WorldWideScience

Sample records for household demographics livelihoods

  1. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  2. Livelihood Activities And Wealth Ranking Among Rural Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livelihood Activities And Wealth Ranking Among Rural Households In The Farming Systems Of Western Kenya. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The study examined the relationship between the livelihood activities of rural households in the farming systems of Western Kenya in relation to their wealth. A stratified ...

  3. Livelihood Diversification Sources of Female Household Heads in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority (65.8%) of FHH did not have external sources of financial assistance while 21.7% were supported by their children. The study concluded that livelihoods of FHH were diversified mainly within agriculture and trading enterprises. Key words: Livelihood diversification, Female household heads, Rural communities.

  4. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    as Village Common Forests (VCFs), which provide valuable resources for community use. An investigation was made of the role of forest income in livelihoods of selected VCF communities in Bandarban and Rangamati districts of the CHTs. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed to examine...... the household livelihood system of the respondents selected at random from 7 villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and structured quarterly surveys. The contribution of all forest-related income was found to be much smaller (11.59 %) than that of agricultural income (77.......02 %) in average total household income. However, VCFs provide bamboos, which are the largest source of household forest income. Moreover, they harbour rich native tree diversity which is vital for maintaining perennial water sources upon which most household livelihood activities depend. Therefore, it seems...

  5. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  6. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.

  7. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers case of women pastoralist was carried out in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 100 women. The women are purposively sampled such that their husbands were pastoralists or that they are involved in pastoral farming.

  8. Combining household income and asset data to identify livelihood strategies and their dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to identifying and describing rural livelihood strategies, and household movements between strategies over time, in developing countries are imprecise. Here we: (i) present a new statistical quantitative approach combining income and asset data to identify household activity...... of livelihood strategies and household movements between strategies over time than using only income or asset data. Most households changed livelihood strategy at least once over the two three-year periods. A common pathway out of poverty included an intermediate step during which households accumulate assets...

  9. Household biomass energy choice and its policy implications on improving rural livelihoods in Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiu; Yang, Haoran; Liu, Tianbiao; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that a switch from traditional biomass energy to modern clean, safe and efficient energy could improve local rural livelihoods by enhancing the access to ‘high quality’ energy and reducing the negative impacts of traditional biomass energy on health, environment and living standards. Hence, in this paper, we used alternative-specific conditional logit model (ASCLM) to examine the rural household energy choice behaviors in Sichuan Province of China from the perspective of revealed and stated preferences. The results show that the fuel switching in our study region is not a simple unidirectional process from traditional biomass energy to modern fuels as incomes improve. Household energy choice behaviors could be not only affected by energy-specific characteristics such as fuel price, smoky level and safety risk, but also influenced by household-specific factors such as income level, age and educational level of the decision maker, household demographic structure, number of people frequently eating at home, distance to the nearest biomass collecting spot and household location, suggesting that government should attach more importance to simultaneously improve energy quality, control energy price and enhance household socio-economic status. - Highlights: •McFadden's choice model was applied to analyze household energy choice in Sichuan. •We examined household revealed and stated preferences for different fuels. •Household fuel switching is not a simple or unidirectional process. •Households prefer to use fuel with lower cost, higher safety and lower indoor pollution. •Household fuel choice is affected by interactions among multiple factors.

  10. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G. M. Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  11. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G M Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  12. [Agro-household livelihood vulnerability and influence factors of ethnic villages under different geomorphology backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen Wen; Liu, Xiao Peng; Pei, Yin Bao; An, Qiong; Li, Yong Hong

    2016-04-22

    The vulnerability and influence factors of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County, Ningxia were empirically analyzed utilizing set pair analysis and obstacle degree model, based on field survey data of impoverished agro-households in 2014. Results showed that vulnerability of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County was high in general while it exhibited geomorphological and ethnical differences. Vulnerability of agro-households livelihood in plain areas, valleys and intermountain depression areas were lower than that in earth-rock areas, loess ridge areas and moderately high mountain landform areas. Moreover, vulnerability of agro-household livelihood was higher in mixed Hui and Han ethnic villages than in mono Hui or Han ethnic villages. The villagers' lacking of necessities and the stress of sensitive external geographical environment were considered to be the fundamental reasons of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood. The unreasonable livelihood structure and the unvariant livelihood strategy caused the long-term accumulation of livelihood vulnerabi-lity. The nature of the local environment, which was not easy to change, decreased the accessibility of poverty alleviation resources. Building a clear village water rights allocation system, the implementation of counterpart-assistance to educate impoverished families, increasing investment in improving the diversities of means of living, developing the chains of comprehensive commodity market among villages, were necessary to improve the response capability of agro-household livelihood. The management of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood should put the 'Extending Roads to Every Village Project' on a more prominent position in the 'Extending Radio and TV Broadcasting Coverage to Every Village Project'. Furthermore, the combination of meteorological disaster prevention and insurance enterprise disaster reduction should be sought, and the agricultural production insurance system should be

  13. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Household Income Strategies and Natural Disasters: Dynamic Livelihoods in Rural Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of hurricane Mitch on livelihood strategies of rural households in Nicaragua. Through destruction or distress sales of productive assets, a hurricane or another natural hazard could induce people with relatively remunerative livelihoods to choose more defensive

  15. Effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihood of banana-farming households in Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguthi, F.N.; Niehof, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of banana-farming households in Maragua district, Central Kenya. It is based on the results of a field study carried out during 2004-2005. The study applied the sustainable livelihood approach, using both quantitative and qualitative

  16. Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

    Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included

  17. Sustainable Livelihood Approach For Assessing Household Adoption To Eviction Mau Forest Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadeya Akundabweni Juniour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that there is a challenge in protecting both natural resources and livelihoods simultaneously. However little is known when considering the number of livelihoods strategies affected by the effect of conservation methods. This paper seeks to investigate the outcome of sustainable livelihood diversification by considering the number of strategies affected by eviction on households neighboring the boundaries of the Mau forest in Kenya. It is well understood that double sustainability is achieved when environmental protection of biodiversity is attained and the livelihood of households affected focuses on a pro-poor strategy at the same time. The study employs the Negative Binomial Regression and ANOVA to estimate the effect of being a victim of eviction on the number of alternative livelihood strategies. The results indicate a significant difference in diversification between households that were victims of eviction from non victims. Significantly evicted households dominantly engage in low income earning agricultural activities. The findings suggest that evicted households diversify but depend on forests and agricultural activities as a coping mechanism towards eviction. This information is important to policy makers in assisting to achieve double sustainability by looking at forest eviction conversation and household livelihood adoption needs.

  18. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Economic Approach of measuring vulnerability. The Household ... external and internal sides as proposed by Conway and Chambers (1989): ... education and occupation of the household head, dependency ratio, exposure.

  19. Modelling livelihoods and household resilience to droughts using Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merritt, W.S.; Patch, B.; Reddy, V.R.; Syme, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last four decades, the Indian government has been investing heavily in watershed development (WSD) programmes that are intended to improve the livelihoods of rural agrarian communities and maintain or improve natural resource condition. Given the massive investment in WSD in India, and the

  20. Constraints to livelihood diversification among rural households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low farm productivity due to environmental degradation had made rural dwellers in Nigeria to diversify into other business besides agricultural production so as to liberate them from poverty. However, there are various challenges to livelihood diversification among the rural dwellers. This study therefore, identifies ...

  1. The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security

  2. Extending the moral economy beyond households: Gendered livelihood strategies of single migrant women in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufuor, T.; Niehof, A.; Sato, C.; Horst, van der H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights how single migrant women (SMW) from rural northern Ghana generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and then prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households instead of focusing on

  3. Role of small-scale sawmilling in household and community livelihoods – Case studies in the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horn, J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available on the role of SSM in household and community livelihoods in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It has therefore not been possible to evaluate whether SSM is a suitable entry point for support to livelihood enhancement and / or pro-poor enterprise...

  4. [Livelihood status assessment of farmers and herdsmen's households based on participatory appraisal: a case in Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Shang-li; Tian, Qing-song; Wang, Hui-ping; Liu, Jian-li

    2011-10-01

    Participatory appraisal method was adopted to investigate the recent livelihood status of different type farmers and herdsmen's households in the Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia agriculture- animal husbandry ecotone, aimed to understand their livelihood strategies and restricting factors and to search for the ways to improve their living standards. The households dealing with pure agricultural production had smaller family size, with older age-structure and lower educational level, and their simple livelihood strategies brought about larger vulnerability and risk. To introduce and expand non-agricultural activities would be the important way to promote the livelihood diversification and to reduce the livelihood risks of these households. The households dealing with pure animal husbandry took grazing as the main subsistence, and their production activities were greatly restrained by the pasture vulnerability. To develop environment-friendly and high-yielding agriculture and animal husbandry would be the effective way to solve the livelihood problems of these households and to protect the ecological environment. The households dealing with both agricultural production and business or dealing with both animal husbandry and business generally had larger family size, with younger age- structure, higher diversity in labor division, larger proportion of non-farming activities, and better living standards. Especially for the households dealing with both animal husbandry and business, their income was much higher.

  5. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Nuringdati Widianingsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.

  6. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhen Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998 a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of grasslands. To ease the impact on the residents’ livelihoods, the national and regional governments have offered a series of top-down arrangements to stimulate sustainable use of the grasslands. Simultaneously, local households spontaneously developed bottom-up countermeasures. To determine the effects of these processes, we interviewed members of 135 households using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. We analyzed the effects on household dependence on local grasslands and on perceptions of the future of grassland use. Our findings show that the implementation of the grassland conservation policies significantly affected household livelihoods, which in turn affected household use of natural assets (primarily the land, their agricultural assets (farming and grazing activities and their financial assets (income and consumption, resulting in fundamental transformation of their lifestyles. The households developed adaptation measures to account for the dependence of their livelihood on local ecosystems by initializing strategies, such as seeking off-farm work, leasing pasture land, increasing purchases of fodder for stall-fed animals and altering their diet and fuel consumption to compensate for their changing livelihoods.

  7. The significance of gathering wild orchid tubers for orphan household livelihoods in a context of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Niehof, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of gathering and selling the edible tubers of wild orchids by children orphaned by AIDS as one of their livelihood strategies, through a household survey administered to 152 households in three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania during 2006 and 2007.

  8. Contextualising the emergence and impacts of the AIDS epidemic on rural livelihoods and household food security in Masaka, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, Jackson

    2018-01-01

    This thesis aims to contribute to current debates on the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last 20 years, numerous studies have been conducted on this subject. Although these studies have generated a

  9. An Analysis of Rural Household Livelihood Change and the Regional Effect in a Western Impoverished Mountainous Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking Longnan, in the western Qinling Mountains region of Gansu province, China, as our study area, and using the Sixth National Population Census alongside household survey data, we analyze changes in household livelihoods, and consequent regional effects, following the instigation of the “Grain for Green” program in 1999. Our results show rural livelihood changes with respect to natural assets (e.g., reduction of arable land, planting structure changes, human assets (e.g., labor quality improvement, fluidity of population, financial assets (e.g., income channels widening, income increasing, physical assets (e.g., optimized production tools, and social assets (e.g., information network development, increased outreach opportunities. We suggest that increased household livelihoods play an important role in improving land space utilization efficiency, resource conservation and use, and the ecological environment. However, owing to the natural environment, there are also some problems, such as “hollows” in rural production and living spaces, as well as local environmental degradation. To address these issues, regions such as the western, mountainous, impoverished area of our study should establish a policy of using ecosystems, as well as agriculture, for development in order to improve household livelihoods, build an efficient spatial structure, and providing support for the creation of a resource-saving societal system.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  11. The Influence of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategies on Household Energy Consumption in the Eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an essential factor for sustainable development, energy plays a very important role in sustaining a modern lifestyle, particularly in poor rural areas. Considering that farmers’ livelihood in such areas is enormously dependent on services provided by environmental resources, it makes sense to investigate the relationships and interactions between farming households’ livelihood strategies and their energy consumption. The findings and outcomes would be expected to contribute to the body of knowledge and benefit local policy-making toward sustainable transformation in the long run. Taking Gannan as an example, this study employed a participatory rural appraisal approach, with first-hand data mainly from field surveys, using a stratified random sampling method to illustrate the influence of farmers’ livelihood strategies for household energy consumption in the eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Seven townships in Gannan were covered, three of them in pure pastoral areas, two in farming-pastoral areas, and two in farming areas. From these, 230 households were selected as study samples, with a valid return of 217 questionnaires, among which 78 came from pure pastoral areas, 60 from farming-pastoral areas, and 79 from farming areas. The results show that livelihood has a significant impact on farmers’ household energy consumption patterns, and increasing family income level and education level and improving the availability of commodity energy resources will help farmers reduce the proportion of biomass energy consumption and increase the proportion of commodity energy consumption. Furthermore, measures such as developing nonagricultural industries, improving the energy infrastructure, and enhancing farmers’ energy-saving awareness should be seriously considered to optimize farmers’ living energy consumption patterns in these poverty-stricken and eco-frangible regions.

  12. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups...

  14. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  16. Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Ducrotoy

    Full Text Available A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU, of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33 and livestock holdings (122 TLU than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU. Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as 'poor' and 27% as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as 'very poor' and 28% as 'medium'.While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of

  17. The Urban Household in the 1980s: A Demographic and Economic Perspective. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Thomas; And Others

    This report focuses on demographic and economic changes affecting urban households during the 1980s. Statistics regarding birth, fertility and mortality rates, marriage and divorce, and household formation are presented. Metropolitan and interregional trends in mobility are examined by racial, income and age groups. Growth rates of the national…

  18. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  19. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Bingzhen; Zhen, Lin; Yan, Huimin; Groot, de Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998) a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of

  20. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  1. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  2. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dev R; Bell, Jacqueline S; Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R

    2010-07-15

    How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p make decision in own healthcare. Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course.

  3. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  4. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  5. Economic, demographic and social factors of energy demand in Mexican households, 2008-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Pena, Rafael

    This research project focuses on estimating the effect of economic, demographic, and social factors in residential energy demand in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. Therefore, it estimates demand equations for electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), coal and natural gas using Mexican household data from 2008 to 2014. It also applies accessibility theory and it estimates energy access indicators using different specifications of demand for LPG in 2014. Sprawl measures, gravity model, and central place theory are the accessibility theory supporting the energy access indicators. Results suggest the greater the household income, the population size, the educational level of the householder, the energy access, and the lower the energy price and the household size, the greater the demand for energy in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. The greater the education, the lower the demand for firewood and coal. LPG and firewood have a monopolistically competitive market structure. Energy access indicators informed by accessibility theory are statistically significant and show the expected sign when applied to LPG in Mexican household in 2014.

  6. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...

  7. Coping with mother nature : households' livelihood security and coping strategies in a situation of a continuing disaster in Tarlac, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mula, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies on households and individuals coping with disasters have been made. The Philippines, being a disaster prone area, has to grapple with the yearly damage caused by deluge or drought. The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has the greatest toll to the country's economy

  8. Women's education level amplifies the effects of a livelihoods-based intervention on household wealth, child diet, and child growth in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C; Joshi, Neena; Lohani, Mahendra; Rogers, Beatrice; Mahato, Shubh; Ghosh, Shibani; Webb, Patrick

    2017-10-18

    Many organizations seek to alleviate poverty in the developing world, often focusing their interventions on women. The role, status, and education of women are fundamentally important facets of development. Thus, understanding the interaction of women's educational level and the response to interventions is important. Therefore, we examined the impact of educational level of household adults on responses to a livestock-based community intervention. Six pair-matched communities in 3 districts of Nepal (Chitwan/Nawalparasi/Nuwakot), were randomly assigned to receive community development activities via women's self-help groups at baseline or 1 year later. At 6 intervals over 48 months, a 125- item questionnaire addressing family demographics and child health/nutrition was completed in each household, plus child growth monitoring. Results were analyzed in relation to the highest education attained by any woman in the household, the child's mother, men, or any other adult in the household. Outcomes (wealth, water/toilet availability, child diet diversity and growth) all significantly related to adult education. However, notable differences were found comparing the impact of men's and women's education. Percent change in wealth score was significant only in households where women had primary or secondary education (respectively, p = .0009 and p wealth, and animal scores, higher women's education was significantly associated with increased household wealth (p wealth (p = .02) and child diet diversity (p = .04), but not HAZ; higher education of any household member was associated only with household wealth (p wealth, hygiene, and child diet and growth indices.

  9. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  10. [Socio-demographic aspects of the rural household in Iran (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, M

    1980-01-01

    Explores the dynamics of sociodemographic aspects of rural Iranian households and the effects on economic, demographic and social structures of rural areas where there has been rapid development. The rural population is characterized by early and high fertility and rapid population growth. The patrilinear kinship system contributes to the high birth rate, while judicial, economic and social factors limit women's rights to birth control. Rights and duties towards children, and their rights and duties towards their parents, have a strong influence on decisions concerning fertility. (author's modified)

  11. Influence of the Farmer’s Livelihood Assets on Livelihood Strategies in the Western Mountainous Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The livelihood strategies of farm households depend on the conditions of their assets, and farm households cope with risks and shocks through portfolios consisting of different types of assets. Thus, discussing the relationship between the livelihood assets and the livelihood strategies of farm households helps in understanding their livelihood conditions and in formulating reasonable poverty reduction policies. Taking Zunyi City, which is located in a western, mountainous area of China, as the study region and using the framework of sustainability analysis, this study first tries to establish the mechanism of the influence of farm household livelihood assets on livelihood strategies, then evaluates different farm household livelihood assets by establishing an evaluation index system for them, and finally conducts an empirical analysis on the influence of farm household livelihood assets on livelihood strategies using a multinomial logit model. The research results indicate the following: (1 natural assets and material assets have a significant negative influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategies, that is, the more natural assets and material assets that farm households own, the more likely they are to choose livelihood strategies involving engaging in agricultural production; (2 Manpower assets and financial assets have a significant positive influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategy, namely, the more manpower assets and financial assets that farm households own, the more likely they are to choose livelihood strategies involving engaging in non-agricultural production; (3 Social assets have no significant influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategy.

  12. Livelihood strategies and dynamics in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Pouliot, Mariéve; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the major challenges in rural livelihood analysis to quantitatively examine the dynamics of household livelihood strategies. It investigates the interactions between livelihood assets, activities, and outcomes, and captures the dynamics of long-term changes......, for latent class cluster analysis and regression estimation. In this paper, livelihood strategies are quantified based on allocation of available resources, which overcomes the limitations of income-based analysis. Our study identifies five household livelihood strategies pursued in the study areas...... and their underlying factors. The study aims to identify the classification of rural livelihood strategies, their transitions and factors influencing these processes and changes. We employ the dynamic livelihood strategy framework, and use panel data for 2008 and 2012 covering 464 households in 15 villages in Cambodia...

  13. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  14. Smallholder farmer’s perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods in rural Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubisi Nomcebo R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Mopani and Vhembe district, South Africa. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to 150 smallholder farmers. The questionnaires were complemented by 8 focus group discussions and secondary data. Multinomial logit regression model was used to analyse the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation strategies. The study findings revealed that subsistence farmers perceived prolonged droughts (56.4% as the main shock stressing crop production. Droughts often lead to low crop yield and high crop failure (73.3%. In response to the prevailing climatic conditions different gender adopted different strategies, 41% of female farmers adapted by changing planting dates, while male farmers employed crop variety and diversification (35% and mixed cropping (15%. The smallholder farmers were vulnerable with limited adaptive capacity to withstand climate change due to compromised social, human, physical, natural and financial assets. The results showed that smallholder farmers tend to adapt better when they have access to extension officers (P<0.01. Therefore, it is important for the government to strengthen the relationship between smallholder farmers and extension officers for better climate change adaptation.

  15. Youth migration, livelihood prospects and demographic dividend: A comparison of the Census 2011 and Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the rural northeast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A.; White, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Carren; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The 2011 South African national census shows a cohort of young adults comprising an increasing share of the population. This finding is borne out in longitudinal data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). This primarily descriptive paper uses the Agincourt HDSS to examine the migration, employment and unemployment patterns in young adults. The study reveals high levels of temporary labour migration linking rural areas to metropolitan areas and secondary urban places. The type of work conducted by young adults in the Agincourt population is predominantly unskilled labour for both sexes. However, there is some evidence of female employment increasing in more educated sectors. Across all working ages there is pronounced unemployment, but the main pressure is felt by the younger adult population. Education and skills development for both sexes should be strengthened to support the country’s efforts to vastly improve labour force participation amongst the youth. PMID:28663669

  16. Dynamics of rural livelihoods and environmental reliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Jiao, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Using environmentally augmented panel dataset of 2009 and 2012 from four districts in Nepal, we assess environmental reliance of households in different livelihood strategies and dynamic transition groups. We employ a latent class cluster analysis to determine the optimal number of livelihood clu...... the pressure and dependency on environment. Furthermore, conservation policies and natural resource management are critical in the study areas to sustain the increased demands on environmental products and services.......Using environmentally augmented panel dataset of 2009 and 2012 from four districts in Nepal, we assess environmental reliance of households in different livelihood strategies and dynamic transition groups. We employ a latent class cluster analysis to determine the optimal number of livelihood...... clusters and assign individual households to particular cluster; and regression models were used to examine the covariates of change in environmental income and reliance. The analysis identifies six distinct livelihood clusters in terms of asset investment in different livelihood activities. Results show...

  17. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharinya Supasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximately 30% of total residential energy use, whereas indirect energy consumption was at 70%. During the studied period, the growth in indirect energy use for all household groups was primarily the result of higher consumption of ‘commerce’, ‘air transport’, ‘manufacturing’, ‘food and beverages’ and ‘agriculture’ products. Moreover, each influencing driver contributes differently to each household’s growth in energy demand. The number of households was the leading factor that dominated the increases in residential energy use in the Greater Bangkok and Central regions. Growth in residential energy consumption in the Northern, Northeastern and Southern regions was strongly dominated by changes in income per capita. Consumption structure and using energy-efficient products had a moderate impact on all regions’ energy consumption. Thus, our findings provide additional energy-saving strategies to restrain further growth in residential energy demand.

  18. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  19. Ecosystem services and livelihoods in deltaic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.

    2015-12-01

    While overall, deltas account for only 1% of global land area, they are home to more than a half billion people or ca. 7% of the world's population. In many deltas, livelihoods and food security are strongly dependent on ecosystem services, which in turn are affected by various environmental change factors, including climate variability and change, modifications to upstream river, sediment and nutrient fluxes, evolving nearshore ecosystems, and delta-level change factors such as subsidence, changing land use and management interventions such as polders. Key limits include scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and the impacts of extreme events (e.g. river floods, cyclones and storm surges), which constrain land use choices and livelihood opportunities for the deltaic populations. The ESPA Deltas project takes a systemic perspective of the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of rural delta residents. The methods emphasise poverty reduction and use coastal Bangladesh as an example. This includes a set of consistent biophysical analyses of the delta and the upstream catchments and the downstream Bay of Bengal, as well as governance and policy analysis and socio-demographic analysis, including an innovative household survey on ecosystem utilization. These results are encapsulated in an integrated model that analyses ecosystem services and livelihood implications. This integrated approach is designed to support delta-level policy formulation. It allows the exploration of contrasting development trajectories, including issues such as robustness of different governance options on ecosystem services and livelihoods. The method is strongly participatory including an ongoing series of stakeholder workshops addressing issue identification, scenario development and consideration of policy responses. The methods presented are generic and transferable to other deltas. The paper will consider the overall ESPA Deltas project and

  20. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  1. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  2. Demographic determinants of energy demand of households in Germany; Demografische Determinanten der Energienachfrage der Haushalte in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Kerstin

    2010-05-28

    This thesis investigates in demographic determinants of energy demand of households in Germany, with focus on space heating and individual motor car traffic. Result of this thesis is a simulation model based on the approach of system dynamics, which is used to simulate two scenarios. The first scenario, called the reference scenario, is based on demographic data of the next decades, which is assumed to be realistic. The second alternative scenario runs without the probable demographic changes. By comparing the scenarios the role of demography in the range of energy demand is quantified. (orig.)

  3. A novel approach to dynamic livelihood clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    -wave panel dataset from 427 households in three locations of Nepal, we proposed an approach that combines households’ income and assets to identify different livelihood strategy clusters. Based on a Latent Markov Model we identify seven distinct livelihood strategies and analyse households’ movements between...

  4. Towards sustainable livelihoods through indigenous knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is integral to sustainable rural livelihoods and household food security due ... to poor access and supply of water, and resource limitation and degradation. ... implementation and a lack of understanding of water management structures.

  5. Livelihood profiling and sensitivity of livelihood strategies to land cover dynamics and agricultural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchoux, Tristan; Hutton, Craig; Watmough, Gary; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Atkinson, Peter

    2017-04-01

    With population increase and the urbanisation of rural areas, land scarcity is one of the biggest challenges now faced by communities in agrarian societies. At the household level, loss of land can be due to physical processes such as erosion, to social constraints such as inheritance, or to financial constraints such as loan reimbursement or the need of cash. For rural households, whose livelihoods are mainly based on agriculture, a decrease in the area of land cultivated can have significant consequences on their livelihood strategies, thus on their livelihood outcomes. However, it is still unclear how changes in cultivated area and agricultural productivity influence households' livelihood systems, including community capitals and households' livelihood strategies. This study aims to answer this gap by combining together earth observation from space, national census and participatory qualitative data into a community-wise analysis of the relationships between land cover dynamics, variability in agricultural production and livelihood activities. Its overarching aim is to investigate how land cover dynamics relates to changes in livelihood strategies and livelihood capitals. The study demonstrates that a change in land cover influences livelihood activities differently depending on the community capitals that households have access to. One significant aspect of integrating land dynamics with livelihood activities is its capacity to provide insights on the relationships between climate, agriculture, livelihood dynamics and rural development. More broadly, it gives policymakers new methods to characterise livelihood dynamics, thus to monitor some of the key Sustainable Development Goals: food security (SDG2), employment dynamics (SDG8), inequalities (SDG10) and sustainability of communities (SDG11).

  6. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    generation and shock coping. In addition, a multi-method approach (utilizing income, transect inventory and free-list data) demonstrates the significant economic importance of agroforestry environments, particularly managed fallows, when compared with natural forests. Interventions aimed at sustaining...... by both high vulnerability (e.g., residents with flood-vulnerable cultivation) and limited availability/diversity of environmentally-sourced coping products. Finally, future research and development initiatives should take into account not just natural forests or agricultural systems, but also......This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...

  7. Wildlife Hunting in Eastern Mongolia: Economic and Demographic Factors Influencing Hunting Behavior of Herding Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Olson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of Mongolia’s rangelands are under state control and managed via traditional land use practices and are habitat for numerous wildlife species harvested for their meat and fur. Political and economic transformations that have been occurring since the early 1990’s continues to affect all aspects of Mongolian society. To cope during periods of economic hardship, many turned to harvesting wildlife resources for income and subsistence and this resulted in precipitous declines of some populations, marmots for example. Interviews with herding households in Mongolia’s eastern steppe region were conducted to better determine how wildlife resources (Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, red foxes, corsac foxes, and gray wolf are utilized and valued by herding families. Hunting, carried out by 65% of interviewees, returned an average of $103±172 dollars per household. The number of individuals hunted of any particular species during the previous year ranged widely - 46% of households hunted an average of 8±9 Mongolian gazelles (the equivalent of a small cow, 31% hunted 5±5 corsac foxes, 29% hunted 42±47 marmots, 22% hunted 3±3 red foxes, and 17% hunted 3±2 gray wolves. Differences in mean annual income between hunting and non-hunting households were similar ($1,292±1,132 vs. $1,080±1,196 however the median difference was greater ($1,009 vs $749. However, non-hunting households owned significantly more livestock than hunting households (168±183 vs. 93±92 Livestock Units, and the proportion of hunting households living below the poverty line was higher. Households that were larger or had few numbers of livestock were more likely to engage in hunting than smaller households with more livestock. Household and livestock variables were also significant predictors of a households likelihood of hunting Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, and corsac fox, but not for red fox or gray wolf. Wildlife management policies will likely receive greater

  8. Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Juliet H; Hill, Nicholas A O; Roe, Dilys; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F; Day, Mike; Booker, Francesca; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2016-02-01

    Alternative livelihood project (ALP) is a widely used term for interventions that aim to reduce the prevalence of activities deemed to be environmentally damaging by substituting them with lower impact livelihood activities that provide at least equivalent benefits. ALPs are widely implemented in conservation, but in 2012, an International Union for Conservation of Nature resolution called for a critical review of such projects based on concern that their effectiveness was unproven. We focused on the conceptual design of ALPs by considering their underlying assumptions. We placed ALPs within a broad category of livelihood-focused interventions to better understand their role in conservation and their intended impacts. We dissected 3 flawed assumptions about ALPs based on the notions of substitution, the homogenous community, and impact scalability. Interventions based on flawed assumptions about people's needs, aspirations, and the factors that influence livelihood choice are unlikely to achieve conservation objectives. We therefore recommend use of a sustainable livelihoods approach to understand the role and function of environmentally damaging behaviors within livelihood strategies; differentiate between households in a community that have the greatest environmental impact and those most vulnerable to resource access restrictions to improve intervention targeting; and learn more about the social-ecological system within which household livelihood strategies are embedded. Rather than using livelihood-focused interventions as a direct behavior-change tool, it may be more appropriate to focus on either enhancing the existing livelihood strategies of those most vulnerable to conservation-imposed resource access restrictions or on use of livelihood-focused interventions that establish a clear link to conservation as a means of building good community relations. However, we recommend that the term ALP be replaced by the broader term livelihood-focused intervention

  9. Understanding the relationship between livelihood strategy and soil management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumer, Ali Mohammed; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    help build livelihood strategies with high-economic return that in turn provide incentives to undertake improved soil management practices. The identified household types may guide entry points for development interventions targeting both food security and agricultural sustainability concerns......This paper aims to understand the relationship between households’ livelihood strategy and soil management using commonalities among rural households. We grouped households into four distinct types according to similar livelihood diversification strategies. For each household type, we identified...... the dominant income-generating strategies as well as the main agronomic activities pursued. The household types were: (I) households that pursue a cereal-based livelihood diversification strategy (23 %); (II) households predominantly engaged in casual off-farm-based strategy (15 %); (III) households...

  10. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  11. USE OF UNSAFE COOKING FUELS AND BOILING PRACTICE AMONG INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE 2012 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Irianti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved drinking-water sources need not be microbiologically safe. Hence, households usually boil their water prior to drinking. However, this practice can potentially harm health when households rely on unsafe cooking fuels. In Indonesia, little is known about the association of use of unsafe fuels with boiling practice. Hence, an analysis was carried out to elicit information regarding boiling practice using unsafe fuels. Such information would be useful in determining appropriate household water treatments. Data from the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS were analysed to examine the relationship between the use of unsafe cooking fuel and choosing boiling as household water treatment. Bivariate and multivariate probit regression models (PRM were fitted and compared using average marginal effects (AME and its respective 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI as measures of association. The results suggest that using kerosene as cooking fuel is positively significantly associated with higher probability of practicing boiling (p = 0.006; AME: 0.019; 95% CI: 0.0056, 0.0333. This is also true for use of solid fuel (p< 0.001; AME: 0.3115; 95% CI: 0.3026, 0.3203. These association holds, albeit attenuated (Kerosene, p< 0.001; AME: 0.02706; 95% CI: 0.0186, 0.0355; Solid fuel, p< 0.001; AME: 0.0373; 95% CI: 0.02839, 0.0463, after the control variables are included. The authors suggest that stakeholders should promote the use of other household water treatment technologies to reduce the boiling practice using unsafe cooking fuels as to minimize the risk of smoke related infections. Moreover, universal access and equity to safe drinking water and sanitation facility in Indonesia should be realised to reduce demand of boiling water using unsafe cooking fuels.

  12. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezmur, Markos; Navaneetham, Kannan; Letamo, Gobopamang; Bariagaber, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005) and 624 (in the year 2011) communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and women in the

  13. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Mezmur

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005 and 624 (in the year 2011 communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and

  14. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tharinya Supasa; Shu-San Hsiau; Shih-Mo Lin; Wongkot Wongsapai; Jiunn-Chi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximatel...

  15. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenstr?m, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50–100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on A...

  16. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and socio-demographic correlates: Results of a representative household epidemiological survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Fang; Ma, Xin; Guo, Hong-Li; Tang, Yi-Lang; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yang; Li, Peng; Cao, Xin-Dong; Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Qiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in the general population and has been associated with socioeconomic factors. Beijing has undergone significant socioeconomic changes in last decade, however no large-scale community epidemiological surveys of MDD have been conducted in Beijing since 2003. To determine the prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in a representative household sample of the general population in Beijing, China. Data were collected from the 2010 representative household epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Beijing. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select qualified subjects in 18 districts and counties, and then face-to-face interviews were administered using the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) during November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. 19,874 registered permanent residents were randomly identified and 16,032 (response rate=80.7%) completed face-to-face interviews. The time-point and life-time prevalence rates of MDD were estimated to be 1.10% (95% CI: 0.94-1.26%) and 3.56% (95% CI: 3.27-3.85%) respectively. Significant differences were found in sex, age, location of residence, marital status, education, employment status, personal/family monthly income, perception of family environment and relationship with others, when comparing residents with MDD to those without MDD. Those who were female, aged 45 or above, reported low family income, or reported an "average" or "poor" family environment were associated with a higher risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD reported in this survey is relatively lower than that in other western countries. Female sex, age older than 45, low family income, and poor family environment appear to be independent risk factors for MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Livelihood strategies under the constraints of climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most....

  18. Strengthening Rural Livelihoods: The Impact of Information and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-20

    Sep 20, 2011 ... ... social gains in linking geographically disparate households and social networks. Using a control trial approach in four out of the six project case studies, ... ICTs into rural livelihoods and more effectively measuring its effects.

  19. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.

  20. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  1. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  2. Household prevalence of seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi in three rural villages in northwest Argentina: environmental, demographic, and entomologic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, R E; Chuit, R; Cécere, M C; Castañera, M B; Cohen, J E; Segura, E L

    1998-11-01

    Environmental, demographic, and entomologic variables were analyzed by logistic multiple regression analysis for their association with the likelihood of being seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi in three highly infested rural villages of northwest Argentina. The prevalence of seropositivity for T. cruzi, as determined by the composite results of three serologic tests, was 34% among 338 persons in 1992. The strongest positive predictors of the adjusted odds of being infected were the household number of dogs, the density of T. cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans in bedroom areas, and each person's age. Dwellers from houses with roofs made completely or partly with a grass called simbol, or which used insecticides rudimentarily and nonsystematically, had a significantly lower odds of being seropositive for T. cruzi than residents from other types of dwellings. The adjusted odds of infection also increased with the number of T. cruzi-infected dogs or cats and the presence of chickens in bedroom areas. No significant effects on the adjusted odds of infection of a community-wide deltamethrin spraying carried out in one of the villages seven years before were detected. Socioeconomic indicators, such as domiciliary area, and numbers of corrals and livestock, were inversely related to being infected. Our study identified several manageable variables suitable for control actions, most of them not examined before in univariate or multivariate analyses. Environmental management based on low-cost housing with appropriate local materials and removal of domestic animals from domiciliary areas have a crucial role to play in the control of Chagas' disease in rural areas.

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  4. Livelihood impacts of forest carbon project and its implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the impacts of forest carbon project on the livelihoods of rural households and its implications for the sustainability of forest by focusing on a regenerated forest in Humbo district of Southwestern Ethiopia. The methods through which primary data were gathered are a triangulation of household survey, ...

  5. Sustainability of marine artisanal fishing as a livelihood and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to assess the livelihoods activities of marine fisher folks and their activities on the environment. Ten marine fishing communities in Lagos State were selected using two stage stratified sampling system. Data were collected from 60 households (50 male headed and 10 female headed households).

  6. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  7. The Effect of Payments for Ecosystem Services Programs on the Relationship of Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy among Rural Communities in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The security and quality of livelihoods for peasant households is the core issue for rural areas in China. A stable livelihood contributes to the harmonious development of related polices, poverty eradication and sustainable use of resources. In Qinghe County, located in the extremely arid zone of Northwest China, 238 validated surveys were conducted. The analysis focuses on the importance of livelihood capitals for the selection of on- or off-farm livelihood strategies among beneficiaries of different kinds of ecological compensation packages. The goal is to see if different groups of beneficiaries are better able to pursue off-farm livelihoods activity, which reduces pressure on the resource base, and whether specific capitals are especially effective in helping households pursue off-farm livelihoods, which benefits their well-being. The findings show that proportionally more herdsmen (who participated in a pastureland rehabilitation program were able to pursue off-farm livelihoods than farmers (who participated in the cultivated land reforestation program, and especially agro-pastoralists (who participated in both programs. Further, models of livelihood strategy show that human and financial capitals facilitate off-farm livelihoods, while productive capital tends to lead to on-farm livelihoods. These findings indicate that there is no single determinant of livelihood strategy, and future policies must consciously differentiate among beneficiaries to reach the desired result.

  8. Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of nature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bouma, JA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : ? In Vietnam and India, agriculture is the main livelihood strategy, whereas in the Costa Rica and South Africa agriculture plays a relatively minor role ? In Costa Rica, this is because large scale commercial agriculture is dominant in the region... ? Giving local communities a role in PA management would allow them to express their own needs and interests, and could improve the effectiveness of PA management at the same time ? The analysis suggests that households in Vietnam and Costa Rica might...

  9. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  10. The effect of location, mobility and socio-demographic factors on task and time allocation of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of location factors in task and time allocation at the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  11. How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households' direct and indirect energy use and savings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Households constitute an important target group for energy conservation. They not only use energy in a direct way (gas, electricity and fuel) but also in an indirect way (embedded in the production, consumption and disposal of goods). During a period of five months (viz., October 2002-March 2003),

  12. Women's household decision-making autonomy and safer sex negotiation in Nigeria: An analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Although married women's safer sex negotiation with their husbands is critical in reducing new HIV infections in Nigeria, its linkage to women's household decision-making autonomy is less explored in Nigeria. Drawing data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and using the logistic regression technique, we examined the associations between women's household decision-making autonomy and two indicators of the ability to engage in safer sex including whether married women 1) can refuse sex and 2) ask for condom use during sexual intercourse with husbands. Findings indicate that 64% and 41% of married women can refuse sex and ask for condom use, respectively. While the impact of women's household decision-making autonomy on the ability to refuse sex remained statistically significant after controlling for theoretically relevant variables (OR = 1.15; p < 0.001), its impact on the ability to ask for condom use became weakly significant once socioeconomic variables were controlled (OR = 1.03; p < 0.1). Based on these results, we have two suggestions. First, it may be important that marital-based policies and counselling promote environments in which married women can establish equal power relations with their husbands. Second, it is also important to eliminate structural barriers that hinder married women's economic opportunities in Nigeria.

  13. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...

  14. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    rural households. From local government perspective, there is need for effective policies and interventions, for example, optimization the structure of financial resources, expansion the scale and channels of financial resources, and improvement the efficiency of fiscal expenditure, that can enhance investment in the agricultural infrastructure and disaster early warning system for improving livelihood resilience. From rural household perspective, livelihood strategies, increasing in education, productive expenditure are very effective in the long term when they are complemented by appropriate public policies such as subsidies of agricultural production material, compulsory education, professional training and innovation of rural residents' perception at different scales.

  15. Shifting livelihood strategies in northern Nigeria - extensified production and livelihood diversification amongst Fulani pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majekodunmi, Ayodele O; Dongkum, Charles; Langs, Tok; Shaw, Alexandra P M; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the livelihood strategies of Fulani pastoralists in north central Nigeria. Results show a diversified crop-livestock system aimed at spreading risk and reducing cattle offtake, adapted to natural resource competition and insecurity by extensification, with further diversification into off-farm activities to spread risk, increase livelihood security and capture opportunities. However, significant costs were associated with extensification, and integration of crop and livestock enterprises was limited. Mean total income per capita in the study area was $554 or $1.52/person/day with 42% of households earning less than 1.25/person/day. Income levels were positively correlated with income diversity and price received per animal sold, rather than herd size. The outcomes of this livelihood strategy were favourable across the whole community, but when individual households are considered, there was evidence of moderate economic inequality in total income, cash income and herd size (Gini coefficient 0.32, 0.35 and 0.43 respectively). The poorest households were quite vulnerable, with low assets, income and income diversity. Implications for sustainability are discussed given the likelihood that the negative trends of reduced access to natural resources and insecurity will continue.

  16. Energy service satisfaction in two Mexican communities: A study on demographic, household, equipment and energy related predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravioto, Jordi; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2014-01-01

    In an age where energy consumption is the major source of environmental impacts, the comprehension on how energy use affects quality of life is ever more relevant. Multiple elements in the link may act as a barrier, except for one crucial concept often ignored: Energy Services (ES), the closest contact between end-uses of energy and human satisfaction. This study explores the link through such concept by analysing how 17 predictors associate to six dimensions of ES satisfaction in two income groups. Data is gathered from two locations within one political region (Mexico), so as to control for culture and climate, and the analysis is made based on regional comparisons of principal component analyses and regressions on the data. The findings suggest that ES and commodities are prioritised differently as income rise, and that materially-based gains on ES show general decreasing returns to scale, being largest on “essential” ES in the lower incomes. Additionally, household characteristics seem to be the most relevant within these material predictors, placing energy use and commodities (including better technology) second in importance. These results suggest crucial theoretical and policy implications on development strategies also discussed in the study. - Highlights: • ES and commodities shift from hierarchical to horizontal importance as income increase. • Material units serve partially as surrogates of ES satisfaction. • ES satisfaction has decreasing returns to scale as income increase. • Material improvements only explain the gains on “essential” ES in lower incomes. • The most important material predictor: household characteristics; energy and commodities ranked second

  17. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siyoum, A.D.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Pankhurst, A.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable

  18. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log 2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  19. Livelihood diversification in tropical coastal communities: a network-based approach to analyzing 'livelihood landscapes'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Cinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people react to policy, the types of resource management systems that may be applicable, and other decisions about natural resource use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Paying particular attention to the role of natural resource-based occupations such as fisheries, we use network analyses to map occupations and their interrelationships- what we refer to as 'livelihood landscapes'. This network approach allows for the visualization of complex information about dependence on natural resources that can be aggregated at different scales. We then examine how the role of natural resource-based occupations changes along spectra of socioeconomic development and population density in 27 communities in 5 western Indian Ocean countries. Network statistics, including in- and out-degree centrality, the density of the network, and the level of network centralization are compared along a multivariate index of community-level socioeconomic development and a gradient of human population density. The combination of network analyses suggests an increase in household-level specialization with development for most occupational sectors, including fishing and farming, but that at the community-level, economies remained diversified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel modeling approach introduced here provides for various types of livelihood portfolio analyses at different scales of social aggregation. Our livelihood landscapes approach provides insights

  20. Advancing methods for research on household water insecurity: Studying entitlements and capabilities, socio-cultural dynamics, and political processes, institutions and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; Budds, Jessica; Eichelberger, Laura; Geere, Jo; Harris, Leila; Horney, Jennifer; Jepson, Wendy; Norman, Emma; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Pearson, Amber; Shah, Sameer; Shinn, Jamie; Simpson, Karen; Staddon, Chad; Stoler, Justin; Teodoro, Manuel P; Young, Sera

    2017-11-01

    Household water insecurity has serious implications for the health, livelihoods and wellbeing of people around the world. Existing methods to assess the state of household water insecurity focus largely on water quality, quantity or adequacy, source or reliability, and affordability. These methods have significant advantages in terms of their simplicity and comparability, but are widely recognized to oversimplify and underestimate the global burden of household water insecurity. In contrast, a broader definition of household water insecurity should include entitlements and human capabilities, sociocultural dynamics, and political institutions and processes. This paper proposes a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods that can be widely adopted across cultural, geographic, and demographic contexts to assess hard-to-measure dimensions of household water insecurity. In doing so, it critically evaluates existing methods for assessing household water insecurity and suggests ways in which methodological innovations advance a broader definition of household water insecurity.

  1. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  2. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  3. Rural Livelihoods: Interplay Between Farm Activities, Non-Farm Activities and the Resource Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Eaton, D.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite ongoing urbanization, over 70% of the world's poor are located in rural areas (IFAD 2001). Agriculture plays an important part in their livelihoods. Rural households play a central role in realizing policy objectives. Production decisions at farm household level determine the current

  4. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispen Murungweni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of both direct and indirect feedbacks and can be used to explore the vulnerabilities of livelihoods to identified hazards. We studied characteristics and drivers of rural livelihoods in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southern Africa to assess the vulnerability of inhabitants to the different hazards they face. The process involved four steps: (1 surveys and interviews to identify the major livelihood types; (2 description of specific livelihood types in a system format using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs, a semi-quantitative tool that models systems based on people's knowledge; (3 linking variables and drivers in FCMs by attaching weights; and (4 defining and applying scenarios to visualize the effects of drought and changing park boundaries on cash and household food security. FCMs successfully gave information concerning the nature (increase or decrease and magnitude by which a livelihood system changed under different scenarios. However, they did not explain the recovery path in relation to time and pattern (e.g., how long it takes for cattle to return to desired numbers after a drought. Using FCMs revealed that issues of policy, such as changing situations at borders, can strongly aggravate effects of climate change such as drought. FCMs revealed hidden knowledge and gave insights that improved the understanding of the complexity of livelihood systems in a way that is better appreciated by stakeholders.

  5. Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayanga, Lahiru; Gunathilaka, Nayana; Iqbal, M C M; Pahalagedara, Kusumawathie; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2018-02-21

    Socio-economic, demographic factors and Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAPs) have been recognized as critical factors that influence the incidence and transmission of dengue epidemics. However, studies that characterize above features of a risk free or low risk population are rare. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the household related, demographic, socio-economic factors and KAPs status of five selected dengue free communities. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted on selected demographic, socio-economic, household related and KAPs in five selected dengue free communities living in dengue risk areas within Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Household heads of 1000 randomly selected houses were interviewed in this study. Chi-square test for independence, cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates (PCO) analysis were used for data analysis. Knowledge and awareness regarding dengue, (prevention of the vector breeding, bites of mosquitoes, disease symptoms and waste management) and attitudes of the community (towards home gardening, composting, waste management and maintenance of a clean and dengue free environment) are associated with the dengue free status of the study populations. The vector controlling authorities should focus on socio-economic, demographic and KAPs in stimulating the community to cooperate in the integrated vector management strategies to improve vector control and reduce transmission of dengue within Kandy District.

  6. Forced Migration and Changing Livelihoods in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Heather

    2017-09-01

    Forced migration due to development projects or environmental change impacts livelihoods, as affected households are faced with new-and often less favorable-environmental, social, and economic conditions. This article examines changing livelihood strategies among a population of rural agricultural households displaced by the Belo Monte Dam in the Brazilian Amazon. Using longitudinal data, I find that many households used compensation payments to concentrate income generation efforts on the most lucrative strategies-cacao and cattle production and business or rental income. Poorer households and those that received the least compensation were more likely to continue relying on agricultural wage labor-a less desirable income source associated with not owning land or with persons needing to supplement income with additional work as a day laborer. Results also indicate that the amount of compensation received by most households was sufficient to enable them to make productive investments beyond attaining replacement land and housing. Many households invested in assets such as agricultural infrastructure, cattle, rental houses, or tractors-all of which directly contribute to future income. Displacement compensation, similar to remittances or conditional cash transfers, can therefore act as an important infusion of capital to promote socioeconomic development and poverty reduction.

  7. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    outcomes are compared across strategies and household differences in asset holdings are analyzed using multinomial logit regression. Findings reveal that income diversification is the norm, that a higher degree of specialization does not characterize more remunerative livelihood strategies, that nonfarm......This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... income significantly contributes to higher income earnings, that environmental reliance does not vary across strategies, and that small-scale farmers are the largest and poorest livelihood group. Some livelihood strategies are superior to all other strategies in terms of income earned; access to more...

  8. Perception of Climate Risk among Rural Farmers in Vietnam: Consistency within Households and with the Empirical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alison C; Anderson, C Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livelihood, demographic characteristics, orientation toward risk, and interest in expanding economic activity. Temporal analysis of meteorological and economic indicator data forms an empirical basis for comparison with human perception. We ask the basic question: Are rural farmers' perceptions of climate consistent with the historical record and reproducible within households? We find that respondents do perceive climate anomalies, with some anchoring on recent extreme events as revealed by climate observational data, and further that spouses disproportionately share perceptions relative to randomly simulated pairings. To put climate-related risk perception in a larger context, we examine patterns across a range of risks to livelihood faced by farmers (livestock disease, pests, markets, health), using dimension reduction techniques. We find that our respondents distinguish among potential causes of low economic productivity, with substantial emphasis on climate-related impacts. They do not express uniform concern across risks, but rather average patterns reveal common modes and distinguish climate concern. Still, among those expressing concern about climate-related risks to livelihood we do not find an association with expressed intention to pursue changes in economic activity as a risk management response. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees.

  10. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschale Dagnachew Siyoum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable poor households to move out of poverty and food insecurity, whereas better-off and labour rich households used credit to improve their livelihoods. For poor households, rather than achieving long-term livelihood improvements, access to credit only means short-term consumption smoothing with a risk of being trapped into a cycle of indebtedness. Participation in a safety net programme could, to some extent, break through this cycle, because such participation enhanced the credit-worthiness of poor households. The paper is based on ethnographic research, including a survey of 106 households,and a series of monthly in-depth interviews with a group of 15 households in the district of Ebinat, northern Ethiopia, over an 18-month period, from February 2009 to July 2010.

  11. Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assess Climate Change Impacts to Mixed Agro-Livestock Smallholders Around the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change vulnerability depends upon various factors and differs between places, sectors and communities. People in developing countries whose subsistence livelihood depends upon agriculture and livestock are identified as particularly vulnerable. Nepal, where the majority of people are in a mixed agro-livestock system, is identified as the world's fourth most vulnerable country to climate change. However, there are few studies on how vulnerable mixed agro-livestock smallholders are and how their vulnerability differs across different ecological regions. This study aims to test two vulnerability assessment indices, livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and IPCC vulnerability index (VI-IPCC), around the Gandaki river basin of Nepal. A total of 543 households practicing mixed agro-livestock were surveyed from three districts (Dhading, Syangja and Kapilvastu) representing the mountain, mid-hill and lowland altitudinal belts respectively. Data on socio-demographics, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability were collected. Both indices differed across the three districts, with mixed agro-livestock smallholders of Dhading district found to be the most vulnerable and that of Syangja least vulnerable. This vulnerability index approach may be used to monitor rural vulnerability and/or evaluate potential program/policy effectiveness in poor countries like Nepal. The present findings are intended to help in designing intervention strategies to reduce vulnerability of mixed agro-livestock smallholders and other rural people in developing countries to climate change.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  13. Peasant Livelihoods and Land Degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. A. Yaro

    people to invest in more children as a source of economic and social security. ... for institutions of civil society and recognition of the influence of international factors in achieving sustainable .... the period when peasants have to make most of their livelihoods. On the .... Borrowing of land by relatives and friends only leads to ...

  14. Natural resources and rural livelihoods: Differences between migrants and non-migrants in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nawrotzki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although natural resources play a central role in rural livelihoods across the globe, little research has explored the relationship between migration and natural capital use, particularly in combination with other livelihood capitals (i.e., human, social, financial and physical. OBJECTIVE Grounded in the rural livelihood framework, this paper explores the association between the livelihood capital availability, especially natural capital, for migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar. METHODS Data from the 2008/2009 Demographic and Health Survey are used in combination with satellite imagery of vegetation coverage (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI to proxy natural resources. Hierarchical multilevel models allow for inclusion of cross-level interactions between migrant status and proximate natural resources as determinants of the status of livelihood assets. RESULTS Three key findings emerge. First, higher levels of proximate natural resources are associated with greater financial, human, and social capital for both migrants and non-migrants. Second, migrants have, on average, greater financial, physical, human, and social capital than non-migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants do exceptionally well on all capital asset categories. Third, migrants residing in areas with higher levels of natural capital tend to have significantly higher levels of human capital (education. CONCLUSIONS Although we cannot examine livelihood strategies per se, the results suggest variation in livelihood potential among migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar, with migrants tending to have greater capital assets. In addition, access to natural resources is a central livelihood strategy.

  15. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  16. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  17. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  18. Local Perception of Risk to Livelihoods in the Semi-Arid Landscape of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bunting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deem many regions of southern Africa as vulnerable landscapes due to changing climatic regimes, ecological conditions, and low adaptive capacity. Typically in highly vulnerable regions, multiple livelihood strategies are employed to enable sustainable development. In Botswana, livelihood strategies have diversified over time to include tourism and other non-agricultural activities. While such diversification and development have been studied, little is known about how locals perceive livelihood risks. This article analyzes perceptions of risk through a risk hazards framework. During the summer of 2010, 330 surveys were completed within seven villages in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. During the survey respondents were asked to list the biggest threats/challenges to their livelihoods. Responses were grouped into categories of risk according to the capital assets on which livelihoods depend: natural, physical, financial, human, and social. A risk mapping procedure was utilized, for which indices of severity, incidence, and risk were calculated. It is hypothesized that people’s perception of risk is directly dependent on environmental conditions and employment status of the household. Results indicate that problems related to natural and financial assets are the greatest source of risk to livelihoods. Furthermore, flood, drought, and other measures of climate variability are perceived as influential, typically negatively, to livelihood strategies.

  19. Access to livelihood assets among youth with and without disabilities in South Africa: implications for health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Theresa; Cramm, Jane Murray

    2012-05-23

    This study compared access to 5 livelihood assets among disabled and non-disabled youth, to inform health professionals on inequities related to disability and to monitor the transformation agenda aimed at creating an inclusive society. Fieldworkers interviewed 989 youth (18 - 35 years; 523 (52.9%) disabled youth (DY), 466 (47.1%) non-disabled youth (NDY)) at 9 sites in 5 South African provinces. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic characteristics and livelihood assets. Chi-squared and t-tests were used for comparisons. Doctors at hospitals and nurses at clinics are health professionals most frequently seen. Far fewer DY than NDY attended and completed school. Unemployment was markedly more common among DY than among NDY. Barriers to accessing employment for DY were poor health and lack of skills development, and a lack of job opportunities for NDY. Both groups received the same amount of support from immediate household members, but significantly more NDY received support from extended family, friends, partners, and neighbours. They spent significantly more time engaging in all free-time activities. NDY reported more access to bathrooms, phone, and newspapers, as well as public services and the business sector. Participation and access were limited for both groups because of inaccessible public transport. This paper shows that DY have a greater struggle to access livelihood assets than non-disabled peers. The Disability Studies Academic Programme at the University of Cape Town is an initiative that seeks to take specific focused action with disability organisations in order to address the inequities faced by disabled youth to ensure their inclusion in development to the same degree as their non-disabled peers.

  20. Adaptive livelihood strategies employed by farmers to close the food gap in semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Rural households in semi-arid areas of southern Africa are confronted with numerous hazards that threaten the household food base. The new wildlife policy of establishing transfrontier conservation areas aims to increase conservation of wildlife resources while improving local livelihoods. This

  1. Integrating Reflexivity in Livelihoods Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods research...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  2. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  3. Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    This article examines farmers' livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic and other stressors. Some of these responses have depleted and degraded natural resources such as forest, soil and water resources, which will complicate their living with climate change in the future. This will be particularly problematic to vulnerable groups such as women, children and pastoralists who have limited access to employment, markets and public services. In this light, fair adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in Morogoro and elsewhere in developing countries requires several complementary responses. Adaptation efforts should involve effective governance of natural resources because they function as safety nets to vulnerable groups. In addition, strengthening of national markets by infrastructure investments and institutional reforms is needed to give incentives to intensification and diversification in agriculture. Market participation also demands enhancement of human capital by public programs on health, education and wellbeing

  4. The realities of Lagos urban development vision on livelihoods of the urban poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Ayodeji Olajide

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Similar to many other cities in sub-Saharan African countries, the struggle between urban development policies and the livelihoods of the urban poor is one of the urban development challenges facing Lagos. This paper examines the realities of the Lagos urban development policies and intiatives on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The state government embarked on series of what it calls sustainable urban transformation policies towards making Lagos ‘an African model megacity’ and a global economic and financial hub that is safe, secure, functional and productive, with a view to achieving poverty alleviation and sustainable development. This paper, through the lens of theoretical and analytical underpinnings of Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, however, argues that the actions of the state government contradict the whole essence of sustainable urban development and poverty alleviation, but reflect an agenda deliberately targeted to further impoverish the poor. While the Sustainable Livelihood was used as the theoretical and analytical framework, this paper essentially focuses on the Policies, Institutions and Processes component of the framework. This provides a unique entry point for understanding the implications of the Lagos urban development aspirations on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The research uses mixed methods research design with a broad range of data-collection methods, including household surveys, interviews, direct observation and photography, documentary review and policy document analysis. The study reveals that there is a disconnection between urban development policies and realities of the poor. The implementation of urban development projects and policies works against the urban poor and resulted in more hardship, through reduction in livelihood opportunities or complete loss of livelihoods. This study, therefore, suggests that one important element in reducing poverty in Lagos’ informal settlements is a policy

  5. Conservation as a Core Asset for Livelihood Security in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help rural households and decision-makers better understand conservation and biodiversity as key components of rural livelihood improvement strategies and security in East Africa and the Horn of Africa. It will do so by documenting lessons learned by rural communities on the linkages between ...

  6. Livelihood assets and poverty nexus: a case study from rainfed pothwar area of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.; Shah, H.; Khan, M.A.; Zubair, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is based on primary data collected from a sample of 40 households arround watershed project site at Fateh Jang in Pothwar region. The inter-linkage of livelihood assets and poverty is determined by employing poverty score card technique. The poverty status of household was highly correlated with the livelihood sources (P<0.01), water availability for irrigation (P<0.10) and tenancy status (P<0.05). The results regarding poverty revealed that 2.50% of the sampled households were chronically poor, 5.0% transitory poor, 37.5% transitory vulnerable, 32.5% transitory non- poor and 22.5% was non-poor. Most of the sampled households fall along the transition line which implies their vulnerability to be trapped in poverty due to any shock. Beside other assets, even small scale irrigation was significant and an effective tool to improve income. Therefore along with improvement in irrigation practice through using high efficiency irrigation systems, other water harvesting techniques being demonstrated in the watershed project could also improve livelihood in the area. Better utilization of available resources would also improve livelihood and decrease poverty in the area. (author)

  7. 75 FR 61519 - Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... target households; 2. Strengthening policies on child labor, education, and sustainable livelihoods, and... formal, nonformal and vocational education opportunities to provide children with alternatives to child... education for all children and mobilizing a wide array of actors to improve and expand education...

  8. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which ...

  9. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  10. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Nofrita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  11. Livelihood after Relocation—Evidences of Guchchagram Project in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change and its consequences to islands and coastal countries, the relocation of the people living in those vulnerable places has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. There have been similar kinds of programs running in Bangladesh since the country’s independence in 1971, and people who are landless or victimized due to river bank erosion, cyclones, or floods have been relocated under the umbrella program called ‘Guchchagram’, i.e., cluster villages. Different ruling parties had used different names for the project due to the financial nature of the project, but none of them have significantly differed from the overall goals and objectives of relocated settlements and the betterment of the landless and extreme event victims. Particularly, this study asks how and to what extent the livelihood of relocated households has changed, and what the potentials and constraints of the relocated settlements are. Based on an empirical study at four Guchchagrams of Gopalganj Sadar Upazila, the study shows that there is a significant improvement in the livelihood conditions of the migrated people, but the locational disadvantages and access to agricultural production, the local employment market, and some of the targeted objectives of the project have not achieved. To some extent, the rehabilitated families have similar risks as they had before; however, available agricultural lands and proper allocation can reduce such livelihood risks.

  12. The pursuit of sustainable livelihoods in Vietnam's Northern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    capital & are able to strategically negotiate with external actors & incorporate elements of intervention in existing livelihood strategies. Other actors are constrained by intervention as a result of dependency on inputs, technology for intensive farming, as well as by inequality & debt.......Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach......-up approach in order to represent the most marginalized groups. The aim of this book is to analyze the enabling & constraining factors for the average household, experienced as a result of planned intervention. Planned intervention mostly benefits households that already possess significant human & social...

  13. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-05-01

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  14. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  15. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that people re-establish their livelihoods in order to resume normal life. ... attention to economic, social and cultural processes, the role of institutions, and how ... researchers will document the effect of the earthquake on livelihoods, assess the ... a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  17. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  18. Livelihood diversification and implications on poverty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on livelihood diversification is based on an ongoing study under VicRes programme being undertaken in the Lake Victoria Basin, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. We examine how changing socio-economic and environmental conditions contribute to livelihood diversification, land-use changes, poverty ...

  19. Trends in Urbanization and Implications for Peri-Urban Livelihoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Cynthia

    Urbanization is a common occurrence in both developed and developing worlds. Similar to occurrences in other developing world cities, Accra's urbanization is marked by fast, unplanned and uneven growth into mostly peripheral lands (Grant and Yankson 2002; Yeboah 2001; Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) 2002). Such trends in urbanization in places where data on the urbanization process is seriously inadequate and infrequent, (Rakodi 1997a; Ohadika 1991; Fasona and Omojola 2004) pose a major challenge to urban planning and management (Henderson 2002), and affect the livelihood base of several peri-urban households. Properly monitoring the urbanization process in the developing world and understanding its effects on people's lives depends on the availability of useful and up-to- date data (Weber and Puissant 2003; Mundia and Aniya 2006) that could be obtained using new and robust analytical techniques (Yang 2003). In addition, in the urban environment, differences in rates of urbanization, income, employment status, and gender dynamics across neighborhoods suggest that the impacts of increasing urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are likely to vary across peoples and places. Against this backdrop, this dissertation uses Accra as a case study to, first, measures the nature and extent of urban expansion using a non-conventional technique, and then analyzes neighborhood - and gender-differentiated impacts of increasing urbanization on household livelihoods in peri-urban Accra. Study findings reveal: 1) major conversion of vegetated land to urban lands uses and support the effectiveness of the Self-Organizing Map and Landsat data to map complex and hazy urban tropical environments; 2) that the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are structured along the lines of neighborhood-level urbanization; changes brought by a higher rate of urbanization are more beneficial than harmful to household livelihoods; 3) that positive livelihood outcomes in high

  20. 'Rich man poor man' - inter-household and community factors influencing the use of wild plant resources amongst rural households in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocks, M.L.; Bangay, L.; Shackleton, C.M.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiversity is recognised as an integral part of people's daily livelihoods. This study therefore aims to understand the use of NTFPs at an intricate level by determining what role these resources fulfil in six rural villages and 1011 households' livelihoods. It examines how the use of NTFPs are

  1. Evolution of Rural Livelihood Strategies in a Remote Sino-Mongolian Border Area: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkhnasan Tsvegemed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecologically sound natural resources management is still the backbone of rural livelihoods in many regions of the world. The Altai-Dzungarian region between China and Mongolia constitutes an ideal site to study how political, economic, infrastructural, and cultural differences affect rural livelihoods. Structured semi-quantitative interviews were conducted with 483 households on both sides to characterise their current livelihood strategies and assess the importance of the various activities for the households’ current socio-economic situation by means of the categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis. In total, four livelihood clusters were identified across both regions, whereby one cluster was only present in Mongolia. In general, all clusters mirrored the transition from almost pure pastoralist to agro-pastoralist livelihood strategies. While animal husbandry was more common in Mongolia and crop farming more common in China, most households in both countries pursued a rather mixed approach. The composition of the herds, as well as the richness and diversity of the livestock species, differed significantly between the countries and was generally higher in Mongolia. Supplementary feedstuff and pesticide and fertiliser use were higher in China, along with diversification of produces. Our analysis indicates that until very recently the livelihood strategies on both sides of the border were the same, manifesting in the fact that we can define three identical clusters across countries (environment factor even though there are slight differences in land, livestock and asset endowment.

  2. Social equity and livelihood implications of REDD+ in rural communities – a case study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Poudel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing international consensus that the use of the policy instrument REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries could be an effective way to reduce carbon emissions from the forestry sector and support bio-diversity with livelihood benefits, there are a range of unresolved issues, including potential implications for rural livelihoods. This paper presents results from recent research that examines social equity and livelihood implications of the piloting of REDD+ through Nepal’s community forestry system, within selected villages in the Gorkha district of Nepal. The research reveals the varying experiences of households, closely correlated to the socio-economic attributes of the households. Despite the ‘no harm and equitable’ policy, this research indicates that not everyone is experiencing the anticipated benefits of REDD+. Although poorer, women-headed and marginalized households are targeted in some ways (e.g. seed grants, the support is limited, and inadequately compensates the loss they have experienced in other ways (e.g. limited access to forests. Households bundling by caste may not necessarily address equity, but is likely to increase intra-caste marginalization.

  3. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  4. Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muleba Nshimbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

  5. Incorporating perceptions and experiences of violence into livelihood decision-making : A micro level study in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mohammad (Badiuzzaman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the influence of perceived violence on livelihood decisionmaking of indigenous households in post conflict Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh following a formal peace treaty in 1997. The study results suggest that households perceiving high risk of violence spend

  6. Coastal livelihood transitions under globalization with implications for trans-ecosystem interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Williams, Nicholas E; Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Urquhart, Gerald R

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats to natural systems can be exacerbated due to connectivity between marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, complicating the already daunting task of governance across the land-sea interface. Globalization, including new access to markets, can change social-ecological, land-sea linkages via livelihood responses and adaptations by local people. As a first step in understanding these trans-ecosystem effects, we examined exit and entry decisions of artisanal fishers and smallholder farmers on the rapidly globalizing Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. We found that exit and entry decisions demonstrated clear temporal and spatial patterns and that these decisions differed by livelihood. In addition to household characteristics, livelihood exit and entry decisions were strongly affected by new access to regional and global markets. The natural resource implications of these livelihood decisions are potentially profound as they provide novel linkages and spatially-explicit feedbacks between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Our findings support the need for more scientific inquiry in understanding trans-ecosystem tradeoffs due to linked-livelihood transitions as well as the need for a trans-ecosystem approach to natural resource management and development policy in rapidly changing coastal regions.

  7. Ecosystem Service Changes and Livelihood Impacts in the Maguri-Motapung Wetlands of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi D. Bhatta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide a diverse range of ecosystem services supporting livelihoods of many people. Despite their value, wetlands are continuously being degraded. There is scant information on individual wetlands, people’s dependency and their exploitation at a local scale. We therefore assessed wetland ecosystem services, the drivers of change and impacts of those drivers on ecosystem services and people’s dependency through a case study of the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands of Assam, India. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and community workshops. The analyses showed a total of 29 ecosystem services, and high dependency on these with five out of seven livelihood strategies sourced from ecosystem services. Over-exploitation of wetland resources and siltation were reported as the major direct drivers of change with impacts on both ecosystem services and people’s livelihoods. Drastic decreases in availability of thatch, fish stocks, fodder and tourism were observed. This suggests that there is an urgent need for a comprehensive participatory management plan. Actions are needed to maintain the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands and the flow of services in order to sustain people’s livelihoods in the area. With an estimated 50% global loss of wetlands in the last century and the loss of 5,000 square kilometers a year in Asia alone, the loss of ecosystem services and livelihood impacts shown in our study may be typical of what is occurring in the region and perhaps globally.

  8. Coastal livelihood transitions under globalization with implications for trans-ecosystem interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Kramer

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic threats to natural systems can be exacerbated due to connectivity between marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, complicating the already daunting task of governance across the land-sea interface. Globalization, including new access to markets, can change social-ecological, land-sea linkages via livelihood responses and adaptations by local people. As a first step in understanding these trans-ecosystem effects, we examined exit and entry decisions of artisanal fishers and smallholder farmers on the rapidly globalizing Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. We found that exit and entry decisions demonstrated clear temporal and spatial patterns and that these decisions differed by livelihood. In addition to household characteristics, livelihood exit and entry decisions were strongly affected by new access to regional and global markets. The natural resource implications of these livelihood decisions are potentially profound as they provide novel linkages and spatially-explicit feedbacks between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Our findings support the need for more scientific inquiry in understanding trans-ecosystem tradeoffs due to linked-livelihood transitions as well as the need for a trans-ecosystem approach to natural resource management and development policy in rapidly changing coastal regions.

  9. The Effects of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Farmers’ Livelihoods in Ghana: The Case of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Acheampong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acquisition of land for large-scale/commercial production of biofuel crops in Ghana has raised concerns from civil society organizations, local communities and other parties, regarding the impact of these investments on local livelihoods. This paper assessed the effect of large-scale acquisition of land for production of Jatropha curcas on farmers’ livelihoods in Ghana. The study was conducted in 11 communities spanning the major agro-ecological zones and political divisions across Ghana. Methods of data collection included questionnaire survey, interviews and focus group discussions. Results show that several households have lost their land to Jatropha plantations leading, in some cases, to violent conflicts between biofuel investors, traditional authorities and the local communities. Most people reported that, contrary to the belief that Jatropha does well on marginal lands, the lands acquired by the Jatropha Companies were productive lands. Loss of rights over land has affected households’ food production and security, as many households have resorted to reducing the area they have under cultivation, leading to shortening fallow periods and declining crop yields. In addition, although the cultivation of Jatropha led to the creation of jobs in the communities where they were started, such jobs were merely transient. The paper contends that, even though the impact of Jatropha feedstock production on local livelihoods in Ghana is largely negative, the burgeoning industry could be developed in ways that could support local livelihoods.

  10. Assessment Of Current State And Impact Of REDD On Livelihood Of Local People In Rungwe District Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD is anticipated to affect livelihoods of forest dependent communities. This study was conducted to establish this impact on livelihoods of local people in Rungwe District Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaires group discussions and interviews from three villages Syukula Ilolo and Kibisi. Results showed that households annual income and crop production are higher after REDD implementation. The older respondents 40 years old considered REDD to be important for forest management compared to younger generation 40 years old p0.05. Similarly the older respondents considered wood forest products such as fuelwood charcoal timber and poles to be reduced. There was a widespread awareness about REDDs objectives among household respondents. Therefore REDD proponents should implement alternative sources of livelihoods to help local people improve their income and reduce dependence on the forest resources and eventually decrease deforestation and forest degradation.

  11. Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods and ... on local ecosystems and human resources can provide sustainable solutions to ... and health among the rural and urban poor through increased dietary diversity.

  12. Company-Community Logging Contracts in Amazonian Settlements: Impacts on Livelihoods and NTFP Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. S. Menton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of government-sponsored colonization, more than 500 000 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon is managed by settlement households. By law, 80% of this land must remain as standing forest. In this study, we examine the potential for timber harvesting through company-community partnerships (CCPs as a means to increase forest-based revenue without compromising household use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs. Using participatory rural appraisal, resource diaries, and household questionnaires, we study the impacts of CCP logging contracts on livelihoods, including household income and NTFP harvests. Our results show that annual household income from the CCP logging is equivalent to more than 8 years of household gross income from agricultural production. We also found that there were no significant differences in NTFP harvests between households with CCP logging and those without. In CCP-logging communities, households caught 11.9 ± 13.6 game animals, totaling 74 ± 88 kg of game meat. In the communities without CCP, households caught 9.5 ± 13.0 game animals, totaling 73 ± 172 kg of game meat. Annual forest fruit harvests averaged 9.8 ± 13.2 kg in CCP-logging communities and 13.5 ± 15.9 kg in non-CCP communities. Overall, the CCPs brought improvements in household income without compromising NTFP harvests.

  13. Vulnerability and livelihoods before and after the Haiti earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Echevin, Damien

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of poverty and vulnerability in Haiti using various data sets. As living conditions survey data are not comparable in this country, we first propose to use the three rounds of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) available before the earthquake. Decomposing household assets changes into age and cohort effects, we use repeated cross-section data to identify a...

  14. Home-Based Economic Activities and Caribbean Urban Livelihoods : Vulnerability, Ambition and Impact in Paramaribo and Port of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, Hebe

    2007-01-01

    Poor urban households in the economic 'south' deploy various livelihood activities. One of these is a Home-Based Economic Activity (HBEA), e.g. sales of home-made snacks or car maintenance. This study examines the prevalence, organisation and relevance of HBEAs in four neighbourhoods in the

  15. Mitigating Drought Impacts in Drylands : Quantifying the Potential for Strengthening Crop- and Livestock-Based Livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Carfagna, Federica; Cervigni, Raffaello

    2018-01-01

    Drylands account for three-quarters of Sub-Saharan Africa's cropland, two-thirds of cereal production, and four-fifths of livestock holdings. Today frequent and severe shocks, especially droughts, limit the livelihood opportunities available to millions of households and undermine efforts to eradicate poverty in the drylands. Prospects for sustainable development of drylands are assessed in this book through the lens of resilience, understood here to mean the ability of people to withstand an...

  16. The Bright Lights Grow Fainter - livelihoods, migration and a small town in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    The Aids pandemic and structural adjustment policies (SAP) have had effects on lower income households in Zimbabwe which have been devastating and people have been required to adapt their livelihood strategies. Small towns meahnwhile are growing rapidly in Zimbabwe and mobility towards these towns may be connected with the changes being forged by SAP on the economic landscape. This study seeks to establish how the individual migrant uses mobility tot negotiate this landscape. This involves mo...

  17. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  18. Forest Transitions and Rural Livelihoods: Multiple Pathways of Smallholder Teak Expansion in Northern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Newby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder teak (Tectona grandis plantations have been identified as a potentially valuable component of upland farming systems in northern Laos that can contribute to a “livelihood transition” from subsistence-oriented swidden agriculture to a more commercially-oriented farming system, thereby bringing about a “forest transition” at the landscape scale. In recent years, teak smallholdings have become increasingly prominent in the province of Luang Prabang, especially in villages close to Luang Prabang City. In this paper, we draw on a household survey conducted in five teak-growing villages and case studies of different household types to explore the role that small-scale forestry has played in both livelihood and land-use transitions. Drawing on a classification of forest transitions, we identify three transition pathways that apply in the study villages—the “economic development” pathway, the “smallholder, tree-based, land-use intensification” pathway, and the “state forest policy” pathway. The ability of households to integrate teak into their farming system, manage the woodlots effectively, and maintain ownership until the plantation reaches maturity varies significantly between these pathways. Households with adequate land resources but scarce labor due to the effects of local economic development are better able to establish and hold onto teak woodlots, but less able to adopt beneficial management techniques. Households that are land-constrained are motivated to follow a path of land-used intensification, but need more productive agroforestry systems to sustain incomes over time. Households that are induced to plant teak mainly by land-use policies that threaten to deprive them of their land, struggle to efficiently manage or hold on to their woodlots in the long term. Thus, even when it is smallholders driving the process of forest transition via piecemeal land-use changes, there is potential for resource

  19. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  20. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  1. Climate change and human health: Spatial modeling of water availability, malnutrition, and livelihoods in Mali, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Lopez-Carr, David; Funk, Chris; Husak, Gregory J.; Chafe, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a novel approach for projecting climate trends in the Sahel in relation to shifting livelihood zones and health outcomes. Focusing on Mali, we explore baseline relationships between temperature, precipitation, livelihood, and malnutrition in 407 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) clusters with a total of 14,238 children, resulting in a thorough spatial analysis of coupled climate-health dynamics. Results suggest links between livelihoods and each measure of malnutrition, as well as a link between climate and stunting. A ‘front-line’ of vulnerability, related to the transition between agricultural and pastoral livelihoods, is identified as an area where mitigation efforts might be usefully targeted. Additionally, climate is projected to 2025 for the Sahel, and demographic trends are introduced to explore how the intersection of climate and demographics may shift the vulnerability ‘front-line’, potentially exposing an additional 6 million people in Mali, up to a million of them children, to heightened risk of malnutrition from climate and livelihood changes. Results indicate that, holding constant morbidity levels, approximately one quarter of a million children will suffer stunting, nearly two hundred thousand will be malnourished, and over one hundred thousand will become anemic in this expanding arid zone by 2025. Climate and health research conducted at finer spatial scales and within shorter projected time lines can identify vulnerability hot spots that are of the highest priority for adaptation interventions; such an analysis can also identify areas with similar characteristics that may be at heightened risk. Such meso-scale coupled human-environment research may facilitate appropriate policy interventions strategically located beyond today’s vulnerability front-line.

  2. Emerging Livelihood Vulnerabilities in an Urbanizing and Climate Uncertain Environment for the Case of a Secondary City in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrud Lea Beringer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing flood risks in Thailand are leading to new challenges for flood management and subsequently for livelihoods, which are still significantly agricultural. Policy makers prefer building flood protection infrastructure over utilizing non-structural measures like urban planning regulations to mitigate risks. We argue that unplanned urbanization intensifies flood risks and livelihood vulnerability and may even create new poverty patterns in peri-urban areas. However, urbanization can also strengthen the adaptive capacity of people in flood risk areas by providing more secure employment opportunities. We assess the livelihood vulnerability of Pra Lab, a peri-urban area of Khon Kaen City in Northeast Thailand, using a qualitative and quantitative analysis. The study relies on a vulnerability index developed from a household survey and rainfall statistics, complemented by household in-depth interviews. We further identified factors of unplanned urbanization in Khon Kaen City and Pra Lab through interviews with relevant local government offices. Our findings show that Pra Lab’s household livelihoods are moderately vulnerable to flood due to high financial (i.e., income, debts and physical vulnerability (i.e., housing, urban systems, infrastructure. Major factors of unplanned urbanization that contribute to flood risks are lack of land use regulations, inefficient monitoring of land and house elevations, reduced pervious surfaces, ineffective water governance and insufficient wastewater treatment.

  3. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-05-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents' self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health

  4. Rural Households’ Livelihood Capital, Risk Perception, and Willingness to Purchase Earthquake Disaster Insurance: Evidence from Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake disaster insurance can effectively reduce the impact of earthquake disasters on rural households. Exploring rural households’ willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance in earthquake disaster areas provides an understanding of the motivations underlying the implementation of an insurance policy. However, few studies have examined the perspectives of rural households, in order to explore the correlations between the rural households’ livelihood capital, their disaster risk perception, and their willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance. A cross-sectional survey data including 241 rural households from the most severe disaster counties (cities during the 5 • 12 Wenchuan earthquake was examined with regard to rural households’ livelihood and disaster risk perception, and ordinal logistic regression models were constructed to explore rural households’ willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance, as well as the driving mechanism behind this willingness. The results showed that 34.44% of rural households were very willing to purchase earthquake disaster insurance, and 7.05% of rural households were very reluctant to purchase earthquake insurance. Rural households’ livelihood capital and risk perceptions were the most important factors affecting their willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance. Rural households with higher scores on natural capital, physical capital, possibility, and worry were more likely to purchase earthquake disaster insurance. Specifically, keeping all other variables constant, every one unit increase in nature capital and physical capital corresponded to an increase in the odds of willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance by a factor of 0.14 and 0.06, respectively; every one unit increase in possibility and worry corresponded to an increase in the odds of willingness to purchase earthquake disaster insurance by a factor of 0.03 and 0.04, respectively

  5. Can minor fruit cultivation change the livelihood of the marginal peasants? A case study from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon (lebu cultivation, a minor fruit production activity, is increasingly becoming popular among the marginal peasants. The present study aimed at exploring the potentials of lemon production and its impact on the changes in the livelihood pattern of the rural farmers as well as its impact on women empowerment. Based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from Mymensingh district in Bangladesh in 2015, this paper argues that life and livelihood of the citrus producer has significantly changed over the last decade. Income from the sale of lemon is the principal livelihood means and gender non-differentiated participation in the production process further enhanced the sustainability of the livelihoods. It also contributed to employment generation for those who are not directly involved in the lemon cultivation such as power tiller driver, irrigation pump driver, fertilizer & pesticide retailer, small lemon collector, lemon supplier in the study area. Moreover, increased participation of women in the citrus cultivation has changed not only their economic well-being but also social status, honor, planning and decision making power, and self-esteem. This study also shows that marginal and vulnerable poor women including landless women, female member of women headed household and widows significantly benefited from citrus cultivation. Yet, lack of cooperative society, financial support, credit facility, technical support, storage facility and marketing support are identified as the potential problems to achieve a sustainable growth of lemon production activity.

  6. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  7. The Role of Productive Water Use in Women’s Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily van Houweling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing livelihoods and promoting gender equity are primary goals of rural development programmes in Africa. This article explores the role of productive water use in relation to these goals based on 1860 household surveys and 15 women’s focus groups conducted in four regions of Senegal with small-scale piped water systems. The piped systems can be considered 'domestic plus' systems because they were designed primarily for domestic use, and also to accommodate small-scale productive uses including livestock-raising and community-gardening. This research focuses on the significance of productive water use in the livelihood diversification strategies of rural women. In Senegal, we find that access to water for productive purposes is a critical asset for expanding and diversifying rural livelihoods. The time savings associated with small piped systems and the increased water available allowed women to enhance existing activities and initiate new enterprises. Women’s livelihoods were found to depend on productive use activities, namely livestock-raising and gardening, and it is estimated that one half of women’s incomes is linked to productive water use. While these findings are largely positive, we find that water service and affordability constraints limit the potential benefits of productive water use for women and the poorest groups. Implications for targeting women and the poorest groups within the domestic plus approach are discussed.

  8. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  9. Understanding influences in policy landscapes for sustainable coastal livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Dirk J.; Clifton, Julian; Visser, Leontine E.; Stacey, Natasha; McWilliam, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of livelihoods for communities residing in coastal environments of the Global South has gained considerable attention across policy making, practice and research fields. Livelihood enhancement programs commonly strategize around developing people's resilience by

  10. Cyclone Aila, livelihood stress, and migration: empirical evidence from coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sebak Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates why households migrated as a unit to Khulna City from the affected Upazilas of Dacope and Koyra in Khulna District, Bangladesh, following Cyclone Aila on 25 May 2009. The study reveals that households migrated primarily because of the livelihood stress that resulted from the failure to derive a secure income like before the event from the impacted areas-other push and pull factors also played a part in their migration decision. Despite all of the Aila-induced losses and problems, all households wanted to avoid migration, but they were unable to do so for this principal reason. The findings also demonstrate that, if livelihoods cannot be restored, some form of widespread migration is inevitable after a disaster such as this one. In addition, they show that migration has the potential to serve as a key adaptive response to environmental events, as evidenced by the improved economic conditions of a substantial number of the migrated households. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Benefits, costs, and livelihood implications of a regional payment for ecosystem service program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Robinson, Brian E; Liang, Yi-Cheng; Polasky, Stephen; Ma, Dong-Chun; Wang, Feng-Chun; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Daily, Gretchen C

    2013-10-08

    Despite broad interest in using payment for ecosystem services to promote changes in the use of natural capital, there are few expost assessments of impacts of payment for ecosystem services programs on ecosystem service provision, program cost, and changes in livelihoods resulting from program participation. In this paper, we evaluate the Paddy Land-to-Dry Land (PLDL) program in Beijing, China, and associated changes in service providers' livelihood activities. The PLDL is a land use conversion program that aims to protect water quality and quantity for the only surface water reservoir that serves Beijing, China's capital city with nearly 20 million residents. Our analysis integrates hydrologic data with household survey data and shows that the PLDL generates benefits of improved water quantity and quality that exceed the costs of reduced agricultural output. The PLDL has an overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.5, and both downstream beneficiaries and upstream providers gain from the program. Household data show that changes in livelihood activities may offset some of the desired effects of the program through increased expenditures on agricultural fertilizers. Overall, however, reductions in fertilizer leaching from land use change dominate so that the program still has a positive net impact on water quality. This program is a successful example of water users paying upstream landholders to improve water quantity and quality through land use change. Program evaluation also highlights the importance of considering behavioral changes by program participants.

  12. Benefits, costs, and livelihood implications of a regional payment for ecosystem service program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Robinson, Brian E.; Liang, Yi-Cheng; Polasky, Stephen; Ma, Dong-Chun; Wang, Feng-Chun; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite broad interest in using payment for ecosystem services to promote changes in the use of natural capital, there are few expost assessments of impacts of payment for ecosystem services programs on ecosystem service provision, program cost, and changes in livelihoods resulting from program participation. In this paper, we evaluate the Paddy Land-to-Dry Land (PLDL) program in Beijing, China, and associated changes in service providers’ livelihood activities. The PLDL is a land use conversion program that aims to protect water quality and quantity for the only surface water reservoir that serves Beijing, China’s capital city with nearly 20 million residents. Our analysis integrates hydrologic data with household survey data and shows that the PLDL generates benefits of improved water quantity and quality that exceed the costs of reduced agricultural output. The PLDL has an overall benefit–cost ratio of 1.5, and both downstream beneficiaries and upstream providers gain from the program. Household data show that changes in livelihood activities may offset some of the desired effects of the program through increased expenditures on agricultural fertilizers. Overall, however, reductions in fertilizer leaching from land use change dominate so that the program still has a positive net impact on water quality. This program is a successful example of water users paying upstream landholders to improve water quantity and quality through land use change. Program evaluation also highlights the importance of considering behavioral changes by program participants. PMID:24003160

  13. From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2005-10-08

    From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood Strategies in Pakistan. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake destroyed 90% of the town of tehsil Balakot, Mansehra district, Pakistan. According to the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) the earthquake left a total of 24 511 dead and ...

  14. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 juil. 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a sustainable outcome when there is partnership between local people and external agencies, and agendas relevant to their aspirations and circumstances. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise ...

  15. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-07-31

    Jul 31, 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a ... Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting Science and Participation ... innovative approaches for establishing and sustaining participation and ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and ...

  16. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    % CI: 0.2-0.9), as well as eating cooked (OR Sept  = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0; OR May  = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and raw (OR Sept  = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0; OR May  = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.1) fish were associated with decreased odds of food insecurity among households with children, while eating frozen meat and/or fish (OR Sept  = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0; OR May  = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) was associated with increased odds of food insecurity. Food insecurity is high among households with children in Iqaluit. Despite the partial subsistence livelihoods of many Inuit in the city, we found no seasonal differences in food security and food consumption for households with children. Interventions aiming to decrease food insecurity in these households should consider food consumption habits, and the reported demographic and socioeconomic determinants of food insecurity.

  17. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Nontimber Forest Products in the Rural Household Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; Sharachchandra Lele; Thomas P. Holmes; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

    2003-01-01

    Among the multiple outputs of forests, the category labeled nontimber forest products, or NTFPs, has drawn increased policy and research attention during the past 20 years. NTFPs have become recognized for their importance in the livelihoods of the many relatively poor households who live in or near forests, especially in the tropics. Policy concern about NTFPs takes...

  19. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural livelihoods in south western Nigeria are at risk to climate variability on the short run and climate change on the long run. This subjects agro ecological niches to high sensitivity and exposure thus reducing the adaptive capacity. Vulnerability results and the cocoa farming households, the major contributors to the ...

  20. Effect of fish farming on household food security in western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of fish farming on household food security and livelihoods of fish farming and non-fish farming households in Siaya County. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. Currently fish farming remains under developed in Western Kenya where pond ...

  1. Rainfall variability and household coping strategies in northern Tanzania: a motivation for district-level strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Mertz, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Climate variability is an important stress factor for rural livelihoods in most developing countries where households have been adapting to environmental shocks for decades. Climate change results in increased variability and poses new challenges for rural livelihoods, as well as for policymakers...... in adjusting policies to changing conditions. This paper examines the potential relationships between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2,700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern...

  2. The role of education in mobile livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Shedding light on the relationship between processes of migration and educational practices as aspects of wider livelihood strategies among young Nepalese migrants in India, this article focuses on the role of education in different phases of a migrant career. It explores firstly how education...... works as a driving force in the interrelated processes of social and physical mobility; secondly how formal and informal forms of learning are weaved together in individual life courses of migrants....

  3. Impact of socio-demographic characteristics on travel expenditures of Hungarian tourists in the village of Skorenovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejić Živana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism in Vojvodina affects the survival of village and livelihoods of its people. Despite the numerous problems that villages of Vojvodina face, an example of good practice is the village of Skorenovac in the municipality of Kovin in Banat. Local culture, traditions and legends of the distant past, and a unique way of life of the population of this village are the primary motives and grounds of the arrival of tourists and they affect the development of rural tourism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the consumption of Hungarian tourists in the village Skorenovac in relation to age, level of education and gender. The results of research should serve as encouragement of rural households to monitor socio-demographic characteristics of tourists to suitably form the tourist offer in order to increase profit.

  4. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. It had impact on different sectors of the environment including tourism and livelihood. There are very few researches focused on tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. In this study, the empirical data collected at the field was complemented by secondary data on climate and tourism. For primary data collection, seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. Correlation, regression and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. Change in usual pattern of temperature and rainfall had affected tourism sector. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for tourism promotional activities in the study area. Also awareness and education related to tourism, gender empowerment of women, advertisement and publicity on tourism promotion, adequate subsidy and training on ecotourism and skill development trainings on handicraft are recommended.

  5. A dynamic simulation model of land-use, population, and rural livelihoods in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Söderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years a...

  6. Unfolding livelihood aspects of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus in the Dampalit Watershed, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Spiegelberg

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Besides the innovative methodology, this research adds to the underserved local perspective in the WEF-Nexus research. The survey shows different livelihood profiles for the two groups and a lack of direct social links between them in the WEF-Nexus context. Also indirect links through consumption of the other group’s food products could not be identified. However, a large fraction of the population share the use of char coal for cooking, the Makiling groundwater for drinking and various household purposes and the Central Market in Los Banos for their food supply.

  7. Analysis of the role of strategic products in sustainable rural livelihoods (Case study: saffron production in the Roshtkhar rural district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Asghari Lafmejani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product in the world. It is significant for several reasons such as having high water productivity compared to other crops. It is providing rural employment and preventing their migration, having high medicinal and spice values, ease of maintenance and transportation. Most importantly, it is producing a high revenue compared to other agricultural products. On this basis, due to the suitability of some parts of Iran to saffron production and the role of this product in the livelihood of rural households, assessment of the sustenance impacts of saffron production in the active villages seems absolutely necessary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the status of saffron production and its role in the livelihood of rural households of the Roshtkhar Rural District. This research was done based on a descriptive-analytic approach. In this regard, the role of saffron cultivation in 355 households living in 13 villages with over 100 households in the study rural district was investigated. To this goal, after conducting documentary studies and initial field visits, a wide range of measures proportional to the circumstances of the study villages were adopted. Then, data collection was performed based on the selected indices and questionnaires were distributed to be filled by villagers and households... To analyze the data, the relevant statistical and spatial analyses were done through the application of Expert choice, SPSS, and ArcGIS software packages. The research findings indicated that the annual revenues derived from saffron production in 43.9% of the households under study were more than they obtained from other sources of income. Through the analysis of the study data, it can be concluded that saffron production has a significant effect on the improvement of the residents’ livelihood in the Roshtkhar Rural District and this fact has reinforced the households

  8. Double Marginalized Livelihoods: Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Mengistu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving gender equality is the Third Millennium Development Goal, and the major challenge to poverty reduction is the inability of governments to address this at grass root levels. This study is therefore aimed at assessing gender inequality as it pertains to socio-economic factors in (agro- pastoral societies. It tries to explain how “invisible” forces perpetuate gender inequality, based on data collected from male and female household heads and community representatives. The findings indicate that in comparison with men, women lack access to control rights over livestock, land, and income, which are critical to securing a sustainable livelihood. However, this inequality remains invisible to women who appear to readily submit to local customs, and to the community at large due to a lack of public awareness and gender based interventions. In addition, violence against women is perpetuated through traditional beliefs and sustained by tourists to the area. As a result, (agro- pastoral woman face double marginalization, for being pastoralist, and for being a woman.

  9. Impact of Char Livelihood Program (CLP of Char land Dwellers around the Char Areas in Sirajgonj District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anamul Haque

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to address the impact of Char Livelihood Program (CLP of Char land dwellers, this study is carried out to examine the livelihood and income generation activities of the people of Bangala Char in Sirajgonj District, due to intervention of Char Livelihood Program (CLP by the DFID of United Kingdom (UK. The research question of the study was whether and to what extent the Char Livelihood Program (CLP brings any changes in the livelihood and income generation activities of the people of Bangala Char. Two areas have been studied, one area is under the intervention of the project (Bangala Char as program intervention area another is not under the program intervention (Sonatoni Char as control area. Both areas have been chosen of the vicinity of similar characteristics and geographical location for the ease of addressing the problems and analytical comparison. The study uses semi-structured questionnaire for household interview both for the program intervention and the control area as random sampling basis. This study a total of 96 households’ interviews conducted of the study areas among them 48 households from Bangala Char and 48 households from the Sonatoni Char (control area. Primary data collected from house hold respondent and secondary data were used from published and unpublished sources. Four variables are access to land, income and assets , food security and vulnerability identified and the analysis shows that access to land resources among the char dwellers has established legal ownership and entitlement of land and resolve the crisis of permanent settlement which bring change in livelihood in terms of access to land resources to some extent. The islands of char dwellers are in general disadvantaged with respect to their mainland counterparts in terms of physical isolation and vulnerability to flooding and erosion have created seasonal migration and higher dependency on traditional money lenders for accessing credit supply

  10. Conflict, camps and coercion: the ongoing livelihoods crisis in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Smith, Margie; Jaspars, Susanne

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study commissioned by World Food Programme (WFP) in early 2006 to enhance understanding of how the conflict in Darfur has affected livelihoods and markets, and of the effects of food aid. The livelihoods of many in Darfur were devastated early on in the conflict, principally through the widespread looting or destruction of assets and highly restricted population movements, which struck at the heart of pre-conflict livelihoods. Livelihood strategies for most people are now restricted, poorly remunerated and often associated with high risk of attack. Patterns of coercion and exploitation have also become entrenched; and markets and trade, the lifeblood of Da fur's economy pre-conflict, severely disrupted. Against this backdrop the impact of food aid on livelihoods in Darfur has been overwhelmingly positive. The paper proposes a number of preconditions for investment in recovery in Darfur, and recommends ways in which livelihoods can be supported in the current context of ongoing conflict.

  11. Contribution of Schinziophyton rautanenii to Sustainable Diets, Livelihood Needs and Environmental Sustainability in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Schinziophyton rautanenii is a multipurpose plant species in Southern Africa which provides numerous ecosystem goods and services. This review evaluated the contribution of the species to sustainable diets, livelihood needs and environmental sustainability throughout the geographical range of the species. The literature relevant to the study was obtained from scientific databases such as ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and SCOPUS. Literature was also obtained from the University of Fort Hare library, dissertation search engines like ProQuest, Open-thesis, OATD, and EThOS. S. rautanenii is an essential source of food, herbal medicines, income, oil, timber and wood. The species provides substantial health, economic and ecological benefits to local communities that depend on the species as a source of livelihood needs. This study represents a holistic view on multiple ecosystem goods and services that are derived from S. rautanenii forming an essential component of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development goals (SDGs adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Use, cultivation and management of S. rautanenii in Southern Africa offers enormous potential for contributing to the fulfillment of the SDGs, resulting in improved food security, household nutrition and health, income, livelihoods, ecological balance, sustainable diets and food systems.

  12. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (PLebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  13. Schooling, Generation, and Transformations in Livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    In northern Kenya, sustainable pastoral livelihoods are under strain. While climate changes implicating more frequent and prolonged drought periods reduce pasture productivity, new political and economic interests in the region are generating a growing pressure on land. In Laikipia North subcounty...... people’s attempts to carefully balance competing moral expectations and generational positions of autonomy and dependency. The chapter contributes to debates about young people’s learning and laboring in Africa by pointing to the ways in which embodied laboring practices and environmental learning...

  14. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weighted Enumeration Area for the selected communities, 366 households were chosen and interviewed. Data analysis involved computing frequencies and conducting the Chi-square, binomial tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The respondents identified erratic rainfall, extreme temperature, extreme drought and flooding as key climatic events in their community. But not all identified key climatic events were perceived to constitute risk to forest products and forest-based livelihood. Only extreme drought was indicated to constitute risk to availability of forest products. In addition, the binary logistic regression showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the perceived risk of climate change to the availability of essential forest products across the three municipalities. Hence the need for forest development initiatives that target vulnerable forest products per community as a means of enhancing resilience of forest-based livelihood to climate change impacts in rural community development in South Africa.

  15. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers......, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy....

  16. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  17. Quantifying the economic contribution of wild food harvests to rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, Gordon M.; Pouliot, Mariéve; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    policies. We used household income data from 7975 households in 24 developing countries across three continents collected by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). We found 77% of households to be engaged in wild food collection from forest and non-forest environments even though the share of wild food...... regional variation in determinants and the direction of significant relationships indicate there is no one-size-fits-all approach to integrating wild foods into food and forest policies. However, our results reveal potential to increase household food security by integrating wild foods into national food......This paper empirically quantifies and analyses (i) the economic contribution of wild foods to rural households, (ii) the household socio-economic, demographic, and geographical correlates of wild food income, and (iii) how wild foods can be better incorporated into integrative food security...

  18. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted

  19. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  20. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    Coastal Bangladesh experiences significant poverty and hazards today and is highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change over the coming decades. Coastal stakeholders are demanding information to assist in the decision making processes, including simulation models to explore how different interventions, under different plausible future socio-economic and environmental scenarios, could alleviate environmental risks and promote development. Many existing simulation models neglect the complex interdependencies between the socio-economic and environmental system of coastal Bangladesh. Here an integrated approach has been proposed to develop a simulation model to support agriculture and poverty-based analysis and decision-making in coastal Bangladesh. In particular, we show how a simulation model of farmer's livelihoods at the household level can be achieved. An extended version of the FAO's CROPWAT agriculture model has been integrated with a downscaled regional demography model to simulate net agriculture profit. This is used together with a household income-expenses balance and a loans logical tree to simulate the evolution of food security indicators and poverty levels. Modelling identifies salinity and temperature stress as limiting factors to crop productivity and fertilisation due to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as a reinforcing factor. The crop simulation results compare well with expected outcomes but also reveal some unexpected behaviours. For example, under current model assumptions, temperature is more important than salinity for crop production. The agriculture-based livelihood and poverty simulations highlight the critical significance of debt through informal and formal loans set at such levels as to persistently undermine the well-being of agriculture-dependent households. Simulations also indicate that progressive approaches to agriculture (i.e. diversification) might not provide the clear economic benefit from the perspective of

  1. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  2. A multi-scalar investigation of development and health in Ethiopia: household electrification in a agriculturally dependent and climate sensitive country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Brown, M. E.; Bakhtsiyarava, M.

    2017-12-01

    In poor countries, household electricity status is often used as a measure of household resources. Often, the primary use of the variable is to sort the poorest households - those without electricity - from the better-off households - those with electricity. Expanding electrification is also part of a suite of goals developed by health and development and reflected in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and now the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Therefore, this measure is also used in a macro-level description of a country to describe a country's process of urbanization or development. As countries, electrify and expand access to electrification to the poorest households and communities, understanding the role and impact of electrification on the health and development of these communities is necessary. In other words, moving beyond the binomial categorization of a household as electrified or not electrified and instead investigating the ways that electrification impacts communities, households and individuals is a necessary component of understanding contemporary patterns of health and development in the world's poorest countries. The goal of this research is to examine the linkages between health and development using multi-scalar, remotely-sensed measures of electrification in Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world. For this study we use spatially referenced Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ethiopia from 2000 and 2005. In addition to measures of electrification gathered from the DHS, we also use time-varying satellite based measure of electrification collected by the US Department of Defense. Also, because many rural Ethiopians are dependent on small-scale, rainfed agriculture and therefore highly vulnerable to climate shocks and food insecurity, any investigation of health and development must also consider the local food production context. To support the analysis and provide information on broader measures of food insecurity

  3. Should all attrition households in rural panel datasets be tracked? Lessons from a panel survey in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    (and household head) characteristics, and livelihood activities in the initial year of investigation, but the three groups behave differently in the last year of investigation. Different household socio-economic factors determine households' probability of being a mover or non-mover. These disparities...... and the heterogeneity within the attritors sample in the data. The additional cost of tracking non-movers was very low and this sample is important for rural livelihood studies. Hence, the non-movers sample should always be tracked. The cost of tracking movers was also low, though much larger than the one for non...

  4. Sustaining rural livelihoods: On-farm climate-smart adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural livelihoods, incidence of poverty and climate change are intricately connected in the Offinso Municipality in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Conscious of the vagaries of climate change, smallholder farmers have developed adaptation measures to sustain their subsistent livelihoods. This paper examines the various ...

  5. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on the Implications of the Diminishing Water Resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria. ... The impact of this depletion is being felt by Lake Chad basin population who depend on the lake for their means of livelihood. This paper focuses on the ...

  6. Livelihood Strategies of Rural Women with Emphasis on Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores some of the livelihood strategies of rural women with emphasis ... per annum, which leads to limited access to the scarce land and other resources. ... livelihood tragedy, about 27% of the rural women respondents began to limit the ... used to move away from home to look for employment opportunities.

  7. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  8. Livelihood trends in Response to Climate Change in Forest Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the forest fringe communities in Ghana where the rural livelihoods of the people have been compromised due to deforestation and climate change is the Offin basin. The removal of forests impacts on local climate, water availability, and livelihoods due to influence of forests on precipitation and water balance. Fluxes ...

  9. Biofuels, land use change and smallholder livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hought, Joy Marie; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Petersen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    of biofuel feedstock adoption by smallholders in the northwestern Cambodian province of Banteay Meanchey, a region undergoing rapid land use change following the formal end of the Khmer Rouge era in 1989 and subsequent rural resettlement. Remote sensing data combined with field interviews pointed to three...... discrete phases of land use change in this period: first, as a result of the establishment of new settlements (mainly subsistence rice production); second, via the expansion of cash crop cultivation into forested areas (mainly grown on upland fields); and third, due to the response of smallholders...... market had severe consequences for livelihoods and food security. The paper concludes with a discussion of the probable impacts of the emerging cassava market on trajectories in land use, land ownership, and land access in rural Cambodia. The case looks at biofuel adoption in the context of other land...

  10. When nature frowns: A comprehensive impact assessment of the 2012 Babessi floods on people’s livelihoods in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland A. Balgah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the most common natural disasters worldwide. Much of the growing literature on the impact of floods, especially in developed countries, and to a lesser extent in rural areas of developing countries, concentrates on economic rather than a comprehensive assessment of combined effects on people’s livelihoods. Holistic floods impact assessments are often done long after the shock, raising problems of data reliability following long recall periods, although post-disaster needs assessments when carried out earlier can facilitate appropriate disaster recovery, relief and reconstruction activities. We applied the sustainable livelihoods framework as a comprehensive approach to assess the impacts of the Babessi floods in 2012 on livelihoods in rural (north western region of Cameroon 6 weeks after the floods. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from victims before and after the floods, using recall methods. A matched sample of nonvictims randomly selected from the same village as the victims was used to assess vulnerability to the floods by household type. Floods were found to have serious economic, social, human and food security impacts on victims. Both government and nongovernmental support were jointly crucial for household recovery. Comparatively observed high levels of recovery were attributed to the low loss of human lives. The article concludes with the need for comprehensive approaches to floods impact assessments. The need for combining formal and informal instruments in post-disaster management in rural areas is also emphasised.

  11. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  12. Livelihood asset maps: a multidimensional approach to measuring risk-management capacity and adaptation policy targeting—a case study in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2013-01-01

    to the fact that some areas facing increased level of climate-related risks lack access to productive and human capital, while other areas facing a similar situation have relatively insufficient access to financial assets. This again shows that any non-targeted policy aiming at improving households’ risk-management......The application of a livelihood asset-based approach to adaptation policy targeting is presented through the creation of maps highlighting the spatial contrasts of access to various types of livelihood assets utilizing primary household data. Thus, the livelihood maps provide policy......-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climaterelated risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial patterns of asset endowments is identified using five different asset indicators drawing attention...

  13. Livelihood benefits and costs from an invasive alien tree (Acacia dealbata) to rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorima, A; Shackleton, C M

    2018-05-31

    The negative effects of invasive alien species (IAS) are increasingly invoked to justify widespread and usually top-down approaches for their management or eradication. However, very little of the research or discourse is based on investigating local perceptions, uses and struggles with IAS, and how their presence influences and changes local livelihoods. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and livelihood uses of Acacia dealbata by local communities at three localities in the montane grasslands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a combination of random household interviews, focus group discussions and participatory tools. We calculated direct-use values for each product and household (based on quantity used and local prices) and disaggregated these by gender of the household head and wealth quartiles. The results revealed the dualistic role of A. dealbata in local livelihoods. On the one hand, A. dealbata was widely used for firewood (100% of households), tools (77%) and construction timber (73%), with limited use for traditional medicines and forage. The cumulative value of approximately ZAR 2870 (±US$224) per household per year (across all households) represents considerable cash saving to households, most of whom are quite poor by national and international measures. On the other hand, the increasing extent of A. dealbata (93% said it was increasing) exacerbates local household vulnerability though reported reductions in cultivated areas, crop yields and forage production, and allegedly higher risks of crime. This quandary is well encapsulated by the considerable majority of respondents (84%) not wanting higher extents and densities of A. dealbata, but an equally high majority not wanting its total removal from local landscapes. Most respondents disliked A. dealbata in fields, close to homesteads or along primary access routes, and were more tolerant of it away from such sites. Institutional and use dynamics have varied over several

  14. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  15. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  16. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  17. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, there are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. Seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The empirical data collected at the site are complemented by secondary scientific data on climate and tourism. Correlation, regression, descriptive and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation and analysis of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. It was also verified by the observed scientific data of temperature and precipitation. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. Till the date, there is positive impact of climate change on tourism sector in the study area. But, unfavorable weather change phenomena, intense rainfall and snowfall, melting of snow, occurrence of hydrological and climatic hazards and increase in temperature may have adverse impact on the tourism and livelihood in the mountainous area. Such type of adverse impact of climate change and tourism is already experienced in the case of Annapurna region and Mt. Everest region as tourist were trapped and affected by unfavorable weather change phenomena. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for

  18. The Socio-economics and Alternative Livelihood Options of Fishers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Socio-economics and Alternative Livelihood Options of Fishers of Lake Victoria, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Most fishers were males aged 29-38yrs while women were involved in processing and marketing.

  19. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  20. Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and Agricultural Management ... management and facilitating access to resources by low-income farmers. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  1. Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. “A vision that is future directed”

  2. Livelihoods of squatter settlements : analysis from tenure perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, Ashokkumar; Nepali, Purna; Panday, U.S.; Shrestha, Reshma

    2017-01-01

    Squatter settlements are inevitable in most of the urban areas. Livelihood situation of squatter settlements seem poor, vulnerable and miserable. Living condition in these settlements suffered from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper

  3. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    42.5% opined that contribution of parkland products was high to their livelihood sustenance. The other ..... mg/kg, which also helps inlow blood pressure, enhance immunity ... social importance as alkaloids, essential oils and phenolics derived ...

  4. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... America, and the Caribbean with funds from the Government of Canada's fast-start financing. ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.

  5. All at Sea: Sustaining livelihoods through maritime tourism in Croatia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... human capital, physical and social aspect, and natural capital) have proved to ... Keywords: Sustainable livelihoods, maritime tourism, seafaring community, entrepreneurship, Croatia.

  6. Integrated agriculture enhances farm productivity and livelihoods in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Farm productivity and Livelihoods in Agro Biodiversity. Farmers in Tamil Nadu adopted locally-adapted cassava, boosting agro-biodiversity while enhancing ... Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards.

  7. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  8. Making Grasslands Sustainable in Mongolia: Herders' Livelihoods and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    The threats posed by climate change have significant impacts on Mongolia’s grassland ecosystems and herders’ livelihoods. This publication discusses the auses of climate change and its impacts on livelihoods and ecosystems for herders and the general public. It explains how good pasture management and livestock roductivity are important for increasing incomes and provides information on adaptation practices. It also identifies sustainable management practices that can increase communities’ re...

  9. Applied Mycology Can Contribute to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Building upon China's Matsutake Management Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Madeline; McLellan, Timothy; Li, Huili; Karunarathna, Samantha C.

    2018-02-01

    Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter. Our experimental results suggest that although leaf litter coverings are superior to plastic coverings, shiros that are left uncovered may produce the highest yields. Complementing our experimental work is a multi-sited household survey of existing matsutake management practices across Yunnan, which shows that a high proportion of harvesters are already engaged in a broad range of potentially beneficial management strategies. Though both findings highlight limitations of previous initiatives led by government and research actors in China, this existing body of work is an important foundation and opportunity for developing applied mycology in the region. In and beyond China, working with communities to develop site-specific management strategies through rigorous and participatory scientific inquiry can provide salient benefits for both scientists and resource users.

  10. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.

  11. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of multidimensional well-being, livelihoods and ecosystem services in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Adger, W. Neil; Ahmad, Sate; Ahmed, Ali; Begum, Dilruba; Lázár, Attila N.; Matthews, Zoe; Rahman, Mohammed Mofizur; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2016-01-01

    Populations in resource dependent economies gain well-being from the natural environment, in highly spatially and temporally variable patterns. To collect information on this, we designed and implemented a 1586-household quantitative survey in the southwest coastal zone of Bangladesh. Data were collected on material, subjective and health dimensions of well-being in the context of natural resource use, particularly agriculture, aquaculture, mangroves and fisheries. The questionnaire included questions on factors that mediate poverty outcomes: mobility and remittances; loans and micro-credit; environmental perceptions; shocks; and women’s empowerment. The data are stratified by social-ecological system to take into account spatial dynamics and the survey was repeated with the same respondents three times within a year to incorporate seasonal dynamics. The dataset includes blood pressure measurements and height and weight of men, women and children. In addition, the household listing includes basic data on livelihoods and income for approximately 10,000 households. The dataset facilitates interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of well-being in the context of natural resource dependence in low income countries. PMID:27824340

  13. A temporal dimension of household vulnerability in three rural communities in Lijiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of household vulnerability during the past 30 years within three different social-ecological upland systems in Lijiang, Yunnan. Interviews were conducted to construct coupled human-environmental timelines to facilitate the understanding of livelihood dynamics in the contex....... Moreover, environmentally destructive practices such as illegal logging might reinforce the negative impacts of climate change and thus undermine sustainable adaptation....

  14. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  15. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  16. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Tewari, D D; Baboo, Biplab

    2015-08-01

    A large volume of literature describes adverse consequences of conservation-induced displacement on indigenous communities depended on natural resources of wildlife habitat. Resettlement policies in protected areas the world over are mainly designed and implemented without consideration of social and economic costs of exclusion. This study examined income and poverty profile of tribal residents in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve in India, relative to the households relocated out of the reserve. The income from different sources and livelihood diversification of displaced reserve dwellers reflected changes resulting from the loss of access to natural and household assets. The results contradicted common perception about impoverishment outcome of relocation. It showed an increase in the per capita income for poorer segments with an overall 8% increase in absolute household income and corresponding improvement in the poverty ratio (head count ratio) and FGT index (0.241) for the relocated community. Contrary to other studies, the finding did not observe social alignment or marginalization; however, on-farm livelihood diversification reduced with increased dependence on off-farm sources. Expulsion of people from forest reserves to support conservation is inadequate in restricting habitat use of locals unless suitable alternative livelihood options are available for forest dependent was proven from the study.

  17. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Tewari, D. D.; Baboo, Biplab

    2015-08-01

    A large volume of literature describes adverse consequences of conservation-induced displacement on indigenous communities depended on natural resources of wildlife habitat. Resettlement policies in protected areas the world over are mainly designed and implemented without consideration of social and economic costs of exclusion. This study examined income and poverty profile of tribal residents in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve in India, relative to the households relocated out of the reserve. The income from different sources and livelihood diversification of displaced reserve dwellers reflected changes resulting from the loss of access to natural and household assets. The results contradicted common perception about impoverishment outcome of relocation. It showed an increase in the per capita income for poorer segments with an overall 8 % increase in absolute household income and corresponding improvement in the poverty ratio (head count ratio) and FGT index (0.241) for the relocated community. Contrary to other studies, the finding did not observe social alignment or marginalization; however, on-farm livelihood diversification reduced with increased dependence on off-farm sources. Expulsion of people from forest reserves to support conservation is inadequate in restricting habitat use of locals unless suitable alternative livelihood options are available for forest dependent was proven from the study.

  18. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  19. Household livelihood security in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtshali, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the poor South Africans are to be found in rural areas. Their location is characterised by combinations of difficult situations that contribute to their vulnerability and poverty. Some of the common problems are hilly

  20. Rethinking Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Based Land Use Systems in Smallholder Farmers Livelihoods: A Case of Kolobo Watershed, West Shewa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyisa Dadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their restriction, smallholder farmers have been continuing growing Eucalyptus globulus in the cultivated land in the central highland of Ethiopia. Literature has shown controversial issues against E. globulus. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the compatibility of E. globulus in the smallholder farmers’ land use system. Soil samples were collected from five different land uses and analysed for selected physical and chemical properties. The socioeconomic contribution of E. globulus was collected through household surveys from 110 households. Analysis of soil showed that organic carbon (OC, total nitrogen (TN and cation exchange capacity (CEC were significantly higher (P<0.05 under E. globulus compared to the cultivated land. The survey results also showed that the largest proportion (58% of households was interested in growing E. globulus because of its multiple uses. About 83% of households responded that E. globulus help them to attain food security through increasing the purchasing power of smallholder farmers to buy agricultural inputs and food. This study has substantiated the role of E. globulus in the land use system of smallholder farmers. Most of the soil fertility indicators were better under E. globulus. The present finding reveals that E. globulus degrade the soil seemingly difficult to generalise. Growing E. globulus must be promoted under appealing land use to enhance smallholder farmers’ livelihoods. Removing E. globulus from the land use system may jeopardise the food security situation of many households.

  1. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  2. Livelihood Strategies in Shaxi, Southwest China: Conceptualizing Mountain–Valley Interactions as a Human–Environment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz K. Huber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the socio-ecological differences and interactions between upland and lowland areas in Shaxi Valley, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. As an analytical tool we used an extended Human–Environment System Framework by focusing particularly on the dynamics and sustainability of livelihood strategies and mountain–valley interactions. Drawing from household surveys conducted in two mountain and two valley communities in 2005 and 2009, we show that the distinct income gap between mountain and valley households in 2005 ceased to exist in 2009. The main drivers for this development are the local tourist industry, persistent demand for forest resources, as well as local off-farm and seasonal migrant employment.

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  4. Drivers of illegal livelihoods in remote transboundary regions: the case of the Trans-Fly region of Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Busilacchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote transboundary regions in developing countries often contain abundant natural resources. Many of these resources are being overexploited to supply an ever-increasing demand from Asia, often via illegal cross-border trade. Understanding the systemic issues that drive households to engage in illegal activities in transboundary regions is a prerequisite for designing effective interventions and diverting livelihoods toward sustainable trajectories, but is rarely applied. This study analyzed the drivers of illegal trade in marine products, e.g. sea cucumber, shark fin, and fish bladders, among coastal villages in Papua New Guinea that border Indonesia and Australia in the Trans-Fly region. Mixed-methods (household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews were applied to triangulate results and minimize denial bias, which is a challenge when studying illegality. Results indicated that distance from markets and economic centers was the main driver for engagement in illegal activity, and distance from a center was also the main driver of poverty. Contrary to studies elsewhere, we found that poverty did not generally drive households' engagement in illegal trade. Only in Daru, the primary economic hub, where immigrants from the areas impacted by the Ok Tedi mine operations have resettled, were the poorest households likely to be involved in illegal trade, because they had no alternative sources of livelihood. Weak governance exacerbates the situation, which includes corruption, a lack of enforcement, and poor coordination among government levels, and a breakdown of traditional resource management systems. Respondents highlighted that current bilateral border agreements are outdated and cannot account for modernization, a globalizing economy, and communities' rapid transition to a cash economy. Our findings emphasize the need to find innovative governance solutions to manage this stressed social

  5. Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Household welfare is inseparable from the environment because of its dependence on ecosystems and their services. However, linking household welfare and ecosystems in order to inform differentiated household livelihood development in spatially heterogeneous regions is still a great challenge. Based on a field survey of 1754 households, we grouped the relationships between household welfare (defined by total income and ecosystem reliance (expressed by an index of dependence on ecosystem services in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water for domestic use in Beijing, China. The relationships can be grouped into four types: high welfare and high dependency; low welfare and low dependency; high welfare and low dependence; and low welfare and high dependency. Family structure, households’ education and skill level, and the proximity to Beijing have significant impacts on household welfare, while the quantity of natural capital and eco-compensation fund significantly contribute to the ecosystem dependence. Maintaining suitable family size and age structure, improving education and skill levels, and strengthening payment for ecosystem services within low welfare households would be effective approaches to their welfare improvement. The above classification can help design tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household subgroups.

  6. Impact pathways of trade liberalization on rural livelihoods: A case study of smallholder maize farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROENEWALD, Sytske

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research assessing the impacts of trade liberalization on poor rural populations can be divided intotwo categories: more quantitative research, assessing relationships between specific, measurable variables(such as changes in the macroeconomic environment and their impact on farmers’ income levels;and more qualitative research, which takes trade policy as a context and provides broad, descriptive dataabout dynamic livelihood strategies. In this paper, we outline a framework that could be used to integratethese two approaches by unravelling the macro-micro linkages between national policies and responses ata household level. Using the Mexican maize sector as an illustration, we trace the pathways through whichtrade liberalization (including the North American Free Trade Agreement has interacted with changes in governmentinstitutions, and thereby impacted on farmers’ livelihood strategies. We identify three pathwaysthrough which trade policy affects households and individuals: via enterprises, distribution channels, andgovernment, and we link these to a five-category typology of smallholders’ strategies for escaping rural poverty:intensification, diversification, expansion, increased off-farm income and exit from agriculture. Basedon a case-study from Chiapas, Mexico, we report on farmers’ responses to post-liberalization agriculturalpolicies. Data suggest that farmers have intensified maize production, sought more off-farm employment orhave exited agriculture altogether. The potential for smallholders to escape poverty by diversifying farms orexpanding their land-holdings or herd-size has been largely unrealized. We provide a conceptual frameworkfor linking the impacts of liberalization to farmers’ livelihood strategies and suggest that this framework isuseful in the context of agricultural modernisation initiatives that seek to increase agricultural productionand productivity.

  7. Advancing methods for research on household water insecurity: Studying entitlements and capabilities, socio-cultural dynamics,and political processes, institutions and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Wutich, A.; Budds, J.; Young, S.; Staddon, C.

    2017-01-01

    Household water insecurity has serious implications for the health, livelihoods and wellbeing of people around the world. Existing methods to assess the state of household water insecurity focus largely on water quality, quantity or adequacy, source or reliability, and affordability. These methods have significant advantages in terms of their simplicity and comparability, but are widely recognized to oversimplify and underestimate the global burden of household water insecurity. In contrast, ...

  8. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  9. Balancing Development and Conservation? An Assessment of Livelihood and Environmental Outcomes of Nontimber Forest Product Trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Kusters

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question, to what extent and under which conditions nontimber forest product (NTFP trade leads to both livelihood improvement and forest conservation. We based the analysis on a standardized expert-judgment assessment of the livelihood and environmental outcomes of 55 cases of NTFP trade from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The results show that NTFP trade benefits several components of peoples' livelihoods, but may increase inequality between households. Involvement of women in the production-to-consumption system (PCS tends to have a positive impact on intrahousehold equity. In 80% of the cases, the commercial production of NTFPs does not enable people to make financial investments to increase quality and quantity of production, limiting the potential for development. In our set of cases, commercial extraction from the wild, without further management, tends to lead to resource depletion. NTFP production systems are generally considered to have lower environmental values than natural forest, but do contribute positively to the environmental values in the landscape. We found that higher livelihood outcomes are associated with lower environmental outcomes and conclude that NTFP trade is not likely to reconcile development and conservation of natural forest.

  10. Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port Elizabeth. ... improve their money management skills and ensure they eliminate debt, which can be ... Significant relationships between demographical variables and financial ...

  11. Dark Side of Development: Modernity, Disaster Risk and Sustainable Livelihoods in Two Coastal Communities in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing rapidly, as are the remotest rural communities. Modernity is spreading across the world under the guise of development and it is transforming disaster risk. This raises issues concerning how disaster risk is changing in such milieus. Using a sustainable livelihood approach, this article investigates access to different types of capital that central to the vulnerability of two coastal communities in Fiji that are affected by modernity to different extents. This comparative case study is based on semi-structured interviews, focus groups and observation. The results indicate that modernity transforms access to and use of key capitals (natural, physical, financial, human, and social capital on both community and household levels, increasing dependence on external resources that are unequally distributed, while undermining social cohesion and support. Although disaster risk might be of a similar magnitude across the board at the community level, modernity transforms vulnerability significantly and skews the distribution of disaster risk, to the detriment of the households left behind by development.

  12. Combining analytiacal frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptiation option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.J.; Schwilch, G.; Springer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood

  13. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  14. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  15. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  16. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  17. Contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods in a district of southeastern Uganda endemic for bovine parasitic diseases: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Walter O; Muhanguzi, Dennis; MacLeod, Ewan T; Welburn, Susan C; Waiswa, Charles; Shaw, Alexandra P

    2015-11-05

    A study was conducted in Tororo District in eastern Uganda to assess the socio-economic contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods. The aim of the study was to empirically quantify the economic value of draft cattle thus contributing to understanding the impact of endemic parasitic diseases of cattle on livestock productivity and subsequently household income, labor and food security. A total of 205 draft cattle keeping households (n = 205) were randomly selected and structured household questionnaires were administered, focusing on work oxen use, productivity, inputs and outputs. The data obtained was analyzed using standard statistical methods and used to calculate the gross margin from the draft cattle enterprise. Secondary data were obtained from focus group discussions and key informant interviews and these were analyzed using Bayesian methods. The study showed that, apart from being labor saving, the use of animal traction is highly profitable with the gross margin per year from the use of draft cattle amounting to 245 United States dollars per work oxen owning household. The cash obtained from hiring out draft animals was equivalent to nearly a quarter of the average local household's monetary receipts. It also revealed that endemic bovine parasitic diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases reduced draft cattle output by 20.9 % and potential household income from the use of draft oxen by 32.2 %. The presence of endemic cattle diseases in rural Uganda is adversely affecting the productivity of draft cattle, which in turn affects household income, labor and ultimately food security. This study highlights the contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods, thus increasing the expected impact of cost-effective control strategies of endemic production limiting livestock diseases in Uganda.

  18. Livelihoods and Land Uses in Environmental Policy Approaches: The Case of PES and REDD+ in the Lam Dong Province of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Tore Trædal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores assumptions about the drivers of forest cover change in a Payments for Environmental Services (PES and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ context in the Lam Dong Province in Vietnam. In policy discourses, deforestation is often linked to ‘poor’ and ‘ethnic minority’ households and their unsustainable practices such as the expansion of coffee production (and other agricultural activities into forest areas. This paper applies a livelihood framework to discuss the links between livelihoods and land use amongst small-scale farmers in two communities. The findings of the livelihood survey demonstrate no clear linkages between poverty levels and unsustainable practices. In fact, the poorest segments were found to deforest the least. The ways in which current PES and REDD+ approaches are designed, do not provide appropriate solutions to address the underlying dimensions of issues at stake. The paper criticizes one-dimensional perspectives of the drivers behind deforestation and forest degradation often found in public policies and discourses. We suggest more comprehensive analyses of underlying factors encompassing the entire coffee production and land use system in this region. Addressing issues of land tenure and the scarcity of productive lands, and generating viable off-farm income alternatives seem to be crucial. Sustainable approaches for reducing deforestation and degradation could be possible through engaging with multiple stakeholders, including the business-oriented households in control of the coffee trade and of land transactions.

  19. Household versus Community Effects: Who Really Pays More for Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hayden; Blisard, Noel

    2006-01-01

    One strand of literature shows a household's cost of food to vary with the household's own income and demographic characteristics. For example, low-income households may tend to purchase less costly bundles of food. However, a separate strand of literature also shows food prices to vary spatially with the characteristics of communities, such as real estate prices. In this study, a model is developed that unites these two strands. Simulations further illustrate the effect that a community's ch...

  20. Better resilience to disasters and improved livelihoods on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Research supported by IDRC and the former Canadian International Development Agency (now part of Global Affairs Canada) has increased the resilience of poor coastal communities in India and Sri Lanka to natural disasters and improved livelihoods. Carried out by the MS Swaminathan Research ...

  1. Studies in African Livelihoods: Current Issues and Future Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the 1990s, the analysis of poverty in Africa became susceptible to a livelihood approach, with an actor-oriented perspective of putting people at the centre and pointing out their agency in order to explore opportunities and to cope with constraints. It was opposed

  2. Strengthening Rural Livelihoods : The Impact of Information and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 sept. 2011 ... Strengthening Rural Livelihoods dresse un bilan utile et équilibré de l'influence que les téléphones mobiles et Internet peuvent avoir sur le soutien des moyens de subsistance des populations rurales, et notamment des agriculteurs en Asie. Tim Unwin, titulaire de la chaire UNESCO en TIC pour le ...

  3. Exploring the options for alternative means of livelihood for blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To explore the readiness of and the options for alternative means of livelihood for Blind Street beggars in Sokoto, Nigeria, with a view to achieving the millennium development goals. Materials and Methods: A cross.sectional study was conducted in a Local Government Area (LGA), in Sokoto State overa 6 weeks period ...

  4. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification and, hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock ...

  5. Gender differentials in sweetpotato production on the livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyse the determinants of sweetpotato production on the livelihood strategies of the male and female sweetpotato producers in Ebonyi State. A multi-stage randomized sampling procedure was used to collect cross sectional data in 2014. Data collected from 120 Sweetpotato producers were ...

  6. When global environmentalism meets local livelihoods: policy and management lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2009-01-01

    Creation of national parks often imposes immediate livelihood costs on local people, and tensions between park managers and local people are common. Park managers have tried different approaches to managing relationships with local people, but nearly all include efforts to promote environmental values and behaviors. These efforts have had uneven results, and there is a...

  7. Better resilience to disasters and improved livelihoods on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... MSSRF Saving Lives Panel. MSSRF. Michelle Hibler. Research supported by IDRC and the former Canadian International Development Agency ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du ...

  8. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  9. Global change, urban livelihoods and food security; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security research and policy have focused more on the rural poor where the incidence and depth of poverty is more pronounced. Urban livelihoods are based on cash income and many people in urban areas are employed in the informal sector which...

  10. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of

  11. Livelihood responses to climate change in the Niger-delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, climatic changes coupled with oil exploration activeities in the region have negatively impacted on the environment. This has resulted in the alteration of habitats, biodiversity los and pollution of water bodies. This paper assesses livelihood responses of local people to climate change and the implications for food ...

  12. Poverty reduction through alternative livelihoods in Botswana\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the study, there are several livelihood options available in the desert margins of Botswana, but communities fail to exploit these due to a number of constraints such as poor access to financial credit, lack of awareness of potential income earners such as eco-tourism, insufficient knowledge and technical ...

  13. The impact of Thaba-Bosiu Centre alternative livelihoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study that was conducted in March 2009 aimed at assessing the impact of alternative livelihoods programme on the social and economic lives of Ha Mothae residents. A case study approach was used and a purposeful sampling technique was used in selecting respondents, while data were ...

  14. Planning livelihood cohesion for agrarian Tsunami victims | Newport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper highlights the need for adequate livelihood planning for agrarian Tsunami victims in Tamil Nadu are of India. It looks at the reason why the inhabitants of the area were affected by the disaster especially as they are around the coastal plains, which experience periodic monsoon. The recent tsunami devastated the ...

  15. Contribution of wetland agriculture to farmers' livelihood in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living in the vicinity of the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. Three tools were used: 1) focus group discussion 2) formal surveys and 3) Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands

  16. Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. VOL. 3 NO. ... Erosive coping strategies that undermined the sustainability of livelihoods were used by more ..... related symptom in the present analysis. .... support networks for home-based care in Benue. .... elaborate and costly. ..... resulting from more effective prevention campaigns.

  17. Forest ecosystem services and livelihood of communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the potential of forest ecosystem services to the livelihood of communities around Shume-Magamba Forest Reserve in Lushoto District, Tanzania was conducted. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participant's observation were used. Qualitatively and quantitatively data were analysed using the ...

  18. Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Launched in 2001, the Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food Security (RENEWAL) is a growing network of networks made up of national food and nutrition organizations (public, private and nongovernmental) and partners in AIDS and public health. RENEWAL aims to understand and facilitate a ...

  19. Agroforestry for landscape restoration and livelihood development in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U. Djanibekov; Klara Dzhakypbekova; James Chamberlain; Horst Weyerhaeuser; Robert Zomer; G. Villamor; J. Xu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how the adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in Central Asian countries can be enhanced. First, it describes how previous and current developments lead to changing environmental conditions, and how these changing conditions consequently affected the welfare of people. Environmental issues on a global level, such as...

  20. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  1. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  2. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  3. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  4. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  5. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (insecurity: A case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syntyche Nakar Djindil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assistance to help relieve the hardships they face. "is study involves 111 migrant households from central Chad that, as a result of war and drought, have lost everything and now have to live in squatter areas of N’Djamena and Mongo, facing uncertainty and threats while negotiating their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been combined in this study to reveal the intriguing story of their daily lives in the face of complex and endemic crises. Anthropometric and health data were generated to determine the nutritional status of mothers and their children under !ve. Life histories, in-depth interviews and participatory observation allowed the researchers to capture the negotiation strategies they use to access food and shelter, their experiences of food insecurity and sanitary vulnerability, and the consequences these have on daily life. Results indicate that 62% of households were female headed, there were high rates of acute (40-50% and chronic (35-40% malnutrition and 46% of the mothers were underweight and anaemic. Infant mortality rates were also high at 30%-42% and 97% of the children had had incomplete or no vaccinations. No households had access to clean water, sanitation or public-health services. Endemic corruption and abuse by the authorities were identi!ed as major sources of day-to-day insecurity. Theese migrants were not expecting any improvement in their livelihoods in the foreseeable future and saw these miserable conditions as normal.

  6. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  7. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  8. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  9. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level. Empirical results reveal unique non-linear patterns of household purchase response to sCSD-...

  11. Impact of HIV and AIDS on household food and nutrition security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on household food and nutrition security in Suba district was studied in a quasi longitudinal study. Households with People Living with HIV/AIDS (Index- 25%) and three surrounding households (control- 75%) were considered for the study. Data were collected on demographic characteristics of the ...

  12. Meat consumption patterns in Vietnam: effects of household characteristics on pork and poultry consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Van Phuong; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010 (VHLSS 2010). The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that the meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and geographic factors.

  13. Post-colonial agricultural participation in livelihood strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Azunna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-colonial agricultural initiatives, programmes and models in Nigeria are aimed at empowering rural farmers to better yields and productivity while creating employment at community level. It necessitates food security, quality domestic food production and improvement in general welfare and livelihood and the farmers. The post-colonial era in Nigeria has witnessed numerous agricultural programmes. Example includes but not the least, the National Accelerated Food Production Project (NAFPP 1972, Agricultural Development Projects, ADPs 1975, the Accelerated Development Area Project ADAP 1982, and the Multi-state Agricultural Development Projects MSADP 1986. The application of PEA in AVM ensures that positive outcomes and productions are expected through increase in farmers' awareness of modern technologies and practices. AVM is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach to improve the livelihood of rice farmers. Structured questionnaire and face to face interview were used to collect the data and SPSS was used to analyse the data. Human livelihood capital is characterized as a two-way thing, that is, it is concerned with both environmental influence on human life and human influences on the environment, focusing on the nature and quality of the relationship that exists between human communities and the ecosystem and how the environment provides the resource base for human existence. AVM prompted a shift from the usual way of financing farm projects to government involvement and providing farmers with information on how to secure loans, credit and financial incentives. Therefore, the study conclude that the introduction and adoption of AVM brought about substantial changes to the farmers livelihood capitals.

  14. Creativity in everyday practice : resources and livelihoods in Nyamira, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ontita, E.

    2007-01-01

    The introductory Chapter raised the intriguing question: "how are we to understand the continued survival and apparent social functioning of rural people amidst officially acknowledged absolute poverty?" The question had a rhetorical function and in seeking to answer it I took the view that rural people construct their livelihoods in ways that are largely invisible to policy makers. This book is about the creativity of ordinary rural people. It seeks to unravel the diverse ways in which such ...

  15. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Opportunism and diversification : entrepreneurship and livelihood strategies in uncertain times

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Daniel Martyn

    2015-01-01

    As economic crisis deepens across Europe people are forced to find innovative strategies to accommodate circumstances of chronic uncertainty. Even with a second multi-billion euro bailout package secured for Greece, the prospects of a sustainable recovery in the near future look bleak. However, crisis has also created dynamic spaces for entrepreneurial opportunism and diversification resulting in social mobility, relocation, shifts in livelihood strategy and a burgeoning informal economy. Alt...

  17. Youth livelihoods in the cellphone era : perspectives from urban Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Gina; Hampshire, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Issues surrounding youth employment and unemployment are central to the next development decade. Understanding how youth use mobile phones as a means of communicating and exchanging information about employment and livelihoods is particularly important given the prominence of mobile phone use in young lives. This paper explores and reflects on youth phone usage in Ghana, Malawi and South Africa, drawing on mixed-methods research with young people aged approximately 9–25 years, in 12 (high den...

  18. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  19. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  20. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Land-Use, Population, and Rural Livelihoods in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Soderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years and to improve our understanding of the interactions among them. The modeling output is characterized by rapid population growth, declining farm size and household incomes, deteriorating woody vegetation cover and worsening land degradation if current conditions remain. However, through integrated intervention strategies (including forest increase, micro-finance, family planning, health and education) the woody vegetation cover is likely to increase in the landscape, population growth is likely to slow down and households' income is likely to improve. A validation assessment of the simulation model based on historical data on land-use and population from 1973 to 2006 showed that the model is relatively robust. We conclude that as a supporting tool, the simulation model can contribute to the decision making process.

  1. Migration as a risk and a livelihood strategy: HIV across the life course of migrant families in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Migrant workers are understood to be vulnerable to HIV. However, little is known about the experience of migration-based households following HIV infection. This qualitative study examined the migration-HIV relationship beyond the point of infection, looking at how it affects livelihood choices, household relationships and the economic viability of migrant families. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 HIV-positive migrant men and women recruited from an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centre in north India. Following infection among the migrant men, contact with free, public-sector HIV services was often made late, after the development of debilitating symptoms, abandonment of migrant work and return to native villages. After enrolment at the ART centre participants' health eventually stabilised but they now faced serious economic debt, an inflexible treatment regimen and reduced physical strength. Insecure migrant job markets, monthly drug collection and discriminatory employment policies impeded future migration plans. HIV-positive wives of migrants occupied an insecure position in the rural marital household that depended on their husbands' health and presence of children. The migration-HIV relationship continued to shape the life course of migrant families beyond the point of infection, often exposing them again to the economic insecurity that migration had helped to overcome, threatening their long-term survival.

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, Laurent; Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance

  3. Drivers of fishing at the household scale in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dacks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs sustain millions of people worldwide, yet in recent years, social, environmental, and climate change have caused major declines in coral reef fisheries. Small-scale coral reef fisheries research has largely focused on community-level drivers of fishing, ignoring the heterogeneities that exist within communities. We used social-ecological indicators from 20 coastal villages in Fiji to identify potential fine-scale, context-appropriate drivers of estimated household fish catch. Indicators were developed based on a review of the literature, discussions with local experts, and a pilot study. Using structural equation models, we found that importance of fishing to income, household fish consumption, livelihood diversity, travel time to market, and coral reef area all positively affect estimated household-level fish catch. Our results contrast with findings from other larger scale studies by identifying that households further from markets had higher fishing frequency. We highlight the role of middlemen in these small-scale fisheries, who have been largely overlooked as drivers of fisheries catch. Our findings emphasize the need for household-level analyses to better understand the complexities in coral reef social-ecological systems to more effectively manage small-scale fisheries in communities.

  4. Jatropha plantations for biodiesel in Tamil Nadu, India. Viability, livelihood trade-offs, and latent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza-Montobbio, Pere [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona (Spain); Lele, Sharachchandra [Centre for Environment and Development, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore (India)

    2010-12-15

    Researchers, policy makers and civil society organizations have been discussing the potential of biofuels as partial substitutes for fossil fuels and thereby as a simultaneous solution for climate change and rural poverty. Research has highlighted the ambiguity of these claims across various dimensions and scales, focusing on ethanol-producing or oilseed crops in agricultural lands or Jatropha-type crops on common lands. We studied the agronomic and economic viability and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas plantations on private farms in Tamil Nadu, India. We found that Jatropha yields are much lower than expected and its cultivation is currently unviable, and even its potential viability is strongly determined by water access. On the whole, the crop impoverishes farmers, particularly the poorer and socially backward farmers. Jatropha cultivation therefore not only fails to alleviate poverty, but its aggressive and misguided promotion will generate conflict between the state and the farmers, between different socio-economic classes and even within households. The water demands of the crop can potentially exacerbate the conflicts and competition over water access in Tamil Nadu villages. (author)

  5. Jatropha plantations for biodiesel in Tamil Nadu, India. Viability, livelihood trade-offs, and latent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza-Montobbio, Pere; Lele, Sharachchandra

    2010-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers and civil society organizations have been discussing the potential of biofuels as partial substitutes for fossil fuels and thereby as a simultaneous solution for climate change and rural poverty. Research has highlighted the ambiguity of these claims across various dimensions and scales, focusing on ethanol-producing or oilseed crops in agricultural lands or Jatropha-type crops on common lands. We studied the agronomic and economic viability and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas plantations on private farms in Tamil Nadu, India. We found that Jatropha yields are much lower than expected and its cultivation is currently unviable, and even its potential viability is strongly determined by water access. On the whole, the crop impoverishes farmers, particularly the poorer and socially backward farmers. Jatropha cultivation therefore not only fails to alleviate poverty, but its aggressive and misguided promotion will generate conflict between the state and the farmers, between different socio-economic classes and even within households. The water demands of the crop can potentially exacerbate the conflicts and competition over water access in Tamil Nadu villages. (author)

  6. Livelihood of the fishermen in Monirampur Upazila of Jessore district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the livelihood of fishermen in Monirampur Upazila of Jessore district from July to December, 2012. The mean age and fishing experience of fishermen were 35.22±9.67 and 17.9±7.12 years, respectively. Primary occupation for majority fishermen (90% was fishing. The mean monthly income of the household (HH was BDT 9470±4806.89. Only 2% fishermen were landless. 4% fishermen had training on fishing/fish culture. 46% fishermen involved in NGOs for loan and savings. 52% fishermen cultivated paddy during boro (summer season whereas only 18% cultivated paddy during aman (rainy season. Major protein sources to the HHs (monthly were- small indigenous species (SIS (4.60±2.64 kg, non-SIS (6.31±4.18 kg, meat (3.54±1.67 kg, eggs (18.73±22.20 pieces, and milk (11.10±15.54 liter. The major HH expenditures were- food, education, health, furniture, cloths and others. All fishermen were vulnerable to vabadaha, a situation when water logging takes place during monsoon due to lack of sufficient water drainage system.

  7. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  8. Complex agricultural livelihoods and aflatoxin exposure in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed foods are easily accessible by many households, from the numerous trading centres established within villages. This paper gives background information on heterogeneity of household diets and seasonal trends in food consumption in rural Uganda and by so doing, identifies potential risk factors for aflatoxin ...

  9. An integrated framework to assess future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Lazar, Attlia; Payo, Andres; Adams, Helen; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Haque, Anisul; Clarke, Derek; Bricheno, Lucy; Fernandes, Jose; Rahman, Mofizur; Ahmed, Ali; Streatfield, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Coastal deltas represent some of the most densely populated areas in the world. A good example is the coastal zone of Bangladesh where there are more than 1000 people/km2 in the rural areas. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in this area is strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential. This severely affects land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish catches, rice production), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This includes the development and application of a range of scenarios, including expert-derived scenarios on issues such as climate change, and stakeholder-derived scenarios on more local issues in Bangladesh. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on

  10. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for sustainable resource use and livelihood support: A case study of four villages in Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damastuti, Ekaningrum; de Groot, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Community-Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) is implemented with different approaches and outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of various CBMM practices to achieve sustainable management of mangrove resources. We analyzed local mangrove resource management strategies in four coastal villages (e.g. Sriwulan, Bedono, Timbulsloko, and Surodadi) on Central Java, Indonesia. Local data on institutions, socio-economic conditions and mangrove resources utilization was collected through participatory resource mapping and interviews with 16 key actors and 500 households. The main differences in CBMM-practices that affect the outcomes in each village were the type of community participation, the level of organizational and economic assistance from external institutions, the magnitude of the rehabilitation project, the time selected for rehabilitation and the maintenance strategies applied in each village. Surodadi achieved most in terms of both efficient resource utilization and local livelihood improvement. Bedono's management strategy was most effective in extending and maintaining the rehabilitated mangrove areas but less in terms of livelihood support while the strategy applied in Timbulsloko resulted in higher resource utilization compared to Surodadi. Sriwulan failed on most criteria. This study suggests that combining the management strategies practiced in Bedono and Surodadi and adding external scientific and technological assistance, income diversification, institutional reinforcement and continuous monitoring of the functioning of local institutions can improve the CBMM performance to sustainably manage mangrove resources and improve livelihoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ‘Sufferings Start from the Mothers’ Womb’: Vulnerabilities and Livelihood War of the Small-Scale Fishers of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Krishna Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its deltaic geographical position and precarious socioeconomic and demographic conditions, Bangladesh is recognized worldwide for its exposure to recurring environmental hazards. Based on a 21-month long field study in two fishing villages that are characterized by distinct ecological settings and ethnic groups, this article examines the arrays of cross-scale environmental, social and institutional stressors that singly or cumulatively impact fishers’ livelihood well-being and generational poverty. Analysis of the vulnerabilities makes it clear that the degree to which poor fishers suffer from environmental stressors and calamities is determined not only by the frequency of abnormal events, but also by their internal capabilities of self-protection, resilience against those stressors, position in the social network and asset and resource ownership. Coastal and floodplain fishers identified cyclone and long-standing floods as strong drivers of poverty as their bundles of ‘safety net’ capital are usually disrupted or lost. For a majority of the fishers, income/day/family declines to as low as US$ 0.7–0.9. Fishers lack appropriate sets of endowments and entitlements that would allow them immediate buffer against livelihood stressors. Vulnerability here is intricately related to one’s socio-economic status; poor and ‘socially vulnerable’ ethnic fishers are concurrently ‘biologically vulnerable’ too. The corollary of multi-faceted stressors is that, poverty persists as an ever-increasing haunting presence that thousands of floodplain and coastal fishers of Bangladesh are forced to cope with. It is evident that nature-induced stressors exert ‘ratchet effects’ on fishers with low endowments who critically risk nutritional deprivation and social standing. Lucidly, most of the fishers are trapped in a form of ‘livelihood war’.

  12. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  13. Contributing variables for sustainable livelihood status of the char women in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Amin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of variables to the sustainable livelihood status of char women. The sustainable livelihood status of a char woman was measured by computing a “sustainable livelihood status score” which is considering six major aspects of her livelihoods: food security, ability to provide family education, health and sanitation, shelter and family assets, clothing condition and social upliftment. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected char women by using interview schedule in two Upazilla of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during November 2006 to March 2007. More than two-fifths (67.5 per cent of the char women were found under “medium sustainable livelihood status” compared to more than one-fifth (20.5 per cent of them belongs to ‘low sustainable livelihood status’ and only 12 per cent to “high sustainable livelihood status”. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 16 variables, 13 had significant positive relationships with the sustainable livelihood status. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that five variables namely, annual income, agricultural knowledge, income generating activities, family education and organizational participation contributed significantly which combindly explained 76.3 per cent of total variation to the sustainable livelihood status. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the sustainable livelihood status. Women who had more annual income, better agricultural knowledge, participation in income generating activities, more family education and more organizational participation were found to better sustainable livelihood status in char area. Government or concern other authorities need to give attention to these variables for any sustainable livelihood upliftment programme.

  14. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  15. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Awunyo-Akaba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana’s capital. Methods Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012 using an average of 43 (bi-weekly participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic

  16. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y; Awunyo-Akaba, J; Gyapong, M; Senah, K; Konradsen, F; Rheinländer, T

    2016-07-18

    Ghana's low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana's capital. Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012) using an average of 43 (bi-weekly) participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people's willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic sanitation facilities. The study states that poor land rights, the

  17. Livelihood implications of biofuel crop production: Implications for governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunsberger, Carol; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has focused on the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels, research from the social sciences increasingly highlights the social and livelihood impacts of their expanded production. Policy and governance measures aimed at improving the social effects of biofuels have...... by their cultivation in the global South – income, food security, access to land-based resources, and social assets – revealing that distributional effects are crucial to evaluating the outcomes of biofuel production across these dimensions. Second, we ask how well selected biofuel governance mechanisms address...

  18. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  19. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  20. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  1. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  2. Developing an Instrument to Measure Autonomous Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change among Urban Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Selm

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of households in urban environments to adapt and react to climate change can affect the resilience of the whole community, and instruments for systematically measuring that capacity are needed. We used Raleigh, NC as a case study to explore the dimensions of autonomous adaptive capacity of urban households and to create a scale and associated survey instrument to measure them. Our approach was guided by four capitals that support human livelihoods: social, human, physical, and financial. We surveyed 200 households in Raleigh, NC, and used a principal components analysis to test the scale and survey instrument. Results suggest the scale is a useful and concise tool. Three major dimensions were present among the scale items: financial capital, political awareness, and access to resources. Together, these three dimensions can be used to measure adaptive capacity among different households. These findings are supported by similar work illustrating the value of income inequality and political awareness as indicators of adaptive capacity. Our results also demonstrate that complex relationships among the livelihood capitals may confound our ability to measure financial, physical, and human capitals separately. This framework for assessing adaptive capacity of households, with further refinement and testing, may be used in urban areas to evaluate programs designed to impact resilience to climate change.

  3. Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cassidy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

  4. A Profile of Mpumalanga: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Mpumalanga. Most of the data presented are drawn fr...

  5. A Profile of Gauteng: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Gauteng. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  6. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. Alcohol production as an adaptive livelihood strategy for women farmers in Tanzania and its potential for unintended consequences on women's reproductive health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I McCoy

    Full Text Available Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women's sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health.Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD with female (n = 11 and male farmers (n = 2 and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10 and village agro-dealers (n = 10.Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women's central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior.Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi-sectoral approaches from health and agriculture

  9. Alcohol Production as an Adaptive Livelihood Strategy for Women Farmers in Tanzania and Its Potential for Unintended Consequences on Women’s Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women’s sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Methods Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Results Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women’s central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Conclusions Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi

  10. Alcohol production as an adaptive livelihood strategy for women farmers in Tanzania and its potential for unintended consequences on women's reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women's sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women's central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi-sectoral approaches from health and agriculture and

  11. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data.

  12. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  13. Accounting for household heterogeneity in general equilibrium economic growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.B.; O'Neill, B.C.; Dalton, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a new method of aggregating heterogeneous households that allows for the representation of changing demographic composition in a multi-sector economic growth model. The method is based on a utility and labor supply calibration that takes into account time variations in demographic characteristics of the population. We test the method using the Population-Environment-Technology (PET) model by comparing energy and emissions projections employing the aggregate representation of households to projections representing different household types explicitly. Results show that the difference between the two approaches in terms of total demand for energy and consumption goods is negligible for a wide range of model parameters. Our approach allows the effects of population aging, urbanization, and other forms of compositional change on energy demand and CO 2 emissions to be estimated and compared in a computationally manageable manner using a representative household under assumptions and functional forms that are standard in economic growth models.

  14. Flooding, resettlement, and change in livelihoods: evidence from rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Alex; Thomas, David S G; Twyman, Chasca; Liverman, Diana

    2013-07-01

    Post-disaster development policies, such as resettlement, can have major impacts on communities. This paper examines how and why people's livelihoods change as a result of resettlement, and relocated people's views of such changes, in the context of natural disasters. It presents two historically-grounded, comparative case studies of post-flood resettlement in rural Mozambique. The studies demonstrate a movement away from rain-fed subsistence agriculture towards commercial agriculture and non-agricultural activities. The ability to secure a viable livelihood was a key determinant of whether resettlers remained in their new locations or returned to the river valleys despite the risks posed by floods. The findings suggest that more research is required to understand i) why resettlers choose to stay in or abandon designated resettlement areas, ii) what is meant by 'voluntary' and 'involuntary' resettlement in the realm of post-disaster reconstruction, and iii) the policy drivers of resettlement in developing countries. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  15. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  16. Socioeconomic status and livelihoods of refugees in a self- reliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    land, ownership of livestock, and ownership of durable goods, for measuring ... used by individual households and those employed by humanitarian agencies, and ..... goods and services, wage labour and self-employment in small firms, ...

  17. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  18. Household size and urban spatial change: end of an era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sinclair

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dominant demographic trend of the last few decades has been the declining size of house-holds in Western industrialized countries. Following closely upon the Baby Boom, the development became a major topic of discussion for almost two decades. The basis for, and consequences of, these changes have been well covered in the demographic literature, but their spatial implications have received less attention. Yet the, phenomenon has had a pro-found spatial impact at every level of the urban system. Recent statistics indicate that house-hold size continues to decline, but does so at a rapidly decreasing rate. The present paper considers the spatial repercussions of this trend. More specifically, the paper has three aims. (1 The paper summarizes and puts into present-day perspective, a volume of research con-ducted a decade ago upon the spatial impact of declining household size upon the U.S. urban system (Sinclair, 1991. (2 Considers more recent demographic developments, ask-ing whether the impact of declining household size upon the urban system is declining or coming to a close, (3 Considers other demographic developments which might he taking the place of declining household size in driving the urban system. In sum, the paper at-tempts to answer the question. Is an era, which has signifycantly impacted the U.S. urban system, coming to a close?

  19. Changing demographics: what to watch for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P A

    1987-07-01

    Four broad demographic transformations: 1) the population's reconfiguration into smaller household units, especially those comprised of persons living alone; 2) changing employment patterns, notably the shift of married women into paid employment and the resulting proliferation of dual-earner families; 3) transformations in the population's age composition; and 4) the geography of growth in terms of regions that will gain or lose population--can be expected to have a profound impact on opportunities and challenges facing the business sector. The number of future households is projected to increase from 88.6 million in 1986 to 101.5 million by 1996. The sharpest gains will be among households headed by persons ranging in age from the late 30s to the early 50s. The fastest growth through the year 2000 is expected to occur in the Mountain states of the US. Business economists should be alert to these demographic analyses both to spot emerging growth markets and to identify long-term strategic issues, especially as the labor market changes. It will be increasingly important to differentiate time-sensitive from price-sensitive consumers.

  20. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  1. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  2. The Livelihoods of Micro and Small Enterprise Operators in a District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) presupposes the outcomes of any livelihood strategy, including working in micro and small enterprises, the results of interplay of context, access to and level of different sorts of assets, and policies and institutions. Targeting those MSE operators working in Woreda 1 of Lideta ...

  3. Effect of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, the use of local varieties of cassava by farmers especially in the study area had not appreciably improved the livelihood status of the farmers. This study, therefore, examined the effects of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of the rural farmers in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu ...

  4. Gender and sustainable livelihoods: linking gendered experiences of environment, community and self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Harcourt (Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this essay I explore the economic, social, environmental and cultural changes taking place in Bolsena, Italy, where agricultural livelihoods have rapidly diminished in the last two decades. I examine how gender dynamics have shifted with the changing values and livelihoods of

  5. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  6. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  7. Traditional wealth, modern goods, and demographic behavior in rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of demographic indicators (fertility, mortality, marriage, education) with modern and traditional wealth in rural Senegal. Data were based on rural households interviewed in the 2011 DHS survey. An Absolute Wealth Index was computed from a list of 15 modern goods. A Traditional Wealth Index was computed from data on land and livestock per capita. Modern wealth was always associated with modern demographic behavior (lower fertility, lower mortality, hig...

  8. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  9. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  10. The poverty-HIV/AIDS nexus in Africa: a livelihood approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanjala, Winford

    2007-03-01

    This paper reviews the nexus between poverty and HIV/AIDS in Africa using a sustainable livelihood framework. Much of the literature on HIV and AIDS has generated an almost universal consensus that the AIDS epidemic is having an immense impact on the economies of hard-hit countries, hurting not only individuals, families and firms, but also significantly slowing economic growth and worsening poverty. International evidence has concentrated on the pathways through which HIV/AIDS undermines livelihoods and raises vulnerability to future collapse of livelihoods. Yet, little attention has been paid to the role that social relations and livelihood strategies can play in bringing about risky social interaction that raises the chance of contracting HIV. Using the sustainable livelihood and social relation approaches, this article demonstrates that although AIDS is not simply a disease of the poor, determinants of the epidemic go far beyond individual volition and that some dimensions of being poor increase risk and vulnerability to HIV.

  11. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  12. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the

  13. Base line study on demographic and health pattern around uranium mining area at Tummalapalle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondare, Devidas; Bala Krishna, C.; Ganesh, B.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to document baseline data on the socio-economic, demographic and health status of the study area with specific objective to generate household information on infrastructure, housing, agriculture, drinking water and sanitation facilities

  14. Survival strategies of elderly women in Ngangelizwe Township, Mthatha, South Africa: Livelihoods, social networks and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidloyi, Sinethemba S; Bomela, Nolunkcwe J

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the critical issue of how the elderly women of Ngangelizwe, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa address the challenges they encounter in their attempts to provide for their needs and those of their dependants. These challenges include among others lack of education, access to resources, caring for their sick children suffering from AIDS related diseases as well as their orphaned grandchildren. In-depth interviews were held with 15 retired women above 60 years old who are also heads of households, receiving or not receiving state pension, and/or a child support grant. The study reveals that friendship-based ties, social networks and their impact on the livelihoods, health, survival and social adjustment of the elderly women are essential components of their lives. The study also reports on the strategies they employ to alleviate poverty through their own and school-going age grandchildren's participation in income generating activities. The study indicates that for most women, the inability to attain basic essentials of life leads to loss of self-dignity. Socio-economic factors such as low levels of education, unemployment, little or no income, poor access to resources, many dependants and looking after their children who are ill creates a situation where they operate within the "little opportunities" circle. The evidence in this study suggests that friendship-based ties, social groups, including social capital, pension grants, child support grants and remittances from their employed children help to mitigate some of the poverty experiences of the elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographic and attitudinal factors that modify annoyance from transportation noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of demographic variables (sex, age, education level, occupational status, size of household, homeownership, dependency on the noise source, and use of the noise source) and two attitudinal variables (noise sensitivity and fear of the noise source) on noise annoyance is investigated. It is

  16. Assessing Socio-demographic Determinants of Older Persons' Value

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technique, these eight variables were aggregated into a single total indicator of value .... for the reduced risks and vulnerabilities through families and households .... exported to STATA programme for univariate, bivariate and multivariate ...... Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), 2006, The 2005 Uganda Demographic and.

  17. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  18. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    quantitative data analyses at different levels of focus ranging from household and farm levels to national and transnational. The study focuses on the western lowlands of Ethiopia where there are many companies engaged in large scale commercial farming, where 75% of it is below 1500 m a.s.l with average annual temperature of 20-25°C and annual rainfall of 500-1800 mm. Some preliminary exploratory findings indicate that there is massive land use conversion (deforestation) and 'voluntary' displacement of indigenous communities, which requires further triangulation. Key words: agricultural outsourcing; environmental services; land grabbing; sustainable livelihood; soil conservation

  19. An Exploration of Adolescent Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Nicholas R.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) was measured in 200 youth ages 16-19. EI scores were compared to demographic characteristics of the individuals (age, sex, household income, parents' level of education, and location of residence). Findings indicate that EI levels were positively related to females, parents' education, and household income. The study…

  20. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  1. Nonfarm Enterprises in Rural Ethiopia: Improving Livelihoods by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    8NFEs are defined as any income generating business a household operates which does not involve the ... economic activity in developing countries, the rural nonfarm sector may display strong dependency links ..... 100Whilst our measure of food insecurity is self-reported and endogenous, and as such certainly does not ...

  2. Trust and livelihood strategies : Survey evidence from rural Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.; Bulte, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between trust and household adaptation strategies for a sample of respondents in a Mexican agrarian community. In particular, we analyze how levels of personalized, generalized, and institutionalized trust shape the adaptation strategies of smallholders, and find

  3. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Switching to Sudan grass for livestock fodder will increase food security in Kenya Farmers learned new techniques for producing livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... The company provided drip kits to 300 farmers in Tana River for chilli production (through loans of US$74 per kit).

  4. Trust and Livelihood Strategies: Survey Evidence from Rural Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Bulte, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between trust and household adaptation strategies for a sample of respondents in a Mexican agrarian community. In particular, we analyze how levels of personalized, generalized, and institutionalized trust shape the adaptation strategies of smallholders, and find

  5. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  6. Collective arrangements and social networks: Coping strategies for the poor households in the Great Ruaha Catchment in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Mdoe, N. S. Y.; Ashimogo, G. C.

    Access to water and land resources underpins the socio-economic fabric of many societies in the Southern Africa region, which is characterized broadly as underdeveloped with widespread food insecurity, exacerbated by persistent droughts, erratic rainfalls and increasing human populations. The availability of land and water resources is increasingly diminishing and becoming a stumbling block to the development of the agrarian societies in the region. The poor households have in turn adopted new livelihood coping mechanisms but little research has been done to assess the effectiveness of these ‘instruments’. Consequently, the concepts of sustainable water resources management and agricultural development have remained elusive and poorly understood by policy makers as well as by water resources planners and managers. Recognizing this, a study was conducted between 2002 and 2005 under the RIPARWIN (Raising Irrigation Productivity and Releasing Water for Intersectoral Needs) project to assess the spatial dynamics of livelihood capital, vulnerability and coping strategies for the poor agrarian households in the Upper Great Ruaha River Catchment (GRRC) in Tanzania. The results of analysis showed an array of livelihood platforms and institutional contexts that act to shape the existing livelihood typologies in the GRRC. In addition, the results showed a gradual increase in household vulnerability from upstream to downstream, particularly in terms of access to physical and natural assets. Vulnerability was found to be directly associated with the number of dependants. The female-headed households were relatively more likely to be vulnerable than the male-headed households (cf. probabilities of 27% and 21%, respectively). The value of collective arrangements and drawing on social networks crosscut all social strata and ranked as the most common livelihood strategy. This suggests that the scope for reducing vulnerability among the poor households in the GRRC critically

  7. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  8. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.

  9. Agricultural productivity, household poverty and migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Hajra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deltas are highly sensitive to erosion, flooding, and salinization with consequential agricultural productivity losses and out-migration, which is a preferred adaptive measure for the inhabitants of deltaic islands. This study investigates the associations between agricultural productivity decrease, household poverty and the probability of out-migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD. Using newly collected survey data from randomly selected households within the ISD, we analysed these relationships by means of descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results suggest the significant positive association between a decrease in agricultural productivity and out-migration. The results further show that ceteris paribus, out-migration is negatively associated with household poverty, which is likely to be explained by the effect of remittances. The results yield important policy implications at the local level and can contribute to the progress towards sustainable livelihoods in these deltaic islands.

  10. Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood mortality in Mozambique. ... Conclusion: Type of toilet facility and source of drinking water play an important role in the risk of childhood mortality in urban areas of Mozambique and the relationship seems to be mediated partly by demographic and ...

  11. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  12. Household Composition among Elders in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional and repeated surveys from household components of Demographic and Health Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa were examined to determine whether household composition indicators for older adults (N = 52,573), involving offspring and grandchildren, correlated with national levels of AIDS mortality. One in 4 was living with a grandchild…

  13. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  14. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  15. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  16. Maintaining sustainable livelihoods: effects of Utz certification on market access, risk reduction and livelihood strategies of Kenyan coffee farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Schoonhoven-Speijer, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, a renewed focus on agriculture and rural development has become visible. For 500 million rural households, representing an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people worldwide, agriculture remains the main opportunity to find their way out of poverty (Hazell et al., 2010; World

  17. Validation of the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu

    2011-12-01

    Food insecurity occurs whenever people are not able to access enough food at all times for an active and healthy life or when adequate and safe food acquired by socially acceptable ways is not available. To validate the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument (MCSI) to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 nonpregnant, nonlactating Malay women, aged between 19 and 49 years, living in rural and urban areas. The respondents were interviewed with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain information on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, household food security, and dietary intake. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (household size, number of children, number of children attending school, household income, and per capita income) were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Energy intake, fat intake, percentage of energy from fat, and number of servings of meat,fish, or poultry and legumes were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural areas. The dietary diversity score was significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Validating the MCSI in other areas of Malaysia as well as in similar settings elsewhere in the world before it is used to measure household food insecurity in the population is strongly recommended. In this study, the MCSI was found to be a reliable and valid measure of household food insecurity based on criterion-related validity, particularly in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and dietary diversity.

  18. Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, M.; Little, D.C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Telfer, T.; Wahab, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into

  19. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  1. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon

    2013-01-01

    -study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across......Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods...... these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences...

  2. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Malmborg

    Full Text Available Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  3. effect of tenure security on livelihood activities of women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KANETH

    1989-05-03

    May 3, 1989 ... Keywords: tenure security, livelihood activities and rural women. INTRODUCTION .... sale to buy farming inputs or other things they cannot produce. Also about 20% of the .... Internet Insiders, USA: McGraw Hill. Quan Julian ...

  4. The Behavior of Information Seeking and Utilizing on Livelihood among Rural Poor People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to specifically assess the behavior of the rural poor people in seeking and utilizing information about livelihoods. This study focuses on the aspects of: the type of information sought and used by the rural poor people; and the way they seek and use information about livelihood for their survivability. The method used is Schutz’s qualitative tradition of phenomenology. Data collection used techniques of in-depth interviews and participatory observation of 22 rural poor people. The research location is in southern rural part of West Java. The research result shows that, the type of livelihood information sought and used by the rural poor people, referred to the kinds of unstable jobs with the limited scope of resources and channel/media. Their way to find and use livelihood information has active and passive pattern, but still refer to the resources of unstable jobs, limited scope of the search, pattern of interpersonal relationships, and informal.

  5. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, Katja; Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  6. The Strengthening of Development Capital and Governance towards Sustainable Livelihood in Coastal Areas of Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfenti Sadalia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to analyze the potential and sustainable livelihood through the strengthening of development capital and governance applied to the sustainable livelihood of coastal community in Medan. The present research used descriptive quantitative method. The analysis was used to answer the hypothesis testing using Structural Equation Model or SEM to view relationship in the strengthening between development capital and governance towards the livelihood sustainability in coastal community. Furthermore, through this relationship, a model was then designed for sustainable livelihood development via the strengthening of development capital and governance. The results indicate that sustainable development and governance positively and significantly affect the development capital. However, the existing potential of development capital should be improved through community empowerment model to be better, stronger and more sustainable.

  7. Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of nature in biodiversity hotspots around the world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bouma, J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . Specifically, involving local communities in the management of protected areas is expected to improve biodiversity protection and reduce poverty and possible adverse livelihood effects, assuming that there are poverty-nature linkages and that local communities...

  8. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel. PMID:29389965

  9. An African account of ecosystem service provision: Use, threats and policy options for sustainable livelihoods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Egoh, Benis N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 Ecosystem Services December 2012/ Vol. 2 An African account of ecosystem service provision: Use, threats and policy options for sustainable livelihoods Benis N. Egoh a, , , , Patrick J. O'Farrellb, Aymen Charefa, Leigh Josephine Gurney a...

  10. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this paper is to collect the opinions of the leading demographers in Serbia on four significant matters. The matters are: development, state and future of demography, the successfulness of researchers in this scientific discipline, improvement of the Stanovništvo journal, as well as the population priority of our society and range of population policies. Method: A qualitative interview was chosen as the instrument for data collection. Namely, a structured interview, based on nine questions was sent by e-mail to eleven addresses of relevant demographers in the second half of October 2013. The basic reason for sending questions by e-mail was the aspiration to obtain authentic replies which require time for contemplation. Ten completed questionnaires were returned within two weeks. On the one hand, an integral picture on the chosen themes for research was attempted to be obtained in the analysis of received opinions to certain groups of questions and on the other hand to portray the spectrum of different observations. The responses of our prominent demographers were analyzed and compared to clearly pronounced standpoints of eminent demographers published in world journals on similar themes and with findings of internet researches among members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Results: The results show that there is a high level of consent among demographers in Serbia regarding the well positioning of demography in relation to other social studies and its good perspectives. The interviewed experts see the future of demography in its integration with a wide circle of sciences, the application of demography and/or greater engagement of researchers in carrying out public policies. However, the estimations of the interviewed demographers as regards the development and state of demography in Serbia are divided. Although a large number of topics had been listed, migrations and population

  11. Applying a synthetic approach to the resilience of Finnish reindeer herding as a changing livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Sarkki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding is an emblematic livelihood for Northern Finland, culturally important for local people and valuable in tourism marketing. We examine the livelihood resilience of Finnish reindeer herding by narrowing the focus of general resilience on social-ecological systems (SESs to a specific livelihood while also acknowledging wider contexts in which reindeer herding is embedded. The questions for specified resilience can be combined with the applied DPSIR approach (Drivers; Pressures: resilience to what; State: resilience of what; Impacts: resilience for whom; Responses: resilience by whom and how. This paper is based on a synthesis of the authors' extensive anthropological fieldwork on reindeer herding and other land uses in Northern Finland. Our objective is to synthesize various opportunities and challenges that underpin the resilience of reindeer herding as a viable livelihood. The DPSIR approach, applied here as a three step procedure, helps focus the analysis on different components of SES and their dynamic interactions. First, various land use-related DPSIR factors and their relations (synergies and trade-offs to reindeer herding are mapped. Second, detailed DPSIR factors underpinning the resilience of reindeer herding are identified. Third, examples of interrelations between DPSIR factors are explored, revealing the key dynamics between Pressures, State, Impacts, and Responses related to the livelihood resilience of reindeer herding. In the Discussion section, we recommend that future applications of the DPSIR approach in examining livelihood resilience should (1 address cumulative pressures, (2 consider the state dimension as more tuned toward the social side of SES, (3 assess both the negative and positive impacts of environmental change on the examined livelihood by a combination of science led top-down and participatory bottom-up approaches, and (4 examine and propose governance solutions as well as local adaptations by

  12. Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Nhemachena; Reneth Mano; Shakespear Mudombi; Virginia Muwanigwa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in ...

  13. A Decade of Rural Transformation : Lessons Learnt from the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project—JEEViKA

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this booklet is to document a decade of journey of the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project (BRLP) from 2006 to 2016 in the one of the poorest states in India. The project was successfully completed and a follow-on project, Bihar Transformative Development Project (BTDP) commenced in 2016 to expand the BRLP model. This booklet is a joint effort of the Bihar Rural Livelihood Pr...

  14. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  15. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  16. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  17. Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nhemachena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in the climate, especially in terms of rainfall. This largely applies to short-term periods; however, for long-term periods it is difficult to accurately relate rural community perceptions to changes in rainfall over time. Despite perceived changes and impacts of climate change on local livelihood activities, mainly agriculture, there are multiple stressors that the communities face which also affect their livelihoods. Further evidence-based research is required to disentangle climate change impacts on livelihoods, including livelihood impacts arising from interactions of climate and non-climatic factors.

  18. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  19. Mortality in North Korean migrant households: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M

    1999-07-24

    A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.

  20. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  1. What’s the Score? Walkable Environments and Subsidized Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood walkability can influence individual health, social interactions, and environmental quality, but the relationships between subsidized households and their walkable environment have not been sufficiently examined in previous empirical studies. Focusing on two types of subsidized housing developments (Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC and Public Housing (PH in Austin, Texas, this study evaluates the neighborhood walkability of place-based subsidized households, utilizing objectively measured Walk Score and walking-related built environment data. We also used U.S. Census block group data to account for the socio-demographic covariates. Based on various data, we employed bivariate and multivariate analyses to specify the relationships between subsidized households and their neighborhood walkable environment. The results of our bivariate analyses show that LIHTC households tend to be located in car-dependent neighborhoods and have more undesirable walking-related built environment conditions compared with non-LIHTC neighborhoods. Our regression results also represent that LIHTC households are more likely to be exposed to neighborhoods with low Walk Score, less sidewalk coverage, and more highways and major roads, while there are no significant associations for PH households. These findings imply that more attention and effort toward reducing the inequitable distributions of walkable neighborhood features supporting rather than hindering healthy lifestyles must be provided to subsidized households.

  2. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  3. Links between biogas technology adoption and health status of households in rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, Nigussie; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Techane, Ataklti; Nerea, Hailish

    2017-01-01

    Many Ethiopians face quality of life and livelihood challenges associated with sub-optimal sanitation, dependence on biomass energy, and decreasing agricultural productivity. To mitigate these livelihood challenges, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need for a national policy framework, which encourages the uptake of biogas technology. However, despite expectations of improved health and livelihood outcomes from biogas technology, rigorous impact evaluations of existing biogas interventions in Ethiopia do not exist. In this paper, we investigated the impact of biogas technology adoption on indoor air pollution (IAP) health symptoms in a sample of 200 households in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The average treatment effect results of the study revealed that households with small-scale biogas technology have significantly lower incidence of IAP-related illness than comparison (non-adopter) households in the matched sample. Consequently, small-scale biogas adopters spent less money for medication and had less absentee days from work due to illness. Results also show that biogas adopters spent less time per year collecting fuel energy. Overall, these findings are grounds for optimism about the potential for small-scale biogas to improve human capital formation through better health, which is one the major targets of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. - Highlights: • We critically investigate the impact of biogas technology on human health. • We employ Propensity score matching methods. • We found biogas technology enhancing human health and welfare. • We advise to stress on monetizing health benefits of biogas. • We recommend innovative financing for promotion of biogas technology.

  4. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  5. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-05-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.

  6. Gender Dimensions of Rural Livelihoods in Artisanal and Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information collected include: socio-demographic characteristics of miners, income level of miners, as well as perceived health and environmental impacts of mining activities. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed significant differences in the socio-economic characteristics, ...

  7. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.

  8. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  9. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  10. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  11. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  12. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  13. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2013-01-01

    The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs), including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D) are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of ruminants in which

  14. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs, including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of

  15. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences. (letter)

  16. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=-1.99). The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus, this program should be scaled up and

  17. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  18. Household size and urban spatial change: end of an era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A dominant demographic trend of the last few decades has been the declining size of householdsin Western industrialized countries. Following closely upon the Baby Boom, thedevelopment became a major topic of discussion for almost two decades. The basis for, andconsequences of, these changes have been well covered in the demographic literature, buttheir spatial implications have received less attention. Yet the, phenomenon has had a profoundspatial impact at every level of the urban system. Recent statistics indicate that householdsize continues to decline, but does so at a rapidly decreasing rate. The present paperconsiders the spatial repercussions of this trend. More specifically, the paper has three aims.(1 The paper summarizes and puts into present-day perspective, a volume of research conducteda decade ago upon the spatial impact of declining household size upon the U.S.urban system (Sinclair, 1991. (2 Considers more recent demographic developments, askingwhether the impact of declining household size upon the urban system is declining orcoming to a close, (3 Considers other demographic developments which might he takingthe place of declining household size in driving the urban system. In sum, the paper attemptsto answer the question. Is an era, which has signifycantly impacted the U.S. urbansystem, coming to a close?

  19. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  20. The household-level economic burden of heart disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Anup; Engelgau, Michael; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-05-01

    To estimate healthcare use and financial burden associated with heart disease among Indian households. Data from the 2004 round household survey of the National Sample Survey in India were used to assess the implications of heart disease for out-of-pocket health spending, spending on items other than health care, employment and healthcare financing patterns, by matching households with a member self-reporting heart disease (cardiovascular disease (CVD)-affected households) to (control) households with similar socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Propensity score matching methods were used. Compared with control households, CVD-affected households had more outpatient visits and inpatient stays, spent an extra INT$ (International Dollars) 232 (P expenditure that was 16.5% higher (P < 0.01) and relied more on borrowing and asset sales to finance inpatient care (32.7% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.01). Members of CVD-affected households had lower employment rates than members of control households (43.6% vs. 46.4%, P < 0.01), and elderly members experienced larger declines in employment than younger adults. CVD-affected households with lower socio-economic status were at heightened financial risk. Non-communicable conditions such as CVD can impose a serious economic burden on Indian households. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  2. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  3. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    In the past, several electricity demand studies have been published for India based on aggregate macro data at the country or sub-national/state level. Since the underlying theory of consumer demand is based on the behaviour of individual agents, the use of micro data, which reflects individual and household behaviour, more closely, can shed greater light on the nature of consumer responses. In this paper, seasonal price and income elasticities of electricity demand in the residential sector of all urban areas of India are estimated for the first time using disaggregate level survey data for about 30,000 households. Three electricity demand functions have been econometrically estimated using monthly data for the winter, monsoon and summer season in order to understand the extent to which factors like income, prices, household size and other household specific characteristics, influence variations observed in individual households' electricity demand. The results show electricity demand is income and price inelastic in all three seasons, and that household, demographic and geographical variables are significant in determining electricity demand

  4. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  5. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  6. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  7. Projecting Poverty at the Household Scale to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Poor People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Rozenberg, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper quantifies the potential impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030 and 2050, in 92 countries covering 90% of the developing world population. It accounts for the deep uncertainties that characterize future socio-economic evolutions and the lack of data regarding the condition and livelihood of poor people. It also considers many impacts of climate change, another source of uncertainty. We use a micro-simulation model based on household surveys and explore a wide range of uncertainties on future structural change, productivity growth or demographic changes. This results, for each country, in the creation of several hundred scenarios for future income growth and income distribution. We then explore the resulting space of possible futures and use scenario discovery techniques to identify the main drivers of inequalities and poverty reduction. We find that redistribution and structural change are powerful drivers of poverty and inequality reduction, except in low-income countries. In the poorest countries in Africa, reducing poverty cannot rely on redistribution but requires low population growth and productivity growth in agriculture. Once we have explored the space of possible outcomes for poverty and inequalities, we choose two representative scenarios of the best and worst cases and model the impacts of climate change in each of these two scenarios. Climate change impacts are modeled through 4 channels. First, climate change has an impact on labor productivity growth for people who work outside because of higher temperatures. Second, climate change has an impact on human capital because of more severe stunting in some places. Third, climate change has an impact on physical capital via more frequent natural disasters. Fourth, climate change has an impact on consumption because of changes in food prices. Impacts are very heterogeneous across countries and are mostly concentrated in African and South-East Asian countries. For high radiative forcing (RCP8

  8. Environmental goods & services and rural livelihoods in the Congo and Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    alternatives exist. Evidence has also been provided on their ability to pull people out of poverty. However an array of conservation interventions have in the past attempted to bridge the gap in achieving poverty alleviation and conservation – two of the millenium’s top priorities. Conservation and development...... on livelihoods, poverty alleviation as well as in achieving conservation goals. In a collection of five papers spanning five years of research, the dissertation presents evidence on the livelihood effects of conservation and provides insights on various points of onsideration in the equitable and efficient...... design of future conservation interventions. The first three papers deal with the livelihood aspects of conservation interventions. Paper 1 presents a new method of characterising poverty groups in the Congo, using combined measures of assets and income, and importantly how they rely on the environmental...

  9. Analyzing the mobile "digital divide": changing determinants of household phone ownership over time in rural bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michael Clifton; Labrique, Alain Bernard; Mehra, Sucheta; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mitra, Maithilee; Christian, Parul; West, Keith

    2015-02-25

    We had a unique opportunity to examine demographic determinants of household mobile phone ownership in rural Bangladesh using socioeconomic data collected as part of a multiyear longitudinal cohort study of married women of reproductive age. This paper explores how the demographics of household mobile phone owners have changed over time in a representative population of rural Bangladesh. We present data collected between 2008 and 2011 on household mobile phone ownership and related characteristics including age, literacy, education, employment, electricity access, and household wealth among 35,306 individuals. Respondents were enrolled when found to be newly pregnant and contributed socioeconomic information once over the course of the time period serving as a "sample" of families within the population at that time. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions analyses were performed to identify the socioeconomic determinants of household phone ownership. Across 3 fiscal years, we found that reported household ownership of at least 1 working mobile phone grew from 29.85% in the first fiscal year to 56.07% in the third fiscal year. Illiteracy, unavailability of electricity, and low quartiles of wealth were identified as overall demographic constraints to mobile phone ownership. However, over time, these barriers became less evident and equity gaps among demographic status began to dissipate as access to mobile technology became more democratized. We saw a high growth rate in ownership among households in lower economic standing (illiterate, without electricity, low and lowest wealth index), likely a result of competitive pricing and innovative service packages that improve access to mobile phones as the mobile phone market matures. In contrast, as market saturation is rapidly attained in the most privileged demographics (literate, secondary schooling, electricity, high wealth index), members of the lower wealth quartiles seem to be following suit, with more of an

  10. Impacts and responses to environmental change in coastal livelihoods of south-west Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mostafa A R; Ahmed, Munir; Ojea, Elena; Fernandes, Jose A

    2018-05-12

    Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods. This need has been addressed in this study in the region of Satkhira, in the southwest coast of Bangladesh, where livelihoods are highly dependent on aquatic systems for food supply and income. Traditional wild fish harvest in the rivers and aquaculture systems, including ghers, ponds, and crab points have been changing in terms of the uses and intensity of management, and suffering from climate change impacts as well. By means of six focus groups with 50 participants total, and validated by expert consultations, we conduct an analysis to understand the main perceived impacts from climate and human activities; and the adaptation responses from the aquatic system livelihoods. We find that biodiversity has decreased drastically, while farmed species have increased and shrimp gher farming turned more intensive becoming the main source of income. All these changes have important implications for food supply in the region and environmental sustainability. Dramatic responses taken in the communities include exit the fisheries and migration, and more adaptive responses include species diversification, crab fattening and working more on the pond and gher infrastructure. This study evidences the results of the combination of multiple stressors in productive systems and the barriers to adaptation in aquatic ecosystem dependent communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Assessment of factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level in rural Zimbabwe - A case study of Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsi, Luckson; Siwadi, Japson; Guzha, Edward; Makoni, Fungai S.; Smits, Stef

    Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural livelihoods, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for small-scale productive uses should be encouraged to enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty. This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005-May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as discussions, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water sources at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into domestic and productive water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors. The study recommends that water service providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate that people’s water needs are integrated and are part and parcel of their multifaceted livelihood strategies.

  12. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  13. Understanding Changes in the Distribution of Household Incomes in New Zealand Between 1983-86 and 1995-98

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Hyslop; Dave Maré

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of changes in the distribution of gross household income and income inequality over the period 1983–1998. The analysis applies a semiparametric approach to study the effects of changes in the distribution of household types, and changes in National Superannuation (old age pension), household socio-demographic attributes and employment outcomes, and in the “economic returns” to such attributes and employment outcomes on the distribution of income, and uses kerne...

  14. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Preez, du, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the context or situation within which households arrange their lives, generate livelihoods and arrange and provide care. The differential impacts of HIV and AIDS on male and female members of different ages within ...

  15. South latitude and household economic control by Peruvian women

    OpenAIRE

    León, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Southern women’s greater autonomy versus northern women’s more traditional submission to the husband were hypothesized in 1984 to explain variations in Peruvian women’s fertility desires. An analysis of data from Peru 2004-2008 Continuous Demographic and Family Health Survey supports this hypothesis by showing a significant north-to-south growth of women’s control upon husband’s income and, less consistently, household purchasing decisions. These relationships are not explained by variables a...

  16. Food Expenditures away from Home by Elderly Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Steven T.; Kasteridis, Panagiotis P.; Riley, John B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differentiated effects of economic and socio-demographic variables on food away from home (FAFH) expenditures by type of facility among elderly households in the United States. Using data from the 2008–2010 Consumer Expenditure Surveys, the systems of expenditures on full-service, fast food, and other restaurants are estimated with a multivariate sample selection estimator which also accommodates heteroscedasticity in the error distribution. Statistical significanc...

  17. Intertwining lives and logics: Household and informal economies in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Oldfield

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enabling households to make ends meet, the practices of small, informal businesses are not simple, but bound up in the struggles of households and the social and economic relationships that weave local economies together. This paper draws on stories of local businesses in an impoverished Cape Town township to situate these diverse logics and strategies, the histories and aspirations that shape small business success and struggle. Drawing on interviews and mapping every informal sector business in the neighbourhood, I reflect on the specific difficulties of running a business in the context of poverty, including unreliable and inadequate incomes, difficulties of credit, as well as the challenges of operating business on a small scale. This material demonstrates the community-based, as well as livelihood, logics that motivate local business owners as well as sustain their livelihoods. The paper concludes with an argument that the neighbourhood economy, instead of a vehicle driven primarily to maximize profit, forms an intimate part of peoples’ lives. This more multifaceted and embedded analysis stretches overly narrow notions of the informal economy, its limits and logics.

  18. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  19. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  20. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  1. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  2. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  3. Small-Scale Farming in Semi-Arid Areas: Livelihood Dynamics between 1997 and 2010 in Laikipia, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Anne; Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika; Roden, Paul; Kiteme, Boniface; Wiesmann, Urs; Nusser, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The rural population of semi-arid lands in Kenya face multiple challenges that result from population growth, poor markets, land use and climatic changes. In particular, subsistence oriented farmers face various risks and opportunities in their attempt to secure their livelihoods. This paper presents an analysis on how livelihood assets and…

  4. Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most

  5. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa,...

  6. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  7. Trading off natural resources and rural livelihoods. A framework for sustainability assessment of small-scale food production in water-limited regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2017-12-01

    Enhancing local production is key to promoting food security, especially in rural households of low-income countries, but may conflict with limited natural resources and ecosystems preservation. We propose a framework integrating the water-food nexus and a sustainable livelihoods perspective to assess small-scale food production in water-poor regions. We demonstrate it by assessing alternative production scenarios in the Gaza Strip at different spatial scales. At the scale of a single farm, there is a clear conflict among objectives: while cash crops ensure good incomes but contribute scarcely to domestic protein supply, crops performing well from the nutritional and environmental viewpoint are among the worst from the economic one. At the regional scale, domestic production might cover an important fraction of nutritional needs while contributing to household income, but water scarcity impairs the satisfaction of food demand by domestic production alone. Pursuing food security under multiple constraints thus requires a holistic perspective: we discuss how a multidimensional approach can promote the engagement of different stakeholders and allow the exploration of trade-offs between food security, sustainable exploitation of natural resources and economic viability.

  8. A Profile of KwaZulu-Natal: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of KwaZulu-Natal. Most of the data presented are drawn...

  9. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  10. A Profile of the Limpopo Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality, and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Limpopo. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  11. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  12. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  13. A Profile of the Free State Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Free State. Most of the data presented are draw...

  14. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  15. Impact of Woodfuel Production on The Livelihood of the People in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The study examined the impact of woodfuel production on the livelihoods of people in Saleni and Pongwe-Msungura villages in Bagamoyo district. ... It is recommended that, villagers and other stakeholders be encouraged and given incentives to plant fast growing trees for firewood and charcoal making. Census ...

  16. Market orientation in Ethiopian seed producer cooperatives: implications for performance and members' livelihood improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, Dawit Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Prior researches indicate that farmers, who organize themselves into producer organizations or cooperatives can overcome some of the challenges that affect their livelihood at individual level. Seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) engaged in Ethiopian agricultural sector with the aim to produce and

  17. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  18. Walking the village: LiveDiverse – Sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available LiveDiverse is a multi-year, multi-country collaborative research project that focuses on the interface between livelihoods and biodiversity of people in rural communities who live in or in the vicinity of a biodiversity ‘hotspot’. Five villages...

  19. Effect of tenure security on livelihood activities of women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On perceived effect of non-tenure security on livelihood activities, 17% percent of the respondents stated inability to use land for collateral, 25% complained about fragmentation of land, 23% complained about their inability of planting long duration crops, 20% complained about farming system being difficult to change, while ...

  20. Energy access for education, health and livelihoods : does local culture mediate who wins and who loses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Energy access projects often give importance to particular development activities like education, health and livelihoods. Looking through case studies of two energy access projects in rural India, this paper focuses on these three aspects. It tracks on how these purposes are made practical and

  1. The Impacts of Land Use Changes on Livelihood of the Maasai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that practices such as deforestation and use of fertilizers are increasing the environmental degradation and further perpetuating challenges related to environmental conservation that greatly affect their livelihoods. Therefore, these practices are not sustainable and changes must be made to new sustainable and ...

  2. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  3. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  4. AIDS and Rural Livelihoods. Dynamics and Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, Anke; Rugalema, G.; Gillespie, S.

    2010-01-01

    HIV and AIDS continue to devastate the livelihoods of millions of Africans and represent the major public health challenge in many countries. More people die of AIDS each day than from wars, famine and floods combined, while an orphaned generation of children must be provided for. Yet despite

  5. Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.; Duim, van der V.R.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism-conservation enterprises (TCEs), such as eco-lodges, are a relatively new strategy of the African Wildlife Foundation for enhancing community livelihoods and wildlife conservation in wildlife-rich areas outside state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigates the extent

  6. Changing Gender Role: Women’s Livelihoods, Conflict and Post-conflict Security in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luna, K.C.; Haar, van der Gemma; Hilhorst, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the Maoist conflict in Nepal affected women ex-combatants and non-combatants, looking at shifts in gender roles during and after the conflict particularly from the standpoint of current livelihood challenges. We argue changing gender roles largely depends upon everyday

  7. Climate crisis narratives and coastal livelihoods in North-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle

    2017-01-01

    North have increasingly been portrayed as somehow more ‘ exposed’ or ‘ vulnerable’ victims located on the frontline of a geographically determined global crisis narrative about climate change, which inadvertently ignores the reality of coastal livelihoods in the Arctic today. Qeqertarsuarmiut often...

  8. Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhusal, Jagat K.; Chapagain, Prem Sagar; Regmi, Santosh; Gurung, Praju; Zulkafli, Zed; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, Bhopal; Buytaert, Wouter; Clark, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall

  9. Survival strategies of people in a Sri Lankan wetland : livelihood, health and nature conservation in Muthurajawela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvorst, A.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Anthropology, emic, environment, etic, gender, health, livelihoods, Muthurajawela, nature-conservation, survival strategies, Sri Lanka, wetland.The objective of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of how poor people living in a sensitive wetland ecosystem

  10. Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: searching for entrepreneurs, unveiling relations of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, with special attention paid to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of 'entrepreneur' is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

  12. Conservation as a Core Asset for Livelihood Security in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by documenting lessons learned by rural communities on the linkages between conservation and improvements in livelihood and human security, and ... Workshop for Building Capacity and Strengthening Policies for Coastal Communities to Sustainably Manage Marine Resources in Kenya, Titanic Hotel, Kilifi, ...

  13. Two Reading Assessments for Youth in Alternative Basic Skills and Livelihood Skills Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, John P.; Strucker, John; Bell, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article describes two assessment tools that have been used to assess the reading skills of youth participating in alternative basic skills and livelihood skills training programs. The Rapid Assessment of Reading Skills (RARS) was developed to identify potential participants who needed to improve their reading skills before beginning training…

  14. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  15. (Re)building livelihoods of communities confronting HIV and AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings show that the organisations support livelihoods in very different ways and have adopted different approaches in the way they organise, provide and attempt to ensure the sustainability of the support. However, support is often based on limited experience since there are no guidelines and proper monitoring and ...

  16. Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods

  17. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  18. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  19. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  20. Shifting cultivation stability and change: Contrasting pathways of land use and livelihood change in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Mertz, Ole; Tongmanivong, Sithong

    2014-01-01

    -producers. In the future, livelihood improvements in the central study site may be replicated in the northern sites, but this depends to a large extent on the economic and agricultural settings into which cash crops and other development opportunities are introduced. Moreover, the expansion of cash crops appears...

  1. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe.

    Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of Livelihoods in Community Forestry in the Northern Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenteno Claros, M.

    2013-01-01

    A large share of the World’s tropical forests are used and managed by local communities. The wise management and conservation of these forests depends on the success of community forest management (CFM). On the other hand, livelihoods of forest-dependent people directly depend on the successful

  3. 75 FR 56558 - Office of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... and its root causes, and the importance of education for all children and mobilizing a wide array of..., education, and sustainable livelihoods, and the capacity of national institutions to combat child labor... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting...

  4. Multi-Stakeholder Process Strengthens Agricultural Innovations and Sustainable Livelihoods of Farmers in Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseleua, D. H. B.; Idrissou, L.; Olurotimi, P.; Ogunniyi, A.; Mignouna, D.; Bamire, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore the strategic role of Multi-stakeholder processes (MSP) in agricultural innovations and how it has impacted livelihood assets' (LAs) capital dynamics of stakeholders in platforms in West Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: We demonstrate how LA capitals and socio-economic dynamics induced by MSP can enhance…

  5. Linking hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in African papyrus wetlands using a Bayesian Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A.; Gettel, G. M.; Kipkemboi, J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa provide ecosystem services supporting the livelihoods of millions but are rapidly degrading due to economic development. For ecosystem conservation, an integrated understanding of the natural and social processes driving ecosystem change is needed. This research focuses on integrating the causal relationships between hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in Nyando wetland, western Kenya. Livelihood sustainability is based on ecosystem services that include plant and animal harvest for building material and food, conversion of wetlands to crop and grazing land, water supply, and water quality regulation. Specific objectives were: to integrate studies of hydrology, ecology, and livelihood activities using a Bayesian Network (BN) model and include stakeholder involvement in model development. The BN model (Netica 4.16) had 35 nodes with seven decision nodes describing demography, economy, papyrus market, and rainfall, and two target nodes describing ecosystem function (defined by groundwater recharge, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity) and livelihood sustainability (drinking water supply, crop production, livestock production, and papyrus yield). The conditional probability tables were populated using results of ecohydrological and socio-economic field work and consultations with stakeholders. The model was evaluated for an average year with decision node probabilities set according to data from research, expert opinion, and stakeholders' views. Then, scenarios for dry and wet seasons and for economic development (low population growth and unemployment) and policy development (more awareness of wetland value) were evaluated. In an average year, the probability for maintaining a "good" level of sediment and nutrient retention functions, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity was about 60%. ("Good" is defined by expert opinion based on ongoing field research.) In the dry season, the probability was

  6. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Analyzing the Determinants of Non-farm Income Diversification of Farm Households in Peshawar District of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Nazish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector in Pakistan is not well-established to provide full employment opportunities and sufficient income for needed living standard to the rural population. Stagnant agricultural productivity and low returns in farming have led rural residents to look for alternative livelihoods, especially non-farm employment. With this background, the present study is an endeavor to empirically determine the factors of non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Peshawar district of Pakistan. The study was undertaken in four villages and data was amassed from 196 small farming households by using the multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the mean of income shares approach and the ordinary least squares regression analysis. The results indicate that in all the selected villages, the pattern of non-farm employment was more or less the same; however, the income from non-farm employment activities had an important contribution towards incrementing the absolute income of farm households. Non-farm income diversification is hence crucial for sustaining livelihoods and an integral dimension for invigorating rural economies. Therefore, the study recommends the promotion of non-farm employment as a good strategy for supplementing the income of small farmers without shifting attention from agriculture.

  8. Migration of persons between households in rural Alaska: considerations for study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Bruden

    2013-08-01

    11% of individuals change households. These are important demographic figures to consider when planning and designing studies that measure an epidemiological exposure at the household level. Power and sample size calculations should account for the loss to follow-up associated with in- and out-migration of individuals from households.

  9. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  10. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  11. Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rebecca E.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Wu, Xiangmei (May); Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-08-01

    The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three

  12. Demographic structure and macroeconomic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Yunus; Basso, H.S.; Smith, Ronald; Grasl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in demographic structure on long term\\ud trends of key macroeconomic variables using a Panel VAR for 21 OECD economies from 1970-2014. The panel data variation assists the identification of demographic effects, while the dynamic structure,\\ud incorporating multiple channels of influence, uncovers long-term effects.\\ud We propose a theoretical model, relating demographics, innovation and\\ud growth, whose simulations match our empirical findings. The current\\ud...

  13. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  14. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  15. ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne

    2017-01-01

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s coastal

  16. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Daniel G; Agrawal, Arun; Wang, Jun; Sass, Daniel A; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation. (letter)

  17. Vulnerability Assessment of Rural Households to Urmia Lake Drying (the Case of Shabestar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Maleki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in Iran is the destruction and drying of Urmia Lake (UL. UL is one of the main causes of suitable weather for agricultural boom and tourist attraction and it should be considered that the villagers exposed to UL drying have a strong dependence on vulnerable resources such as water, air, soil and plants for their livelihoods and have low adaptive capacity with this crisis for reasons such as poverty, lack of awareness and lack of infrastructure. This study was designed to evaluate the vulnerability of rural households to UL drying in the Shabestar region. The vulnerability was calculated based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC definition and using vulnerability index (VI. Research population included rural households of Shabestar region (N = 19,249 and about 347 households were selected as the research sample using multistage cluster sampling technique. Results showed that the average score of respondents was 0.455 (moderate in exposure, 0.359 (moderate to low in sensitivity, 0.404 (moderate to low in adaptive capacity and finally, the vulnerability index (VI was 0.470 (range of 0 to 1. 12.8% of households had low, 70.5% had medium and 16.7% had high vulnerability towards UL drying.

  18. Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Monirul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a key strategy that can alleviate the severity of climate change impacts on agriculture and food production. Adaptation strategies are unlikely to be effective without an understanding of the farmers’ perceptions of climate change. This paper explores the local knowledge of adaptation in response to the perceived impacts of climate change and climatic hazards using a survey of 380 resource-poor riverbank erosion-prone households in Bangladesh. The results indicate that the respondents’ perceptions of changes in the climate and of extreme climatic events are similar to the observed climate data. Households have recognized the impacts on their livelihood and resources, resulting in an increased sense of vulnerability. To build resilience, households have undertaken a range of farming and non-farming adaptation strategies, which vary significantly among the farming groups. The important adaptation strategies include adopting new crop varieties, changing planting time, homestead gardening, planting trees and migration. Improved access to finance and to information about appropriate strategies appears to be crucial to support adaptation processes locally and thus to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households.

  19. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  20. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)