proven too high and beyond the basic needs. • The initial policy targets of the IBTs in China will be difficult to achieve.

  9. BANK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES REGARDING THE ATTRACTION OF POPULATION SAVINGS BASED ON THE "FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS" POLL

    OpenAIRE

    NICULESCU-ARON Ileana Gabriela; MIHAESCU Constanta; CAPLESCU Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Financing economic recovery is mainly based on the household sector savings, thus anti-crisis governmental programmes should be based on rigorous knowledge regarding saving and consumption behaviours. Selective studies allow for obtaining quick and pertinent results regarding these behaviours. The present study is based on a poll designed for assessing the level of financial education and financial situation of the population, and their impact on savings and preference for various saving inst...

  10. Gauging the Impact of Various Definitions of Low- and Moderate-Income Communities on Possible Electricity Savings From Weatherization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    With rising interest in lowering energy costs for low- and moderate-income households, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the implications of pursuing energy efficiency neighborhood-by-neighborhood where those households are most prevalent. DOE provided certain scenarios for qualifying geographic areas as “low- and moderate-income communities,” and LBNL used data on demographics, housing types and recent savings from low-income retrofits or weatherization to provide rough electricity savings estimates under those scenarios.

  11. Saving, efficiency and management of electric sector demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez de Tembleque, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish economic model of development is based on energy consumption, and its main source is imported fossil fuels, which have some environmental and scarcity consequences in the mid term, among others. These problems could be reduced in two ways: economic activity reduction or energy efficiency improvement. In the presence of these possibilities, It may be desirable to bet for saving and energy efficiency, to maintain the economic development. This assignment analyzes the main available regulatory and social mechanisms to promote saving and energy efficiency in the power sector, like systems to internalize social costs in the electricity price, efficiency standards, and encourage the new saving culture. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  13. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  14. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  15. A pseudo-panel data model of household electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Bolduc, Denis [GREEN, Department of Economics, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Yameogo, Nadege-Desiree [Analysis Group Inc., 1080 Beaver Hill, Suite 1810, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We study the dynamic behaviour of household electricity consumption on the basis of four large independent surveys conducted in the province of Quebec from 1989 to 2002. The latter region displays some rather unique features such as the very extensive use of electricity for space heating in a cold climate and the wide range of energy sources used to meet space heating requirements. We adopt approach to create 25 cohorts of households that form a pseudo-panel. The cohorts have on average 131 households. The model error terms allow for group heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. Short-run and long-run own and cross-price elasticities are statistically significant. Electricity and natural gas are estimated to be substitutes while electricity and fuel oil are complements, as it may occur in the Quebec context. The estimate of the income elasticity is not significant. Comparisons with related studies are provided. (author)

  16. Households' use of information and communication technologies - a future challenge for energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten (Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)). e-mail: joj@sbi.dk; Roepke, Inge (Dept. of Management Engineering, Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting that in a few years on average ICT will make up half of household electricity consumption. Recent initiatives from various actors to prevent this development are presented and discussed, and difficulties in regulating this area, as compared to other parts of household electricity consumption are highlighted. Through presentation and discussion of qualitative interviews with families having extensive ICT use in their everyday lives, the interviews illustrate how users domesticate and use technologies in many different ways. The interviews reveal a variety of practices and dynamics in different aspects of everyday life, including sport, shopping, entertainment and different hobbies. The growing electricity consumption related to ICT is thus as dependent on the consumers' use and domestication of the technologies as on the energy efficiency of the appliances. By analysing the interviews with the use of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.

  17. The Effectiveness of Micro-credit Programmes Focusing on Household Income, Expenditure and Savings: Evidence From Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Haque Ariful

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of microfinance on household income, expenditure and savings. The survey examined those borrowers who had successfully completed at least three cycles of a loan. A household level survey (N=3000 was carried out to collect information about individuals receiving microcredit from one of the largest NGOs, ASA. The authors employed a multiple regression and discovered that the microcredit programme of ASA has a significant positive impact on household income, expenditures and savings. Moreover, the paper reveals that the level of education plays an important and statistically significant role in increasing the household income, expenditure and savings. Hence, the ASA microcredit programme has a positive impact on reducing poverty in Bangladesh and enhancing the competitiveness of deprived rural and urban households in improving their standard of living.

  18. Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Economics Unit, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information. (author)

  19. Increasing the flexibility of electricity consumption in private households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2018-01-01

    households received incentivized text messages, suggesting that they shift electricity consumption to certain hours of the day. The study shows that when text messages were sent to women, there was a significantly greater response than when they were sent to men. Based on qualitative in-depth interviews, we...... find that an important reason for this is gender difference in household work task responsibility. Our study suggests that incorporating knowledge about gendered practices when designing and targeting policies to change electricity consumption habits and induce flexibility could significantly increase...

  20. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  1. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  2. Measuring the impact of efficient household travel decisions on potential travel time savings and accessibility gains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recker, W.W.; McNally, M.G. [University of California, Irvine (United States). Institute of Transportation Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Chen, C. [Ming-Chuan University, Taiwan (China). Department of Tourism Industry

    2001-07-01

    Using the conceptual framework of time-space geography, this paper incorporates both spatio-temporal constraints and household interaction effects into a meaningful measure of the potential of a household to interact with the built environment. Within this context, personal accessibility is described as a measure of the potential ability of individuals within a household not only to reach activity opportunities, but to do so with sufficient time available for participation in those activities, subject to the spatio-temporal constraints imposed by their daily obligations and transportation supply environment. The incorporation of activity-based concepts in the measurement of accessibility as a product of travel time savings not only explicitly acknowledges a temporal dimension in assessing the potential for spatial interaction but also expands the applicability of accessibility consideration to such real-world policy options as the promotion of ride-sharing and trip chaining behaviors. An empirical application of the model system provides an indication of the potential of activity-based modeling approaches to assess the bounds on achievable improvements in accessibility and travel time based on daily household activity patterns. It also provides an assessment of roles for trip chaining and ride-sharing as potentially effective methods to facilitate transportation policy objectives. (author)

  3. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  4. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  5. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  6. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  7. Effects of social participation and the emergence of voluntary social interactions on household power-saving practices in post-disaster Kanagawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    An online social survey was conducted to reveal household electricity-saving behaviour and its relationship with participation in social group activities, as well as face-to-face and online social interactions, i.e., information sources used and information dissemination through personal networks, in a disaster-affected region of Kanagawa, Japan, during the summer of 2011. The study confirms the positive contribution of respondents’ participation in social group activities to the number of power-saving practices conducted. It also reveals the emergence of voluntary social face-to-face and/or online interactions for power-saving. The study suggests it would be useful to provide effective information to proactive individuals who are closely engaged in power-saving in households and who are proactively disseminating power-saving information practices to others. Such individuals include (1) women who have school-children and who are proactively engaging in the social interactions of their children’s schools, other parents, neighbours, as well as their own parents and relatives; and (2) men and women who are using various kinds of online interaction tools and are also engaged in face-to-face social interactions

  8. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  9. The flexibility of household electricity demand over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, B.; Larsen, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical estimates of long run effects on residential electricity demand from changes in the electricity price are usually estimated by cross-sectional variation in the current stock of electric household appliances across households at a certain point in time. Here, we use a discrete-continuous approach modeling the long run effects by investments in new appliances. We apply the annual Norwegian Survey of Consumer Expenditure for the period 1975 to 1994 to estimate the short and long run own price elasticities in the two approaches. We find the estimated long run elasticity only slightly more price elastic than the short run. We also find that the long run elasticity does not differ significantly between the two approaches. The reason for both results is that, since there is no alternative source of energy for these appliances, there are no substitution effects

  10. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  11. System Dynamics Modeling of Households' Electricity Consumption and Cost-Income Ratio: a Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariss, Uldis; Bazbauers, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.

  12. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Schmidt, N.; Vaterlaus, S.; Wild, J.

    2003-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  13. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  14. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  15. Accelerated electricity conservation in Juneau, Alaska: A study of household activities that reduced demand 25%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche destroyed the main hydroelectric transmission line to Juneau, Alaska in April, 2008. Diesel-generated electricity was substituted, causing electricity prices to increase 500% for 45 days. Electricity demand fell by 25% during the supply disruption. Most of the reduction occurred before the higher rates were implemented. Some conservation - about 8% of historic consumption - persisted after the transmission line was repaired and prices returned to normal. Consumers reduced energy use through a combination of new habits and technical improvements. A survey of residential consumers indicated that the average household undertook 10 conservation actions, with major changes in lighting, space heating, fuel switching, and water and appliance use. We propose a method for prioritizing conservation actions for promotion according to their impact in electricity savings (as a function of popularity, effectiveness, and persistence) and a dynamic framework for electricity use before, during, and after a supply disruption (i.e., both the magnitude and rates of change in electricity conservation). - Research highlights: → An electricity supply disruption caused prices to increase 500% for 45 days. → Electricity conservation of 25% occurred in a matter of days. → Electricity conservation of 8% persisted after the supply disruption was repaired. → Conservation occurred through behavior change and technology adoption. → The disruption induced consumers to try new behaviors that became new habits.

  16. Towards a bright future? Household use of electric light: A microlevel study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats; Krantz, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of energy saving in the residential sector and its relation to behavior. However, we know little about the mechanisms explaining consumption and use. The aim is to explore the behavioral elements behind patterns of use, so that consumption can be explained and saving possibilities identified. The study is based on detailed, metered data from an ongoing monitoring study. A larger sample from that study made testing of two hypotheses possible. Yet, many factors remain hidden and must be traced among the habits of households. The major part of the article is devoted to an exploration into what other variables are at work. This was done by studying the electricity consumption of seven households closely. Here, different sources of information from each household were combined: detailed, metered data for each lamp or fixture; data from interviews regarding habits; and observations of natural light and lighting equipment at visits. This information from combined sources was used to detect meanings of use and relationships with consumption. What has been found here must be translated to measurable variables and tested on representative samples of populations. This study offers information on these variables identified and how to interpret them

  17. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Huld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs. (author)

  18. Holiday homes - electric power savings; Sommerhuse - elbesparelser her og nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed Esbensen, N -U; Roed Rasmussen, E [Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokalenergi, Viby J. (Denmark); Worm, J; Adams Rasmussen, L [Energitjenesten, Aarhus (Denmark); Reuss, M [Elsparefonden, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ellehauge, K; Kjaergaard, C -J [Ellehauge og Kildemoes, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Aalborg Univ. SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2010-09-15

    A questionnaire survey among 700 holiday home owners was conducted and followed up by interviews with representatives of typical groups of holiday home owners and a number of key persons representing rental, building, electricity supply, regulatory processing and supply of renewable energy facilities to holiday homes. The results of the questionnaire survey and of former surveys on technical savings potential are included in an easy-to-read catalogue of ideas with directions and recommendations for various groups of holiday home users and players. The recommendations are grouped into eight topics of more or less relevance for the various target groups. (LN)

  19. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  20. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  1. Analysis of reflectivity & predictability of electricity network tariff structures for household consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J. F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Distribution network operators charge household consumers with a network tariff, so they can recover their network investment and operational costs. With the transition; towards a sustainable energy system, the household load is changing, through the introduction of photovoltaics and electric

  2. Are households better off in liberalized electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Pakkanen, Merja

    wholesale market. Norway was first (1991), then came Finland and Sweden (1996) and Denmark was last (2000). Together with the UK the Nordic countries are now considered the avantgarde with respect to implementation of the European electricity market directives. The purpose of liberalization is to increase...... utilities mostly acted under very little surveillance and the authorities only intervened in specific cases of abuse. The separation of operational and regulatory functions was far from clear-cut - state and municipal agencies often had both functions. Today much more detailed principles of regulations...... administrated by independent regulatory agencies have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the situation for Nordic household consumers after liberalization of the electricity supply industry. A number of new regulatory principles have been introduced and some of them with particular regard...

  3. Demand response offered by households with direct electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofod, C.; Togeby, M.

    2004-01-01

    The peak power balance in the Nordic power system is gradually turning to be very tight, especially in the electric area of southern Sweden and eastern Denmark. Power stations are closed and hardly any investments in new production are carried out. Demand response is considered essential when the formation of spot prices shall send the signal of needed investments in new capacity. Demand response which are based on individual preferences, and carried out automatically, can be one way to increase the volume of price elastic demand. Demand response need hourly metering for calculation and documentation of the decrease in demand, and controllability in order to meet the timing requirements. Within the EU SAVE project EFFLOCOM (2002 - 2004), a Danish demand response pilot project was established in 2003 including 25 single family homes with direct electrical heating. The system has been tested during the winter 2003/2004. The tested technologies include hourly metering, communication by GRPS as well as the Internet. GPRS is used for daily remote meter reading and automatic control of the electric heating including individual control of up to five zones. The system is designed for automatic activation when the Nord Pool hourly Elspot prices exceed preset levels. The system can also be used as regulating power. The EFFLOCOM Web Bite includes an interactive demonstrator of the system. The developed customer Web Bite is including the services: 1) Access to setting the limits for the maximum duration of interruption for up to five different control zones for two periods of the day and for three price levels. 2) Access to stop an actual interruption. 3) A report on the hourly, daily, weekly and monthly use of electricity and the saved bonus by demand response control. The report is updated daily. The goals of up to 5 kW controlled per house were fulfilled. Besides the demand response bonus the customers have also saved electricity. A customer survey did show that the

  4. The use of electric vehicles: A case study on adding an electric car to a household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    The market share of battery electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to increase in the near future, but so far little is known about the actual usage of this emergent technology. Consumer preference studies have indicated that the current limitation on driving distance is important. At the same time...... studies on the actual use of household vehicles indicate modest requirements for daily travel. An unresolved issue is to what extent these range limitations affect daily travel in EVs. In this study, we use real electric vehicle trip data to study the distribution of daily use and types of home......-based journeys where a household decides to use an electric vehicle instead of their conventional vehicle. The results show how several factors related to distance and number of necessary charging events have plausible effects on electric vehicle travel behaviour. Further, the modelling indicates that the EV...

  5. Heat-electrical regeneration way to intensive energy saving in an electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtcev, S.; Matveev, S.; Neshporenko, E.

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving in steel production is of great significance for its large economical scale of 1500 mil t/year and high-energy consumption. Steady trend of last years is an increase of steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAF) with a very high consumption of electricity up to 750 kWh/ton. The intention to reduce so much energy consumption they can reach by many ways. One of such way is a transforming heat energy of liquid steel to electricity and destine it to steel electric arc process. Under certain conditions, it may lead to “zero” consumption of electric power in the process. The development of these conditions leads to the formation of energy-efficient heat schemes, with a minimum electricity consumption from the external network.

  6. Measuring the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness on households' energy-saving behaviours: An empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillemo, Shuling Chen, E-mail: shulic@umb.no

    2014-03-01

    A common finding in behavioural economics is that people often procrastinate, i.e., keep postponing planned tasks or decisions that require effort to execute. The effect of procrastination on inter-temporal energy choice behaviours could be even more serious because energy is an abstract, invisible and intangible commodity. This paper uses a web survey to investigate how people's procrastination propensity and environmental awareness affect their heating-energy-saving behaviours. The results indicate that people who state that they have a higher tendency to procrastinate are significantly less likely to have engaged in most of the heating energy-saving activities, especially regarding larger purchases or investments in equipment and the insulation of doors and windows. I also found a positive relationship between environmental awareness and engaging in everyday energy-saving activities such as reducing the indoor temperature. The findings suggest that measures aimed at reducing procrastination are needed to realise energy-saving potential. It is important to find ways to either bring future benefits closer to the present or to magnify the costs of delayed action. For example, one can employ certain feedback systems and commitment devices to make current gains and future costs more visible or tangible. - Highlights: • Norwegian online survey on factors affecting households' heating energy saving activities. • Identify the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness in energy saving decision making. • People with a higher tendency to procrastinate are less likely to engage in energy saving activities. • Procrastination can limit the positive effect of environmental awareness on energy saving. • Innovative behavioural measures are suggested to bring people's “energy saving plans or decisions” to action.

  7. Measuring the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness on households' energy-saving behaviours: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillemo, Shuling Chen

    2014-01-01

    A common finding in behavioural economics is that people often procrastinate, i.e., keep postponing planned tasks or decisions that require effort to execute. The effect of procrastination on inter-temporal energy choice behaviours could be even more serious because energy is an abstract, invisible and intangible commodity. This paper uses a web survey to investigate how people's procrastination propensity and environmental awareness affect their heating-energy-saving behaviours. The results indicate that people who state that they have a higher tendency to procrastinate are significantly less likely to have engaged in most of the heating energy-saving activities, especially regarding larger purchases or investments in equipment and the insulation of doors and windows. I also found a positive relationship between environmental awareness and engaging in everyday energy-saving activities such as reducing the indoor temperature. The findings suggest that measures aimed at reducing procrastination are needed to realise energy-saving potential. It is important to find ways to either bring future benefits closer to the present or to magnify the costs of delayed action. For example, one can employ certain feedback systems and commitment devices to make current gains and future costs more visible or tangible. - Highlights: • Norwegian online survey on factors affecting households' heating energy saving activities. • Identify the effect of procrastination and environmental awareness in energy saving decision making. • People with a higher tendency to procrastinate are less likely to engage in energy saving activities. • Procrastination can limit the positive effect of environmental awareness on energy saving. • Innovative behavioural measures are suggested to bring people's “energy saving plans or decisions” to action

  8. How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households' direct and indirect energy use and savings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Households constitute an important target group for energy conservation. They not only use energy in a direct way (gas, electricity and fuel) but also in an indirect way (embedded in the production, consumption and disposal of goods). During a period of five months (viz., October 2002-March 2003),

  9. Households under the impression of the energy turnaround. Development of electricity demand and load profiles; Die Haushalte im Zeichen der Energiewende. Entwicklung der Stromnachfrage und Lastprofile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Gnann, Till; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hartel, Rupert; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)

    2013-01-15

    One of the central components of the energy turnaround is the improvement of energy efficiency. Households play a key role in this connection, not only due to their high potentials for saving energy and shifting loads, but also because of the growing importance of electricity as an energy carrier. This makes it interesting to explore how the continuing dissemination of efficient energy applications, electromobility and decentralised electricity production through photovoltaics will impact on load and electricity production profiles in the German household sector until the year 2040. The results show that with ambitious energy policy goals it will be possible to lower the electricity demand of households by 30%. However, this decrease could be more than undone by electromobility.

  10. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are

  11. The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...

  12. Real-time pricing when some consumers resist in saving electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2013-01-01

    Successful real-time electricity pricing depends firstly upon consumers' willingness to subscribe to such terms and, secondly, on their ability to curb consumption levels. The present paper addresses both issues by considering consumers differentiated by their electricity saving costs, half of whom resist saving electricity. We demonstrate that when consumers are free to adopt real-time prices, producers prefer charging inefficient prices and, in so doing, discriminate against that portion of the consumer population which faces no saving costs. We also find that efficient marginal cost pricing is feasible, but is incompatible with mass adoption of real-time prices. - Highlights: • We model consumers switching from uniform to real-time electricity pricing (RTP). • Half the consumer population is pro-RTP and half resists saving electricity. • Efficient RTP is feasible but is incompatible with mass adoption

  13. The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasu, Servet [Rize University, Rize Vocational School, 53100, Rize (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    Most of the developed countries in the world use Daylight Saving Time (DST) as an energy conservation method. This study focuses on the effects of DST on electrical lighting in the buildings in Turkey. Turkey might adjust its daylight saving time to decrease energy consumption. For this purpose, five scenarios are considered and compared to status quo. The scenario with a 30-minute forward shift to single DST from April to October, stands out as the best solution to conserve electricity across the entire country. The results of the study show that maximum saving is obtained in this scenario by at least 0.7% on the consumption of lighting electricity. (author)

  14. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mathai, Manu V.; Parayil, Govindan

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  15. Establishment of windows-based load management system for electricity cost savings in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hur, D.

    2007-01-01

    For electricity markets to function in a truly competitive and efficient manner, it is not enough to focus solely on improving the efficiencies of power supply. To recognize price-responsive load as a reliability resource, the customer must be provided with price signals and an instrument to respond to these signals, preferably automatically. This paper attempts to develop the Windows-based load management system in competitive electricity markets, allowing the user to monitor the current energy consumption or billing information, to analyze the historical data, and to implement the consumption strategy for cost savings with nine possible scenarios adopted. Finally, this modeling framework will serve as a template containing the basic concepts that any load management system should address. (author)

  16. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  17. Public Support of Solar Electricity and its Impact on Households - Prosumers

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermannová Jarmila; Pawliczek Adam; Čermák Petr

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Currently, the idea of households - prosumers is broadly discussed in public governments, mainly in connection with both the energy security issues and the environmental issues. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to present new agent model of household - prosumer and to compare two scenarios – “off grid household” and “on grid household”. The additional goal is to evaluate the impact of public support of solar electricity on the economic efficiency of household ...

  18. Energy thief or saving tool? On the use of information and communication technology in households; Energitjuv eller sparverktyg? Om anvaendning av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi i hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Kristina; Toernqvist, Eva K.

    2009-08-15

    A development towards continued increased use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in the households is a fact that should be taken seriously from an energy perspective. Especially since a lot of ICT is subjected to strong political aspirations to become accessible to all citizens on their own conditions. According to a couple of prognoses, ICT is estimated to amount to 45 % of the household electricity within the nearest ten year period. In addition to the direct use that ICT stands for, the indirect use that origins from, for example, the production and discarding of devices as well as the use that is a consequence of changed behavioural patterns, such as telecommuting, must be taken into account in order to fully understand the use of ICT in an energy perspective. Furthermore, the risk for so called rebound-effects needs also to be considered. This means that the time-, energy- and money savings that can be achieved by means of (more energy efficient) ICT, are used for more ICT use or for other energy requiring activities. Among other things, research indicates that expected transport reductions do not occur. From the point of departure of the overall question of why the energy use within the so called function area 'information and entertainment' increases in households, the aim of the report is to analyze and to discuss driving forces for household members' increased possession and use of ICT in a broad sense (including, for example, tv, mp3, dvd- and cd players. The intention is also to make visible the complex social context in which the use of ICT takes place. The driving forces are complex since they can be related to the individual user's own interests and satisfaction, to the household's social context as well as to a social context outside the household, and to different, often contradictory, norms and values. This makes the development of simple saving measures more difficult, but knowledge of the complexity and

  19. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  20. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  1. An analysis of the welfare and distributive implications of factors influencing household electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordán, Desiderio; Río, Pablo del; Peñasco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have reduced electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006–2012 period by applying a demand model estimated with the quantile regression method. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand and higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. The joint impact of those two factors on the welfare of lower-income households is higher in relative terms (i.e., as a share of household income) than for other income groups. These results suggest that the economic crisis and increases in retail electricity prices have had detrimental welfare effects, especially on the lower-income segment of the population. They should be considered when financing climate and energy policies through the electricity bill and provide a rationale to take such support, which pushes the retail electricity price upwards, out of the electricity bill. - Highlights: • Impact of the economic crisis and higher electricity prices on electricity demand. • Analysis of the welfare effects. • Lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand. • Higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. • Welfare of lower-income households more negatively affected.

  2. The effects of electric vehicles on residential households in the city of Indianapolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shisheng; Safiullah, Hameed; Xiao Jingjie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias S.; Hoffman, Ray; Soller, Joan; Jones, Doug; Dininger, Dennis; Tyner, Wallace E.; Liu, Andrew; Pekny, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing impetus to transform the U.S transportation sector and transition away from the uncertainties of oil supply. One of the most viable current solutions is the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). These vehicles allow for a transportation system that would be flexible in its fuel demands. However, utilities may need to address questions such as distribution constraints, electricity tariffs and incentives and public charging locations before large scale electric vehicle adoption can be realized. In this study, the effect of electric vehicles on households in Indianapolis is examined. A four-step traffic flow model is used to characterize the usage characteristics of vehicles in the Indianapolis metropolitan area. This data is then used to simulate EV usage patterns which can be used to determine household electricity usage characteristics. These results are differentiated by the zones with which the households are associated. Economic costs are then calculated for the individual households. Finally, possible public charging locations are examined. - Highlights: ► Traffic flow modeling is used to accurately characterize EV usage in Indianapolis. ► EV usage patterns are simulated to determine household electricity usage patterns. ► Economic costs are calculated for the households for electric vehicles. ► Possible public charging locations are examined.

  3. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  4. Saving energy and reducing CO2 with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.S.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1991-10-01

    Surprising potential exists for new and enhanced electric technologies to reduce energy use and CO 2 emission. Widespread deployment of these technologies could reduce energy use by up to 7 quads in 2010 and a corresponding reduction in carbon dioxide emission of up to 440 million tons. Electricity's unique high form value allows for efficiency at the point of end-use that is multiples of the efficiency possible in gas- or oil-fueled systems. The efficiency advantage at the point of end use more than offset the disadvantage of the high losses in the production of electricity. Hence, widespread deployment of many electric end uses will reduce the nation's total energy requirements. Major technologies which hold the greatest potential include electric process heating, industrial electrotechnologies, electric vehicles, information technologies that substitute electronic communication for transportation of people, and electric heat pumps for space heating, cooling and water heating. Wider use of these beneficial technologies in combination with the efficient use of electricity can reduce the nation's primary energy use and Co 2 emissions from electric generation by more than a quarter. 35 refs., 50 figs., 69 tabs

  5. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  6. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  7. The impact of attribute preferences on adoption timing: The case of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells for household electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul; Meade, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with micro-generation, individual households generating electricity using a renewable technology. We focus on modeling the adoption probability of photo-voltaic solar panels by households. Using data from Ontario, Canada where a generous feed-in-tariff is available to households generating electricity from solar panels, we measure household level preferences for panels and use these preferences along with household characteristics to predict adoption time intentions. We use discrete choice experiments to measure household level preferences and establish a causal link between the attributes of the technology and adoption time intentions using discrete time survival mixture analysis. Significant preferences included lower cost, greater energy savings and lower fossil fuel inflation. The conditional (hazard) probability of adoption at a particular time given no previous adoption showed that the attribute preferences had intuitively reasonable effects. The hazard probabilities allow us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over a 10-year period per household. Technology awareness has a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. Our approach indicates the level of heterogeneity in preferences, particularly high for investment criteria and CO 2 emissions. These findings suggest that education campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental effects. - Highlights: ► To model the adoption probability of PV solar panels by households. ► Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households. ► Estimation of adoption probability using attribute preferences and social covariates. ► Wide range of household adoption probability within 10 years median value 52%. ► Promotions should explain investment criteria, tariffs and environmental effects

  8. The structure of energy efficiency investment in the UK households and its average monetary and environmental savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic and behavioural variables that influence the household’s adoption of energy efficiency measures such as cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are identified, contrary to previous literature. By extending Brechling and Smith’s (1994) and Hassett and Metcalf's (1995) models, it is shown that the application of the Energy Act 2011, which contains provisions on the Green Deal, the new Energy Company Obligation (ECO) and the private rented sector, needs to follow a tailored strategy to reach the low adoption households identified by my model. Moreover, for the current adopters of the analysed measures, average monetary and environmental adoption benefits are estimated based on Parti and Parti’s (1980) demand model. These estimates are smaller than their expected values showing an important energy efficiency gap in the sector. Particularly low cost measures can bring important savings that can help to meet the ''pay as you save'' rule (i.e., the Golden rule) of the new regulation. My model also shows that a poor state of dwelling repair can reduce the adoption benefits increasing the need of subsidies that will be financed through consumer’s energy bills. However, this can increase the number of households in fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► Analysis of socioeconomic and behavioural factors that can affect the Green Deal uptake. ► The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) needs to follow a tailored strategy. ► Average adoption benefits of cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are estimated. ► There is an important energy efficiency gap in the UK domestic sector. ► A poor state of dwelling repair could bring financial pressure to the ECO program.

  9. Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Odlare, Monica; Wallin, Fredrik; Wester, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in identifying key indicators for policy update. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by household features. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by building properties. ► Household behavior has a profound impact on individual electricity use. -- Abstract: Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  10. 'Vagabondic' and 'touristic' paths to saving money on household food budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    socioeconomic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints...... on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies...... strategies to either positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of cooking with more filling ingredients, reducing eating out, and using left overs, expressed some kind of extra resources in comparison to the interviewees with negative experiences in the shape of e...

  11. A framework for targeting household energy savings through habitual behavioural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitou, Mary; Kolios, Athanasios J.; Varga, Liz; Gu, Sai

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews existing up-to-date literature related to individual household energy consumption. The how and why individual behaviour affects energy use are discussed, together with the principles and perspectives which have so far been considered in order to explain the habitual consuming behaviour. The research gaps, which are revealed from previous studies in terms of the limitations or assumptions on the methodology to alter individuals' energy usage, give insights for a conceptual framework to define a comprehensive approach. The proposed framework suggests that the individual energy perception gaps are affected by psychological, habitual, structural and cultural variables in a wider-contextual, meso-societal and micro-individual spectrum. All these factors need to be considered in order for a variety of combined intervention methods, which are discussed and recommended, to introduce a more effective shift in the conventional energy-consuming behaviour, advancing insights for successful energy policies.

  12. Electric Power Saving Awareness System at School Using ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzume Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, education on energy saving at schools attracts attention to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we proposed a novel system to promote energy conservation activity at schools using a sensor network. The system consisted of a wall-type clock embedded with several kinds of sensors for temperature and light in the classroom, and wireless devices to connect to a cloud computer network. The system had the following superiorities: offered various services for energy conservation activity, needless of CT (Current Transformer sensor, low price, ease of installation and extension, and visualization of power consumption in conjunction with school timetable in real time. We presented the system and a user study conducted to evaluate its usefulness.

  13. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, Kate; Conradie, Beatrice; Howells, Mark; Dekenah, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 (±US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief history

  14. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  15. Industrial plant electrical systems: Simplicity, reliability, cost savings, redundancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, A.; Tommazzolli, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1992-01-01

    This article represents a compact but complete design and construction manual for industrial plant electrical systems. It is to be used by design engineers having prior knowledge of local power supply routes and voltages and regards principally the optimum choice of internal distribution systems which can be radial or single, double ringed or with various network configurations, and with single or multiple supplies, and many or few redundancies. After giving guidelines on the choosing of these options, the manual deals with problematics relevant to suitable cable sizing. A cost benefit benefit analysis method is suggested for the choice of the number of redundancies. Recommendations are given for the choice of transformers, motorized equipment, switch boards and circuit breakers. Reference is made to Italian electrical safety and building codes

  16. The likely market potential for electricity saving ASD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparow, F.T.; McKenzie, L.

    1993-01-01

    Many utility demand-side management (DSM) programs encourage the adoption of adjustable speed drives (ASD) in the industrial and commercial sectors, since such devices save KW and KWh. The term open-quotes adjustable speed drives close-quote is used to refer to any device which allows the speed of the motor to be adjusted to better match process requirements. Thus, motor input control devices, such as electronic adjustable speed drives for AC motors (i.e., adjustable frequency drives (AFD)), voltage controlled DC motors, and the use of floating pressure setpoint controls, or other devices which better control on/off compressor operation, would be considered ASD devices. Also included would be motor technologies, such as multi-speed windings, etc., which allow the synchronous speed of the motor to be altered. Not included in this definition would be mechanical systems such as gear boxes, friction disks, etc., which maintain motor speed, but alter the drive r.p.m. to the equipment. The importance of the distinction is that ASDs, as defined above, have the potential to substantially reduce KW and KWh consumption if the equipment duty cycle is varying, while mechanical drive r.p.m. varying devices don't

  17. Electricity-cost savings obtained by means of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.; DuCharme, A.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines savings caused by nuclear-plant life extension (NUPLEX) and describes the effects of changes in assumptions on costs and technology using an approach simpler than the large economic-model simulations used in other reports. Under the simplified approach, we estimate savings at the broad national level by comparing projected costs/kWh for the typical NUPLEX plant with those for new coal-fired plants, which seem the most likely alternative in most regions. While ignoring some complications handled by the large, regionally disaggregated econometric models, the approach used in this study has advantages in sensitivity analyses. It reveals relationships between savings and basic assumptions on costs and technology in a more transparent way than in large-model simulations. We find that, absent major technological breakthroughs for present generating options, NUPLEX saves consumers money on their electric bills under most plausible economic scenarios. Using mid-range assumptions, we find that NUPLEX saves consumers a total of about dollar 180 billion spread over the period 2010-50. Under optimistic assumptions, the savings swell to over dollar 900 billion. Under extremely pessimistic assumptions, the savings actually turn negative. This wide range of estimates largely reflects the uncertainty in cost projections. Within plausible limits, higher- or lower-than-expected load growth does not affect the savings estimates. The NUPLEX construction costs stand out as the most critical unknown. If they turn out to be 50% (dollar 500 billion) above the baseline estimate savings would fall by almost 60% (dollar 105 billion). A 50% rise in nuclear fuel costs would drop baseline savings by almost 22%. A 50% increase in nuclear-plant operations-and-maintenance costs, would cut baseline savings by about 36%. These sensitivities highlight the need for continued monitoring of economic developments

  18. Public Support of Solar Electricity and its Impact on Households - Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermannová Jarmila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Currently, the idea of households - prosumers is broadly discussed in public governments, mainly in connection with both the energy security issues and the environmental issues. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to present new agent model of household - prosumer and to compare two scenarios – “off grid household” and “on grid household”. The additional goal is to evaluate the impact of public support of solar electricity on the economic efficiency of household – prosumer projects (systems.

  19. An assessment of household electricity load curves and corresponding CO2 marginal abatement cost curves for Gujarat state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.; Maheshwari, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Jigeesha

    2014-01-01

    Gujarat, a large industrialized state in India, consumed 67 TWh of electricity in 2009–10, besides experiencing a 4.5% demand–supply short-fall. Residential sector accounted for 15% of the total electricity consumption. We conducted load research survey across 21 cities and towns of the state to estimate residential electricity load curves, share of appliances by type and usage patterns for all types of household appliances at utility, geographic, appliance, income and end-use levels. The results indicate that a large scope exists for penetration of energy efficient devices in residential sector. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves for electricity and CO 2 were generated to analyze relative attractiveness of energy efficient appliance options. Results indicate that up to 7.9 TWh of electricity can be saved per year with 6.7 Mt-CO 2 emissions mitigation at negative or very low CO 2 prices of US$ 10/t-CO 2 . Despite such options existing, their penetration is not realized due to myriad barriers such as financial, institutional or awareness and therefore cannot be taken as baseline options for CO 2 emission mitigation regimes. - Highlights: • Residential sector provides focused mitigation opportunities. • Energy efficient space cooling is the main technology transition required. • Almost 26% residential load could be reduced by DSM measures. • Myriad barriers limit penetration of negative marginal cost efficient options

  20. Understanding household switching behavior in the retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of the Danish retail electricity market nearly a decade ago has produced little consumer switching among suppliers or renegotiation of supplier service contracts. From an energy policy perspective, a certain amount of supplier switching is an important indicator of the success of market deregulation. This argues that poor relationship management and a lack of economic benefits are two critical barriers to consumer switching. Latent class analysis indicates that only 11.4% of consumers are non-switchers, whereas 41.1% can be considered potential switchers and approximately one-half (47.5%) can be considered apathetic consumers. We also discuss the managerial implications for both electricity suppliers and policy makers. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the barriers for electricity supplier switching in Denmark. • Four switching barriers were identified. • Relationship management and economic benefits are critical for consumer switching. • Three consumer segments for electricity supplier switching were identified

  1. Marketing research concentrating on households as electricity consumers; Marktforschung bei Haushaltskunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borch, G. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany); Nickel, M. [VDEW-Hauptgeschaeftsstelle, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-07-13

    The emerging competition on the electric power market is expected to be primarily used in the beginning by industrial or commercial customers. In Germany, households will also have free access to the competitive market right after deregulation of the market, so that private customers may likewise wish to exploit their chances and electric utilities should continue to consider the private households in their marketing concepts. The German electric power companies launched a variety of marketing research projects concentrating on the households. The article here analyses and explains the results. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der kommende Wettbewerb im Strommarkt wird sich zunaechst auf die grossen Geschaeftskunden konzentrieren. In Deutschland werden auch die Haushaltskunden von Anfang an freien Zugang zum Markt haben. Diese Chance werden viele Kunden nutzen wollen. Die deutschen Stromversorger muessen den Haushaltskunden deshalb weiterhin Aufmerksamkeit schenken. Die deutschen Stromversorger haben mit mehreren Marktforschungsprojekten den Strommarkt Haushalte unter verschiedenen Aspekten untersucht. Die Ergebnisse werden im vorliegenden Beitrag dargestellt. (orig.)

  2. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  3. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  4. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced

  5. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chung, Shan-Shan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Chan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  6. Size and importance of small electrical end uses in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, J R; Zogg, R A; Alberino, D L

    1998-07-01

    Miscellaneous end uses (an energy-consumption category in the residential sector) has recently emerged with more importance than ever before. Miscellaneous end uses are a collection of numerous end uses (often unrelated in technology or market characteristics) that individually are small consumers but when grouped together can become notable in size. The Annual Energy Outlook 1998, published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), suggests that about 32% of residential electricity use in 1996 is attributable to miscellaneous end uses (21% from the Other Uses category and 11% from other miscellaneous categories). The EIA predicts this consumption will grow to about 47% of residential electricity use by 2010. Other studies have shown substantial consumption in this category, and forecast substantial future growth as well. However, it is not clear that the current accounting structure of the miscellaneous category is the most appropriate one, nor that the forecast growth in consumption will materialize. A bottom-up study on a collection of miscellaneous electric end uses was performed to better understand this complex, ill-defined category. Initial results show that many end uses can be categorized more appropriately, such as furnace fans, which belong in Space Heating. A recommended categorization reduces the Other Uses category from 21% to 12% of electric consumption estimated in 1996. Thus, the consumption from miscellaneous end uses is not nearly as large as thought. Furthermore, the growth rate associated with small end uses is projected to be lower relative to projections from other sources.

  7. New experimental electricity tariff systems for household end use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    A significant tool in Demand Side Management is the structure of tariffs. Price incentives can be directed at different parts of the efficiency-concept: efficiency in capacity planning, efficiency in total electricity consumption, efficiency in total fossil fuel use, efficiency in total energy

  8. Long-term water demand for electricity, industry and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; de Vries, Bert J M; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    Better water demand projections are needed in order to better assess water scarcity. The focus in this paper is on non-agricultural water demand, as this is the fastest-growing and least well-modelled demand component. We describe an end use-oriented model for future water demand in the electricity,

  9. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  10. Are the Chinese Saving for Old Age?: The Relationship between Future Pension Benefits of 45-60 Years Old Chinese and Current Household Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dullemen, C E; Nagel, I; de Bruijn, J M G

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, older people's support used to be the adult children's responsibility. In China, two generations after introducing the one-child policy in the late 70-ies, this becomes an increasingly demanding obligation. The Chinese government took the responsibility to mitigating old- age poverty risks and realized unprecedented progress in pension coverage. At the same time, the household savings increased to about 30 % of disposable income. Built on previous research on the politics of ageing, this study analyses households responses to the established governmental and firm pension programs as well as to the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS), introduced in 2009. The central question is: will participation in the established and new pension programs lead to higher current Chinese household expenditures and therefore to lower savings? The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) dataset of 2011 offered the opportunity to study the influence of the recently introduced NRPS. We find that Chinese households with members between 45 and 60 years who expect future benefits of NRPS do not have higher expenditures than those not covered by NRPS. For the participants in the established, mostly urban pension programs a correlation was found with higher current expenditures (28 % more spending on basic needs, 80 % more on luxury) However, further analysis shows that this correlation cannot be interpreted as a causal relationship. This implies that coverage by pensions, be it in urban or rural programs, does not determine higher current expenditures and lower savings.

  11. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  12. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  13. Evolution of electricity prices for households in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2011-11-01

    The author reports a study of the evolution of electricity prices in the housing sector since the 1990's in the 15 countries who were then members of the European Union (Germany, Denmark, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Finland, France and Greece). In a first part, he discusses trends and proposes some comparisons which show that the electricity price has been remaining almost steady for 15 years, and has much less increased that those of gas and oil products. He notices a rather large discrepancy between the 15 countries (a comparison takes taxes into account, and comparison is made with tax included or excluded). The second part proposes an analysis of the evolutions and influences of national energy policies for each country

  14. Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborg, Helene; Boräng, Frida; Jagers, Sverker C.; Söderholm, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues. - Highlights: • Differences in household electricity use across African countries are studied. • Empirical analysis is based on data from 44 countries over the period 1996–2009. • The results display the importance of both democracy and institutional quality. • This suggests a stronger focus on institution-building efforts in energy reforms.

  15. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  16. The Effect of Feedback by SMS-text messages and email on Household Electricity Consumption: Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...

  17. Beyond free electricity: the costs of electric cooking in poor households and a market-friendly alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Elias, R.J.; Gaunt, T.

    2006-01-01

    The South African government is introducing a poverty-reduction policy that will supply households with a monthly 50 kWh free basic electricity (FBE) subsidy. We show that FBE distorts the energy choices of poor households by encouraging them to cook with electricity, whereas alternatives such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can deliver a similar cooking service at a much lower cost to society. An alternative energy scheme, such as providing households with clean energy credits equivalent in value to the FBE's cost, could deliver additional energy services worth at least 6% of total household welfare (and probably much more) at no additional public cost; those benefits are so large that they would cover the entire cost of LPG fuel needed to implement the scheme. The analysis is extremely sensitive to the coincidence of electric cooking with peak power demand on the South African grid and to assumptions regarding how South Africa will meet its looming shortfall in peak power capacity. One danger of FBE is that actual peak coincidence and the costs of supplying peak power could be much less favorable than we assume, and such uncertainties expose the South African power system to potentially very high costs of service. (author)

  18. Beyond free electricity: The costs of electric cooking in poor households and a market-friendly alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Mark; Victor, David G.; Gaunt, Trevor; Elias, Rebecca J.; Alfstad, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The South African government is introducing a poverty-reduction policy that will supply households with a monthly 50 kWh free basic electricity (FBE) subsidy. We show that FBE distorts the energy choices of poor households by encouraging them to cook with electricity, whereas alternatives such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can deliver a similar cooking service at a much lower cost to society. An alternative energy scheme, such as providing households with clean energy credits equivalent in value to the FBE's cost, could deliver additional energy services worth at least 6% of total household welfare (and probably much more) at no additional public cost; those benefits are so large that they would cover the entire cost of LPG fuel needed to implement the scheme. The analysis is extremely sensitive to the coincidence of electric cooking with peak power demand on the South African grid and to assumptions regarding how South Africa will meet its looming shortfall in peak power capacity. One danger of FBE is that actual peak coincidence and the costs of supplying peak power could be much less favorable than we assume, and such uncertainties expose the South African power system to potentially very high costs of service

  19. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be

  20. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  1. Technoeconomics analysis of a photovoltaic system to provide electricity for a household in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamsyah, T.M.I.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Shahrir, A

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is very fortunate because located in the tropical region where the used of solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in the country. This paper is a study on a photovoltaic (Pv) system to provide the electricity for a single residential household. The effect of solar intensity and surface temperature variation on the amount of power provided by PV panels in selected location in Malaysia is determined in this study. The Life cycle cost analysis is conducted to compare electricity price with other energy sources in this country. It is found that providing electricity for a household by using PV system seems to be beneficial and competitive for long term investment, especially if the price of the system is decrease and the efficiency is increase

  2. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  3. Net fossil energy savings for alternative mixes in various electric supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, P.; Stocks, K.J.

    1978-11-01

    The actual and projected electric power station building programs of several countries and regions have been examined to determine what effect the introduction of nuclear power has on fossil fuel usage by the electricity system. It was found that (1) nuclear power leads directly to savings in fossil fuel usage, a larger nuclear component leading to larger savings; (2) individual nuclear stations rapidly wipe out the energy 'debt' incurred during building; and (3) the relatively short periods of consolidation in the early stages of a nation's building program usually prevent the nuclear component from going into energy 'debt'. Assessments of the energy requirements to build and run various types of power station have been made from the available literature

  4. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  5. Social Corporate Responsibility regarding Household Consumer Satisfaction with the Electric Power Supply Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Georgescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the practical manifestation of corporate social responsibility towards consumers is highly important to the socio-economic reality in Romania. The present paper is the result of an investigation carried out in this field and it is distinguished by two aspects. The first aspect is its target audience used for research - household consumers of electricity, who can be called "vulnerable", captive consumers. The second aspect is the specificity of the electricity market. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between corporate social responsibility, instantiated by the quality of services provided by S.C. Electrica S.A. – Electrica Distribution and Supply South Transylvania and the consumers' loyalty towards the company, in case other electricity suppliers emerge. A subsidiary aspect was the generation of a database having an impact on customer retention. We have carried out some quantitative research, based on the survey method, having a sample of 521 household consumers from the Mures County. The study we carried out proves that consumer satisfaction, their degree of satisfaction under different aspects, is a way of gaining their trust on this particular market. Those consumers with a higher degree of trust in the company are more loyal. This will result in reducing migration to another electricity supplier, in the future, when all household consumers become eligible.

  6. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland; Evaluation des Stromsparfonds Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Vaterlaus, S.; Wild, J. [Plaut (Schweiz) Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  7. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland; Evaluation des Stromsparfonds Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R; Vettori, A; Schmidt, N [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Vaterlaus, S; Wild, J [Plaut (Schweiz) Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  8. The impact of the daylight saving time on electricity consumption-A case study from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Momani, Mohammad; Yatim, Baharudin; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in Jordan. Two types of analysis were done: the first analysis examines the impact of DST on the lighting loads based on a survey study made for residential and commercial sectors. The second examines the impact of DST on the over all electricity generation through analyzing the daily load curves (DLCs) before and after the DST onset and removal in 2000 and 2007. The results show that the application of DST during the year 2000 saves the electricity used for illumination by -0.73% but it increases the overall generation at the onset and removal of DST by 0.5% and 1.4% due to increase in the heating and cooling loads. The analysis of DLCs during the year 2007 shows similar effects as in the year 2000 except during the early morning period at the DST onset where DST decreases the demand during this time. The analysis shows that DST decreases the electricity demand at DST onset by 0.2% and increases it at DST removal by 0.3%. A possible decrease in the electricity consumption may take place if the DST is implemented from April to end of August.

  9. The Impact of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Regulation on Electricity Saving in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Eqwan Roslan, Mohd; Isa, Aishah Mohd; Faizal Basri Nair, Mohd; Syafiqah Salleh, Siti

    2018-03-01

    One of Malaysia’s key strategies to promote efficient energy use in the country is to implement the minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) through the Electricity Regulations (Amendment) 2013. Five selected electrical appliances (refrigerator, air conditioner, television, domestic fans and lamp fittings) must comply with MEPS requirement in order to be sold in Malaysian market. Manufacturers, importers or distributors are issued Certificate of Approval (COA) if products are MEPS-compliant. In 2015, 1,215 COAs were issued but the number of MEPS products in the market is unknown. This work collects sales data from major manufacturers to estimate the annual sales of MEPS appliances and the cumulative electricity consumption and electricity saving. It was found that most products sold have 3-star rating and above. By year 2015, total cumulative electricity savings gained from MEPS implementation is 3,645 GWh, with air conditioner being the highest contributor (30%). In the future, it is recommended that more MEPS products and related incentives be introduced to further improve efficiency of energy use in Malaysia.

  10. Electricity consumption and energy savings potential of video game consoles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittinger, E.; Mullins, K.A.; Azevedo, I.L. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Total energy consumption of video game consoles has grown rapidly in the past few decades due to rapid increases in market penetration, power consumption of the devices, and increasing usage driven by new capabilities. Unfortunately, studies investigating the energy impacts of these devices have been limited and potential responses, such as ENERGY STAR requirements, have been difficult to define and implement. We estimate that the total electricity consumption of video game consoles in the US was around 11 TWh in 2007 and 16 TWh in 2010 (approximately 1 % of US residential electricity consumption), an increase of almost 50 % in 3 years. However, any estimate of total game console energy consumption is highly uncertain, and we have determined that the key uncertainty is the unknown consumer behavior with regards to powering down the system after use. Even under this uncertainty, we demonstrate that the most effective energy-saving modification is incorporation of a default auto power down feature, which could reduce electricity consumption of game consoles by 75 % (10 TWh reduction of electricity in 2010), saving consumers over USD 1 billion annually in electricity bills. We conclude that using an auto power down feature for game consoles is at least as effective for reducing energy consumption as implementing a strict set of energy efficiency improvements for the devices, is much easier to implement given the nature of the video game console industry, and could be applied retroactively to currently deployed consoles through firmware updates.

  11. Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

  12. Households' willingness to pay for overhead-to-underground conversion of electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNair, Ben J., E-mail: Ben.McNair@anu.edu.a [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Hensher, David A.; Rose, John M. [Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, The Business School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Underground low-voltage electricity networks have several advantages over overhead networks including reliability of supply, safety and improved visual amenity. The economic viability of replacing existing overhead networks with new underground networks depends on the value of these benefits to households, but no complete value estimates are available in the literature. This paper represents a contribution towards addressing this research gap. A stated choice survey is used to estimate willingness to pay for undergrounding in established residential areas in Canberra, Australia. Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household and there is significant variation in preferences over the population. The results suggest that benefits would be highest in areas with higher household income and older residents where visual amenity, safety, tree trimming, or restrictions on the use of yard space are of concern. - Research highlights: {yields} A choice experiment is used to estimate values for undergrounding electricity wires. {yields} Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household in Canberra, Australia. {yields} Preferences vary considerably over the population. {yields} Benefits would be highest in areas with higher income and older residents.

  13. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  14. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  15. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  16. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  17. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  18. Compact fluorescent lamps, innovation for electricity saving; Lamparas fluorescentes compactas, innovacion para el ahorro de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico); Camacho P, Wendolin E; Villalobos Alarcon, German [Phillips Lighting Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    An extremely important resource is electricity because it has provided illumination for homes, buildings and cities in the absence of natural light. Therefore, the human being is considering to save this valuable resource by using sophisticated light bulbs. At the end of the 70's the compact fluorescent lamps appeared. In this article we can disclose the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and how some years later of its invention, those lamps satisfied the client expectations, due to its cost, electricity saving, longer lifetime, use possibilities, and technological improvements. We can also know how Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and The Trust Fund for Electric Energy Savings (FIDE) supported a project to favor these lamps to be in the Mexican market. [Spanish] La electricidad es un recurso de suma importancia porque ha contribuido a la iluminacion de casas, edificios y ciudades, ante la ausencia de luz natural, es por ello que se ha buscado ahorrar este recurso tan preciado con el uso de lamparas sofisticadas. Una tecnologia que aparecio a finales de los anos 70 fueron las lamparas fluorescentes compactas. En este articulo encontramos sus ventajas y desventajas, y como despues de algunos anos de su creacion comenzaron a llenar las expectativas del cliente gracias a su costo, ahorro de electricidad, mayor tiempo de vida, posibilidades de aplicacion y mejoras tecnologicas. Asi mismo podemos conocer, el proyecto que se hizo para que esta tecnologia entrara al mercado mexicano, con el apoyo de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  19. Riding the Electricity Market as an Energy Management Strategy: Savings from Real-Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Thomas [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Shutika, Kenneth [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Coleman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Dynamic pricing of electricity, in which retail prices facing customers are responsive to changes in the underlying wholesale markets, represents a step towards economic efficiency in that customers get exposed to some or all of the costs facing wholesale market players. But what do customers who opt for this greater exposure – available in the roughly 15 “de-regulated” states, as well as, to some extent, from some regulated utilities – get in return for their risks? The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) took a retrospective eight-year look at what the savings would have been had they let the loads for which they purchase electricity in the Washington, DC area buy electricity on the real-time pricing (RTP) market – the dynamic pricing option with the highest risk – as opposed to the strategy they chose in actuality, which was fixing flat prices with 3rd-party providers. We found that opting for RTP for the eight years of the study (2005 through 2012) would have resulted in 17% savings, or almost a quarter of a billion dollars, relative to GSA’s actual prices from the 3rd-party suppliers. This is particularly astonishing given that GSA appeared to have timed the market well during the study period, consistently beating the standard offer products provided by the distribution utilities. The issue of budgetary predictability poses an obstacle for customers (especially government ones) considering RTP and, to a lesser extent, other dynamic pricing options. Indeed, GSA would have lost money with RTP in two of the eight years, one of them substantially. But the magnitude of the savings is indisputably compelling and, even if it may be somewhat aberrational due to high congestion in the DC market, begs consideration by large electricity users currently paying to “lock in” fixed flat prices.

  20. Joule-Thief Circuit Performance for Electricity Energy Saving of Emergency Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto Budisusila, Eka; Arifin, Bustanul

    2017-04-01

    The alternative energy such as battery as power source is required as energy source failures. The other need is outdoor lighting. The electrical power source is expected to be a power saving, optimum and has long life operating. The Joule-Thief circuit is one of solution method for energy saving by using raised electromagnetic force on cored coil when there is back-current. This circuit has a transistor operated as a switch to cut voltage and current flowing along the coils. The present of current causing magnetic induction and generates energy. Experimental prototype was designed by using battery 1.5V to activate Light Emitting Diode or LED as load. The LED was connected in parallel or serial circuit configuration. The result show that the joule-thief circuit able to supply LED circuits up to 40 LEDs.

  1. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  2. Electricity-saving measures for electrical drives - Market analysis; Massnahmen zum Stromsparen bei elektrischen Antrieben. Marktanalyse in der Industrie. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W.; Ebert Bolla, O.; Puenzieux, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done on an empirical analysis of the results of a small-scale survey of industries as well as on various interviews with experts. Topics covered include the number of electrical motors in use in Switzerland, the number held in reserve, power consumption, part-load and over-dimensioning, operational factors, control strategies and the use of standardised motors. The data collected is presented in tabular and graphical form. Possibilities of making savings are discussed, as are obstacles to such work. Finally, ideas for an efficiency campaign are presented.

  3. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  4. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  5. Cheat Electricity? The Political Economy of Green Electricity Delivery on the Dutch Market for Households and Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. M. Hufen

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission’s renewable energy directive introduced a market-based Guarantees of Origin (GO)-trade system that gives consumers the choice of buying “real” green energy. This has been successful, as the market share of Dutch households that buy green energy grew to 64% in 2015. However, societal organizations are dissatisfied with the green energy offered, categorizing it as “cheat” electricity. This article aims to solve this riddle of a successful product created under the GO-tra...

  6. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Campíñez-Romero, Severo; Pérez-Molina, Clara; Castro-Gil, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  7. Households' willingness to pay for safeguarding security of natural gas supply in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damigos, D.; Tourkolias, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a major issue for all EU Member States due to Europe's increasing dependence on imported fossil-fuel sources and the continuous rise in energy demand. The latter is of particular importance in electricity sector given the continuously increasing use of gas for electricity generation. In order to properly tackle with the problem, concerted actions are required by the EU Member States in several levels, i.e. legislative, political, etc. Nevertheless, these actions will come at an additional cost paid by the society either through increased electricity bills or through public financing for energy security investments. Thus, such policies should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. Towards this direction, it may be necessary to take into account non-market costs and benefits, i.e. the value that consumers place on interruptions avoided. In order to explore households' perceptions and willingness to pay for securing gas supply for electricity production, an empirical study was conducted by means of the contingent valuation method. The results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium on their electricity bills in order to internalize the external costs of electricity production, in terms of energy security, which are caused from imported fuels. (author)

  8. How do urban households in China respond to increasing block pricing in electricity? Evidence from a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Cai, Wenxin; Feng, Xiangzhao

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. - Highlights: • Estimate electricity consumption changes in response to the IBP in China. • Employ quasi-experimental approach and micro household level data in China. • Households do not respond to a smaller increase in marginal price. • 40% increase in marginal price induces a 35% decrease in electricity use.

  9. Electrical heating tapes, their use, energy consumption and energy savings potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Lingenhel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Heating cables require about 0.6% of Swiss electricity consumption, approximately as much as all TV-sets. Most important applications are domestic hot water distribution tubing, frost protection (tubing, gutters) and industrial tubing, each requiring about 1/3. For over 10 years, self-regulating technology is standard for heating cables and offers pre-defined maintenance temperatures. To minimize electricity consumption, in most applications additional control devices (timer, temperature-/ power control) are necessary. The study could not give a general answer to whether domestic hot water distribution systems should be heated by heating cables or circulation systems. The best solution depends on the specific building circumstances. Conclusions of the technical and market analysis say that measures in different fields can transfer the saving potentials into practice: architects and designers of sanitary and electrical installations should be informed by articles in specialized magazines: the goal is either to avoid the use of heating cables or to minimize their electricity consumption, training of plumbers and electricians should treat the efficient use of heating cables. An instruction leaflet is to be created. Building owners and operators should be informed by their specialized magazines about problems with heating cables. (author)

  10. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  11. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Jiang Zhujun

    2012-01-01

    Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ► We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ► Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ► Electricity demand and CO 2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ► Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

  12. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in urban and peri-urban Tigray, northern Ethiopia: Determinants and welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arega, Tiruwork; Tadesse, Tewodros

    2017-01-01

    This paper set out to estimate household willingness to pay for green electric services and welfare gains attributed to such schemes. For this purpose, contingent valuation survey was conducted on 300 urban and peri-urban households in northern Ethiopia. A bivariate probit model was used to elicit willingness to pay and analyze determinants of household willingness to pay. On the other hand, welfare gains were analyzed using consumer and producer surpluses. The mean willingness to pay was estimated to be Birr 12.5 (0.66 USD) per month per household for five years on top of monthly electricity bill. Among others, income played positive role on willingness to pay while difference in willingness to pay behavior was observed between male and female-headed households. In addition, distance to wood and charcoal (alternative energy) markets played encouraging role for willingness to pay. Results from the welfare analysis show that there is significant societal gain to be made both in terms of surplus for households and producers (government) if the previously ‘untapped’ green electricity service was implemented. The revenue (producer surplus) for the state would be instrumental in contributing to the state's endeavor to generate a much-needed capital for investment in and expansion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • Thin markets in alternative energy encourage WTP for green electricity services. • Households can significantly contribute to cost-sharing for green electricity. • Significant surpluses can be gained through improving green electricity services. • Welfare gains could be useful to support the state's effort to improve electricity.

  13. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  14. Energy-Saving Sintering of Electrically Conductive Powders by Modified Pulsed Electric Current Heating Using an Electrically Nonconductive Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikio; Kawahara, Kenta; Araki, Keita

    2014-04-01

    Sintering of Cu and thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 was tried using a modified pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) process, where an electrically nonconductive die was used instead of a conventional graphite die. The pulsed electric current flowed through graphite punches and sample powder, which caused the Joule heating of the powder compact itself, resulting in sintering under smaller power consumption. Especially for the Ca3Co4O9 powder, densification during sintering was also accelerated by this modified PECS process.

  15. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  16. Exploring the impact of network tariffs on household electricity expenditures using load profiles and socio-economic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarova, Valeriya; Engel, Dominik; Ferner, Cornelia; Kollmann, Andrea; Reichl, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Growing self-generation and storage are expected to cause significant changes in residential electricity utilization patterns. Commonly applied volumetric network tariffs may induce imbalance between different groups of households and their respective contribution to recovering the operating costs of the grid. Understanding consumer behaviour and appliance usage together with socio-economic factors can help regulatory authorities to adapt network tariffs to new circumstances in a fair way. Here, we assess the effects of 11 network tariff scenarios on household budgets using real load profiles from 765 households. Thus we explore the possibly disruptive impact of applying peak-load-based tariffs on the budgets of households when they have been mainly charged for consumed volumes before. Our analysis estimates the change in household network expenditure for different combinations of energy, peak and fixed charges, and can help to design tariffs that recover the costs needed for the sustainable operation of the grid.

  17. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Calderon, Carolina [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Valič, Blaž [Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Gajšek, Peter [Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Vermeulen, Roel [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 Utrecht (Netherlands); Röösli, Martin [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel (Switzerland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) and Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-04-15

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ{sub E} 1.0 and {sub E}Q{sub H} 0.13). - Highlights: • Survey of residential electric and magnetic fields at intermediate frequencies (IF). • IF-EF and -MF emitted by 280 household appliances were characterised. • Strongest emitters were induction cookers, CFLs, LCD-TVs, and microwave ovens. • No

  18. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Sam; Calderon, Carolina; Valič, Blaž; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias; Gajšek, Peter; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin; Cardis, Elisabeth; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2017-01-01

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ E 1.0 and E Q H 0.13). - Highlights: • Survey of residential electric and magnetic fields at intermediate frequencies (IF). • IF-EF and -MF emitted by 280 household appliances were characterised. • Strongest emitters were induction cookers, CFLs, LCD-TVs, and microwave ovens. • No emissions exceeded

  19. Norwegian households' perception of wood pellet stove compared to air-to-air heat pump and electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Skjevrak, Geir; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the high dependency on electric heating combined with the high electricity price prompted a significant number of Norwegian households to consider alternative heating systems. The government introduced economic support for wood pellet heating and heat pumps. In contrast to the fast growing heat pump market, this financial support has not resulted in a widespread adoption of wood pellet heating. This paper studies factors that influence the choice of heating system based on Norwegian households' perceptions. Electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were compared, with a special focus on wood pellet heating. This study was conducted as a questionnaire survey on two independent samples. The first sample consisted of 188 randomly chosen Norwegian households, mainly using electric heating; the second sample consisted of 461 households using wood pellet heating. Our results show that socio-demographic factors, communication among households, the perceived importance of heating system attributes, and the applied decision strategy all influence the Norwegian homeowners. The significance of these factors differs between the two samples and the preferred type of anticipated future heating system. Strategies for possible interventions and policy initiatives are discussed.

  20. Household recycling behaviour and attitudes towards the disposal of small electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Lauren; Obara, Louise [ESRC Centre for BRASS, Cardiff University, 54 Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is recognised as the fastest growing waste stream in the European Union (EU), with estimates of up to 20kg per person per annum. A wide variety of WEEE is discarded by consumers, often in different ways depending on size with small items (e.g. toasters) being easier to dispose of than larger ones (e.g. washing machines). Currently, small WEEE is not treated as a priority waste stream in the UK as in order to meet targets under the WEEE Directive (CEC, 2003c) it makes more sense to focus on larger items for which collection, reuse and recycling systems already exist, but small items need to be tackled for a number of reasons, including the long term strategic development of infrastructure. In light of this, the paper will assess consumer attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE, and identify key problems raised by the implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to these small product groups. The findings from a large scale postal questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews conducted in Cardiff, Wales will be used, and key literature and research carried out to date on the disposal of WEEE, and household attitudes to waste and recycling will be assessed. It will also look at how the implementation of the WEEE Directive 'fits in' with the current transition in the UK towards more sustainable waste management practices at the household level, and then explore the most effective ways of engaging householders in the recycling of small WEEE. Key recommendations will then be outlined concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to consumer involvement and small product types.

  1. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  2. Efficiency snakes and energy ladders: A (meta-)frontier demand analysis of electricity consumption efficiency in Chinese households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadstock, David C.; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers presently lack access to quantified estimates – and hence an explicit understanding – of energy consumption efficiency within households, creating a potential gap between true efficiency levels and the necessarily assumed efficiency levels that policy makers adopt in designing and implementing energy policy. This paper attempts to fill this information gap by empirically quantifying electricity consumption efficiency for a sample of more than 7,000 households. Adopting the recently introduced ‘frontier demand function’ due to Filippini and Hunt (2011) but extending it into the metafrontier context – to control for structural heterogeneity arising from location type – it is shown that consumption efficiency is little more than 60% on average. This implies huge potential for energy reduction via the expansion of schemes to promote energy efficiency. City households, which are the wealthiest in the sample, are shown to define the metafrontier demand function (and hence have the potential to be the most efficient households), but at the same time exhibit the largest inefficiencies. These facts together allow for a potential refinement on the household energy ladder concept, suggesting that wealth affords access to the best technologies thereby increasing potential energy efficiency (the ‘traditional view of the household energy ladder), but complementary to this these same households are most inefficient. This has implications for numerous areas of policy, including for example the design of energy assistance schemes, identification of energy education needs/priorities as well more refined setting of subsidies/tax-credit policies. - Highlights: •Frontier demand functions are estimated for a sample of 7102 Chinese households. •Metafrontier methods capture heterogeneity arising from urban form (e.g. cities, towns and villages). •Wealthier houses have higher efficiency potential, but are in fact less efficient in their consumption of

  3. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M.; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013–2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, pwater (-0.45, pwater, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34–0.70, pwater users (RR = 0.70, 0.53–0.93, pwater access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China. PMID:26421716

  4. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  5. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Baran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM, are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN, support vector machines (SVM and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some

  6. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Baran; Bilbao, Jose I.; Dore, Jonathon; Sproul, Alistair B.

    2018-05-01

    Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM), are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM) and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some households vary

  7. Danish Electricity Saving Trust's open wireless communication standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Goeran [The Danish Electricity Saving Trust, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This initiative is based on the fact that the power consumption in the domestics household will increase with the increased numbers of new digital devices used in the households. To stop the growth in energy use we need to introduce a simple, low cost system based on a Global Standard that automatically will switch off the equipment not in use.

  8. Cheat Electricity? The Political Economy of Green Electricity Delivery on the Dutch Market for Households and Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. M. Hufen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission’s renewable energy directive introduced a market-based Guarantees of Origin (GO-trade system that gives consumers the choice of buying “real” green energy. This has been successful, as the market share of Dutch households that buy green energy grew to 64% in 2015. However, societal organizations are dissatisfied with the green energy offered, categorizing it as “cheat” electricity. This article aims to solve this riddle of a successful product created under the GO-trade system but also heavily criticized. Research reveals a lively marketplace with buyers eager to buy green energy and energy producers offering a wide range of labels. Marketplace mechanisms are strongly influenced by political choices, and financial support for energy suppliers makes green energy a credible option. Societal groups, however, argue that the information provided is incomplete and misleading, that buying green energy does not impact positively on greenhouse gas reduction, and that better information and structural reform are required. The GO-trade system is strongly influenced by member states’ national energy politics. Societal organizations have helped to optimize the implementation of the GO-trade system in the Netherlands, but they are not expected to be able to support the creation of a level playing field in which an optimal GO-trade system will flourish.

  9. Electricity savings with pellet stoves and solar heating in electrically heated houses; Elbesparing med pelletkaminer och solvaerme i direktelvaermda smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas [Hoegskolan Dalarna, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how electrically heated houses can be converted to using wood pellet and solar heating. There are a large number of wood pellet stoves on the market. Many stoves have a water jacket, which gives an opportunity to distribute the heat to domestic hot water and a radiator heating system. Three typical Swedish houses with electric resistance heating have been studied. Fourteen different system concepts using wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems have been evaluated. The systems and the houses have been simulated in detail using TRNSYS. The houses have been divided in up to 10 different zones and heat transfer by air circulation through doorways and open doors have been simulated. The pellet stoves were simulated using a recently developed TRNSYS component, which models the start- and stop phases, emissions and the dynamic behaviour of the stoves. The model also calculates the CO-emissions. Simulations were made with one stove without a water jacket and two stoves with different fractions of the generated heat distributed in the water circuit. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a pellet stove are greatly affected by the house plan, the system choice, if the internal doors are open or closed and the desired level of comfort. Installing a stove with a water-jacket connected to a radiator system and a hot water storage has the advantage that heat can be transferred to domestic hot water and be distributed to other rooms. Such systems lead to greater electricity savings, especially in houses having a traditional layout. It was found that not all rooms needed radiators and that it was more effective in most cases to use a stove with a higher fraction of the heat distributed by the water circuit. The economic investigation shows that installing a wood pellet stove without a water jacket gives the lowest total energy- and capital costs in the house with an open plan (for today's energy prices and the

  10. The energy saving manual; Das Energiesparbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, Monika; Pinn, Gudrun

    2009-07-01

    The constant increase in the cost of electric power, petroleum, gasoline and gas burden the household budget. At the same time, greenhouse gases are speeding up global warming alarmingly. It is time to reconsider our style of living. This guide presents simple and practical hints to reduce energy costs and protect the climate. Exemplary calculations show how up to 1100 Euro can be saved per household member and per annum. Subjects: Identifying fields of excess energy consumption; No wasting of electricity, heat, and warm water; Food, shopping and climate; Mobility and climate protection; How to establish an individual energy conservation profile. (orig.)

  11. Specifics of energy-saving technologies in electrical power supply systems of operating industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Кирисов, Игорь Геннадиевич; Овчаренко, Татьяна Ивановна

    2014-01-01

    В статье рассмотрены особенности разных энергосберегающих технологий, которые можно применить в системах электроснабжения промышленных предприятий. Проведены расчеты, подтверждающие целесообразность замены недозагруженных асинхронных двигателей на двигатели меньшей мощности. The paper deals with the speci cs of different energy-saving technologies that can be applied in electrical power supply systems of industrial enterprises. The paper presents calculations that corroborate ...

  12. Monetary or environmental appeals for saving electricity? –Potentials for spillover on low carbon policy acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhorst, Julia; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of low carbon policies is an important precondition for energy system transitions, such as the German Energiewende. This long-term experimental study examines the potential for behavioural spillover on the acceptability of low carbon policies, caused by a framed intervention to promote electricity saving behaviour. Clients of a German energy provider were randomly assigned to continuously receive electricity saving tips with either monetary framing (saving potential in €) or environmental framing (saving potential in CO_2). The control group did not receive any information. In two follow-up surveys, four (N=333) and nine months (N=258) later, participants rated the acceptability of several low carbon policies. A pre-survey assessed the personal ecological norm for saving electricity. Participants with strong personal ecological norms reported generally higher policy acceptability. After environmental framing they also indicated higher acceptability compared to the monetary framing or control group. These results indicate that information campaigns should be designed carefully in order to promote positive spillover effects. Environmental framing of private-sphere behaviour can increase the disposition for further pro-environmental behaviour in the public sphere, e.g. policy acceptability. When appealing to monetary benefits in pro-environmental behaviour, there is a risk of inhibiting positive spillover effects. - Highlights: •Policy acceptability may be influenced by type of framing and individual factors. •We examined long-term spillover effects in association with type of framing. •Framing (environmental vs. monetary) interacts with personal ecological norms. •For strong personal ecological norms, environmental framing increases acceptability. •Also, strong personal ecological norms increase low carbon policy acceptability.

  13. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  14. Estimation of the cost savings from participation of electric vehicles in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaee, Mahdi; Cruden, Andrew; Sharkh, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity of the batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) could be utilised to store electrical energy and give it back to the grid when needed by participating in vehicle to grid (V2G) schemes. This participation could be a source of revenue for vehicle owners thus reducing the total charging cost of their EVs. A V2G simulator has been developed using MATLAB to find out the potential cost saving from participation of EVs in V2G schemes. A standard IEEE30 network has been modelled in ...

  15. Investigation of the economic possibilities regarding the reduction of energy intensity for electrical household appliances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, G

    1980-01-01

    Investigation results concerning the analysis of the energy application for electrical household appliances have not been available up to now. The investigation had the purpose of analysing the energy consumption of energy-intensive household appliances so that energy conservation possibilities with regard to the effectiveness may be developed. The parts of the effective and of the lost energy are being experimentally determined for the following appliances: large-scale hot water tank, washing machine, laundry drier, dish washer, electric hearth, coolers and refrigerators. The influence of the utilization habits on the specific energy consumption and the relationship between the energy application and the application properties are being investigated. On the basis of the investigation results the different possibilities of energy conservation are shown, together with some aspects of economical operation. On the basis of the investigation results also, the potential of the energy conservation, related to practical consumption values, is estimated at about 5-40%, depending on the appliance.

  16. Saving more to consume more. EDF's communication ambiguities during the energy saving era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Since 1974, EDF is placed between a communication scheme imposed for energy savings and an industrial strategy of massive investment in nuclear power. In ten years, the company managed to increase households electricity consumption without advertising, due in particular to electric heating. But strong tensions were generated by this situation and led the company to develop an institutional communication to the employees and to the general public

  17. An overall assessment of the responsiveness of households to time-of-use electricity rates: The Ontario experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    From 1982 to 1988, Ontario Hydro conducted an experiment in residential time-of-use pricing. A selection of households was offered one of 14 time-of-use treatments and each was monitored for electricity consumption on a 15-minute basis. The different rate structures were designed to reflect time variations in future system and distribution costs, both at the bulk and at the municipal level. Results were analyzed in terms of econometric models which to date have yielded information on the experimental changes in residential load shapes resulting from the time-of-use rates. The results are presented in the form of economic elasticities, percentage impacts, load changes at the household level, and simulated province-wide load changes. Also included are comparisons of results with other jurisdictions, comparisons of impacts on households with and without electric heating and with and without air conditioning, and comparisons across rate treatments with varying lengths of peak periods and relative prices. A fundamental conclusion is that time-of-use electricity rates do make a difference in residential load shapes. 17 refs., 8 tabs

  18. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  19. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  20. How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DC distribution systems are analyzed using monitored appliance and solar PV data. • DC-distributed PV energy generates savings under real-world load and solar profiles. • Savings from direct-DC are generally not cost-effective in current markets. • Non-technical hurdles remain before DC can be widely adopted in US homes. - Abstract: Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC

  1. Psychological interventions for energy saving. Development and evaluation of an electricity consumption reduction campaign in an urban development of energy-saving buildings; Energiesparen foerdern durch psychologische Intervention. Entwicklung und Evaluation einer Stromsparkampagne in einer Energiesparhaussiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, B.

    2007-07-01

    The study analyzes models of action of social psychology - in particular also an approach to institutionalize routine behaviour patterns - in order to identify the influencing factors that are described and the strategies for energy saving which are promoted. It also presents a comprehensive outline of current intervention studies and identifies effective strategy combinations which may serve as a basis for effective energy conservation campaigns. Against this background, an intervention measure for a neighbourhood context is developed and evaluated which is to promote energy-saving patterns of energy use in private households. The long-term effects suggest that it is a promising strategy to use a combination of information, commitment, goal identification, and individual and comparative feedback and to make use of group processes in a social context for developing energy-saving (routine) behaviour patterns. (orig.)

  2. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Serdivan (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO{sub 2} emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO{sub 2} emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m{sup 2} room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  3. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  4. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  5. RTE - Electricity transport network operator. Energy is our future: let's save it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Managing and developing the French electricity transport network is essential to provide quality electricity on a continuous basis to all consumers. Since it was founded in 2000, and since it was made into a public service company (2005), RTE has proven its ability to fulfil its public interest mission in complete security. In an open European electricity market, RTE is recognised for offering all of its customers fair access to its network, which is the first condition for healthy competition. Based on this and thanks to its investments and operating quality, RTE is constantly improving its performances to meet its customers', public authorities' and the Energy Regulation Committee's requirements. This public service action is focused on four strategic priorities: performance of industrial facilities; a human and managerial policy focused on skills and efficiency; sustainable development; professionalism and innovation. This brochure presents RTE's missions, company overview and European cooperation

  6. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  7. Potential fuel savings through electric camschaft adjustment; Moeglichkeiten zur Kraftstoffeinsparung durch elektrische Nockenwellenverstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebber-Hortmann, Karl; Koester, Andreas; Toennesmann, Andres; Brunetti, Costantino [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany). Abt. Vorentwicklung

    2013-11-01

    KSPG has developed an electric variable cam timing system. Using simulations and engine tests, KSPG demonstrates the potential reduction in fuel consumption that the system offers when combined with technologies such as fully variable valve gear in a gasoline engine. (orig.)

  8. The Flanitzhuette project - solar island electricity supply combined with comprehensive electricity saving measures; Projekt Flanitzhuette - solare Inselstromversorgung in Kombination mit umfassenden Stromsparmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eingartner, M. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Knapp, R. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kranz, U. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-10-02

    Since 1992, Bayernwerk AG has been operating a solar island network at Flanitzhuette in the Bavarian Forest, to supply a remote hamlet. The plant is based on a photo-electric system together with a battery and a gas unit. The plant was designed by the least cost planning (LCP) process, ie: The electricity demand was first reduced by economy measures on the customers` side (demand side management, DSM) and then largely coverd by photo-electric supply. In the case of the `Flanitzhuette solar island`, the application of LCP was able to contribute to minimising the supply costs. The authors report on the project and the results in the electricity generation and saving areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bayernwerk AG betreibt seit 1992 in Flanitzhuette im Bayerischen Wald ein solares Inselstromnetz zur Versorgung eines abgelegenen Weilers. Die Anlage basiert auf einem Photovoltaik-System in Verbindung mit einer Batterieanlage und einem Gasaggregat. Bei der Konzeption der Anlage wurde nach dem Verfahren des Least-Cost Planning (LCP) vorgegangen, d.h. der Strombedarf wurde zunaechst durch wirtschaftliche Massnahmen auf der Kundenseite (Demand-Side Management, DSM) reduziert und erst anschliessend weitgehend photovoltaisch gedeckt. Im Falle der `Solarinsel Flanitzhuette` konnte die Anwendung von LCP zu einer Minimierung der Versorgungskosten beitragen. Die Verfasser berichten ueber das Projekt und die Ergebnisse im Stromerzeugungs- und Stromsparbereich. (orig.)

  9. Household electricity consumers’ incentive to choose dynamic pricing under different taxation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Kitzing, Lena; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic pricing of retail electricity, as opposed to the widely applied average pricing, has often been proposed to enhance economic efficiency through demand response. The development of variable production from renewable energies and expectations about the installation of heat pumps and electric...

  10. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  11. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  12. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse concerning

  13. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  14. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  15. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  16. Retail electricity price savings from compliance flexibility in GHG standards for stationary sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Woerman, Matt; Paul, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The EPA will issue rules regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing steam boilers and refineries in 2012. A crucial issue affecting the scope and cost of emissions reductions will be the potential introduction of flexibility in compliance, including averaging across groups of facilities. This research investigates the role of compliance flexibility for the most important of these source categories—existing coal-fired power plants—that currently account for one-third of national emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas. We find a flexible standard, calibrated to achieve the same emissions reductions as a traditional(inflexible) approach, reduces the increase in electricity price by 60 percent and overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. The flexible standard also leads to substantially more investment to improve the operating efficiency of existing facilities, whereas the traditional standard leads to substantially greater retirement of existing facilities. - Highlights: ► The U.S. EPA will regulate GHG emissions from power plants under the Clean Air Act. ► We compare a flexible standard with fleet-wide averaging to a traditional standard. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in electricity price by 60percent in 2020. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. ► Flexible standard leads to more efficiency investment and less capacity retirement.

  17. Energy savings and increased electric vehicle range through improved battery thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Schneider, Christoph; Koehler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are temperature sensitive: operation outside the optimal operating range causes premature aging and correspondingly reduces vehicle range and battery system lifetime. In order to meet consumer demands for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle performance, especially in adverse climates, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) is often required. This work presents a novel experimental method for analyzing BTMS using three sample cooling plate concepts. For each concept, the input parameters (ambient temperature, coolant temperature and coolant flow rate) are varied and the resulting effect on the average temperature and temperature distribution across and between cells is compared. Additionally, the pressure loss along the coolant path is utilized as an indicator of energy efficiency. Using the presented methodology, various cooling plate layouts optimized for production alternative techniques are compared to the state of the art. It is shown that these production-optimized cooling plates provide sufficient thermal performance with the additional benefit of mechanical integration within the battery and/or vehicle system. It is also shown that the coolant flow influences battery cell thermal behavior more than the solid material and that pressure drop is more sensitive to geometrical changes in the cooling plate than temperature changes at the module.

  18. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  19. The management of the household demand for electricity: a review of 30 years of experiments around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgards, V.; Frachet, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the end of 1970's, experiments to test the impact of providing information, then of variable pricing, on the demand for electricity by households have developed considerably around the world. Initially undertaken in the USA and in the UK, where they analysed the impact of consumer information on overall demand, after the year 2000 these pilot efforts have been extended to most OECD member countries and aim too to reduce peak demand with appropriate price incentives. In recent years methodological improvements have been made in establishing the cause and effect relationship between these stimuli and the induced modification in consumption (internal validity). On top of methodological gains, the analysis of these experiments reveals some salient characteristics of the residential consumers' behaviour: the absence of any tangible and durable impact of solely using information on demand, the lasting incentive effect of variable pricing on reducing consumption at peak times, often creating a trend, as well as a strong heterogeneity of household reactions to these different stimuli. (authors)

  20. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  1. Energy saving in the operation of industrial electrical substations. Part I. Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to offer a methodology for the operation of substations composed by two or more transformers that feed loads of first category. Understand by loads of first category those in that the interruption of the electric supply may cause the loss of human life. The core of this operation shows that in substations with several transformers, the number of transformers connected at a given moment should be one that avoids losses. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es ofrecer una metodologia para la operacion de subestaciones compuestas por dos o mas transformadores que alimentan cargas de primera categoria. Entendiendose por cargas de primera categoria, aquellas en que la interrupcion del suministro electrico puede causar la perdida de vidas humanas. El nucleo de esta operacion muestra que en las subestaciones con varios transformadores, el numero de transformadores conectados, en un momento dado, debe ser aquel que evite perdidas.

  2. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  3. National potential of saving of electricity in domestic refrigeration; Potencial nacional de ahorro de electricidad en refrigeracion domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo C, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ambriz G, Juan Jose; Romero P, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the present paper the evaluation of the potential of saving of electrical energy in Mexico is presented, by means of the substitution of old refrigerators of low efficiency by modern high efficiency ones. This potential is very ample, since the replacement of the old models by new follows a very slow curve, if the economic difficulties of the Mexican families are considered and that, on the other hand, the technology of the domestic refrigerators is so reliable that they have a very long life and they are not easily rejected. In field work have been found refrigerators operating with ages of more than 30 years and still 40. In Mexico, it is estimated that the refrigeration is responsible for around 29% of the of electricity consumption in homes settled in tempered climate and of 14 % in those of warm climate in which air conditioning is used. The proposal of this work is the organization of a governmental program of accelerated substitution of refrigerators that helps to acquire an efficient refrigerator and to reject the old ones. The results indicate that if a total renovation of the park of domestic refrigerators is made, the saving of electrical energy would reach the 5.2 TWh/a which represents the 44.5% of the total consumption of 11.7 TWh in a year. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se presenta la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en Mexico, mediante la substitucion de refrigeradores antiguos de baja eficiencia por modernos de alta eficiencia. Este potencial es muy amplio, ya que el reemplazo de los modelos viejos por nuevos sigue una curva muy lenta, si se consideran las dificultades economicas de las familias mexicanas y que, por otro lado, la tecnologia de los refrigeradores domesticos es tan confiable que tienen una vida muy larga y no se desechan facilmente. En trabajos de campo se han encontrado refrigeradores operando con edades de mas de 30 anos y aun 40. En Mexico, se estima que la refrigeracion es responsable de alrededor del

  4. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  5. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  6. Multicriteria Analysis for universalization of electricity services in isolated rural households in the region Norte Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mendes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides hydropower Brazil has considerable potential wind and solar that can contribute to the universalization of electricity services in remote communities. This is because the program “Luz para todos” has a high cost to the wild places and thus, the universal becomes uneconomical. In the present study, we used the AHP method classic and Borda for multicriteria problems with the objective of choosing the type of supply electricity to an isolated rural domicile with average consumption of 150kWh of electricity and located in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro. For this, we considered four alternatives based on quantitative and qualitative criteria and modeled in six different situations, which are corresponding to distances from houses to the mains conventional dealership. We performed the modeling of the problem with the AHP to select the best source of energy supply, then immediately applied the Borda method for ranking of alternative sources of energy supply, and finally, we propose a new methodology for integration of AHP method to the Borda. Thus, the application of the two methods separately and also the new proposal of integration of these showed similar results as the best alternative for the supply of electricity to the rural domicile isolated situations in the six proposals. Since the supply of conventional dealership was the best alternative for zero distance 500 meters (cases one and two for both methods applied, but for other situations renewables become viable in relation to the grid the concessionaire. Worked so pointed that the greater the distance from houses to the grid, the greater the viability of renewable energy. Furthermore, the results show that renewables can contribute to meeting the demand for electricity in isolated communities and also point to the need to review the policies of universal electrical services in view of the potential wind and solar to be explored in Northern region of the state of Rio de

  7. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Sam; Calderon, Carolina; Valič, Blaž; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias; Gajšek, Peter; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin; Cardis, Elisabeth; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300Hz to 1MHz) as well as potential effects of IF

  8. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  9. Motor Assembly Plant Saves$85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project

  10. Monitoring and evaluation pilots Energy Box and Energy vouchers. Measuring the success rate of two instruments for energy saving in households; Monitoring en evaluatie pilots Energiebox en Energiebon. Succesmeting van twee instrumenten voor energiebesparing bij huishoudens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, M.I.; Koot, M.C.M.; Schepers, B.L.; Wielders, L.M.L. [CE, Delft (Netherlands); Jungblut, P. [Blauw Research, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    The Dutch government wants to incite energy saving behavior in households and increase the use of energy saving products. By means of the pilot projects of the Energy Box and the Energy Voucher the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment wants to examine if these instruments can contribute to changing behavior and the corresponding CO2 reduction. This final report describes the results of the monitoring and evaluation study of the pilots with the aim of establishing how the actions are values in real life, which products are actually used and what the direct and indirect effects are of these actions on energy saving, CO2 reduction and changing behavior [mk]. [Dutch] De overheid wil Nederlandse huishoudens aanzetten tot energiebesparend gedrag en gebruik van energiebesparende producten. Met de uitgevoerde pilotprojecten van de Energiebox en de Energiebon wil het Ministerie van VROM onderzoeken of met deze instrumenten een bijdrage kan worden geleverd aan gedragsverandering en de daarmee samenhangende CO2-reductie. In deze eindrapportage worden de resultaten van de monitoring en evaluatiestudie van de pilots beschreven met als doel: Bepalen hoe de acties in de praktijk gewaardeerd worden, welke producten daadwerkelijk worden gebruikt en welk directe en indirecte effecten de acties hebben op energiebesparing, CO2-reductie en gedragsverandering.

  11. Lead–acid batteries coupled with photovoltaics for increased electricity self-sufficiency in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira e Silva de, Guilherme; Hendrick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid parity is reached for PV installations up to nearly 40% self-sufficiency. • Reaching beyond 40% self-sufficiency requires storage and support policies. • Peak consumption remains constant but load variability rises with self-sufficiency. • Changes in power plants portfolio and wholesale electricity prices are expected. • Limiting feed-in power is a promising solution for reducing load variability. - Abstract: With distributed generation of electricity growing in importance (especially with photovoltaics) and buildings being one of the main consumers of energy in modern societies, distributed storage of energy in buildings is expected to become increasingly present. This paper analyses the use of residential lead–acid energy storage coupled with photovoltaics and its possible interaction with the grid for different limits of feed-in power without any support policies. In the literature, these subjects are often treated independently and for very specific, non-optimised cases, thus motivating further research. Results show that reaching self-sufficiency values up to 40% is possible, close to grid parity values, and only with photovoltaics. Beyond 40%, energy storage must be used, strongly raising the cost of the electricity consumed and therefore the need for support policies for widespread adoption. Also, peak power consumption from the grid remains constant and load variability rises, suggesting that an increase in self-sufficiency would be accompanied by lower utilisation factors of power plants and, consequently, higher wholesale electricity prices during no sunshine hours. Limiting feed-in power attenuates the increased load variability and only slightly affects the economic viability of such installations. These results present a novel optimisation tool for developers and should be considered in future studies of distributed photovoltaics and energy storage as well as in energy policy.

  12. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important......Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...... in an early phase to initialise the development of household demand response. At a later point, when long-term dynamics take effect, a larger effort should be made to shift consumers onto real-time rates, and an increased focus on overall adoption of variable pricing will be required. Another finding...

  13. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  14. Households on the electricity market. Information and actions; Hushaall paa elmarknaden. Information och agerande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Aasa

    2008-12-15

    Twelve years ago the consumers in Sweden were given opportunities to choose among electricity suppliers. Sweden was among the first countries to introduce an electricity reform aimed at reconfiguring the electricity market. Today consumers have the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of suppliers and type of contracts. However, still the large majority of consumers have neither chosen a new supplier nor a contract. Previous research has blamed lack of information for the so called passivity. Some of the studies are dated and little attention has been paid to the consumers' motives for not making a choice. The aim of this study is to analyse motives, strategies and need of information among consumers. One type of information is analysed namely the information the energy suppliers provide their costumers. The study shows that the consumers think the information is significant. The information of three energy suppliers are analysed and compared to the consumer's need. In order to understand consumers the consumer as an active subject is stressed. Consequently the consumers not yet having made a choice are seen as active and focus is on their motives and need of information for not making a choice as well as doing so. Different empirical materials have been collected. A survey has been used to gain an over-all-picture of motives, strategies and need of information. In-depth interviews have been carried out to be able to understand the consumers and get more nuanced descriptions related to their life conditions. A text analysis of three energy suppliers' information has been performed. The study shows that consumers not having made any choices present a number of motives. Four groups of motives have been identified; laziness, loyalty (to their supplier), chosen passivity and those who experience some kind of obstacles for taking action. Every group has their special way of reasoning and need of information. They all regard the information from their

  15. Sharp increase of the electricity bill for households in Germany in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 main operators of power grids in Germany have announced a sharp increase of the tax paid by the consumers to favor the development of renewable energies. Today the tax is 0.0359 euros/KWh and it will reach 0.0527 euros/KWh in 2013 (+47%). For a consumption of 4500 kWh per year the impact will be an extra charge of 90 euros a year. The global contribution to green electricity will reach 20 billion euros in 2013 which is 4 times as high as it was in 2009. For the sake of the industrial competitiveness, the most power-greedy enterprises are exempted to pay it. (A.C.)

  16. The influences of financial and non-financial factors on energy-saving behaviour: A field experiment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influences of financial and non-financial factors on electricity-conservation behaviour. A random sample of 236 Japanese households participated in the field experiment and the participants were offered two interventions, such as monetary rewards, depending on their reduction in electricity consumption and comparative feedback. The average saving rates of the (i) reward-intervention group (5.9%) and the (ii) reward with comparative feedback group (8.2%) are statistically larger than those of the (iii) control group (1.7%). Our study demonstrates the following. First, our econometric analysis confirmed a significant response by households to financial incentives but a more inconclusive response to the treatment that provided non-financial, additional information. Second, we found a positive influence of treatment externalities across time and households on energy saving. Third, there is a heterogeneous treatment effect in the reward-intervention group, with the households having a high New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) score being more likely to respond to the reward programme and save electricity than those that do not. Finally, and most interestingly, differences in responses to the questionnaire before and after the experiment suggest that the participants had underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity before they actually started to do so. - highlights: • We studied the effects of (non-)financial factors on household electricity use. • Financial factors had a significant effect; non-financial ones were inconclusive. • Externalities had a positive effect across time and households on saving energy. • There is a heterogeneous treatment effect in financial-reward intervention. • Before the experiment, participants underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity

  17. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  18. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  19. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-05

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  20. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  1. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Wada, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  2. Cost of electricity generated and fuel saving of an optimized wind-diesel electricity supply for village in Tangier-area (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfaoui, H.; Buret, J.

    1996-01-01

    In several of the remote areas of Morocco, diesel generators are used to provide electrical power. Such systems are often characterized by poor efficiency and high maintenance costs. The integration of wind turbine with a diesel/battery hybrid system is becoming cost-effective in wind locations. In previous works (Nfaoul et al, 1990, 1994a, 1994b), the wind characteristics in Tangier-area were studied on the basis of 12 years (1978-1989) of hourly average wind speed data. A wind/diesel energy system with battery storage has been modelled using the Tangiers wind regime over a one year period (1989), and synthesized consumer load data based on the characteristics of typical usage of domestic appliances, along with the estimated working patterns of a local isolated community. In this work, we use a more realistic hourly consumer load, which is the result of an experiment realized in a Maroccan village using a diesel engine to provide electricity for lighting and audio-visual. The 1989 wind data were reworked for a large series of measurements (12 years). The optimum wind turbine size and the benefits of a storage system on fuel saving are also reviewed. This work is concerned with diesel fuel consumption: an optimum design of the considered system is to be found which minimises the cost energy generation over the equipments' lifetime. Given the economic assumption made (the most important being a fuel price of 4.5 Dh/litre and an interest rate of 5% net of inflation), the wind/diesel energy system has been shown to be competitive with diesel-only generation in the wind regime of the Tangier location for the cost per unit wind turbine swept area less than 3000 Dh/m 2 (8Dh=1$). (author)

  3. Application of battery-based storage systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Debarberis, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Battery system application in demand smoothening in distribution grids is analysed. ► Five European countries are studied with and without high photovoltaic deployment. ► A sensitivity analysis for different battery system parameters is performed. ► A simple battery system management is sufficient for low demand smoothening. ► More elaborate management is required for high demand smoothening. - Abstract: This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids. The analysis includes case studies of Denmark, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy. A high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the smoothening effect of daily demand profiles for different configurations of the battery system. In general, battery-storage systems with low rated power and low battery capacity can smooth the demand sufficiently with the aid of a simple management process. For example, with 1 kW of peak demand, a 30–45% decrease in the variability of the daily demand profile can be achieved with a battery system of 0.1 kW rated power and up to 0.6 kW h battery capacity. However, further smoothening requires higher battery-system capacity and power. In this case, more elaborate management is also needed to use the battery system efficiently.

  4. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  5. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  6. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  7. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  8. Development of methods for evaluation of electricity saving and load levelling measures. Part 2: The planning and implementation of a power conservation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Soerensen, M.; Madsen, P.K. [NESA A/S, Research and Development Dept. (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    In recent years many campaigns and projects have been carried out with the purpose of reducing the energy consumption. Simultaneously a lot of economic and structural changes are taking place in society in general; changes which also affect the size of the electricity consumption. Furthermore, there is a trend towards increased use of wind mills and decentral combined heating and power plants, which affects the electricity load of the local area. It is difficult to identify and separate the effect of each of these attitude-adjusting activities. The project `Development of methods for evaluation of the effect of electricity saving and load levelling measures` focuses on two different methods which, on different levels, can be used to determine the impact of different different activities on the electricity consumption. Both methods are based on mathematical statistics, and they consist of an analysis of historical data and a test campaign which will make it possible to test specific activities in a comparatively small scale. The historical part covers the years 1974 to 1994 and include such variables as: demography, economic factors, climatic conditions, periods of electricity saving campaigns, the start of billing according to time of day tariff etc. The wish to be able to measure the extent of these energy saving and load reducing initiatives resulted in a test campaign which was carried out under very restricted conditions starting in the fall of 1996. If the effect of the test campaign can be measured and as a consequence of this a method can be estimated, it will be possible to place models which can measure the effect of future campaigns. The primary object of the campaign is not the size of the electricity savings of the individual customer, but rather to obtain total savings for the entire group of customers. The test has been structured in a way which makes it possible to perform an analysis of the effect of the campaign by use of analysis of intervention

  9. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  11. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  12. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  13. The cost of climate protection. The case of electricity prices of German households; Die Kosten des Klimaschutzes am Beispiel der Strompreise fuer private Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Ritter, Nolan; Moore, Nils aus dem; Schmidt, Christoph [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftforschung (RWI), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Power prices in Germany have been surging since the outset of the new millennium. Among the major reasons for this tendency are newly raised taxes and levies on electricity prices, whose introduction is primarily motivated by climate concerns. Without these taxes and levies, net electricity prices would have remained constant for private households. This article discusses these taxes and levies that have been responsible for the cost increases in private households' electricity consumption. Most influential have been the feed-in tariffs for renewable energies, above all photovoltaics. According to our calculations, the levy for renewables will further increase in the up-coming years, thereby pushing consumers' electricity cost once again. Our calculations also show that within the next couple of years, there will be a fierce competition among renewable energy technologies, most notably between photovoltaics and wind power. Politics would be well-advised, therefore, to limit the annual capacity of newly installed solar modules in order to avoid both the explosion of consumers' electricity bills and strong competition among renewables. (orig.)

  14. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  15. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  16. Lowering electricity prices through deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Klitgaard; Rekha Reddy

    2000-01-01

    A wave of regulatory reform is now transforming the U.S. electricity industry. As state and federal authorities allow independent power producers to compete with utilities in supplying electricity, consumers are paying close attention to the effects of this change on their energy bills. Although deregulation poses significant structural challenges, the introduction of competitive pressures should ultimately lead to efficiency gains for the industry and cost savings for households and businesses.

  17. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  18. Saving electrical energy in a saw-mill; Einsparung von elektrischer Energie in einem Saegereibetrieb. Stromeinsparungen in den Bereichen Holzbearbeitung, Foerdertechnik, Holztrocknung, Absauganlagen, Druckluft, Beleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrsch, I. [Wyrsch Technologies, Kuessnacht am Rigi (Switzerland); Dolder, M. [Ingenieurbuero Dolder, Luzern (Switzerland)

    2005-01-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined the electricity consumption of saw-mills and ways in which the amount of electrical power used in such facilities could be reduced. The Schilliger Holz AG company was taken as an example of a saw-mill in Switzerland. Its power consumption in 2001 was almost 6 gigawatt-hours. The work done in the two phases of the project is described and commented on. The first phase involved the measurement and analysis of power consumption; in the second phase measures to be taken to help save energy were developed. The various machinery and installations in this saw mill are described. These include various systems for the processing of the raw timber through to finished products that include wood for building, decoration and laminates. Measurement data is presented and commented on. Potentials for saving electricity and measures to be taken are described in detail for the various processing plants in the saw-mill.

  19. Combined micro-cogeneration and electric vehicle system for household application: An energy and economic analysis in a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    -thinking of entire energy infrastructures and types of consumption. The Agenda also suggested, among other things, improving the efficiency of energy systems. In this paper, the interactions between charging an electric car and an innovative cogeneration system for household application (micro-solid oxide fuel cell...... with an integrated heating system) are investigated. The charge of the electric car by the cogenerator produces waste heat that can be used to partially cover the heat demand of the house. In this way it may be possible to increase overall efficiency and decrease total energy costs. Different innovative strategies...... are proposed and analyzed to manage charging an electric car and efficiently using the waste heat available. The aims of this study are to make the system grid-independent, to decrease the thermal stress of SOFCs and to determine the nominal power of an integrated heating system. The results show energy...

  20. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  1. Electricity Profile Study for Domestic and Commercial Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Asmarashid Ponniran; Nur Azura Mamat; Ariffudin Joret

    2012-01-01

    As Malaysia move towards as a developed country, it is expected that the electricity consumption in domestic and commercial sectors will increase as well as more industrials and households need. This study is to investigate the electricity profile in domestic and commercial sectors by monitoring some appropriate appliances that contribute high electricity consumption. The characteristics for every major loads are examined and the potential energy saving is compared to an efficient electrical ...

  2. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  3. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Energy data base for traction units - Annex 5; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 5: Energiedatenbank Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how various data sources on the energy consumption of the SBB's traction units can be combined into an energy-data basis. In this way, the considerable amount of work previously involved in combining and correlating data can be avoided. The aims being followed in the realisation of the traction data base are examined and discussed. The data base will provide the basis for the manual detail analysis of energy consumption within the framework of the overall efforts to save electricity using efficient train management.

  4. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences

  5. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  6. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Salzberg, Emily [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  7. Predicting the market potential of plug-in electric vehicles using multiday GPS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mobashwir; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2012-01-01

    GPS data for a year's worth of travel by 255 Seattle households illuminate how plug-in electric vehicles can match household needs. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100 mi of range should meet the needs of 50% of one-vehicle households and 80% of multiple-vehicle households, when charging once a day and relying on another vehicle or mode just 4 days a year. Moreover, the average one-vehicle Seattle household uses each vehicle 23 mi per day and should be able to electrify close to 80% of its miles, while meeting all its travel needs, using a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with 40-mile all-electric range. Households owning two or more vehicles can electrify 50 to 70% of their total household miles using a PHEV40, depending on how they assign the vehicle across drivers each day. Cost comparisons between the average single-vehicle household owning a Chevrolet Cruze versus a Volt PHEV suggest that, when gas prices are $3.50 per gallon and electricity rates are at 11.2 ct/kWh, the Volt will save the household $535 per year in operating costs. Similarly, the Toyota Prius PHEV will provide an annual savings of $538 per year over the Corolla. - Highlights: ► Daily travel distances over a year were obtained for 255 Seattle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of daily needs for 50% of one-vehicle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of needs for 80% of multi-vehicle households. ► One-vehicle households will electrify close to 80% of their miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs. ► Two-vehicle households can electrify 50 to 70% of household miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs.

  8. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  9. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  10. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  11. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  12. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  13. The rise of corporate savings

    OpenAIRE

    Roc Armenter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several developed economies have experienced large changes in how much households and firms save. In fact, a sharp increase in firms’ savings behavior has changed the net position of the (nonfinancial) corporate sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. ; Why have firms in the business of producing goods or services become lenders? This is quite at odds with traditional models of corporate finance, which suggest that firms issue debt and equity to fund their operati...

  14. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  15. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  16. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  17. Design of variable energy and price components of electricity tariffs as an incentive for system-efficient energy management of flexible consumers in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change, both the heating and transport sectors will need to be electrically driven, with the higher electrical demand met by emission-free technologies, in addition to general efficiency improvements. On the generation side, wind and photovoltaic power plants must have a rated power significantly exceeding the current peak demand, in order to cover this increased electrical requirement. On the consumption side, heat pumps and private electric vehicles will increase the percentage of energy withdrawn at the low-voltage level of the new system. Given the right incentives, these customers will shift the energy demand in such a way as to benefit the system. This flexibility can be used as a tool to deal with variable renewable insertion while avoiding simultaneous overloading of the power grid. This thesis analyses and evaluates the effects of different electricity tariff designs on energy consumption. These tariffs should incentivise households to adapt their energy consumption to market prices, without inducing critical peak demands in times of particularly low prices. Therefore, time-varying energy price components and power price components are combined into flexible electricity tariffs and implemented as target functions within an optimization problem. The cost-minimizing effect of household energy management is determined under these flexible tariffs, and the effects of the tariff designs on energy consumption and the induced costs are evaluated. Additionally, the results of the flexible tariff approach are compared with results from a centralized optimization by a virtual power plant. It is possible to develop a design for a suitable flexible tariff that decreases the energy procurement costs of electric vehicles while simultaneously reducing peak demand in comparison to a single real-time pricing incentive. Furthermore, this thesis shows that certain kinds of electricity tariff design do not only fail to support but actually

  18. Continuous Steering Stability Control Based on an Energy-Saving Torque Distribution Algorithm for a Four in-Wheel-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as a hierarchical structure, including the reference model level, the upper-level controller, and the lower-level controller. The upper-level controller adopts the direct yaw moment control (DYC, which is designed to work continuously during the steering maneuver to better ensure steering stability in extreme situations, rather than working only after the vehicle is judged to be unstable. An adaptive two-hierarchy energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is developed in the lower-level controller with the friction ellipse constraint as a basis for judging whether the algorithm needs to be switched, so as to achieve a more stable and energy-efficient steering operation. The proposed stability controller was validated in a co-simulation of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different steering maneuvers indicate that the proposed controller, compared with the conventional servo controller and the ordinary continuous controller, can reduce energy consumption up to 23.68% and improve the vehicle steering stability.

  19. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenheer, Jorna; Nooij, Michiel de; Sheikh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  20. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  1. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  2. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  3. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  4. Blue Line Innovations brochure : Think green, act smart, save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Blue Line Innovations Inc. is working with leading electric utilities and regulatory agencies to provide smart-home technologies to consumers for demand-side management. Their latest product is the PowerCost Monitor, a real-time feedback product that help households understand and reduce the amount of electricity they use. The monitor, which reveals electricity use in real-time by both total and current cost and kilowatt hour, uses wireless encrypted technology to send usage information from an outside meter to an in-home display. The small detector/transmitter can be easily installed to an existing household electro-mechanical utility meter by the homeowner without an electrician or service disruption. Studies have shown that when domestic users are provided with real-time feedback on electricity usage, they can reduce their energy bills by as much as 20 per cent. This in-home measuring and reporting unit helps customers make decisions about changing their usage habits, purchasing electricity-saving light and appliances and conserving energy. In a demonstration project, Hydro-One installed PowerCost Monitors in the homes of Hydro One customers in Ontario in July 2004. The objective was to determine the extent of changes in customer behaviour and reductions in electricity consumption resulting from direct real-time feedback information on electricity consumption. Other demonstration projects have been launched in conjunction with CEA Technologies Inc., Natural Resources Canada, Newfoundland Power and BC hydro to install the monitors in homes on both coasts of Canada. Governments, utilities, communities and individuals are recognizing that saving energy is a critical factor to sustainable development by conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. A list of suggestions for reducing electricity use in lighting, kitchens, laundry and heating and cooling were also presented. 1 fig.

  5. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  6. Consumers’ perceptions of energy use and energy savings: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesic, Vedran; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Davis, Matthew C.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Azevedo, Inês M. L.

    2018-03-01

    Background. Policy makers and program managers need to better understand consumers’ perceptions of their energy use and savings to design effective strategies for promoting energy savings. Methods. We reviewed 14 studies from the emerging interdisciplinary literature examining consumers’ perceptions electricity use by specific appliances, and potential savings. Results. We find that: (1) electricity use is often overestimated for low-energy consuming appliances, and underestimated for high-energy consuming appliances; (2) curtailment strategies are typically preferred over energy efficiency strategies; (3) consumers lack information about how much electricity can be saved through specific strategies; (4) consumers use heuristics for assessing the electricity use of specific appliances, with some indication that more accurate judgments are made among consumers with higher numeracy and stronger pro-environmental attitudes. However, design differences between studies, such as variations in reference points, reporting units and assessed time periods, may affect consumers’ reported perceptions. Moreover, studies differ with regard to whether accuracy of perceptions was evaluated through comparisons with general estimates of actual use, self-reported use, household-level meter readings, or real-time smart meter readings. Conclusion. Although emerging findings are promising, systematic variations in the measurement of perceived and actual electricity use are potential cause for concern. We propose avenues for future research, so as to better understand, and possibly inform, consumers’ perceptions of their electricity use. Ultimately, this literature will have implications for the design of effective electricity feedback for consumers, and related policies.

  7. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody [Hyperion Power Generation, Inc., 369 Montezuma Ave, Suite 508, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining

  8. Water savings through off-farm employment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachong Castro, V.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.; Qu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the relationship between off-farm employment of rural households and water-saving investments and irrigation water use in rural China. Design/methodology/approach – Data from a survey held among 317 households in Minle County, Zhangye

  9. Demand side management—A simulation of household behavior under variable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalt, Sebastian; Ketter, Wolfgang; Block, Carsten; Collins, John; Weinhardt, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Within the next years, consumer households will be increasingly equipped with smart metering and intelligent appliances. These technologies are the basis for households to better monitor electricity consumption and to actively control loads in private homes. Demand side management (DSM) can be adopted to private households. We present a simulation model that generates household load profiles under flat tariffs and simulates changes in these profiles when households are equipped with smart appliances and face time-based electricity prices. We investigate the impact of smart appliances and variable prices on electricity bills of a household. We show that for households the savings from equipping them with smart appliances are moderate compared to the required investment. This finding is quite robust with respect to variation of tariff price spreads and to different types of appliance utilization patterns. Finally, our results indicate that electric utilities may face new demand peaks when day-ahead hourly prices are applied. However, a considerable amount of residential load is available for shifting, which is interesting for the utilities to balance demand and supply. - Highlights: ► Our model generates residential load profiles that are based on real world data. ► We simulate changes in load profiles when smart appliances and time-of-use tariffs are applied. ► The economic incentive for households to invest in smart appliances is low. ► Time-of-use tariffs create new, even higher peaks. ► Electric utilities have a large amount of the hourly load available for shifting.

  10. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  11. A patient with severely reduced LV function and electrical storm saved by wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Margit; Kouraki, Kleopatra; Skarlos, Alexandros; Zahn, Ralf; Kleemann, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is indicated in patients who are considered to be at temporarily high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), when an implantable defibrillator is not yet clearly indicated. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with a newly diagnosed severely reduced left ventricular (LV) function for suspected myocarditis and repeated nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). This patient was supplied with a WCD who came back to the hospital 4 weeks after discharge with an electrical storm and adequate discharge of the WCD. After application of amiodarone, no further arrhythmias were detected during intrahospital course. For further risk stratification, we performed a magnetic field imaging (MFI), that was reported to be useful in risk assessment of SCD in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. This measurement showed a normal result, but we decided to give an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to the patient. During a follow-up of 1 year, no further arrhythmias occurred. With this case, we report the efficacy of a WCD, which is a novel tool in patients at temporarily high risk of SCD and we report a novel method of risk stratification in patients with a high risk of SCD.

  12. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  13. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  14. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of advanced household electric appliance recycling technology; 1998 nendo senshinteki kaden recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a household electric appliance recycling technology, research and development has been made on crushing of compressors, separation of resins and metals, and regenerative utilization of urethane used as the refrigerator heat insulating material. In the compressor crushing technology, development was made on a ring hammer crusher of wood pattern horizontal type. In the research of the resin-metal separation technology, the dry-type separation and material purity were enhanced successfully by means of classification of materials to be crushed according to grain sizes, and classification using an eddy current screening device and a specific gravity screening device. In the research of the urethane regenerative utilization technology, the contained fluorocarbon was decomposed at the rate of 99.999% by modifying and rinsing the pyrolytic gas from the urethane by means of cracking, having achieved to make the material innocuous. The fuel gas thus obtained can be utilized for electric power generation. In addition, a method to granulate the material was established by mixing it with thermo-plastic resins. It was discovered that using the recovered urethane, which is pulverized smaller than 300 {mu} m, can elevate the heat insulation performance when it is used as the vacuum heat insulator, proving its capability of being re-utilized in refrigerators. (NEDO)

  16. The early adoption of green power by Dutch households An empirical exploration of factors influencing the early adoption of green electricity for domestic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, Karlijn; Oerlemans, Leon

    2005-01-01

    The results of this study provide empirical insight into factors influencing the early adoption of green electricity by Dutch residential users. Earlier research revealed that early adoption is closely related to social visibility, which is lacking in the case of green power. This raises the question of which factors influence adoption in the absence of visibility. The contributions of this study are threefold. First, we used a theoretical perspective in which a cognitive approach was combined with an economic approach leading to a more comprehensive framework. Second, the empirical focus on residential users of renewable resources is relatively new. Third, the results of our analyses provide insights into factors influencing early (non-)adoption, knowledge which could be valuable to market actors and governments stimulating the adoption of sustainable consumer products. For our theoretical framework, we distinguished three sets of independent variables: factors related to (1) the technical system, (2) individuals, and (3) economic issues. Data collection took place among households just 1 month before the liberalisation of the Dutch green electricity market, creating a unique database of residential (non-)users. Our results show that the proposed extended model is more powerful than partial models. Moreover, our findings suggest that cognitive and economic intentional variables, as well as variables indicating basic knowledge and actual environmental behaviour in the past, are strong predictors of the probability of adoption. The paper closes with research-based recommendations for practitioners

  17. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  18. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  19. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Summary of the final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-06-13

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby components is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off-mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Germany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numerous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year standby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electricity amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studies show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on both national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increase in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject have already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technically feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy policy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principle, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-control measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Compulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional decision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, production and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with comparatively low

  20. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Oguchi; 2000 nendo Oguchi-shi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for City of Oguchi to help spread the energy-saving practices through the citizens, based on the studies on more efficient and realizable energy-saving measures, including effective utilization of district energy. The energy-saving activities cover the following 6 areas: (1) energy demand trends and current status of energy-saving measures, (2) basic environmental conditions related to energy saving in the district, (3) prediction of energy demands, (4) basic conception of the district energy saving, and introduction methodology, (5) energy-saving implementation plans, and (6) promotion of and problems involved in introduction of the energy-saving measures. The energy-saving implementation plans cover the public facilities, household, schools and private enterprises, and the energy-saving measures studied for the public facilities include introduction of microhydroelectric power generation systems for service water and sewer systems, revolving doors for libraries, high-efficiency illumination systems, and various types of solar systems. Those for household include economic utilization of home electric appliances and automobiles, and those for cooperation by the administration and citizens include thorough separation of garbage. (NEDO)

  1. Geology of Woman Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Madani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Money is lubricant and an instrument for economic transaction. Money social dimension has increased over time, transforming it from a sole economic instrument to a device for various transactions. Money economic value in society is indicated through different forms, one of which is saving, in the sense of money accumulation and its use under specific future circumstances. Women, who form half of the society, take specific approaches to money and savings. The current research aims to investigate the perspectives and changing attitude strategy to money and saving among married women. The participants of this study include 20 to 70 year-old employed household married women who were observed phenomenologically and interviewed qualitatively on saving through.   The findings of this study demonstrated women perspectives on various types of saving, ways of saving, transfer methods, saving consumption forms and their mechanism. It also revealed that while money is an economic instrument and possess the economic material; attitudes and acts related to money are influenced by social conditions that has consequently turned saving into a social phenomenon.

  2. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  3. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  4. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  5. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  6. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L R [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  7. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Francisco Javier; González, Rosa Marina; Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  8. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  9. Electricity savings ``soon come'' to Jamaica -- Assessing the potential for air conditioning and refrigeration end-use DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, T.; Hamzawi, E.; Campbell, V.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the national electric utility in Jamaica (Jamaica Public Service Company) has begun an assessment of the technical, economic, and financial opportunities for achieving demand-side management (DSM) energy savings in the air conditioning and refrigeration end uses. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of specific measures is being assessed for both the residential and commercials segments. While structures as a traditional load-research-based market assessment, the project uses ethnographic data collection and analysis techniques and involves collaboration with local contractors. The skills of local experts are being taped to identify and interview the key market players, and to develop an understanding of the barriers to and opportunities for energy efficiency present in the evolving equipment markets. The paper outlines methods and presents preliminary case study results for the air conditioning market. The authors identify major groups of market players and dominant types of equipment, and provide an overview of market dynamics. The volume of sales passing through both formal and informal distribution channels is estimated and market barriers are identified. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations will be made for future program and policy initiatives designed to mitigate selected barriers in each of the supply chains.

  10. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)—a high average and/or low variance return—increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes. PMID:20352013

  11. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  12. Energy saving house utilizing photovoltaic system. 3; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Various measurements are conducted in an energy-efficient house equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system and actually lived in by people, and matching between the household load and photovoltaic power generation, and the consumption of power, are examined. As the result investigation of power consumption in the house, it is found that 13.31kWh is consumed in the daytime in winter, and 14.15kWh in summer. Thirty-two 153W modules are used, and they produce 12.74kWh in four hours on a fine summer day, which amount nearly satisfies the demand of the household. As for the records during a year beginning in May, 1996, it is found that an annual amount of 4326kWh was generated, with 68% being surplus and 32% consumed for the household. Details of the household consumption were that 49.2% was consumed for house heating and cooling and 34.1% for cooking, the two in total occupying more than 80% of the whole household consumption. Energy-saving behavior is evaluated by comparing the energy-efficient house with some ordinary residential houses in Kumamoto City, and it is found that there is a yearly difference of 104,310 yen in electricity bill or 47% in energy saving effect. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Keeping energy visible? Exploring how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors in the longer term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how, over a 12-month period, UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic electricity consumption in a field trial of real time displays or smart energy monitors. Drawing on the findings of 11 follow-up qualitative interviews with householders involved in a ‘Visible Energy Trial’, the paper suggests that: (i) over time, smart energy monitors gradually become ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines and practices; (ii) the monitors do increase householders’ knowledge of and confidence about the amount of electricity they consume; (iii) but, beyond a certain level and for a wide variety of reasons, the monitors do not necessarily encourage or motivate householders to reduce their levels of consumption; and (iv) once equipped with new knowledge and expertise about their levels of electricity consumption, household practices may become harder to change as householders realise the limits to their energy saving potential and become frustrated by the absence of wider policy and market support. The paper concludes by reflecting on the policy and research implications of these findings in relation to future transition pathways to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► We interviewed 11 householders who had used a smart energy monitor for 12 months. ► The monitors did help interviewees learn about their energy use. ► Over time, the monitors became ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines. ► After early behaviour changes, the monitors did not motivate further energy saving. ► The monitors may ‘harden’ energy use patterns in the absence of wider support.

  14. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  15. AutoPowerOff plug banks - a story with energy saving perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort Jensen, Anders (The Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark)); Fjordbak, Troels (IT Energy ApS (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Denmark uses around 35 TWh of electricity per year, with residential dwellings accounting for around 10 TWh of this figure. Standby consumption comprises around 12% of power used in homes. If every Danish home installed AutoPowerOff plug banks, savings exceeding 500 GWh per year would be possible, equivalent to 5% of household electricity consumption, or 1.5% of the total in Denmark. This paper describes the estimated standby consumption in Danish homes in 2006, and possible energy savings through the use of AutoPowerOff plug banks. The estimates were subsequently used as background information for a 2007-2008 campaign to promote the wider use of these devices in Denmark. In order to increase the sale of AutoPowerOff plug banks by 1 million units, it was agreed that retail chains selling consumer electronics would include an AutoPowerOff when selling a TV or PC. A nationwide TV advertising campaign was launched featuring the names of participating retailers. Sales of AutoPowerOff plug banks in the first 7 months of 2008 passed the 515,000 mark, with over 1 million units now installed in 2.5 million Danish households. Annual savings are estimated to be over 80 GWh, equivalent to 40,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. This equates to potential savings on an EU-wide basis of more than 7 TWh, or 3.6 million tons of CO{sub 2} in Denmark.

  16. Positive impact of circuit feedback by means of compensation effects. Energy saving lamps.; Positive Beeinflussung der Netzrueckwirkungen durch Kompensationseffekte. Energiesparlampen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadflieg, Dieter [Forum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb im VDE, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-30

    The rectifier of modern energy saving lamps can have disturbing effects on the public power distribution network. An investigation by the Technical University of Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany) on behalf of the Forum Network Technology / Network Operation in VDE association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany) examined the compensation effects during the simultaneous operation of such lamps with other household appliances in a realistic scenario.

  17. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  18. Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, Humberto; Becker, Cristhian; Echiburu, Diego; Escudero, William; Fucks, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 Chile has had a Daylight Saving Time (DST) policy in order to reduce residential electricity consumption in the country. The time change was set for the first time by executive decree in 1970, and since that date it was applied every year without great changes until 2010. Since then, and to date, decrees have been set in order to increase the duration of the DST, arguing that there are reasons associated with energy savings that justify the extension of the measure that has been adopted by the authority in recent years. In the present study the impact of the application of DST in terms of decreased household electricity consumption is analyzed using two complementary methods, one based on a heuristic approach and the other using an econometric model. The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption, although these results are not homogeneous throughout the country. - Highlights: • The impact of the application of DST is analyzed in Chilean distribution networks. • The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption. • A total energy reduction is estimated based on the proposed methodology.

  19. How do we value our income from which we save?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Liberda; Marek Pęczkowski; Ewa Gucwa-Leśny

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between the perception of income as satisfying household needs and saving rate of this household. Using the multinomial logit regression function we measure the probability of a household to fall into one of the groups categorized by the subjective perception of income in relation to the current household disposable income. The variable specified for the valuation of income is income perception, defined as a class of observed disposable income located...

  20. Electricity: France tries to restore efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, L.; Mulot, R.

    2012-01-01

    While recalling some data regarding the French energy consumption and its costs for the French households, the authors evoke Premio, the oldest experimental smart grid in Europe, and describe its operation. They comment the experience made in Brittany where households are warned when a consumption peak occurs, and will be equipped with devices which will automatically cut the electricity in this situation. They outline the role smart grids could have in energy savings. They also comment the possibilities of the Linky smart meter and the associated network security problems

  1. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  2. An analysis of Water Supply Heat Pump's Capability of Energy Storage and Energy Saving Using Electricity%水源热泵系统蓄能节能的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 张小松

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of water supply heat pump (WLHP) is introduced. The thermal performanceand effect of energy saving that can be used to heating and cooling at the same time (the distinctive working mode) is em-phasized. A new idea of heat input using wave trough electricity instead of boilers is brought up, the effect and significance ofthis new method is discussed.

  3. Evolution of residential electricity demand by end-use in Quebec 1979-1989: A conditional demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Perron, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the main conclusions are presented from a temporal analysis of three large-scale electricity demand surveys (1979, 1984, and 1989) for the Quebec residential sector. A regression method called conditional demand analysis was used. The study allows a number of conclusions about certain electricity consumption trends by end-uses from 1979 to 1989 by household type and by vintage category. For example, the results indicate that decreasing electricity consumption between 1979 and 1984 for a typical dwelling equipped with electric space heating was mainly related to a large decline in net heating consumption. Overall, the results suggest that some permanent energy savings have been realized by a typical household equipped with an electric heating system due to improvements in standards and changes in customer behavior. These energy savings were partly offset by increased electricity consumption from the purchase of new appliances and an increase in the demand for hot water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  4. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  5. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. Verification experiment on the technology to reduce stand-by power of household electric appliances; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden seihin taikiji denryoku sakugen gijutsu no jissho jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Study was made of the energy conservation by reducing stand-by consumption power of household electric appliances. In the study, remote control, household electric appliance, and outlet box were developed, and a system was developed in which each of the three was connected by network and the commercial power source supply is cut off at the time of the stand-by state of household electric appliances. The outlet box collectively manages timer information and reservation information. User sends out control command toward the outlet box using the two-way remote control, and controls all the household electric appliances connected via network. The screen data of household electric appliances are sent to the two-way remote control via the outlet box and presented to user. When the time comes for automatic execution such as video recording during absence, the outlet box carries commercial power source to household electric appliances. Using these appliances, verification experiment was carried out in the model house which was built with the ordinary house as model. A reduction in stand-by consumption power, approximately 218kWh/year(center dot)household, was verified. (NEDO)

  7. FINANCIAL SITUATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS SAVING IN POLISH SOCIETY:EVIDENCE FROM MICRO DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA MARIA KŁOPOCKA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Savings of the household sector are undoubtedly very important both in terms of micro- (for the optimum personal finance management and macroeconomics (from the perspective of the economic growth. Furthermore, the major transformation has occurred in the household saving behavior in Poland in recent years. This is due to sharp changes in the functioning of the households in the period of economic transformation and is the result of the global financial and economic crisis. This paper provides empirical evidence of the complex interrelations of income, level of optimism/pessimism, attitudes towards saving and households' consumption–savings decisions. There is a strong income and savings relationship due to the positive income effect on the household saving propensity (through the increased motivation and the long run planning acceptance and the saving ability due to ample satisfaction of household consumption needs. Higher income leads to the self-restraint rejection. The level of household optimism/pessimism exerts a substantial effect on the saving motives and attitudes towards saving. The decreasing expectations leads to the slope of the overall saving motivation. Moreover pessimists seem to reveal the lowest inclination to deliberate saving. Simultaneously, they seem to be most suspicious about the bank loan incurring. The level of optimism is positively associated with both the share of savers and the level of accumulated savings.

  8. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  9. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  10. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  11. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J M [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  12. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  13. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  14. 209 Effect of Cooperatives on the Savings Behaviour of Members in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... impacted positively on the savings behavior of members. .... On a second side, savings can be actively planned in binding agreements, like .... theory based on the permanent income over the life-cycle of a household, and.

  15. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  16. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  17. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  18. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  19. Energy saving in the household. Vol. 2. A reasoning interview investigation on the current consumption differential in the summer time in a residential block estate. Energisparing i husstellet. Vol. 2. En intervju-undersoekelse om aarsaker til forskjeller i stroemforbruket om sommeren i et blokkomraade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilstad, S; Lund, I

    1983-01-01

    The present study represents a behavioral approach to residential energy (electricity) conservation. It is especially concerned with socio-psychological variabales like habits, attitudes, social control and mass communication. In addition to that, the effects of family structural variables (size, age, occupation, absence from home), some physical environmental variables and household equipment and appliances are investigated. (Some data on the use of private cars are also included). The sample consists of 113 appartments of identical size (94 m/sup 2/), heated by electricity. The data collection procedure included reading the electric meters in May and September 1982 and systematic interviews with each family after the second reading. The general purpose of the data analysis was to explain the variance in electricity consumption. The most important determinants for differences between families in electricity consumption during the investigated summer period were found to be: family size, number of weeks away from home, use of heating equipment, and attitudes toward energy conservation at home. A number of other factors also contributed substantially to the differences, e.g. age, the use of hot water, size and placement of home freezer, frequency of using washing mashine and dish washer, the use of light, perceived consequences of energy conservation, family cooperation etc. Practical implications for disseminating information on energy conservation in the residential sector through mass media campaigns are discussed.

  20. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  1. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  2. Analysis of savings mobilization determinants among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that 90% were within the age group of 30 to 69 years while about 79% ... The average family size was six while about 37% of the sampled household heads had ... Key words: Savings mobilization, income and determinants ...

  3. Photovoltaic energy in France. Individual domestic self-consumption: until 20 pc of savings on electric power bills and a return on investment greater than 100 pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorgeril, Charlotte de; Ribeyrolles, Charlyne; Robert-Baby, Xavier; Landesman, Olga; Lausseure, Martine

    2017-11-01

    This analysis presents the context within which domestic energy self-consumption is integrated into the French market, perspectives of development of the sector, and profitability potential assessments for households. It describes the context and mechanisms of self-consumption, outlines dynamics which favour self-consumption in France, identifies conditions for a profitable business model, and discusses levers of support of the self-consumption sector in France

  4. Feasibility study on data collection in the electricity sector for the household goods, home entertainment, office, communications and industrial areas; Machbarkeitsstudie Datenerhebung im Elektrizitaetsbereich, Bereiche Hausgeraete, Unterhaltungselektronik, Buero- und Kommunikationsgeraete, Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Schaltegger, B. [Meyer und Schaltegger AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, W. [Basics AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    To improve the data situation, and as a management instrument, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy wants to create a quantitative overview of the consumption of electrical energy. In a feasibility study carried out for this purpose, the current data situation was investigated and it showed in which range of applications and at what cost detailed information could be gathered. The investigation is part of a comprehensive study concerning the opportunities for improvement of the electrical energy statistics. In principle, the entire electrical energy consumption of Switzerland will be covered. This report embraces the household equipment, entertainment electronic equipment, office and communications equipment and the industrial consumer groups. In various sectors, survey and calculation models can be supplied that provide data of a high quality. It can be shown that a massive improvement in the data situation, compared to the current situation, can be achieved at a moderate cost. In the case of household equipment, entertainment electronic equipment, office and communications equipment, good quality data can be ascertained with a bottom-up estimate. Various empirical studies, as well as the linking of this data, are necessary for this. Because of the complexity and diversity of equipment in the industrial consumer group, other methodological estimates will be proposed. (author)

  5. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  6. Children's Education as the Most Important Savings Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaney, Sharon A.; Chien, Yi-Wen

    2002-01-01

    Factors related to the importance of saving for children's education were identified in a study of 1,332 couples from the 1998 Survey of Consumer Finances. Factors included number of children in the household, age and health of head of household, and employment of spouse. (JOW)

  7. Los determinantes a largo plazo y su contribución a la tasa de ahorro de los hogares españoles en el período 1985-2016 || Long-term determinants and its contribution to Spanish household saving rate during the period 1985-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Andrés Mosquera, Andrés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo estudia el comportamiento de la tasa de ahorro de los hogares en el período de 1985 a 2016. Se examinan las variables que la literatura considera que determinan la tasa de ahorro a largo plazo: renta, riqueza, desempleo, crédito y endeudamiento, ahorro público, estructura de la población, prestaciones sociales, tipos de interés y precios. Tras revisar la cointegración de las variables elegidas, proponemos cuatro especificaciones de la tasa de ahorro en función de sus determinantes a largo plazo: la renta permanente, la riqueza, el desempleo, el crédito, la tasa de dependencia y las prestaciones sociales. En el marco del modelo de corrección de error, contrastamos complementariamente la cointegración de las variables que confirman la validez del modelo. Los resultados muestran la especial relevancia a largo plazo de la tasa de dependencia que, como variable demográfica estructural, permite prever en cierta medida la evolución de la tasa de ahorro. Las prestaciones sociales, que muestran la importancia a largo plazo del sistema de prestaciones público, junto con el crédito y el desempleo, determinan la tasa de ahorro a largo plazo en consonancia con la fase del ciclo económico. La renta laboral-permanente incide sobre la tasa de ahorro especialmente en los cambios profundos de ciclo. La repercusión a largo plazo de la riqueza es de menor magnitud. || The paper studies the behavior of the household saving rate during the period from 1985 to 2016. We examine the variables considered by the literature to determine the long-term saving rate: Income, wealth, unemployment, credit and indebtedness, public savings, population structure, social benefits, interest rates and prices. In the framework of the error correction model, we contrast the cointegration of the variables by means of four specifications for the saving rate according to its long-term determinants: Permanent income, wealth, unemployment, credit, dependency rate

  8. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  9. Student saving, does it exist? : A study of students' saving behavior, attitude towards saving and motivation to save.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Joakim; Yu, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    Swedish households are getting deeper in debt and house prices keeps on rising. This is what happened in USA and it was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis. To avoid a similar crisis in Sweden we think one part of the solution is to make sure that those who are students today and soon will get jobs, buy houses, take loans etcetera have necessary knowledge to do so. Students’ saving is an area that almost completely lacked researchers’ attention, and one goal with this thesi...

  10. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  11. Progressive electricity tariffs for consumers in Germany?; Progressive Stromtarife fuer Verbraucher in Deutschland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Kerstin [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik

    2011-10-15

    More than a quarter of electricity use in Germany is accounted for by private households. This market segment holds vast saving potentials which are not sufficiently made use of to date. If efficiency of electricity use is to serve as a bridge to an era of a nuclear-free power supply, the political realm must find ways of addressing the existing saving potentials more effectively. One possible instrument for creating incentives to save electricity on the demand side is seen in a system of progressive tariffs. How such a system would need to be designed in order to be compatible with the regime of a liberalised electricity market has yet to be investigated however.

  12. Rules of Thumb in Life-Cycle Saving Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Joachim; Schlafmann, Kathrin; Rodepeter, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    We analyse life-cycle saving decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. We simulate life-cycle saving decisions using three simple rules and compute utility losses relative to the solution of the optimization problem. Our simulations suggest that utility losses induced by following simple decision rules are relatively low. Moreover, the two main saving motives re ected by the canonical life-cyc...

  13. Three Players Nash Equilibrium Game Concerning the Charging Time and Place of Employee Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Tscharaktschiew, Stefan

    the charging time and increases the share of EVs as commuting mode, it results in unintended consequences including electricity peak-load problem, an increase in electricity tariff for household use, and an increase in car use that worsens traffic congestion. For the electricity supplier, workplace charging...... and when the labor tax is high; ii) employers pay less electricity tariff than households do; iii) the employment contract duration is long; iv) recharging electric vehicles (EVs) takes longer time and the value of time is higher. Accessibility of cheaper charging facility at workplace, while saves...... increases the cost of supplying electricity by aggravating the daytime peak-load problem and by increasing the demand variation from the mean. Tax based on yearly travel distance, and restriction on free workplace charging access improves social welfare. The results from this study are relevant in (i...

  14. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  15. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  16. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  17. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  18. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  19. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se

  20. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... resources of a household, only cash on hand, money in checking or savings accounts, savings certificates..., such as a Keogh plan or an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), as long as the funds remain in the... course would be excluded. However, transportation, supplies, and textbook expenses are not uniformly...

  1. Household preferences of hybrid home heating systems – A choice experiment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokamo, Enni

    2016-01-01

    The residential heating sector presents considerable energy savings potential, as numerous heating solutions for reducing electricity consumption and utilizing renewable energy sources are available in the market. The aim of this paper is to examine determinants of household heating system choices and to use this information for policy planning purposes. This paper investigates residential homeowner attitudes regarding innovative hybrid home heating systems (HHHS) with choice experiment. Heating system scenarios are designed to represent the most relevant primary and supplementary heating alternatives currently available in Finland. The choice sets include six main heating alternatives (district heat, solid wood, wood pellet, electric storage heating, ground heat pump and exhaust air heat pump) that are described by five attributes (supplementary heating systems, investment costs, operating costs, comfort of use and environmental friendliness). The results imply that HHHSs generally appear to be accepted among households; however, several factors affect perceptions of these technologies. The results reveal differing household attitudes toward the main heating alternatives and show that such views are affected by socio-demographic characteristics (age, living environment, education, etc.). The results suggest that households view supplementary heating systems (especially solar-based) favorably. The other attributes studied also play a significant role in decision making. - Highlights: •Study of hybrid heating where supplementary and main heating systems are combined. •Choice experiment is applied to study the determinants of hybrid heating adoption. •Hybrid heating appears to be generally accepted among households. •Households exhibit differing attitudes toward hybrid heating. •Policy makers should not underestimate the potential of hybrid heating.

  2. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  3. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Karaki, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO 2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  4. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  5. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-26

    Mar 26, 2011 ... by George Mason University (USA) and the Malawi National Health ... Only two participating households had electricity. None of the households had running water in the home. Although HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome .... households.3 Tobacco is Malawi's largest export, accounting for 6%.

  6. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  7. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  8. Thermodynamic and carbon analyses of micro-generators for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; Hammond, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-generators have the potential to reduce carbon emissions and enhance energy security by providing heat or electricity either from renewable sources, or via the more efficient use of fossil fuels. Such potential is often, however, unquantified or unclear, and hence a thermodynamic and related carbon analysis of micro-generators for UK household energy supply has been performed. Where pertinent, the thermodynamic concept of exergy is employed alongside that of energy. Analysis begins with a description of the established methods of energy supply to, and use within, typical UK households. On these foundations a grid-tied micro-wind turbine, a grid-tied solar photovoltaic array, and a solar hot-water system are analysed. Annual outputs are estimated and contextualised against the demands of representative households. The annual energy-resource and carbon savings provided by the micro-generators are determined on the basis that they (partially) displace the established supply systems. Savings are then compared with the energy-resource and carbon-emission 'debts' of the micro-generators, to assess the latter's net performance. Given appropriate installations, all three micro-generators are found to provide significant net energy and carbon benefits, confirming that all three technologies can provide net reductions in both carbon emissions and dependence on conventional energy resources.

  9. Test households' experiences with a feedback system for power consumption of appliances designed on the basis of user driven innovation. A qualitative study; Testhusholdningers erfaringer med et feedbacksystem for elforbrug paa apparatniveau designet paa basis af brugerdrevet innovation - en kvalitativ undersoegelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenhoej, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2010-03-15

    In the project a system was developed and tested to provide electricity consumers detailed feedback on their electricity consumption at equipment level. In twenty test households equipment was installed for collecting consumption data at equipment level, and a 7 inch screen was installed, which showed the household's consumption in (kWh). Electricity consumption could be read continuously and compared with earlier periods, both in total and at appliance level. The evaluation of the families' use of the system was performed both by interviewing the twenty families personally in their homes and by calculating the change in power consumption during the period of the feedback device, based on consumption data supplied by the electric utility. For most households the newly developed system caused many technical problems in the beginning. Yet, consumption data showed that the 19 families, who had no business activities at home, saved an average of approx. 8% on their electricity consumption compared to the previous year. A comparable control group achieved a saving of 0.8% over the same period. Overall, the project shows that if power companies are better to visualize the power consumption to their customers by remote meters and user feedback, this will very likely result in more informed and educated consumers and thus result in electricity savings. The project shows, however, that there are still major technical and design challenges inherent in making such a system effectively. (ln)

  10. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  11. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  12. Risk, opportunities and reasons of the household debt changes: The case of an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisimogang Tracy Seane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, household debt in both developed and developing countries have been increasing. With an increase in the standard of living, household debt is also bound to increase. This paper examines the cointergation and causal link among household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index and household debt in South Africa. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag and Granger causality techniques was used to analyse data collected from the South African Reserve Bank and Quantec from 1984 to 2014. The results of Autoregressive Distributed Lag test revealed cointegrating relationships between household debt and debt service ratio as well as household debt and lending interest rate. However, there is no long run cointegrating relationship between household disposable income, household savings and consumer price index with household debt. The Granger causality results revealed that household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index do Granger cause household debt in South Africa. Policy makers should thus target these variables in order to reduce household debt in South Africa

  13. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  14. The Scale, Structure and Influencing Factors of Total Carbon Emissions from Households in 30 Provinces of China—Based on the Extended STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Household carbon emissions are important components of total carbon emissions. The consumer side of energy-saving emissions reduction is an essential factor in reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, the carbon emissions coefficient method and Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA were used to calculate the total carbon emissions of households in 30 provinces of China from 2006 to 2015, and based on the extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model, the factors influencing the total carbon emissions of households were analyzed. The results indicated that, first, over the past ten years, the energy and products carbon emissions from China’s households have demonstrated a rapid growth trend and that regional distributions present obvious differences. Second, China’s energy carbon emissions due to household consumption primarily derived from the residents’ consumption of electricity and coal; China’s products household carbon emissions primarily derived from residents’ consumption of the high carbon emission categories: residences, food, transportation and communications. Third, in terms of influencing factors, the number of households in China plays a significant role in the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The ratio of children 0–14 years old and gender ratio (female = 100 are two factors that reflect the demographic structure, have significant effects on the total carbon emissions of China’s households, and are all positive. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita plays a role in boosting the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The effect of the carbon emission intensity on total household carbon emissions is positive. The industrial structure (the proportion of secondary industries’ added value to the regional GDP has curbed the growth of total carbon emissions from China’s household consumption. The results of this study provide data to support the

  15. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  17. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  18. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  19. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  1. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  2. Should the decline in the personal saving rate be a cause for concern?

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    2006-01-01

    The personal saving rate has received particular attention recently because saving was negative in 2005 for the first time since the Great Depression. Although saving declined in other developed countries during this period, the U.S. decline was more pronounced than in most of these countries. ; A major concern is whether U.S. households are providing adequately for long-term needs, such as future retirement and medical expenses. In addition, low personal saving has created short-run concerns...

  3. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  4. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  5. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... in households, and provides important clues about the potentiality to anchor energy strategies and plans in the social context of local households....

  6. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  7. Education in Rural Peru: Exploring the Role of Household Electrification in School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S.; Barnes, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs Peru's National Survey of Rural Household Energy Use data to investigate the correlation between household access to electricity and enrollment of children age 6-18 after taking into account individual-child and household level characteristics. Results indicate that children residing in households with access to electricity…

  8. Turning lights into flights: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Mona; Sorrell, Steve; Druckman, Angela; Firth, Steven K.; Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvements by households lead to rebound effects that offset the potential energy and emissions savings. Direct rebound effects result from increased demand for cheaper energy services, while indirect rebound effects result from increased demand for other goods and services that also require energy to provide. Research to date has focused upon the former, but both are important for climate change. This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from seven measures that improve the energy efficiency of UK dwellings. The methodology is based upon estimates of the income elasticity and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of 16 categories of household goods and services, and allows for the embodied emissions of the energy efficiency measures themselves, as well as the capital cost of the measures. Rebound effects are measured in GHG terms and relate to the adoption of these measures by an average UK household. The study finds that the rebound effects from these measures are typically in the range 5–15% and arise mostly from indirect effects. This is largely because expenditure on gas and electricity is more GHG-intensive than expenditure on other goods and services. However, the anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system in the UK may lead to much larger rebound effects. - Highlights: ► We estimate the direct and indirect rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements by UK households. ► We allow for the capital cost of the improvement, together with the emissions embodied in the relevant equipment. ► We find rebound effects to be relatively modest, in the range 5–15%. ► The anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system will lead to larger rebound effects

  9. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  10. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.......Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said...... and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting...

  11. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  12. Rules of thumb in life-cycle savings models

    OpenAIRE

    Rodepeter, Ralf; Winter, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    We analyze life-cycle savings decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. The decision rules we explore are a simple Keynesian rule where consumption follows income; a simple consumption rule where only a fraction of positive income shocks is saved; a rule that corresponds to the permanent income hypothesis; and two rules that have been found in experimental studies. Using these rules, we simulate lif...

  13. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  14. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  15. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  16. My Home - analysis of the easy and intelligent way to save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Goeran (The Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    The concept of the intelligent home is not new, but translating theory into reality presents many challenges. Launched in Denmark in October 2008, My Home is an interactive web portal offering consumers the opportunity to calculate their household energy consumption, receive advice on possible savings, and control and monitor their indoor environments by managing their energy consumption appropriately. This paper describes the software functionality of My Home and examines the energy saving benefits available to consumers who use this system to control and monitor electricity consumption in their homes. The paper further discusses the necessity of having a common infrastructure and standard for use by all producers and suppliers in order to ensure a mass market for compatible equipment and solutions. The analysis focuses on how My Home allows users to map energy consumption in their homes by using drag-and-drop icons to organise and equip a floorplan with their own electrical appliances. My Home features a calculator which automatically works out the annual electricity consumption and displays appropriate savings advice based on manually inputted readings or remote readings supplied by an electricity provider. Detailed statistical evaluation of metered values is also available. The extent to which the use of My Home has resulted in lower energy consumption in the homes of individual users is currently being determined by ongoing research. This involves examining users' motivations and needs, and testing for usability on the basis of ethnographic field work. The results showed that My Home facilitates easy configuration of home control and monitoring systems, which is normally very difficult to perform.

  17. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  18. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  19. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  20. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  1. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  2. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  3. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  4. Determinants of willingness to pay for smart meters: An empirical analysis of household customers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    As part of the move toward renewable energy sources in Germany it is expected that an increasing number of residential households will be equipped with communication-capable electricity metering systems (=“smart meters” [SM]). SM cause considerable investment and operating expenses. For providers of such systems one avenue to recoup SM costs is to explicitly invoice various SM price components to end customers. The feasibility of this strategy heavily depends on residential electricity customers' willingness to pay (WTP) for SM and, furthermore, an understanding of factors that have an impact on WTP. Therefore, the present article develops hypotheses on associations between three perceived SM benefit facets, one perceived intangible SM cost type as well as environmental awareness in general on the one hand, and WTP for SM on the other. The hypotheses are tested in a sample of 453 German-speaking residential electricity customers who filled in an online questionnaire. PLS analysis of the survey data reveals that trust in the protection of personal SM data and the intention to change one's electricity consumption behaviors after SM deployment are the constructs most strongly related to WTP for SM. Expectations regarding SM-triggered electricity volume saving and environmental awareness contributed less toward explaining WTP. Overall, the considered WTP antecedents left 72% of the criterion variance unaccounted for. Implications of the findings are discussed for electricity suppliers planning large-scale SM deployments and future research in the field of energy policy

  5. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  6. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  7. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  8. An investigation of a household size trigeneration running with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaodong; Huang, Ye; Chiremba, Elijah; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Hewitt, Neil; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Dawei; Yu, Hongdong; Chen, Xiangping; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi; Xia, Zaizhong; Tan, Chunqing

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the performance and emission characteristics of a household size trigeneration based on a diesel engine generator fuelled with hydrogen comparing to that of single generation, cogeneration using ECLIPSE simulation software. In single generation simulation, the engine genset is used to produce electricity only and the heat from the engine is rejected to the atmosphere. In cogeneration and trigeneration, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, the waste heat rejected from the hot exhaust gases and engine cooling system, is captured for domestic hot water supply using heat exchangers and hot water tank; and a part of the waste heat is used to drive absorption cooling in trigeneration. Comparisons have been made for the simulated results of these three modes of operation for hydrogen and diesel. The results prove that hydrogen is a potential energy vector in the future which is a key to meeting upcoming stringent greenhouse gases emissions. The study show that hydrogen has very good prospects to achieve a better or equal performance to conventional diesel fuel in terms of energetic performance, and a near zero carbon emission, depending on the life cycle analysis of the way the hydrogen is produced. The results also show enormous potential fuel savings and massive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy outputs with cogeneration and trigeneration compared with that of single generation.

  9. 'Am I as smart as my smart meter is?' - Swedish experience of statistics feedback to households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrko, Jurek (Lund University, Dept. of Energy Sciences (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of three cases from a study 'Information through digital channels and its potential to change electricity consumption patterns' within Elforsk ELAN-programme, AMR-Visualisation carried out by scientists from the Efficient Energy Use in Buildings Research Group at the Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University - LTH, Sweden. The main objective was to investigate the influence of improved energy feedback (Internet-based energy statistics services) on electricity savings and the potential of changing electricity use patterns in Swedish dwellings. The three case studies were conducted in collaboration with respective grid companies. The analysis integrated both quantitative and qualitative methods in order to investigate different aspects of customers' electricity consumption, energy behaviour, values and attitudes. Periods 'before' and 'after' the introduction of feedback measure were used. The customers were not influenced by the observations. An energy profile that would explore differences between users and non-users of the services (in terms of energy-related habits and behaviour) was used. The main hypothesis of this study assumed that the statistics service, as feedback to households, might lead to lower electricity consumption, thanks to better understanding of energy use patterns and costs. This hypothesis was not confirmed. The results of this study can be summarized in the following conclusions: - The users of the statistics service have shown either reduced or increased electricity use in the households. - The explanation why the households using the statistics service often have had increasing electricity usage could be that their rising power consumption caused a need to have better control over electricity needs and energy bills, and households started to use the statistics services for this reason. - The results did not confirm that users of statistics services have had significantly

  10. Miscellaneous electricity use in U.S. homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Marla C.; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Meier, Alan; Huber, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Historically, residential energy and carbon saving efforts have targeted conventional end uses such as water heating, lighting and refrigeration. The emergence of new household appliances has transformed energy use from a few large and easily identifiable end uses into a broad array of ''miscellaneous'' energy services. This group of so called miscellaneous appliances has been a major contributor to growth in electricity demand in the past two decades. We use industry shipment data, lifetimes, and wattage and usage estimates of over 90 individual products to construct a bottom-up end use model (1976-2010). The model is then used to analyze historical and forecasted growth trends, and to identify the largest individual products within the miscellaneous end use. We also use the end use model to identify and analyze policy priorities. Our forecast projects that over the period 1996 to 2010, miscellaneous consumption will increase 115 TWh, accounting for over 90 percent of future residential electricity growth. A large portion of this growth will be due to halogen torchiere lamps and consumer electronics, making these two components of miscellaneous electricity a particularly fertile area for efficiency programs. Approximately 20 percent (40 TWh) of residential miscellaneous electricity is ''leaking electricity'' or energy consumed by appliances when they are not performing their principal function. If the standby power of all appliances with a standby mode is reduced to one watt, the potential energy savings equal 21 TWh/yr, saving roughly$1-2 billion annually

  11. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  13. C. h. p. saves fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugas, C F

    1979-04-01

    A combined heat and power plant based on a diesel generator to produce 12MW of electricity and 12MW of heat has successfully supplied the town of Skultuna in Sweden during the winter and has saved 3,700t of oil annually.

  14. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour; Technische und rechtliche Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten einer verpflichtenden Kennzeichnung des Leerlaufverbrauchs strombetriebener Haushalts- und Buerogeraete - Dienstleistungsvorhaben Nr. 53/03. Abschlussbericht an das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-04-27

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby componen ts is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off -mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Ge rmany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numer ous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year stan dby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electrici ty amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studi es show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on bot h national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increa se in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject hav e already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technica lly feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy po licy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and offic e appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principl e, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-c ontrol measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Com pulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional d ecision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, producti on and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with

  15. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  16. Economic aspects of provision country household with food

    OpenAIRE

    Brunšek, Urška

    2016-01-01

    Food provides us satisfaction for our basic needs. We can buy or produce food, which is healthy and safe. Production of food can provide satisfaction for food for household or local population, such food is also easy to get. The purpose of diploma is to determinate if household save money with producing food and how much is it. I have analysed self providing rural household.. I collected information about quantity and sort of produced food and gained prices on the current market. This way ...

  17. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia. Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined

  18. The potential of decentralized power-to-heat as a flexibility option for the german electricity system: A microeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Lars G.; Klamka, Jonas; Wolf, André

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental challenge of the German energy transition for the electricity market is the growing imbalance between inflexible generation and generally inelastic load. Against this background, we investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat (P2H) as an additional demand-side flexibility option for the German electricity system. Precisely, we analyze the case of hybrid systems, where conventional gas and oil condensing boiler systems are equipped with an electric heating rod. In contrast to previous approaches, we set our focus on the economic incentives at household level: only if the switch to a P2H-hybrid system can reduce individual heating expenses significantly, a considerable number of these systems will be installed. For this purpose, we implemented an integrated approach combining three distinct simulation modules. First, a stochastic simulation of the electricity spot market prices in 2020 was conducted. Second, average heat load profiles were generated based on a standard bottom-up analysis. Both results were then fed into an optimization model calculating the cost-minimizing paths of heat generation at household level during the year 2020. The simulated annual savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced through political influence. - Highlights: • We investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat. • Focus lies on hybrid Power-to-Heat systems with condensing gas or oil boiler. • We analyze the economic incentives at household level. • Simulation of heat load profiles and spot prices in 2020. • Savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced.

  19. Poor Families Striving to Save in Matched Children's Savings Accounts: Findings from a Randomized Experimental Design in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M; Neilands, Torsten B

    2014-12-01

    This study examines participants' savings in children's savings accounts (CSAs) set up for AIDS-orphaned children ages 10-15 in Uganda. Using a cluster randomized experimental design, we examine the extent to which families participating in a CSA program report more savings than their counterparts not participating in the program, explore the extent to which families who participate in the CSA program report using formal financial institutions compared with families who do not have a CSA, and consider whether families participating in the CSA program bring new money into the CSA or whether they reshuffle existing household assets. We find that participating in a CSA increased families' likelihood to report having saved money. However, our results show no intervention effect either on the amount of self-reported savings or on the likelihood of using formal financial institutions. Further research is needed to understand whether use of a CSA helps families generate new wealth.

  20. Poor Families Striving to Save in Matched Children’s Savings Accounts: Findings from a Randomized Experimental Design in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines participants’ savings in children’s savings accounts (CSAs) set up for AIDS-orphaned children ages 10–15 in Uganda. Using a cluster randomized experimental design, we examine the extent to which families participating in a CSA program report more savings than their counterparts not participating in the program, explore the extent to which families who participate in the CSA program report using formal financial institutions compared with families who do not have a CSA, and consider whether families participating in the CSA program bring new money into the CSA or whether they reshuffle existing household assets. We find that participating in a CSA increased families’ likelihood to report having saved money. However, our results show no intervention effect either on the amount of self-reported savings or on the likelihood of using formal financial institutions. Further research is needed to understand whether use of a CSA helps families generate new wealth. PMID:25525282

  1. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  2. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  3. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2009-07-01

    Danish households use more than 30% of the total amount of energy being used in Denmark. More than 80% of this energy is dedicated to space heating. The same relation is seen in many OECD countries. The corresponding energy savings potential was recently estimated at 30% of the energy used in buildings. Energy labelling is seen as an important instrument to target these potential energy savings. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using real metered natural gas consumption and a very wide range of register data describing the houses and households. The study did not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, but more research would be needed to complement this conclusion

  4. Mental health and retirement savings: Confounding issues with compounding interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Vicki L; Fertig, Angela R

    2018-02-01

    The questionable ability of the U.S. pension system to provide for the growing elderly population combined with the rising number of people affected by depression and other mental health issues magnifies the need to understand how these household characteristics affect retirement. Mental health problems have a large and significant negative effect on retirement savings. Specifically, psychological distress is associated with decreasing the probability of holding retirement accounts by as much as 24 percentage points and decreasing retirement savings as a share of financial assets by as much as 67 percentage points. The magnitude of these effects underscores the importance of employer management policy and government regulation of these accounts to help ensure households have adequate retirement savings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  6. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  7. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  8. About instrumental innovation. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiz, Adam; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving certificates (in French CEE for certificats d'economie d'energie) have been implemented in 2006, and have proven to be a rather efficient tool of public policy, with a low cost, and a good social acceptability, notably due to its hybrid nature (incentive and coercive) in function of the targeted actors. Thus, this document addresses and discusses the interest of such instruments for the public environmental policy. It outlines that instruments tend to be always less coercive, and then comments the example of these energy saving certificates: brief presentation, discussion and explanation of their efficiency, multi-dimensional nature of this instrument, benefits of more or less coercive instruments depending on the actors (State, households, energy providers)

  9. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  10. Do Savings and Credit Institutions Reduce Vulnerability? New Evidence From Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Servin Juarez, Roselia; Berg, van den Marrit

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether membership in a savings and credit society (SACP) reduces vulnerability to poverty, using a representative survey from the National Savings and Financial Services Bank. The sample of households includes those that are and are not members of a SACP during 2004−2007.

  11. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  12. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  13. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  14. Does Household Income Matter for Children's Schooling? Evidence for Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Household income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few studies have made an effort to quantify the income elasticity of…

  15. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  16. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  17. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  18. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  19. How certain are Dutch households about future income? An emprical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Donkers, A.C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The precautionary saving literature shows that income uncertainty increases savings and wealth. To estimate the magnitude of this effect, we need a measure of income uncertainty. This paper empirically analyzes subjective income uncertainty in the Netherlands. Data come from a large Dutch household

  20. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  1. Households And Bio-Resources In Plateau State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasogot, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines household dynamics as variables for bio-resource or biomass resource potentials and utilisation. Information was collected from 250 randomly selected households in five villages of the State, mainly using questionnaire administered on household heads, and a direct measurement/observation about what households have, do or say concerning the study problem. It was shown that insignificant quantity were utilised for various purposes like cooking and heating, but the bio-resources generated met both domestic and income needs of the households. It was concluded that beneficial use (compost, biogas or generation of electricity) should be found for the largely unused bio-resources and household dynamics should be integrated into bio-resource energy planning

  2. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  3. On the methodological approaches to the study of saving behavior of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Vadimovna Belekhova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The task to ensure effective functioning of all systems in the society and sustainable economic growth requires significant amounts of investment resources, which include savings of the population. This involves identification of the amount of funds accumulated by the population and studies of the characteristics of its saving behavior. The article reveals advantages and disadvantages of the main methodological approaches to the research in saving behavior and gives a comparative analysis of methods on the basis of official statistical information. As for Russia income is a key factor in saving behavior, the article also addresses the problem of assessing the degree of income differentiation of saving behavior. For this purpose we have used a method of household budgets sample surveys on the basis of which we have calculated and analyzed key performance indicators of savings behavior of households, including in the context of groups with different income levels. Unlike previous works on the topic, our study uses available resources (not money income as a basis for the calculation of saving behavior indicators, as they more fully characterize funds of low-income households, which are mostly represented in the budget surveys sample. The performed analysis has helped identify that the degree of the population’s savings differentiation does not yield to the incomes differentiation, and the highest levels of savings and used financial assets belong to the well-to-do group. What is more, the growth in per capita income has not encouraged the poor to save. Thus, in contrast to the well-to-do, increasing the volume of savings in the cost structure, poorer groups direct the major part of funds for consumer needs and different payments. Thus, the share of savings in the overall structure of their income remains practically unchanged. The conclusion emphasizes that sociological methods can be used to study qualitative changes in saving behavior and

  4. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; van Foreest, N.D.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household

  5. Sign Up for Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  6. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE