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Sample records for house cricket acheta

  1. [Cajal bodies in insect oocytes. II. New data on the molecular composition of cajal bodies in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus with special reference to interactions between cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S; Parfenov, V N

    2007-01-01

    Cajal bodies (CBs) in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus are large, perfectly spherical nuclear organelles with a complex internal structure. These consist of a fibrillar coilin-containing matrix and a central cavity with a prominent fibrogranular body inside; the latter has been referred to as an "internal" interchromatin granule cluster (IGC). Within the matrix of CBs we detected transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300 and TATA-box binding protein (TBP). No RNA polymerase II was revealed in CBs of both normal and actynomycin D treated oocytes. In the nucleoplasm of A. domesticus oocytes, besides CBs, free IGCs were observed. In oocytes treated with actynomycin D, the amount of "free" IGCs in the nucleoplasm increase significantly, granular and fibrillar components of IGCs were seen segregated, and RNA polymerase II and CBP/p300 were found to be accumulated in fibrillar zones of IGCs.

  2. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  3. How dietary phosphorus availability during development influences condition and life history traits of the cricket, Acheta domesticas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanuvimol, Laksanavadee; Bertram, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10-20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth, development time, consumption, condition, and lifespan using juvenile European house crickets, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Crickets reared on high phosphorus diets ate more food, gained more weight, were in better condition at maturity, and contained more phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon in their bodies at death than crickets reared on low phosphorus diets. There was also a trend for crickets reared on high phosphorus diets to become larger adults (interaction with weight prior to the start of the experiment). These findings can be added to the small but growing number of studies that reveal the importance of phosphorus to insect life history traits. Future research should explore the importance of dietary phosphorus availability relative to protein, lipid, and carbohydrate availability.

  4. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  5. Anatomy and physiology of neurons composing the commissural ring nerve of the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

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    Killian, K A; Bollins, J P; Govind, C K

    2000-03-01

    The commissural ring nerve (RN) of the cricket Acheta domesticus links together the two cercal motor nerves of the terminal abdominal ganglion. It contains the axons of almost 100 neurons including two bilateral clusters of eight to 13 ventrolateral neurons and approximately 75 neurons with midline somata within the terminal abdominal ganglion. The ventrolateral neurons have an ipsilateral dendritic arborization within the dorsal neuropil of the ganglion and their axons use the RN as a commissure in order to enter the contralateral nerves of the tenth ganglionic neuromere. In contrast, most midline neurons have bifurcating axons projecting bilaterally into the neuropil of the ganglion as well as into the RN where they often branch extensively before entering the contralateral tenth nerves. Most RN neurons have small, non-spiking somata with spike initiation zones distant from the soma. Many midline neurons also produce double-peaked spikes in their somata, indicative of multiple spike initiation zones. Spontaneous neuronal activity recorded extracellularly from the RN reveals several units, some with variable firing patterns, but none responding to sensory stimuli. The RN is primarily composed of small (50 nm diameter) axon profiles with a few large (0.5-1 microm diameter) profiles. Occasionally, profiles of nerve terminals containing primarily small clear vesicles and a few large dense vesicles are observed. These vesicles can sometimes be clustered about an active zone. We conclude that the primary function of the RN is to serve as a peripheral nerve commissure and that its role as a neurohemal organ is negligible. J. Exp. Zool. 286:350-366, 2000.

  6. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): possible roles in regulating phonotactic threshold and selectiveness for call carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsert, Michael; Bingol, Hilary; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2003-03-01

    L3, an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of female crickets (Acheta domesticus) exhibited two kinds of responses to models of the male's calling song (CS): a previously described, phasically encoded immediate response; a more tonically encoded prolonged response. The onset of the prolonged response required 3-8 sec of stimulation to reach its maximum spiking rate and 6-20 sec to decay once the calling song ceased. It did not encode the syllables of the chirp. The prolonged response was sharply selective for the 4-5 kHz carrier frequency of the male's calling songs and its threshold tuning matched the threshold tuning of phonotaxis, while the immediate response of the same neuron was broadly tuned to a wide range of carrier frequencies. The thresholds for the prolonged response covaried with the changing phonotactic thresholds of 2- and 5-day-old females. Treatment of females with juvenile hormone reduced the thresholds for both phonotaxis and the prolonged response by equivalent amounts. Of the 3 types of responses to CSs provided by the ascending L1 and L3 auditory interneurons, the threshold for L3's prolonged response, on average, best matched the same females phonotactic threshold. The prolonged response was stimulated by inputs from both ears while L3's immediate response was driven only from its axon-ipsilateral ear. The prolonged response was not selective for either the CS's syllable period or chirp rate.

  7. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): intracellular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Benjamin; Stout, John; Atkins, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    The L3 auditory interneuron in female Acheta domesticus, produces two different responses to the male calling song: an immediate response and a prolonged response. The prolonged response exhibited spiking activity and a correlated prolonged depolarization, both of which are clearly seen in intracellular recordings. The morphology revealed by intracellular staining was clearly the L3 neuron. The amplitude of the prolonged depolarization associated with the prolonged response increased with increases in sound intensity, resulting in increased spiking rates. Both depolarization and sound presentation increased the spiking rate and the slope of pre-potentials (thus leading to spiking threshold more quickly). Injecting hyperpolarizing current had the expected opposite effect. The effects of positive current injection and sound presentation were additive, resulting in spiking rates that were approximately double the rates in response to sound alone. Short postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), whose duration ranged from 15-60 ms, which may lead to action potentials were also observed in all recordings and summated with the prolonged depolarization, increasing the probability of spiking.

  8. Life cycle assessment of cricket farming in north-eastern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hanboonsong, Y; Roos, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    presents the first case of a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed on an existing production system of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (field cricket) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket) production in north-eastern Thailand and compares it with broiler production in the same region. The system boundaries...... of the production system considered the entire production cycle of edible crickets as well as processing. The study included two functional units (1 kg of edible mass and 1 kg of protein in edible mass). Irrespective of the functional unit, larger impacts were associated with broiler production. Major hotspots...... for cricket and broiler production were related to the production soybean meal and maize grain for feed. A scaled-up cricket farming system which was considered as a possible 'future' scenario demonstrated a reduction in overall environmental impacts when compared to current cricket production and industrial...

  9. CRICKET

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    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has played 18 matches so far this season, winning 12 and losing 6, with 12 fixtures remaining before the end of the season. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule, which includes a weekend trip to Milan at the end of September, can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prévessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting).

  10. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency

  11. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2010-01-01

    The start of the Cricket season is upon us! Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 15 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site, starting at 18:00 (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf). All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2010 can be found on the web at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/  

  12. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

      The start of the 2012 Cricket season is only days away!  The CERN club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 19 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf), from 18:00 to around 19:30. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 22 April.  Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2012 can be found on the web at: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/.

  13. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2017-01-01

    Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2017 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 13th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/cricket/. Or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://cern.ch/cricket/CERN-Ground.html.

  14. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2013 season begins soon! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 18th until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 21st against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  15. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Reports of the matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “Match reports”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at 18:00 on the Prevessin site.

  16. Metabolic changes in deafferented central neurons of an insect, Acheta domesticus. I. Effects upon amino acid uptake and incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.R.; Edwards, J.S.

    1982-11-01

    Chronic cercal deafferentation of the terminal ganglion in developing crickets (Acheta domesticus), which is known to suppress normal development of giant interneuron dendritic arborizations is shown here to reduce (/sup 3/H)leucine uptake and incorporation into ganglion proteins. Short term deafferentation of adult crickets, in contrast, does not depress amino acid uptake and incorporation significantly. Following unilateral long term deafferentation of the terminal ganglion, a comparison was made of the (/sup 3/H)leucine incorporation into primary dendritic processes and somata of deafferented and normally innervated medial giant interneurons (MGIs) within the same ganglion by means of quantitative autoradiography. Grain densities within dendrites of deafferented MGIs were significantly lower than in paired control MGIs' grain densities within somata of deafferented MGIs also were reduced, although the effects of deafferentation were less pronounced in somata than in target dendrites. These results imply a specific influence of afferent innervation on protein metabolism during growth and development of target postsynaptic elements.

  17. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2016 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 14th, at 18:00!  The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html There will be an indoor game at the Bout-du-Monde on April 3rd and the season starts with a match at home on Sunday, April 24th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  18. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled. Information about the club can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Reports of the matches can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” and the schedule, which includes weekend trips to the South of France, Bellingham (UK), and Milan, can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting – several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather).

  19. An electrophysiological study of sound sensitive neurons in the 'primitive ear' of acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S A

    1976-01-01

    Crickets have two types of mechanisms for the reception of environmental sounds: (1)the tympanal organs in the two forelegs and (2) the freely articulated setal receptors on the abdominal ceri. The cereal setal receptors have hitherto received much less experimental attention as decoders of biologically significant sounds than have the tympano-receptors. In the present study the cereal auditory system of Acheta domesticus was examined electrophysiologically to determine its auditory frequency sensitivity, the tuning characteristics of individual units, and the synchronization between nerve impulses and stimulus frequency. Both pre- and postsynaptic units were examined in the fifth abdominal ganglion; several of the observed response patterns were compared with those of homologous cereal sensory neurons in Periplaneta americana. The results show that (1) A. domesticus possesses an elaborate array of cereal receptors which are highly sensitive to sounds, (2) the cereal setal receptors are more sensitive and numerous in the cricket than in the cockroach, and (3) the cereal auditory system can decode stimulus information by narrow tuning in individual cells and by synchronous discharge patterns; firing frequencies range up to 300 Hz in presynaptic sensory units and 60 Hz in the postsynaptic giants. The response patterns were related to the structure of the receptor and the behavioural adaptations of the insect.

  20. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Monday 26th November 2012 at 18:30 Restaurant No 1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2011 AGM Captain's Report for 2012 Treasurer's Report for 2012 Groundsman's and Kit Report for 2012 Election of Officers for 2013 SCA affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2013 Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: Secretary, Captain, Vice-captain, Treasurer and Groundsman. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  2. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  3. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2015-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, with a game involving some of the ex members (but unfortunately none of the founder members) followed by dinner on Saturday, September 5th. CERN started playing cricket on various football fields in the Geneva Canton, then on the Meyrin site next to where the Kindergarten is now situated, bowling from one end only. Later, net practice took place where building 40 is now, before moving over to the Prevessin site in the early 70s. Lots of work was done to prepare a strip onto which a mat was rolled and the strip was rolled before each match using a heavy roller which required a minimum of 6 to push! This pre-match training is no longer necessary as the club invested in an artificial wicket in 2001. CERN now has one of the best grounds in the region. Last year CERN made it to the Cricket Switzerland semi-final, losing a close match in the last over, but is hoping to go one better in this year’s semi-final on September 13th, which will be...

  4. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club Match Reports The cricket season is well under way, despite the weather, and several matches have been played. The match reporters have, however, found it too difficult to limit their reports to ¼ of a page, hence the reports have not appeared in the bulletin. All reports can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/reports/reports.html The list of forthcoming matches can be consulted at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/fixtures.html Further information about the CERN Cricket Club can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  5. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC VERSUS TRAFFORD SOLICITORS CC IN BELLINGHAN ON JUNE 26th/27th 2010 The CERN cricket club traveled to the North of England for their first tour of the season, playing two games over the course of the weekend of 26-27th June against Trafford Solicitors CC (TSCC).   The sunny weather was almost unprecedented in the history of this fixture.  The first game on Saturday saw the CERN team rewarded for their accurate bowling, as they restricted TSCC to 130 all out: T. Goodyear the pick of the bowlers with 4-7, with three wickets for Stucki.  Despite losing three wickets, the runs were comfortable chased down in 26 overs, with Elvin top scoring on 34, and K. Goodyear hitting the winning runs to finish on 32 not out. The second match saw TSCC setting a challenging target of 179 from their 30 overs, Hoburn scoring 61, and Barrett taking 3-40.  Osborne very narrowly failed to take a hat-trick in the final over.   CERN CC’s reply started w...

  6. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC JOINS IN THREE DAYS OF GOODWILL FOR UK JOURNALISTS   22 24 July vs FLEET STREET STROLLERS Fleet Street Strollers Cricket Club, a 17-strong group of professional journalists and friends from the UK Home Counties, visited CERN for the first time on 22-24 July. On Friday 22 July, CERN's Visitor Centre provided their usual polished tour and information services.  Before the visit the Strollers had hoped to stroll underground to the Atlas detector.  Forewarned that this was not possible they hid any disappointment, judging by the acuteness and variety of the question-and-answer sessions.  And the cash register of the Visitor Shop was busy. On Saturday 23 July, Strollers won the toss and batted first in a 35-over game.  D'Mello and Campbell bowled tightly for CERN and Strollers were 13 for 2 after 6 overs.  CERN released the pressure with a few overs from L. Osborne and Curtis but, at the point where Strollers were looking...

  7. Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters in cricket oocytes: composition, dynamics and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Irina S; Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Skovorodkin, Ilya N; Parfenov, Vladimir N

    2007-03-01

    The organization and molecular composition of complicated Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs) in oocytes of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, were studied using immunofluorescent/confocal and Immunogold labeling/electron microscopy. In A. domesticus oocytes, the CB consists of the fibrillar matrix and a central cavity containing a predominantly granular body with insertions of tightly packed fibrillar material. The latter structure was identified as an "internal" IGC, since it is enriched with the SC35 protein, a marker for IGCs. The IGCs located outside the CB were also identified. Microinjections of the fluorescein-tagged U7 snRNA into the ooplasm showed the targeting of the U7 to the matrix of the CB. Some other essential CB components (coilin, snRNPs, fibrillarin) were found to be colocalized in the matrix of the CB. Neither confocal nor Immunogold microscopy revealed significant amounts of RNA polymerase II (pol II) in the CB of A. domesticus oocytes. The splicing factor SC35 was detected in the matrix of the CB. In oocytes treated with DRB, the amount of IGCs in the nucleoplasm increased significantly, granular and fibrillar components of IGCs were segregated, and the fibrillar areas accumulated pol II. Additionally, IG-like granules were shown to display on the surface of the CB probably due to a shifting from the internal IGC. We believe that in A. domesticus oocytes, CBs are involved in nuclear distribution of splicing factors, but their role in pol II transport is less significant. We also suggest that the formation of complicated CBs is a result of interconnection between two different nuclear domains, CBs and IGCs.

  8. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  9. Ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after long-term exposure to nanodiamonds supplied with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    The biosafety of nanoparticles and the potential toxicity of nanopollutants and/or nanowastes are all currently burning issues. The increased use of nanoparticles, including nanodiamonds (ND), entails the real risk of their penetration into food chains, which may result in the contamination of animal and, as a result, human food. Knowledge about changes in the ultrastructure of tissues in organisms that have been exposed to ND is still very limited. The aim of the study was to describe the ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after exposure to different concentrations of ND (0, 20 or 200 μg g(-1) - control, ND20 and ND200 groups, respectively) administered with food over a five-week period. The ultrastructure of the foregut, midgut and hindgut was assessed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A number of changes in the structure of the gut in crickets that had consumed nanodiamond-contaminated food were observed. The epithelium of the midgut and hindgut were clearly damaged by ND, although the foregut was not affected. A positive relationship between the ND concentration in food and the degree of damage to the structure of epithelial cells was observed. Autophagy, especially mitophagy and reticulophagy, was activated in relation to the appearance of ND particles. A putative ND toxicity mechanizm is proposed. Extreme caution should be maintained when using nanodiamonds on a large scale.

  10. CERN Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2015 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 16th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 16th (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 19th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  11. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    CERN CRICKET CLUB   The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has been a good one so far with the team qualifying for the Swiss Cup semi-finals, with home advantage on the Prevessin ground on Sunday, August 24th. Their opponents will only be known the day before when the final game in the Eastern Division is played.  The CERN ground hasn’t quite recovered from the Bosons&More party last year, the wet weather making it impossible to roll the ground, but the new, wider strip is a big improvement. Net practice eventually started in late July, which is probably why the results at the beginning of the season weren’t so good. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes pla...

  12. Cern Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Cricket Club

    2014-01-01

      Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has started earlier than usual, with a game scheduled for the first time ever on Easter Sunday.  Due to repair work for the damage done to the ground because of the “Bosons&More” party at the end of September, all games until June have had to be scheduled away. Net practice, which normally takes place on the ground from mid-April, will not start until mid-June. The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    

  13. Crickets in Sunshine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Hermann

    1985-12-01

    1. A method is described which makes the registration of body temperatures possible without disturbing the animals. Thus it is possible to observe and quantify the effect of basking on the development of a population. 2. In crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) the time of development is drastically reduced by the possibility to bask in sunshine at self-determined intervals. The old rule of temperature-sums is demonstrated to be invalid in this case; the changing body temperature acts as a signal to unknown processes which speed up the development of the animal.

  14. The Aware Cricket Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Wazir Zada; Arshad, Quratul Ain

    2011-01-01

    The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it [1]. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1) Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2) Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3) Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  15. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  16. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  17. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes.

  18. Phenotypic covariance structure and its divergence for acoustic mate attraction signals among four cricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Susan M; Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; McAuley, Emily M; Rundle, Howard D; Gorelick, Root

    2012-01-01

    The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) describes the multivariate distribution of a population in phenotypic space, providing direct insight into the appropriateness of measured traits within the context of multicollinearity (i.e., do they describe any significant variance that is independent of other traits), and whether trait covariances restrict the combinations of phenotypes available to selection. Given the importance of P, it is therefore surprising that phenotypic covariances are seldom jointly analyzed and that the dimensionality of P has rarely been investigated in a rigorous statistical framework. Here, we used a repeated measures approach to quantify P separately for populations of four cricket species using seven acoustic signaling traits thought to enhance mate attraction. P was of full or almost full dimensionality in all four species, indicating that all traits conveyed some information that was independent of the other traits, and that phenotypic trait covariances do not constrain the combinations of signaling traits available to selection. P also differed significantly among species, although the dominant axis of phenotypic variation (p(max)) was largely shared among three of the species (Acheta domesticus, Gryllus assimilis, G. texensis), but different in the fourth (G. veletis). In G. veletis and A. domesticus, but not G. assimilis and G. texensis, p(max) was correlated with body size, while p(max) was not correlated with residual mass (a condition measure) in any of the species. This study reveals the importance of jointly analyzing phenotypic traits.

  19. Chronobiology of crickets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Crickets provide a good model for the study of mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms and photoperiodic responses. They show clear circadian rhythms in their overt behavior and the sensitivity of the visual system. Classical neurobiological studies revealed that a pair of optic lobes is the locus of the circadian clock controlling these rhythms and that the compound eye is the major photoreceptor necessary for synchronization to environmental light cycles. The two optic lobe clocks are mutually coupled through a neural pathway and the coupling regulates an output circadian waveform and a free-running period. Recent molecular studies revealed that the cricket's clock consists of cyclic expression of so-called clock genes and that the clock mechanism is featured by both Drosophila-like and mammalian-like traits. Molecular oscillation is also observed in some extra-optic lobe tissues and depends on the optic lobe clock in a tissue dependent manner. Interestingly, the clock is also involved in adaptation to seasonally changing environment. It fits its waveform to a given photoperiod and may be an indispensable part of a photoperiodic time-measurement mechanism. With adoption of modern molecular technologies, the cricket becomes a much more important and promising model animal for the study of circadian and photoperiodic biology.

  20. Impacts of metformin and aspirin on life history features and longevity of crickets: trade-offs versus cost-free life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Harvir; Lone, Asad; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i.e., health span). Metformin strongly reduced growth rates of both genders (140 % of controls) than aspirin (~118 % of controls). Crickets maturing on low aspirin showed no evidence of a trade-off between maturation mass and life extension. Remarkably, by 100 days of age, aspirin-treated females were significantly larger than controls (largely reflecting egg complement). Unlike the reigning dietary restriction paradigm, low aspirin conformed to a paradigm of "eat more, live longer." In contrast, metformin-treated females were only ~67 % of the mass of controls. Our results suggest that hormetic agents like metformin may derive significant trade-offs with life extension, whereas health and longevity benefits may be obtained with less cost by agents like aspirin that regulate geroprotective pathways.

  1. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  2. A review of cricket fielding requirements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a paucity of literature on elding compared with that on batting and bowling. ... literature in terms of technical, mental, physiological and physical factors ..... Leg strength and power are important for cricket elders as they.

  3. The importance of partnerships in cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    In cricket, it has long been accepted that synergy in a batting partnership is an important aspect in batting performance. This project investigates the importance of partnerships in various forms of cricket by comparing the performance of opening batsmen with their “synergistic” partners, to the performance of these batsmen with alternative partners. Our statistical analyses conclude that the importance of partnerships may be considered a sporting myth.

  4. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket tooth

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xueqing; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of the cricket teeth are always interested. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of the cricket teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. While, the interior of the teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points at the top of tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate random into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp was proposed and a d...

  5. Are elite cricketers more prone to suicide? A psychological autopsy study of Test cricketer suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Sava-Shah, Shrenik; Wijeratne, Chanaka; Draper, Brian

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesised that the very nature of the game predisposes elite cricketers to higher rates of suicide. We aim to estimate the suicide rate of male Test cricketers and to determine the reasons for suicide. The suicide rate in male Test cricketers was determined. A psychological autopsy was conducted using published biographical data. Twenty suicides amongst 2794 male Test cricketers from 1877 to 2014 yielded a suicide rate of 715.4 per 100,000 for that period. Health, financial and relationship issues were prominent; depression and alcohol misuse were common. Most suicides in Test cricketers occurred post-retirement in mid to late life with similar correlates to those found in the general male population. The idiosyncrasies of cricket are unlikely to contribute to suicide; however, the post-retirement welfare of Test cricketers should remain a focus of concern and the greater supports available to contemporary Test cricketers needs to extend beyond retirement. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International cricket studies mostly concentrate on young fast- bowlers and their ... no studies have investigated injuries and pain among schoolboy cricket players in .... the hips after the ball has been released, causing the abdominal and.

  7. Effects of temperature on chirp rates of tree crickets (Orthoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-10-02

    Oct 2, 1991 ... with temperature, pulse rates and chirp rates of the calling songs of crickets ..... ty for confusion may increase at low temperatures in certain species. In Drosophila ... Songs and the physics of sound production. In: Cricket ...

  8. Experience-based typology of spectators at an international cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This innovative research on managing and marketing team sport events was completed ... differ in terms of their motives, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. ... Key words: Market segmentation; Cricket spectators; Cricket Sixes ...

  9. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses additio...... opportunities and threats to the industry. Considering the edible cricket industry as a part of the rural entrepreneurship and development policy discourse may be beneficial to sustainable development....

  10. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  11. TaleEnders and the Heritage of Welsh Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This project between Glamorgan Cricket and the University of Glamorgan seeks to explore the use of storytelling and technology to populate the new Museum of Welsh Cricket at Sophia Gardens as part of the current £9.6 million redevelopment in advance of hosting an Ashes Tests in 2009. \\ud \\ud There are 264 cricket clubs, affiliated to the Cricket Board of Wales – the arm of Glamorgan Cricket which oversees the recreational side of the game – many of which have long and diverse histories. This ...

  12. Cricket Ball Aerodynamics: Myth Versus Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rabindra D.; Koga, Demmis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in the flight of a cricket ball released by a bowler. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can follow a curved flight path that is not always under the control of the bowler. ne basic aerodynamic principles responsible for the nonlinear flight or "swing" of a cricket ball were identified several years ago and many papers have been published on the subject. In the last 20 years or so, several experimental investigations have been conducted on cricket ball swing, which revealed the amount of attainable swing, and the parameters that affect it. A general overview of these findings is presented with emphasis on the concept of late swing and the effects of meteorological conditions on swing. In addition, the relatively new concept of "reverse" swing, how it can be achieved in practice and the role in it of ball "tampering", are discussed in detail. A discussion of the "white" cricket ball used in last year's World Cup, which supposedly possesses different swing properties compared to a conventional red ball, is also presented.

  13. Imitating cricket mechanosensory hairs: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Casas, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for bio-inspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensors for flow observations. In stimulating interactions within EU consortia important insights have surfaced and MEMS sensors with demonstrated acoustic sensitivit

  14. Along Came a Spider: Using Live Arthropods in a Predator-Prey Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2011-01-01

    We developed a predator-prey activity with eighth-grade students in which they used wolf spiders ("Lycosa carolinensis"), house crickets ("Acheta domestica"), and abiotic factors to address how (1) adaptations in predators and prey shape their interaction and (2) abiotic factors modify the interaction between predators and prey. We tested student…

  15. Control of cricket stridulation by a command neuron: efficacy depends on the behavioral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, B

    2000-02-01

    Crickets use different song patterns for acoustic communication. The stridulatory pattern-generating networks are housed within the thoracic ganglia but are controlled by the brain. This descending control of stridulation was identified by intracellular recordings and stainings of brain neurons. Its impact on the generation of calling song was analyzed both in resting and stridulating crickets and during cercal wind stimulation, which impaired the stridulatory movements and caused transient silencing reactions. A descending interneuron in the brain serves as a command neuron for calling-song stridulation. The neuron has a dorsal soma position, anterior dendritic processes, and an axon that descends in the contralateral connective. The neuron is present in each side of the CNS. It is not activated in resting crickets. Intracellular depolarization of the interneuron so that its spike frequency is increased to 60-80 spikes/s reliably elicits calling-song stridulation. The spike frequency is modulated slightly in the chirp cycle with the maximum activity in phase with each chirp. There is a high positive correlation between the chirp repetition rate and the interneuron's spike frequency. Only a very weak correlation, however, exists between the syllable repetition rate and the interneuron activity. The effectiveness of the command neuron depends on the activity state of the cricket. In resting crickets, experimentally evoked short bursts of action potentials elicit only incomplete calling-song chirps. In crickets that previously had stridulated during the experiment, short elicitation of interneuron activity can trigger sustained calling songs during which the interneuron exhibits a spike frequency of approximately 30 spikes/s. During sustained calling songs, the command neuron activity is necessary to maintain the stridulatory behavior. Inhibition of the interneuron stops stridulation. A transient increase in the spike frequency of the interneuron speeds up the chirp

  16. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  17. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dihong; Sepulveda, Claudia; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs) in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  18. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  19. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men's cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008-09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game - Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15-20 injuries per team per defined 'season') are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should

  20. Temporomandibular joint dislocation and deafness from a cricket ball injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P; Bandasson, C; Dhillon, R S

    1994-05-01

    Cricket is a national sport in some countries and can be potentially hazardous. We report an incident of a cricket ball impact to the chin, which resulted in posterior dislocation of both temporomandibular joints and bilateral mixed deafness. There appear to be no similar case reports in the literature.

  1. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  2. Fluid Mechanics of Cricket and Tennis Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rabindra D.

    2009-11-01

    Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in defining the flight of a ball that is struck or thrown through the air in almost all ball sports. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can often deviate from its initial straight path, resulting in a curved, or sometimes an unpredictable, flight path. It is particularly fascinating that that not all the parameters that affect the flight of a ball are always under human influence. Lateral deflection in flight, commonly known as swing, swerve or curve, is well recognized in cricket and tennis. In tennis, the lateral deflection is produced by spinning the ball about an axis perpendicular to the line of flight, which gives rise to what is commonly known as the Magnus effect. It is now well recognized that the aerodynamics of sports balls are strongly dependent on the detailed development and behavior of the boundary layer on the ball's surface. A side force, which makes a ball curve through the air, can also be generated in the absence of the Magnus effect. In one of the cricket deliveries, the ball is released with the seam angled, which trips the laminar boundary layer into a turbulent state on that side. The turbulent boundary layer separates relatively late compared to the laminar layer on the other side, thereby creating a pressure difference and hence side force. The fluid mechanics of a cricket ball become very interesting at the higher Reynolds numbers and this will be discussed in detail. Of all the round sports balls, a tennis ball has the highest drag coefficient. This will be explained in terms of the contribution of the ``fuzz" drag and how that changes with Reynolds number and ball surface wear. It is particularly fascinating that, purely through historical accidents, small disturbances on the ball surface, such as the stitching on cricket balls and the felt cover on tennis balls are all about the right size to affect boundary layer transition and development in the Reynolds numbers of interest. The fluid

  3. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded by using a high speed 3D video recording system. The mode and the gait of the terrestrial walking mole cricket were investigated by analyzing the kinematics parameters, and the kinematics coupling disciplines of each limb and body were discussed. The results show that the locomotion gait of mole cricket in terrestrial walking belongs to a distinctive alternating tripod gait. We also found that the fore legs of a mole cricket are not as effective as that ofcommon hexapod insects, its middle legs and body joints act more effective in walking and turning which compensate the function of fore legs. The terrestrial locomotion of mole cricket is the result of biological coupling of three pairs of legs, the distinctive alternating tripod gait and the trunk locomotion.

  4. Ultrasound sensitive neurons in the cricket brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodfuehrer, P D; Hoy, R R

    1990-03-01

    1. The aim of this study was to identify neurons in the brain of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that are tuned to high frequencies and to determine if these neurons are involved in the pathway controlling negative phonotaxis. In this paper we describe, both morphologically and physiologically, 20 neurons in the cricket brain which are preferentially tuned to high frequencies. 2. These neurons can be divided into two morphological classes: descending brain interneurons (DBINs) which have a posteriorly projecting axon in the circumesophageal connective and local brain neurons (LBNs) whose processes reside entirely within the brain. All the DBINs and LBNs have processes which project into one common area of the brain, the ventral brain region at the border of the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. Some of the terminal arborizations of Int-1, an ascending ultrasound sensitive interneuron which initiates negative phonotaxis, also extend into this region. 3. Physiologically, ultrasonic sound pulses produce 3 types of responses in the DBINs and LBNs. (1) Seven DBINs and 6 LBNs are excited by ultrasound. (2) Ongoing activity in one DBIN and 5 LBNs is inhibited by ultrasound, and (3) one cell, (LBN-ei), is either excited or inhibited by ultrasound depending on the direction of the stimulus. 4. Many of the response properties of both the DBINs and LBNs to auditory stimuli are similar to those of Int-1. Specifically, the strength of the response, either excitation or inhibition, to 20 kHz sound pulses increases with increasing stimulus intensity, while the response latency generally decreases. Moreover, the thresholds to high frequencies are much lower than to low frequencies. These observations suggest that the DBINs and LBNs receive a majority of their auditory input from Int-1. However, the response latencies and directional sensitivity of only LBN-ei suggest that it is directly connected to Int-1. 5. The response of only one identified brain neuron, DBIN8, which is

  5. Corollary discharge inhibition and audition in the stridulating cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A

    2005-11-01

    The romantic notion of crickets singing on a warm summer's evening is quickly dispelled when one comes ear to ear with a stridulating male. Remarkably, stridulating male crickets are able to hear sounds from the environment despite generating a 100 db song (Heiligenberg 1969; Jones and Dambach 1973). This review summarises recent work examining how they achieve this feat of sensory processing. While the responsiveness of the crickets' peripheral auditory system (tympanic membrane, tympanic nerve, state of the acoustic spiracle) is maintained during sound production, central auditory neurons are inhibited by a feedforward corollary discharge signal precisely timed to coincide with the auditory neurons' maximum response to self-generated sound. In this way, the corollary discharge inhibition prevents desensitisation of the crickets' auditory pathway during sound production.

  6. Cricket: notching up runs for food and alcohol companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherriff, Jill; Griffiths, Denise; Daube, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports sponsorship by food and alcohol companies by quantifying the proportion of time that the main sponsor's logo was seen during each of three cricket telecasts, the extent of paid...

  7. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single measure that can be used to assess the performance of batsmen ... a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman ...

  8. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    , their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy....

  9. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  10. A review of cricket injuries and the effectiveness of strategies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of cricket injuries and the effectiveness of strategies to prevent cricket injuries at all levels. ... South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... The literature shows that three major cricketplaying countries, Australia, England and South ...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALAYSIAN NATIONAL CRICKET BATSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics and physical strength of the Malaysian cricket batsmen. Methods: Twenty four top order batsmen from the Malaysian senior, under-19s and under-16s cricket team were recruited for the study. Twenty six anthropometric, four somatotype and two physical strength variables were measured from all participants. Stature were measured by using stadiometer, calipers for skin-fold, non-stretch tape for girth, sliding caliper for segmental lengths and circumferences (breadths and dynamometers for hand grip and back strength. Cater and heath (1990 equation was used to find the somatotype variables of height-weight ratio, endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyses significant between group differences in the variables. Results: The senior batsmen were significantly higher than under-19s and under-16s in body mass, relax and flex arm girths, forearm girth, chest girth, waist girth, calf girth, bi-acromial breadth, transvers breadth and hand grip strength. Both senior and under-19s batsmen were significantly higher than under-16s batsmen in arm span, total arm length, humerus and femur breadths. The under-16s batsmen were also significantly lesser than senior in hip girths, hand lengths and bi-ilocrist breadth, and from under-19s in sitting height and total leg length. Conclusion: Senior batsmen were significantly higher in the anthropometric measurement of girths, breadth and lengths than U-16 because of 10 years age difference. Future research is essential to confirm the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics of batsmen with the batting technique and performance.

  12. Central projections of auditory receptor neurons of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Pollack, Gerald S

    2005-12-19

    We describe the central projections of physiologically characterized auditory receptor neurons of crickets as revealed by confocal microscopy. Receptors tuned to ultrasonic frequencies (similar to those produced by echolocating, insectivorous bats), to a mid-range of frequencies, and a subset of those tuned to low, cricket-like frequencies have similar projections, terminating medially within the auditory neuropile. Quantitative analysis shows that despite the general similarity of these projections they are tonotopic, with receptors tuned to lower frequencies terminating more medially. Another subset of cricket-song-tuned receptors projects more laterally and posteriorly than the other types. Double-fills of receptors and identified interneurons show that the three medially projecting receptor types are anatomically well positioned to provide monosynaptic input to interneurons that relay auditory information to the brain and to interneurons that modify this ascending information. The more laterally and posteriorly branching receptor type may not interact directly with this ascending pathway, but is well positioned to provide direct input to an interneuron that carries auditory information to more posterior ganglia. These results suggest that information about cricket song is segregated into functionally different pathways as early as the level of receptor neurons. Ultrasound-tuned and mid-frequency tuned receptors have approximately twice as many varicosities, which are sites of transmitter release, per receptor as either anatomical type of cricket-song-tuned receptor. This may compensate in part for the numerical under-representation of these receptor types.

  13. Visual evoked potentials, reaction times and eye dominance in cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N G; Harden, L M; Rogers, G G

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have examined the physiology of cricket, including the difference in ability between batsmen to make controlled contact with a ball bowled at high speed. We therefore measured visual evoked potentials and choice reaction times with dominant eyes, non-dominant eyes, and both eyes together, in 15 elite batsmen and 10 elite bowlers (aged 20.9 SD 1.9 years) and 9 control subjects (aged 20.2 SD 1.5 years). The latency and amplitude of waves N70, P100 and N145 were determined for each visual evoked potential (VEP). In addition interpeak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes were measured. The subjects also completed a choice reaction test to a visual stimulus. We found that cricketers were not more likely to have crossed dominance (dominant eye contralateral to dominant hand) than controls. Cricketers had a faster latency for VEP wave N70 than controls (p=0.03). However reaction time was not different between cricketers and the control group. Across all subjects, in comparison to monocular testing, binocular testing led to a faster choice reaction time (p=0.02) and larger amplitudes of VEP wave N70 (p=0.01). Visual processing during the first 100(-1)50 ms of the balls flight together with binocular vision facilitates retinal activation in talented cricketers.

  14. The sliding stop: a technique of fielding in cricket with a potential for serious knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hagen, K; Roach, R; Summers, B

    2000-10-01

    The sliding stop method of fielding in cricket is gaining popularity in schools and club cricket through its frequent exposure on television. The case history is reported of a cricketer who suffered a torn medial meniscus in his knee, a rare cricketing injury, while performing this technique incorrectly in a club game. The correct method of performing the technique is described in coaching manuals but is not commonly instructed at club or school level. The sliding stop should be discouraged in school and for club cricketers unless appropriately coached.

  15. Busy Nights: High Seed Dispersal by Crickets in a Neotropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Flávia Delgado; Baccaro, Fabricio Beggiato; Costa, Flávia Regina Capellotto

    2016-11-01

    Among invertebrates, ants are the most abundant and probably most important seed dispersers in both temperate and tropical environments. Crickets, also abundant in tropical forests, are omnivores and commonly attracted to fruits on the forest floor. However, their capability to remove seeds has been reported only once. We compared Marantaceae seed removal by crickets and ants to assess the role of crickets as secondary seed dispersers in Amazonia. Compared with ants, crickets dispersed an equivalent number of seeds and tended to disperse larger seeds farther. However, seed removal by crickets occurs mostly at night, suggesting that removal of arillate seeds by crickets on the tropical forest floor is probably being overlooked or wrongly attributed to other invertebrate groups. One potential consequence of seed dispersal by crickets may be a change in the local spatial distribution of arillate-seed species, due to lower aggregation around ant nests.

  16. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  17. Rapid convergent evolution in wild crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Sonia; Cezard, Timothee; Eik-Nes, Aasta; Gharbi, Karim; Majewska, Jagoda; Payne, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Michael G; Zuk, Marlene; Bailey, Nathan W

    2014-06-16

    The earliest stages of convergent evolution are difficult to observe in the wild, limiting our understanding of the incipient genomic architecture underlying convergent phenotypes. To address this, we capitalized on a novel trait, flatwing, that arose and proliferated at the start of the 21st century in a population of field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Flatwing erases sound-producing structures on male forewings. Mutant males cannot sing to attract females, but they are protected from fatal attack by an acoustically orienting parasitoid fly (Ormia ochracea). Two years later, the silent morph appeared on the neighboring island of Oahu. We tested two hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of flatwings in Hawaii: (1) that the silent morph originated on Kauai and subsequently introgressed into Oahu and (2) that flatwing originated independently on each island. Morphometric analysis of male wings revealed that Kauai flatwings almost completely lack typical derived structures, whereas Oahu flatwings retain noticeably more wild-type wing venation. Using standard genetic crosses, we confirmed that the mutation segregates as a single-locus, sex-linked Mendelian trait on both islands. However, genome-wide scans using RAD-seq recovered almost completely distinct markers linked with flatwing on each island. The patterns of allelic association with flatwing on either island reveal different genomic architectures consistent with the timing of two mutational events on the X chromosome. Divergent wing morphologies linked to different loci thus cause identical behavioral outcomes--silence--illustrating the power of selection to rapidly shape convergent adaptations from distinct genomic starting points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  19. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  20. A biomimetic accelerometer inspired by the cricket's clavate hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; de Boer, Meint J.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU-8 lithography. An analytical model

  1. Diversity of intersegmental auditory neurons in a bush cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Andreas; Molina, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    Various auditory interneurons of the duetting bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata with axons ascending to the brain are presented. In this species, more intersegmental sound-activated neurons have been identified than in any other bush cricket so far, among them a new type of ascending neuron with posterior soma in the prothoracic ganglion (AN4). These interneurons show not only morphological differences in the prothoracic ganglion and the brain, but also respond differently to carrier frequencies, intensity and direction. As a set of neurons, they show graded differences for all of these parameters. A response type not described among intersegmental neurons of crickets and other bush crickets so far is found in the AN3 neuron with a tonic response, broad frequency tuning and little directional dependence. All neurons, with the exception of AN3, respond in a relatively similar manner to the temporal patterns of the male song: phasically to high syllable repetitions and rhythmically to low syllable repetitions. The strongest coupling to the temporal pattern is found in TN1. In contrast to behavior the neuronal responses depend little on syllable duration. AN4, AN5 and TN1 respond well to the female song. AN4 (at higher intensities) and TN1 respond well to a complete duet.

  2. Silk from crickets: a new twist on spinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Walker

    Full Text Available Raspy crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae are unique among the orthopterans in producing silk, which is used to build shelters. This work studied the material composition and the fabrication of cricket silk for the first time. We examined silk-webs produced in captivity, which comprised cylindrical fibers and flat films. Spectra obtained from micro-Raman experiments indicated that the silk is composed of protein, primarily in a beta-sheet conformation, and that fibers and films are almost identical in terms of amino acid composition and secondary structure. The primary sequences of four silk proteins were identified through a mass spectrometry/cDNA library approach. The most abundant silk protein was large in size (300 and 220 kDa variants, rich in alanine, glycine and serine, and contained repetitive sequence motifs; these are features which are shared with several known beta-sheet forming silk proteins. Convergent evolution at the molecular level contrasts with development by crickets of a novel mechanism for silk fabrication. After secretion of cricket silk proteins by the labial glands they are fabricated into mature silk by the labium-hypopharynx, which is modified to allow the controlled formation of either fibers or films. Protein folding into beta-sheet structure during silk fabrication is not driven by shear forces, as is reported for other silks.

  3. The 5th Umpire: Automating Cricket's Edge Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The game of cricket and the use of technology in the sport have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, technology-based systems introduced to adjudicate decisions such as run outs, stumpings, boundary infringements and close catches are still prone to human error, and thus their acceptance has not been fully embraced by cricketing administrators. In particular, technology is not employed for bat-pad decisions. Although the snickometer may assist in adjudicating such decisions it depends heavily on human interpretation. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Wavelets in developing an edgedetection adjudication system for the game of cricket. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools, namely Neural Networks, will be employed to automate this edge detection process. Live audio samples of ball-on-bat and ball-on-pad events from a cricket match will be recorded. DSP analysis, feature extraction and neural network classification will then be employed on these samples. Results will show the ability of the neural network to differentiate between these key events. This is crucial to developing a fully automated edge detection system.

  4. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  5. Adaptive plasticity in wild field cricket's acoustic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Bertram

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience.

  6. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  7. Two steps to suicide in crickets harbouring hairworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, M.I.; Ponton, F.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hairworm (Nematomorpha) Paragordius tricuspidatus has the ability to alter the behaviour of its terrestrial insect host (the cricket Nemobius sylvestris), making it jump into the water to reach its reproductive habitat. Because water is a limited and critical resource in the ecosystem, we pre...... with suicidal rather than erratic behaviour. (C) 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  8. Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary-Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Baum; Richard Butler; Georgia Yfantidou

    2015-01-01

    The Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary is a book that could be useful to sport tourism studies. It could be an excellent student’s handbook at universities with one condition to be added questions to the end of each chapter for personal study and homework. The cricket’s link to tourism could also be added with calls for case studies with different nations for university students. This book is a part of cricket’s route in this century.

  9. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics in the Field Cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nathan William; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A. Harvey; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    This work was supported by a Natural Environment Research Council Junior Postdoctoral Fellowship (NE/G014906/1) and Pacific Rim Foundation funding (08-T-PRRP-05-0029) to N.W.B. Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body p...

  10. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  11. MULTI LEVEL SEMANTIC EXTRACTION FOR CRICKET VIDEO BY TEXT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. SUNITHA ABBURU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Semantic video analysis, indexing and retrieval are necessary for effective utilization of video repositories. The semantics can be extracted from the semantic carriers such as voice and video text. Super imposed text is the proper source to extract semantics of the video which will increase the efficiency of retrieval system. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method to generate annotation for cricket videos and an automated tool- DLER, to extract the semantics of cricket video. The DLER tool provides a fast and robust approach for text Detection, Localization, Extraction, and Reorganization in video frames, which is flexible and customer friendly. The DLER integrates all the pre-processing steps and the OCR steps in to a single unit. The annotator can pick the ROI, increase or decrease the threshold, contrast, brightness or inverse the image based on the typeof the broadcasted video. The tool has been implemented and tested with cricket video and the results of the experiments are promising. Finally conclusion and future work has been discussed.

  12. Evaluation of in vivo graphene oxide toxicity for Acheta domesticus in relation to nanomaterial purity and time passed from the exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewięcka, Marta; Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Majchrzycki, Łukasz; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria A

    2016-03-15

    Graphene and its oxidized form-graphene oxide (GO) have become exceptionally popular in industry and medicine due to their unique properties. However, there are suspicions that GO can cause adverse effects. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge on its potential toxicity is essential. This research assesses the in vivo toxicity of pure and manganese ion contaminated GO, which were injected into the hemolymph of Acheta domesticus. The activity of catalase (CAT) and gluthiathione peroxidases (GSTPx) as well as heat shock protein (HSP 70) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were measured at consecutive time points-1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after injection. Neither pure GO nor GO contaminated with manganese were neutral to the organism. The results proved the intensification of oxidative stress after GO injection, which was confirmed by increased enzyme activity. The organism seems to cope with this stress, especially in the first 24h after injection. In the following days, increasing HSP 70 levels were observed, which might suggest the synthesis of new proteins and the removal of old and damaged ones. With that in mind, the potential toxicity of the studied material, which could lead to serious and permanent damage to the organism, should still be taken into consideration.

  13. Dioptrics of the facet lenses in the dorsal rim area of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukhanov, KY; Leertouwer, HL; Gribakin, FG; Stavenga, DG

    1996-01-01

    1. The optics of the corneal facet lenses from the dorsal rim area (DRA) and from the dorso-lateral areas (DA) of the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. 2. The DRA of the cricket eye contains quite normally shaped facet lenses. The diameter of the facet lens in the DA is 2

  14. Cricket pace bowling: The trade-off between optimising knee angle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knee angle and ball release (BR) speed of injury-free premier league (club level) cricket pace bowlers over the age of 18 years were measured at the start and end of the cricket season. Kinematic .... Light-reflective markers were attached with ...

  15. Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockie Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.

  16. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship.

  17. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  18. Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Dorsey, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The principal competition in English professional cricket has become more competitive with the introduction of hierarchical divisions linked by promotion and relegation. Using regression analysis, we examine the effect on league points when teams suffer different degrees of weather disruption over the season and different amounts of luck in winning the toss for choice of first innings. The results are used to illustrate the sensitivity of championship, promotion, and relegation outcomes to such matters of chance and revised league tables are produced after applying adjustments to account for the influence of weather and toss. Policy recommendations are presented on how the influence of weather and toss might be lessened in future seasons.

  19. Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary-Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary is a book that could be useful to sport tourism studies. It could be an excellent student’s handbook at universities with one condition to be added questions to the end of each chapter for personal study and homework. The cricket’s link to tourism could also be added with calls for case studies with different nations for university students. This book is a part of cricket’s route in this century.

  20. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  1. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  3. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  4. Effects of Caffeine on Olfactory Learning in Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Seigo; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto; Okada, Jiro

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1.6 µµg/kg to 39 mg/kg). We investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement of olfactory learning performance pharmacologically, focusing on three major physiological roles of caffeine: 1) inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE), 2) agonism of ryanodine receptors, and 3) antagonism of adenosine receptors. Application of drugs relevant to these actions resulted in significant effects on LTM formation. These results suggest that externally applied caffeine enhances LTM formation in insect olfactory learning via multiple cellular mechanisms.

  5. The biomechanics of fast bowling in men's cricket: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R M; Stockill, N P; Elliott, B C; Burnett, A F

    1996-10-01

    This review concentrates on synthesizing and analysing the biomechanical research which has been carried out on fast bowling in men's cricket. Specifically, it relates to those elements of the bowling technique which contribute towards a fast ball release, the aerodynamics and technique of swing bowling, and the association between fast bowling and lower back injury. With regard to bowling technique, no firm conclusions are drawn on the relationships between elements of the fast bowling technique and ball release speed. Recommendations for future research in this area include intra-player studies to establish the bowler-specific factors which contribute to fast ball release and features of body segment dynamics. There is general agreement that the phenomenon of differential boundary layer separation is the reason for normal and reverse cricket ball swing. Systematic research to establish the essential aspects of the bowling technique which contribute to successful swing bowling is recommended, along with studies of the behaviour of the ball in games to ascertain the effects of ball asymmetries on ball swing. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to establish a strong link between injury to the lower back and the use of the mixed technique. Recommendations are made for screening and intervention to reduce the use of the mixed technique, and for research into other aspects of injury. Fundamental research to develop biomechanical models of the lower back in fast bowling is strongly recommended.

  6. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  7. A viral aphrodisiac in the cricket Gryllus texensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Easy, Russell H; Stoltz, Don

    2014-06-01

    We identified the insect iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV as a pathogen of the cricket Gryllus texensis using electron microscopy (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. EM showed that the virus attacks the fat body, an organ important for protein production, immune function and lipid storage. During infection the fat body hypertrophied, but egg production withered, leaving the lateral oviducts empty of eggs; the females were effectively sterile. EM of the testis of infected males suggests that the testis was not invaded by the virus, although sperm taken from the spermatophores of infected males showed little or no motility. Nevertheless, males and females continued to mate when infected. In fact, infected males were quicker to court females than uninfected controls. The virus benefits from the continued sexual behaviour of its host; transmission studies show that the virus can be spread through sexual contact. Sickness behaviour, the adaptive reduction of feeding and sexual behaviour that is induced by an activated immune system, was absent in infected crickets. Total haemolymph protein was reduced, as was phenoloxidase activity, suggesting a reduction in immune protein production by the fat body. The evidence suggests that during IIV-6/CrIV infection, the immune signal(s) that induces sickness behaviour is absent. Curtailment of a host's sickness behaviour may be necessary for any pathogen that is spread by host sexual behaviour.

  8. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  9. Physiological, movement and technical demands of centre-wicket Battlezone, traditional net-based training and one-day cricket matches: a comparative study of sub-elite cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study compared physiological, physical and technical demands of Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches. Data were initially collected from 11 amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 year, height: 1.82 ± 0.06 m body mass: 80.4 ± 9.8 kg) during four Battlezone and four traditional cricket training sessions encompassing different playing positions. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion and movement patterns of players were measured. Retrospective video analysis was performed to code for technical outcomes. Similar data were collected from 42 amateur, male cricket players (23.5 ± 4.7 year, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 81.4 ± 11.4 kg) during one-day matches. Significant differences were found between Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches within each playing position. Specifically, Battlezone invoked the greatest physiological and physical demands from batsmen in comparison to traditional cricket training and one-day matches. However, the greatest technical demand for batsmen was observed during traditional cricket training. In regards to the other playing positions, a greater physiological, physical and technical demand was observed during Battlezone and traditional training than during one-day matches. These results suggest that the use of Battlezone and traditional cricket training provides players with a suitable training stimulus for replicating the physiological, physical and technical demands of one-day cricket.

  10. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  11. A longitudinal study on the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies on injury epidemiology of the elite cricket player / Jaco Peens

    OpenAIRE

    Peens, Jaco

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an injury prevention and training programme for elite cricketers in regard to biomechanical, physical and motor and anthropometric variables over a period of six cricketing off-seasons (1998/1999-2003/2004). A secondary aim was to investigate the injury epidemiology of elite cricket players over a six-season period (1998/1999 – 2003/2004). A total of 93 cricket players, who were part of the North-West profess...

  12. Pattern recognition in field crickets: concepts and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Since decades the acoustic communication behavior of crickets is in the focus of neurobiology aiming to analyze the neural basis of male singing and female phonotactic behavior. For temporal pattern recognition several different concepts have been proposed to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying the tuning of phonotaxis in females. These concepts encompass either some form of a feature detecting mechanism using cross-correlation processing, temporal filter properties of brain neurons or an autocorrelation processing based on a delay-line and coincidence detection mechanism. Current data based on intracellular recordings of auditory brain neurons indicate a sequential processing by excitation and inhibition in a local auditory network within the protocerebrum. The response properties of the brain neurons point towards the concept of an autocorrelation-like mechanism underlying female pattern recognition in which delay-lines by long lasting inhibition may be involved.

  13. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  14. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p MB Rot) throw velocity and medicine ball chest pass (MB CP) distance (r = 0.67; p MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players and highlight the importance of power development as it relates to throwing velocity. Exercises that more closely simulated the speed (body weight jumps and medicine ball throws) or movement pattern (shoulder IR) of overhead throwing were greater predictors of throwing velocity. Strength and conditioning staff should

  15. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics in the Field Cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A. Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection—testis and accessory gland—would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection. PMID:23390599

  16. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  17. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  18. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Forrest, T G; Hoy, R R

    1998-06-01

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of omega neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in

  19. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  20. High background noise shapes selective auditory filters in a tropical cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arne K D; Riede, Klaus; Römer, Heiner

    2011-05-15

    Because of call frequency overlap and masking interference, the airborne sound channel represents a limited resource for communication in a species-rich cricket community like the tropical rainforest. Here we studied the frequency tuning of an auditory neuron mediating phonotaxis in the rainforest cricket Paroecanthus podagrosus, suffering from strong competition, in comparison with the same homologous neuron in two species of European field crickets, where such competition does not exist. As predicted, the rainforest species exhibited a more selective tuning compared with the European counterparts. The filter reduced background nocturnal noise levels by 26 dB, compared with only 16 and 10 dB in the two European species. We also quantified the performance of the sensory filter under the different filter regimes by examining the representation of the species-specific amplitude modulation of the male calling song, when embedded in background noise. Again, the filter of the rainforest cricket performed significantly better in terms of representing this important signal parameter. The neuronal representation of the calling song pattern within receivers was maintained for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios because of the more sharply tuned sensory system and selective attention mechanisms. Finally, the rainforest cricket also showed an almost perfect match between the filter for sensitivity and the peripheral filter for directional hearing, in contrast to its European counterparts. We discuss the consequences of these adaptations for intraspecific acoustic communication and reproductive isolation between species.

  1. Microbial associates of the southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii) are highly pathogenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sudarshan K; Carter-House, Derreck; Stajich, Jason E; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-09-12

    We report the isolation and identification of seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from dead and diseased Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets collected from a golf course in southern California. Using 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis we identified the microbes as Serratia marcescens (red), S. marcescens (white), S. marcescens (purple), Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Chryseobacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Tsukamurella tryosinosolvens, and Beauveria bassiana. We performed a dose response curve for each of these cricket-associated microbial strains (except T. tryosinosolvens) and two other strains of S. marcescens (DB1140 and ATCC 13880). We found that all of these microbes except O. anthropi were highly pathogenic to D. melanogaster compared to the other strains of S. marcescens. Injecting the mole cricket associated strains of Serratia into flies killed all infected flies in ≤24h. For all other strains, the median time to death of injected flies varied in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo growth assessments of these microbes suggested that the host immune system was quickly overcome. We used disease tolerance curves to better understand the host-microbe interactions. Further studies are necessary to understand in mechanistic detail the virulence mechanisms of these mole cricket associated microbes and how this association may have influenced the evolution of mole cricket immunity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  3. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  4. Factors Affecting the Result of Matches in the One Day Format of Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Bandulasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to winning games are imperative, as the ultimate objective in a game is victory. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that characterize the game of cricket, and to investigate the factors that truly influence the result of a game using the data collected from the Champions Trophy cricket tournament. According to the results, this cricket tournament can be characterized using the factors of batting, bowling, and decision-making. Further investigation suggests that the rank of the team and the number of runs they score have the most significant influence on the result of games. As far as the effectiveness of assigning bowlers is concerned, the Australian team has done a fabulous job compared to the rest of the teams. (original abstract

  5. Circadian rhythms and period expression in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Daniel J; Shaw, Kerry L

    2013-05-01

    Daily activity times and circadian rhythms of crickets have been a subject of behavioral and physiological study for decades. However, recent studies suggest that the underlying molecular mechanism of cricket endogenous clocks differ from the model of circadian rhythm generation in Drosophila. Here we examine the circadian free-running periods of walking and singing in two Hawaiian swordtail cricket species, Laupala cerasina and Laupala paranigra, that differ in the daily timing of mating related activities. Additionally, we examine variation in sequence and daily cycling of the period (per) gene transcript between these species. The species differed significantly in free-running period of singing, but did not differ significantly in the free-running period of locomotion. Like in Drosophila, per transcript abundance showed cycling consistent with a role in circadian rhythm generation. The amino acid differences identified between these species suggest a potential of the per gene in interspecific behavioral variation in Laupala.

  6. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era.

  7. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FIELD CRICKET (GRYLLUS TESTACEUS WALKER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DunWang; Yao-yuBai; Jiang-hongLi; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition and the nutritional quality of protein, fatty acids and chitin of adult field cricket Gryllus testaceus Walker were investigated. The adult insect contalned: crude protein 58.3 %; fat 10.3 %, chitin 8.7 % and ash 2.96 % on dry matter basis respectively. The essential amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cysteine and methionine. The fatty acid analysis showed unsaturated acid of the field cricket to be present in high quantities, and the total percentage of oleic acid, linolic acid and linolenic acid was 77.51%. The chitin content of the insect was 8.7 % with a better quality than the commercial chitin that was prepared from shells of shrimp and crab. Therefore the chemical composition of the field cricket indicates the insect to be a good supplement to nutrition for food and feed, even a raw material for medicine.

  8. A corollary discharge mechanism modulates central auditory processing in singing crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A; Hedwig, B

    2003-03-01

    Crickets communicate using loud (100 dB SPL) sound signals that could adversely affect their own auditory system. To examine how they cope with this self-generated acoustic stimulation, intracellular recordings were made from auditory afferent neurons and an identified auditory interneuron-the Omega 1 neuron (ON1)-during pharmacologically elicited singing (stridulation). During sonorous stridulation, the auditory afferents and ON1 responded with bursts of spikes to the crickets' own song. When the crickets were stridulating silently, after one wing had been removed, only a few spikes were recorded in the afferents and ON1. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) occurred in the terminals of the auditory afferents, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were apparent in ON1. The PADs and IPSPs were composed of many summed, small-amplitude potentials that occurred at a rate of about 230 Hz. The PADs and the IPSPs started during the closing wing movement and peaked in amplitude during the subsequent opening wing movement. As a consequence, during silent stridulation, ON1's response to acoustic stimuli was maximally inhibited during wing opening. Inhibition coincides with the time when ON1 would otherwise be most strongly excited by self-generated sounds in a sonorously stridulating cricket. The PADs and the IPSPs persisted in fictively stridulating crickets whose ventral nerve cord had been isolated from muscles and sense organs. This strongly suggests that the inhibition of the auditory pathway is the result of a corollary discharge from the stridulation motor network. The central inhibition was mimicked by hyperpolarizing current injection into ON1 while it was responding to a 100 dB SPL sound pulse. This suppressed its spiking response to the acoustic stimulus and maintained its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. The corollary discharge therefore prevents auditory desensitization in stridulating crickets and allows the animals to respond to external

  9. Pulses, patterns and paths: neurobiology of acoustic behaviour in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-07-01

    Crickets use acoustic communication for pair formation. Males sing with rhythmical movements of their wings and the mute females approach the singing males by phonotaxis. Females walking on a trackball rapidly steer towards single sound pulses when exposed to split-song paradigms. Their walking path emerges from consecutive reactive steering responses, which show no temporal selectivity. Temporal pattern recognition is tuned to the species-specific syllable rate and gradually changes the gain of auditory steering. If pattern recognition is based on instantaneous discharge rate coding, then the tuning to the species-specific song pattern may already be present at the level of thoracic interneurons. During the processing of song patterns, changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ )concentrations occur in phase with the chirp rhythm in the local auditory interneurone. Male singing behaviour is controlled by command neurons descending from the brain. The neuropil controlling singing behaviour is located in the anterior protocerebrum next to the mushroom bodies. Singing behaviour is released by injection of cholinergic agonists and inhibited by gamma-butyric acid (GABA). During singing, the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system remains unchanged but a corollary discharge inhibits auditory processing in afferents and interneurons within the prothoracic auditory neuropil and prevents the auditory neurons from desensitisation.

  10. The scolopidial accessory organ in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing. Scolopidial sensilla occur in the posterior subgenual organ and the accessory organ in all leg pairs. The accessory organ contains 10-17 scolopidial sensilla. Both groups of sensilla are commonly spatially separated. However, in few cases neuronal fibres occurred between both organs. The two sensillum groups are considered as separate organs by the general spatial separation and innervation by different nerve branches. A functional role for mechanoreception is considered: since the accessory organ is located closely under the cuticle, sensilla may be suited to detect vibrations transferred over the leg's surface. This study extends the known taxa with an accessory organ, which occurs in several taxa of Ensifera. Comparative neuroanatomy thus suggests that the accessory organ may be conserved at least in Tettigoniidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Audio enabled information extraction system for cricket and hockey domains

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; B., Sai Vamsi Krishna; S, Suresh Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The proposed system aims at the retrieval of the summarized information from the documents collected from web based search engine as per the user query related to cricket and hockey domain. The system is designed in a manner that it takes the voice commands as keywords for search. The parts of speech in the query are extracted using the natural language extractor for English. Based on the keywords the search is categorized into 2 types: - 1.Concept wise - information retrieved to the query is retrieved based on the keywords and the concept words related to it. The retrieved information is summarized using the probabilistic approach and weighted means algorithm.2.Keyword search - extracts the result relevant to the query from the highly ranked document retrieved from the search by the search engine. The relevant search results are retrieved and then keywords are used for summarizing part. During summarization it follows the weighted and probabilistic approaches in order to identify the data comparable to the k...

  12. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  13. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Besnard-Guérin

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs. Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2. Although a majority of Drosophila miRNAs exerts their silencing activity through their loading into the Argonaute-1 protein, recent studies highlighted that a fraction of miRNAs can be loaded into Ago-2, thus acting as siRNAs. In light of these recent findings, we re-examined the role of insect VSRs on Ago-2-mediated miRNA silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Using specific reporter systems in cultured Schneider-2 cells and transgenic flies, we showed here that the Cricket Paralysis virus VSR CrPV1-A but not the Flock House virus B2 VSR abolishes silencing by miRNAs loaded into the Ago-2 protein. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway.

  14. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  15. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  16. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  17. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  18. Design, fabrication and characterisation of a biomimetic accelerometer inspired by the cricket's clavate hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; de Boer, Meint J.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU-8 lithography. First measurements indicate

  19. "In Defence of Cricket": The Imperial Games Ethic in Victorian English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how societies can be judged by the athletic games they play through presentation of an exchange of letters appearing in the 1872 issues of the Upper Canada College newspaper. Shows how cricket, representing imperial society and muscular Christianity, was threatened by the Yankees and "American baseball." (LS)

  20. Immune challenge and pre- and post-copulatory female choice in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  1. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  2. Imitating the cricket cercal system: The beauty of the beast with a twist of the engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for the fabrication of bioinspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow- field observations (i.e flow-camera) and source localization. Whereas making flow-sensors as energy

  3. "In Loco Parentis"? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the responsibility for schoolboys' behaviour and character when in liminal spaces between home and school, in an historical account of the annual cricket matches in London between Eton, Harrow and Winchester in the late 1850s. The episode is situated in the context of the Clarendon Commission's discussions on school sports,…

  4. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush-cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush-cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochiasp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper comparing the new species with several Isophya species having similar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  5. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush–cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Iorgu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush–cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochia sp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper, comparing the new species with several Isophya speciessimilar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  6. Acoustic analysis reveals a new cryptic bush–cricket in the Carpathian Mountains (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Iorgu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterid bush–cricket from the genus Isophya is described from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains: Isophya dochia sp. n. Sound analysis and morphological details are discussed in the paper comparing the new species with several Isophya species having similar morphology and acoustic behavior.

  7. Immune Challenge and Pre- and Post-copulatory Female Choice in the Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  8. Hair-based flow-sensing inspired by the cricket cercal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Steinmann, T.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) offer exciting possibilities for the fabri­cation of bioinspired mechanosensors. Over the last years we have been working on cricket inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow-field observations (i.e., flow-cameras) and source localization. Whereas m

  9. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  10. Dissociation between back pain and bone stress reaction as measured by CT scan in young cricket fast bowlers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millson, H B; Gray, J; Stretch, R A; Lambert, M I

    2004-01-01

    Bone stress reaction is prevalent among cricket fast bowlers. Few studies have addressed the sensitivity and specificity of imaging for diagnosis, and follow up assessment has been poorly investigated...

  11. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous t...

  12. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  13. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  14. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedorka, Kenneth M; Copeland, Emily K; Winterhalter, Wade E

    2013-01-01

    ... selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude...

  15. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  16. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  17. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    published life cycle assessments that have been conducted on insects for food and feed. Empirical data collected in Thailand and Kenya in 2014 and 2015 are presented in Papers III, IV and V. Paper III uses life cycle assessment technique to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with current......, agriculture, food safety, and conservation. In Paper II, a total of six life cycle assessment (LCA) studies were found to have been carried out in Europe. Each LCA had unique goals and scope, functional units, and impact categories. Future LCAs are recommended to address existing gaps in knowledge...... of feed that contains maize meal and soy meal. In Thailand, results from a study (Paper IV) of 49 cricket farms in three provinces found that farmers took up cricket farming to diversify their existing agricultural livelihood strategies and provide significant income to rural households. Social and human...

  18. First Record of the Field-Cricket Turanogryllus eous (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field-cricket Turanogryllus eous Bey-Bienko, 1956 and its genus Turanogryllus Tarbinsky, 1940 were recorded for the first time from Chungcheongbuk-do province in Korea to carry out the project ‘The sound guides to Korean animals.’ Depending on the discovery of the cricket, its distributional ranges are more widened towards East Asia to the Korean peninsula from China mainland, the Turanogryllus was 10th to known Gryllinae genera in Korea. Description, photos of habitus, figure of male genitalia, oscillogram and spectrogram for the calling sound are provided for aid identification. Voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Korea.

  19. A cricket Gene Index: a genomic resource for studying neurobiology, speciation, and molecular evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quackenbush John

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the developmental costs of genomic tools decline, genomic approaches to non-model systems are becoming more feasible. Many of these systems may lack advanced genetic tools but are extremely valuable models in other biological fields. Here we report the development of expressed sequence tags (EST's in an orthopteroid insect, a model for the study of neurobiology, speciation, and evolution. Results We report the sequencing of 14,502 EST's from clones derived from a nerve cord cDNA library, and the subsequent construction of a Gene Index from these sequences, from the Hawaiian trigonidiine cricket Laupala kohalensis. The Gene Index contains 8607 unique sequences comprised of 2575 tentative consensus (TC sequences and 6032 singletons. For each of the unique sequences, an attempt was made to assign a provisional annotation and to categorize its function using a Gene Ontology-based classification through a sequence-based comparison to known proteins. In addition, a set of unique 70 base pair oligomers that can be used for DNA microarrays was developed. All Gene Index information is posted at the DFCI Gene Indices web page Conclusion Orthopterans are models used to understand the neurophysiological basis of complex motor patterns such as flight and stridulation. The sequences presented in the cricket Gene Index will provide neurophysiologists with many genetic tools that have been largely absent in this field. The cricket Gene Index is one of only two gene indices to be developed in an evolutionary model system. Species within the genus Laupala have speciated recently, rapidly, and extensively. Therefore, the genes identified in the cricket Gene Index can be used to study the genomics of speciation. Furthermore, this gene index represents a significant EST resources for basal insects. As such, this resource is a valuable comparative tool for the understanding of invertebrate molecular evolution. The sequences presented here will

  20. Evidence that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the auditory interneuron ON1 of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiebe, P; Corrette, B J; Wiese, K

    1990-08-24

    The omega neurons of crickets are connected with each other by reciprocal inhibition. This inhibition could be mimicked by bath-applied histamine and blocked by histamine H1-antagonists. Histamine, like ON1, also influenced the ascending interneuron AN2, so that its response pattern more closely reflected the temporal structure of the calling song. This evidence strongly suggests that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the ON1s.

  1. STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE AND ANALYSIS OF ODI BATTING PERFORMANCE: THE INDIAN CRICKET TEAM, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Damodaran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less. However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored. This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman, the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal

  2. Corollary discharge inhibition of wind-sensitive cercal giant interneurons in the singing field cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Crickets carry wind-sensitive mechanoreceptors on their cerci, which, in response to the airflow produced by approaching predators, triggers escape reactions via ascending giant interneurons (GIs). Males also activate their cercal system by air currents generated due to the wing movements underlying sound production. Singing males still respond to external wind stimulation, but are not startled by the self-generated airflow. To investigate how the nervous system discriminates sensory responses to self-generated and external airflow, we intracellularly recorded wind-sensitive afferents and ventral GIs of the cercal escape pathway in fictively singing crickets, a situation lacking any self-stimulation. GI spiking was reduced whenever cercal wind stimulation coincided with singing motor activity. The axonal terminals of cercal afferents showed no indication of presynaptic inhibition during singing. In two ventral GIs, however, a corollary discharge inhibition occurred strictly in phase with the singing motor pattern. Paired intracellular recordings revealed that this inhibition was not mediated by the activity of the previously identified corollary discharge interneuron (CDI) that rhythmically inhibits the auditory pathway during singing. Cercal wind stimulation, however, reduced the spike activity of this CDI by postsynaptic inhibition. Our study reveals how precisely timed corollary discharge inhibition of ventral GIs can prevent self-generated airflow from triggering inadvertent escape responses in singing crickets. The results indicate that the responsiveness of the auditory and wind-sensitive pathway is modulated by distinct CDIs in singing crickets and that the corollary discharge inhibition in the auditory pathway can be attenuated by cercal wind stimulation. PMID:25318763

  3. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  4. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  5. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  6. Optimization of Cricket-inspired, Biomimetic Artificial Hair Sensors for Flow Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, N; Floris, J; Krijnen, G

    2008-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated successfully. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating effects of stress in the structures. We show that, by removing a portion of chromium electrodes close to the torsional beams, the upward lift at the edges of the membrane due to the stress, will decrease hence increase the sensitivity.

  7. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  8. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Ioannou, Christos C; Simpson, Stephen J; Sword, Gregory A; Torney, Colin J; Lorch, Patrick D; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-12-14

    Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  9. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities.

  10. Firing-rate resonances in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Florian; Clemens, Jan; Naumov, Victor; Hennig, R Matthias; Schreiber, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    In many communication systems, information is encoded in the temporal pattern of signals. For rhythmic signals that carry information in specific frequency bands, a neuronal system may profit from tuning its inherent filtering properties towards a peak sensitivity in the respective frequency range. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus evaluates acoustic communication signals of both conspecifics and predators. The song signals of conspecifics exhibit a characteristic pulse pattern that contains only a narrow range of modulation frequencies. We examined individual neurons (AN1, AN2, ON1) in the peripheral auditory system of the cricket for tuning towards specific modulation frequencies by assessing their firing-rate resonance. Acoustic stimuli with a swept-frequency envelope allowed an efficient characterization of the cells' modulation transfer functions. Some of the examined cells exhibited tuned band-pass properties. Using simple computational models, we demonstrate how different, cell-intrinsic or network-based mechanisms such as subthreshold resonances, spike-triggered adaptation, as well as an interplay of excitation and inhibition can account for the experimentally observed firing-rate resonances. Therefore, basic neuronal mechanisms that share negative feedback as a common theme may contribute to selectivity in the peripheral auditory pathway of crickets that is designed towards mate recognition and predator avoidance.

  11. Context-dependent coding and gain control in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jan; Rau, Florian; Hennig, R Matthias; Hildebrandt, K Jannis

    2015-10-01

    Sensory systems process stimuli that greatly vary in intensity and complexity. To maintain efficient information transmission, neural systems need to adjust their properties to these different sensory contexts, yielding adaptive or stimulus-dependent codes. Here, we demonstrated adaptive spectrotemporal tuning in a small neural network, i.e. the peripheral auditory system of the cricket. We found that tuning of cricket auditory neurons was sharper for complex multi-band than for simple single-band stimuli. Information theoretical considerations revealed that this sharpening improved information transmission by separating the neural representations of individual stimulus components. A network model inspired by the structure of the cricket auditory system suggested two putative mechanisms underlying this adaptive tuning: a saturating peripheral nonlinearity could change the spectral tuning, whereas broad feed-forward inhibition was able to reproduce the observed adaptive sharpening of temporal tuning. Our study revealed a surprisingly dynamic code usually found in more complex nervous systems and suggested that stimulus-dependent codes could be implemented using common neural computations.

  12. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  13. The influence of elbow joint kinematics on wrist speed in cricket fast bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kane Jytte; Alderson, Jacqueline Anne; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Mills, Peter Michael

    2015-01-01

    This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowling actions of 12 high performance fast bowlers. Empirical elbow joint kinematic data were entered into a cricket bowling specific "Forward Kinematic Model" and then subsequently underwent fixed angle, angular offset and angle amplification manipulations. A combination of 20° flexion and 20° abduction at the elbow was shown to maximise wrist velocity within the experimental limits. An increased elbow flexion offset manipulation elicited an increase in wrist velocity. Amplification of elbow joint flexion-extension angular displacement indicated that, contrary to previous research, elbow extension range of motion and angular velocity at the time of ball release were negatively related to wrist velocity. Some relationships between manipulated joint angular waveforms and wrist velocity were non-linear, supporting the use of a model that accounts for the non-linear relationships between execution and outcome variables in assessing the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint velocity in cricket fast bowlers.

  14. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  15. Understanding the link between sexual selection, sexual conflict and aging using crickets as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John

    2015-11-01

    Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Durrant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO activity were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested.

  17. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  18. Sensitive Period for the Recovery of the Response Rate of the Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of Unilaterally Cercus-Ablated Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kanou, Masamichi

    2015-04-01

    We examined the compensational recovery of the response rate (relative occurrence) of the wind-evoked escape behavior in unilaterally cercus-ablated crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and elucidated the existence of a sensitive period for such recovery by rearing the crickets under different conditions. In one experiment, each cricket was reared in an apparatus called a walking inducer (WI) to increase the sensory input to the remaining cercus, i.e., the self-generated wind caused by walking. In another experiment, each cricket was reared in a small plastic case separate from the outside atmosphere (wind-free: WF). In this rearing condition, the cricket did not experience self-generated wind as walking was prohibited. During the recovery period after the unilateral cercus ablation, the crickets were reared under either the WI or WF condition to investigate the role of the sensory inputs on the compensational recovery of the response rate. The compensational recovery of the response rate occurred only in the crickets reared under the WI condition during the early period after the ablation. In particular, WI rearing during the first three days after the ablation resulted in the largest compensational recovery in the response rate. In contrast, no compensational recovery was observed in the crickets reared under the WF condition during the first three days. These results suggest that a sensitive period exists in which sensory inputs from the remaining cercus affect the compensational recovery of the response rate more effectively than during other periods.

  19. Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

  20. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  1. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  2. Regulation of cricket phonotaxis through hormonal control of the threshold of an identified auditory neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, J; Atkins, G; Zacharias, D

    1991-12-01

    1. The phonotactic threshold of 3 to 5-day-old adult female Acheta domesticus and the threshold of the L1 auditory neuron drop progressively (Fig. 1). 2. Application of juvenile hormone III (JHIII) to 1-day-old females caused both the female's threshold for phonotaxis and the threshold of the L1 auditory neuron to drop 20 or more dB over the next 12 h (Figs. 3-4). 3. JHIII's effect on phonotactic threshold could be blocked by injection with a transcription (alpha-amanitin) or a translation blocker (emetine, Fig. 3). 4. Injection of emetine also prevented the JHIII induced drop in L1's threshold (Fig. 4). 5. Application of JHIII to the surface of, or microinjection of JHIII into one prothoracic hemiganglion caused the female to circle phonotactically away from the side of hormone addition at thresholds 25 to 35 dB lower than the pre-JHIII addition threshold within 2 h (Fig. 6). 6. Application of JHIII to the surface of both prothoracic hemiganglia, accompanied by microinjection of emetine into one hemiganglion resulted in the female emetine into one hemiganglion resulted in the female circling phonotactically toward the side receiving emetine injection, with a 25 to 35 dB drop in threshold (Fig. 6).

  3. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  4. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  5. Calling song recognition in female crickets: temporal tuning of identified brain neurons matches behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-07-11

    Phonotactic orientation of female crickets is tuned to the temporal pattern of the male calling song. We analyzed the phonotactic selectivity of female crickets to varying temporal features of calling song patterns and compared it with the auditory response properties of the ascending interneuron AN1 (herein referred to as TH1-AC1) and four newly identified local brain neurons. The neurites of all brain neurons formed a ring-like branching pattern in the anterior protocerebrum that overlapped with the axonal arborizations of TH1-AC1. All brain neurons responded phasically to the sound pulses of a species-specific chirp. The spike activity of TH1-AC1 and the local interneuron, B-LI2, copied different auditory patterns regardless of their temporal structure. Two other neurons, B-LI3 and B-LC3, matched the temporal selectivity of the phonotactic responses but also responded to some nonattractive patterns. Neuron B-LC3 linked the bilateral auditory areas in the protocerebrum. One local brain neuron, B-LI4, received inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic inputs. Inhibition was particularly pronounced for nonattractive pulse patterns, reducing its spike activity. When tested with different temporal patterns, B-LI4 exhibited bandpass response properties; its different auditory response functions significantly matched the tuning of phonotaxis. Temporal selectivity was established already for the second of two sound pulses separated by one species-specific pulse interval. Temporal pattern recognition in the cricket brain occurs within the anterior protocerebrum at the first stage of auditory processing. It is crucially linked to a change in auditory responsiveness during pulse intervals and based on fast interactions of inhibition and excitation.

  6. A fighter's comeback: dopamine is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Social defeat, i.e. losing an agonistic dispute with a conspecific, is followed by a period of suppressed aggressiveness in many animal species, and is generally regarded as a major stressor, which may play a role in psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite numerous animal models, the mechanisms underlying loser depression and subsequent recovery are largely unknown. This study on crickets is the first to show that a neuromodulator, dopamine (DA), is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat. Crickets avoid any conspecific male just after defeat, but regain their aggressiveness over 3 h. This recovery was prohibited after depleting nervous stores of DA and octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline) with α-methyl-tyrosine (AMT). Loser recovery was also prohibited by the insect DA-receptor (DAR) antagonist fluphenazine, but not the OA-receptor (OAR) blocker epinastine, or yohimbine, which blocks receptors for OA's precursor tyramine. Conversely, aggression was restored prematurely in both untreated and amine depleted losers given either chlordimeform (CDM), a tissue permeable OAR-agonist, or the DA-metabolite homovanillyl alcohol (HVA), a component of the honeybee queen mandibular pheromone. As in honeybees, HVA acts in crickets as a DAR-agonist since its aggression promoting effect on losers was selectively blocked by the DAR-antagonist, but not by the OAR-antagonist. Conversely, CDM's aggression promoting effect was selectively blocked by the OAR-antagonist, but not the DAR-antagonist. Hence, only DA is necessary for recovery of aggressiveness after social defeat, although OA can promote loser aggression independently to enable experience dependent adaptive responses.

  7. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient temperature reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil temperatures reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil temperatures reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small changes in temperature had large effects on reproduction, whereas large changes in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in changes in population size.

  8. Self-reported skin cancer protection strategies and location of skin cancer in retired cricketers: a case study from membership of the Emu Cricket Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble-Jerks, Janelle; Weatherby, Robert P; Meir, Rudi

    2006-12-01

    Cricket is one of Australia's most popular sports with approximately 470,000 registered participants. Played as a summer sport, participants can spend long periods in the sun with potential skin damage a possible contributor to skin cancer. Three hundred and sixty-eight retired regional representative players received and were invited to complete a comprehensive survey that included questions relating to their individual playing history, injury rate, sun protection strategies and reported location of skin cancer. A total of 164 players (mean age 45.2+/-12.1 years) responded to the survey representing a response rate of 44.6%. Of these, 61.6% reported no diagnosis of skin cancer. However, 38.4% had been diagnosed with at least one skin cancer with the most common site being the face followed by the arms. Of those respondents reporting the diagnosis of a skin cancer, 7.9% had skin cancer on 4 or more separate locations. Proportionally, the 45-55 years group had the highest incidence, with 55.8% of this group indicating they had a skin cancer in at least one anatomical location. By comparison those in the under 35 years age group reported an incidence rate of 16.7%. The incidence of skin cancer among respondents (n=63) reporting either, occasionally, very rarely or never wearing sunscreen, a hat or long sleeved shirt was (n=27) 42.9, (n=14) 22.2 and (n=39) 61.9%, respectively. The results suggest that skin protection strategies, such as wearing a wide brimmed hat, long sleeved shirt and the use of sunscreen, may help to reduce the risk of skin cancer in cricketers.

  9. Opsin evolution and expression in Arthropod compound Eyes and Ocelli: Insights from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henze Miriam J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opsins are key proteins in animal photoreception. Together with a light-sensitive group, the chromophore, they form visual pigments which initiate the visual transduction cascade when photoactivated. The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. Studies on the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins have received considerable attention, but our knowledge about insect visual opsins is still limited. Up to now, researchers have focused on holometabolous insects, while general conclusions require sampling from a broader range of taxa. We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Results Phylogenetic analyses place all identified cricket sequences within the three main visual opsin clades of insects. We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm, blue (445 nm and UV (332 nm spectral range. Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1 the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2 a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3 the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. In addition, we provide evidence for two ocellar photopigments with peak absorbances in the green (511 nm and UV (350 nm spectral range, and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Conclusions Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more specialized than has previously been assumed, suggesting that similar adaptations in other insect species might have been overlooked. The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally accepted pattern found in holometabolous insect

  10. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  11. The effect of motor control training on abdominal muscle contraction during simulated weight bearing in elite cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Endicott, Timothy; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether motor control training alters automatic contraction of abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with low back pain (LBP) during performance of a simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. Clinical trial. 26 male elite-cricketers attended a 13-week cricket training camp. Prior to the camp, participants were allocated to a LBP or asymptomatic group. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess automatic abdominal muscle response to axial loading. During the camp, the LBP group performed a staged motor control training program. Following the camp, the automatic response of the abdominal muscles was re-assessed. At pre-camp assessment, when participants were axially loaded with 25% of their own bodyweight, the LBP group showed a 15.5% thicker internal oblique (IO) muscle compared to the asymptomatic group (p = 0.009). The post-camp assessment showed that participants in the LBP group demonstrated less contraction of the IO muscle in response to axial loading compared with the asymptomatic group. A trend was found in the automatic recruitment pattern of the transversus abdominis (p = 0.08). Motor control training normalized excessive contraction of abdominal muscles in response to a low load task. This may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of cricketers with LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit.

  13. The bush-cricket Isophya kraussii (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): bioacoustics, distribution and description of a new subspecies from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Isophya kraussii Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878, one of the widest spread bush-crickets within this genus, is confirmed to be present east of the Carpathian Mountains. Based on acoustic analysis and morphological characters, the populations from NE Romania are considered to belong to a different subspecies, I. kraussii moldavica ssp. n. A map with distribution of both subspecies is presented.

  14. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  15. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  16. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  17. Ascending auditory interneurons in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus (Walker): comparative physiology and direct connections with afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R M

    1988-05-01

    Ascending auditory interneurons of the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Walker), were investigated using simultaneous intracellular and extracellular recording in order to identify units which had previously been characterized only by extracellular recording. The morphology and physiology of the large adapting unit (LAU: Fig. 1) and of the small tonic unit (STU: Fig. 2) of Teleogryllus correspond well to those of the ascending neuron 2 (AN2) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1) of Gryllus (Figs. 1, 2), respectively. A summary of the ascending auditory interneurons described by various authors in 5 species of crickets is presented in order to establish common identities. Physiological evidence for direct connections between auditory afferents and the ascending auditory interneurons AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU) is presented. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from receptors and interneurons in response to sound as well as the activity of auditory interneurons upon electrical stimulation of the tympanal nerve reveal short and constant latencies of receptor-evoked synaptic activity in AN1 (STU) and AN2 (LAU).

  18. Spike-triggered dendritic calcium transients depend on synaptic activity in the cricket giant interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroto; Baba, Yoshichika; Oka, Kotaro

    2002-02-15

    The relationship between electrical activity and spike-induced Ca2+ increases in dendrites was investigated in the identified wind-sensitive giant interneurons in the cricket. We applied a high-speed Ca2+ imaging technique to the giant interneurons, and succeeded in recording the transient Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ transients) induced by a single action potential, which was evoked by presynaptic stimulus to the sensory neurons. The dendritic Ca2+ transients evoked by a pair of action potentials accumulated when spike intervals were shorter than 100 ms. The amplitude of the Ca2+ transients induced by a train of spikes depended on the number of action potentials. When stimulation pulses evoking the same numbers of action potentials were separately applied to the ipsi- or contra-lateral cercal sensory nerves, the dendritic Ca2+ transients induced by these presynaptic stimuli were different in their amplitude. Furthermore, the side of presynaptic stimulation that evoked larger Ca2+ transients depended on the location of the recorded dendritic regions. This result means that the spike-triggered Ca2+ transients in dendrites depend on postsynaptic activity. It is proposed that Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by the action potentials will be enhanced by excitatory synaptic inputs at the dendrites in the cricket giant interneurons.

  19. Sequential filtering processes shape feature detection in crickets: a framework for song pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Gerhard Hedwig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioural and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behaviour is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioural experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behaviour is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  20. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  1. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Khoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.

  2. Female crickets assess relatedness during mate guarding and bias storage of sperm towards unrelated males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuni, C; Beveridge, M; Simmons, L W

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate unequivocally that biased sperm storage results from female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of mated males and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the mating male. Our data support the notion that inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding.

  3. Calling, courtship, and condition in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Harrison

    Full Text Available Theoretically, sexual signals should provide honest information about mating benefits and many sexually reproducing species use honest signals when signalling to potential mates. Male crickets produce two types of acoustic mating signals: a long-distance mate attraction call and a short-range courtship call. We tested whether wild-caught fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus males in high condition (high residual mass or large body size produce higher effort calls (in support of the honest signalling hypothesis. We also tested an alternative hypothesis, whether low condition males produce higher effort calls (in support of the terminal investment hypothesis. Several components of long-distance mate attraction calls honestly reflected male body size, with larger males producing louder mate attraction calls at lower carrier frequencies. Long-distance mate attraction chirp rate dishonestly signalled body size, with small males producing faster chirp rates. Short-range courtship calls dishonestly reflected male residual mass, as chirp rate and pulse rate were best explained by a curvilinear function of residual mass. By producing long-distance mate attraction calls and courtship calls with similar or higher effort compared to high condition males, low condition males (low residual mass or small body size may increase their effort in current reproductive success at the expense of their future reproductive success, suggesting that not all sexual signals are honest.

  4. Mechanisms of high-frequency song generation in brachypterous crickets and the role of ghost frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Tony; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Grandcolas, Philippe; Robert, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Sound production in crickets relies on stridulation, the well-understood rubbing together of a pair of specialised wings. As the file of one wing slides over the scraper of the other, a series of rhythmic impacts causes harmonic oscillations, usually resulting in the radiation of pure tones delivered at low frequencies (2-8 kHz). In the short-winged crickets of the Lebinthini tribe, acoustic communication relies on signals with remarkably high frequencies (>8 kHz) and rich harmonic content. Using several species of the subfamily Eneopterinae, we characterised the morphological and mechanical specialisations supporting the production of high frequencies, and demonstrated that higher harmonics are exploited as dominant frequencies. These specialisations affect the structure of the stridulatory file, the motor control of stridulation and the resonance of the sound radiator. We placed these specialisations in a phylogenetic framework and show that they serve to exploit high-frequency vibrational modes pre-existing in the phylogenetic ancestor. In Eneopterinae, the lower frequency components are harmonically related to the dominant peak, suggesting they are relicts of ancestral carrier frequencies. Yet, such ghost frequencies still occur in the wings' free resonances, highlighting the fundamental mechanical constraints of sound radiation. These results support the hypothesis that such high-frequency songs evolved stepwise, by a form of punctuated evolution that could be related to functional constraints, rather than by only the progressive increase of the ancestral fundamental frequency.

  5. Challenges with effective nutrient supplementation for amphibians: A review of cricket studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Shannon; Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Attard, Lydia; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, numerous studies have investigated the impact of insect supplementation on insect nutrient content. In light of recent nutrition related challenges with regards to zoo amphibians fed an insect based diet, this review attempts to comprehensively compile both anecdotal and published data in the context of practical application on this topic. Insects, primarily crickets, used for amphibian diets historically demonstrate low concentrations of key nutrients including calcium and vitamin A. Commonly used practices for supplementation involving powder dusting or gut loading have been shown to improve delivery of calcium and vitamin A, though often not reaching desired nutrient concentrations. The large variety of factors influencing insect nutrient content are difficult to control, making study design, and results often inconsistent. Formulation and availability of more effective gut loading diets, combined with a standardized protocol for insect husbandry and dietary management may be the most effective way to supplement insects for use in amphibian feeding programs. Ideally, the nutritional improvement of feeder insects would begin at the breeder level; however, until this becomes a viable choice, we confirm that supplementation of crickets through both gut-loading and dusting appear necessary to support the nutritional health of amphibians and other insectivores in managed collections.

  6. Descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (de Geer): auditory responses and impact on walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, Maja; Hedwig, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    The activity of four types of sound-sensitive descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was recorded intracellularly while animals were standing or walking on an open-loop trackball system. In a neuron with a contralaterally descending axon, the male calling song elicited responses that copied the pulse pattern of the song during standing and walking. The accuracy of pulse copying increased during walking. Neurons with ipsilaterally descending axons responded weakly to sound only during standing. The responses were mainly to the first pulse of each chirp, whereas the complete pulse pattern of a chirp was not copied. During walking the auditory responses were suppressed in these neurons. The spiking activity of all four neuron types was significantly correlated to forward walking velocity, indicating their relevance for walking. Additionally, injection of depolarizing current elicited walking and/or steering in three of four neuron types described. In none of the neurons was the spiking activity both sufficient and necessary to elicit and maintain walking behaviour. Some neurons showed arborisations in the lateral accessory lobes, pointing to the relevance of this brain region for cricket audition and descending motor control.

  7. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  8. Analysis of behavioral selection after sensory deprivation of legs in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Morita, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    An air puff stimulus evoked the swimming of an intact cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, placed on a water surface. When only the forelegs were intact, swimming was initiated frequently, but flying was never initiated. On the other hand, flying was initiated when only the middle legs or hindlegs were intact. Therefore, the sensory inputs from the forelegs are important in the initiation of swimming and for the inhibition of flying when on the water surface. After bilateral ablation of the middle legs and hindlegs, the bilateral segments of the remaining forelegs were sequentially ablated from the distal area to the proximal area of the legs. After bilateral ablation of all tarsomeres, the relative occurrence of swimming decreased and that of flying increased. After the following ablation of the bilateral tibiae, most insects responded to an air puff stimulus by flying. Experiments performed after coating the leg surface with enamel resulted in almost the same behavioral change as that observed in the ablation experiments. These results suggest that the sensory receptors responsible for the initiation of swimming and the inhibition of flying are mainly located on the surface of the tibia and the tarsus of the forelegs. The behavioral change between swimming and walking was also studied using methylcellulose solutions of various viscosities. On the methylcellulose solution, the relative occurrence of walking in the crickets increased with an increase in the viscosity of the solution.

  9. Acoustic evolution in crickets: need for phylogenetic study and a reappraisal of signal effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cricket stridulums and calls are highly stereotyped, except those with greatly modified tegmina and/or vena-tion, or ''unusual'' frequency, duration and/or intensity. This acoustic diversity remained unsuspected until recently, and current models of acoustic evolution in crickets erroneously consider this clade homogeneous for acoustic features. The few phylogenetic studies analyzing acoustic evolution in crickets demonstrated that acoustic behavior could be particularly labile in some clades. The ensuing pattern for cricket evolution is consequently extremely complex. We argue that: (1 phylogeny should always be considered when analyzing acoustic evolution, whatever characters are considered (signals, stridulums or behaviors. Consequently, future studies should be devoted to entire clades, and not consider isolated taxa; character and character state definitions should allow significant reconstructions of character evolutionary transformations; and homologies should be carefully defined for all characters, including behavior. (2 The factors responsible for song effectiveness should be reconsidered and hypotheses on their potential influence on signal evolution tested jointly by phylogenies (for example, to assess correlated transformations of acoustic and ecological features, and population studies (for example, to correlate call range and population structure, or test the predation risk associated with a signal structure. Better understanding these points should help clarifying acoustic evolution in crickets.Os aparelhos estridulatórios e os chamados dos grilos são altamente estereotipados, exceto aqueles com áreas e/ou venação tegminais fortemente modificadas ou com freqüência, duração e/ou intensidade fora do ''normal''. Esta diversidade acústica ficou insuspeita até recentemente, e os modelos correntes de evolução acústica em grilos consideram erroneamente este clado como homogêneo para as características acústicas. Os

  10. Vibratory interneurons in the non-hearing cave cricket indicate evolutionary origin of sound processing elements in Ensifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritih, Natasa; Stumpner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Tympanal hearing organs in the front tibiae of ensiferan insects supposedly evolved from vibration-sensitive tibial organs (TO), like those in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae). If this is true, one expects to find interneurons in the cave cricket that are homologous to auditory neurons from hearing Ensifera. Therefore, we examined the central projections of the foreleg TO of the cave cricket, as well as morphology and response properties of interneurons responding to foreleg vibration. Sensory axons of the TO adjoined to the "tympanal nerve" terminate in the equivalent portion of the ring tract neuropile in the prothoracic ganglion as corresponding receptors of crickets and weta. We found nine putatively homologous elements to sound- and/or vibration-sensitive interneurons of Ensifera--one local neuron (unpaired median, DUM), three T-fibres (TN), three descending (DN) and two ascending neurons (AN). Presumable first-order interneurons arborising in the ring tract correspond to a local auditory DUM cell of bush crickets and to TN1, DN1 and AN2 of various Ensifera, respectively. Homologues of some prominent auditory cells, the "omega" neuron(s) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), however, were not found. We conclude that (a) T. neglectus interneurons are morphologically primitive with respect to those of hearing taxa, (b) significant changes in the dendritic structure/synaptic connectivity have taken place during the evolution of the most specialised first-order auditory interneurons of Ensifera, (c) the data do not contradict independent evolution of hearing in Grylloidea and Tettigonoidea. Other interneurons appear morpho-physiologically conserved across hearing and non-hearing species, possibly as a part of a multimodal "alert" system.

  11. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Wade J; Shield, Anthony J; Opar, David A; Keogh, Justin W L

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler's and batter's mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries.

  12. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade J. Chalker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries.

  13. Phase shifts in binaural stimuli provide directional cues for sound localisation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, Kelly M; Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-07-01

    The cricket's auditory system is a highly directional pressure difference receiver whose function is hypothesised to depend on phase relationships between the sound waves propagating through the auditory trachea that connects the left and right hearing organs. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of experimentally constructed phase shifts in acoustic stimuli on phonotactic behavior of Gryllus bimaculatus, the oscillatory response patterns of the tympanic membrane, and the activity of the auditory afferents. The same artificial calling song was played simultaneously at the left and right sides of the cricket, but one sound pattern was shifted in phase by 90 deg (carrier frequencies between 3.6 and 5.4 kHz). All three levels of auditory processing are sensitive to experimentally induced acoustic phase shifts, and the response characteristics are dependent on the carrier frequency of the sound stimulus. At lower frequencies, crickets steered away from the sound leading in phase, while tympanic membrane vibrations and auditory afferent responses were smaller when the ipsilateral sound was leading. In contrast, opposite responses were observed at higher frequencies in all three levels of auditory processing. Minimal responses occurred near the carrier frequency of the cricket's calling song, suggesting a stability at this frequency. Our results indicate that crickets may use directional cues arising from phase shifts in acoustic signals for sound localisation, and that the response properties of pressure difference receivers may be analysed with phase-shifted sound stimuli to further our understanding of how insect auditory systems are adapted for directional processing. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: Radiotelemetry reveals heavy predation on a band of Mormon crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Groupin...

  15. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    OpenAIRE

    John Orchard; Patrick Farhart; Alex Kountouris; et al.

    2010-01-01

    John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers i...

  16. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  17. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihisa eMatsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  18. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    percentage of the people living in these estates are tenants and cannot afford to pay for the ... developments, prospective house occupiers should be determined first in order to obtain relevant ... researchers putting the figure for housing ... materials to type of building design (Adedeji & ... schemes have become profit driven.

  19. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  20. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  1. How to Teach Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  2. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  3. Anomalous Diffusion and Long-range Correlations in the Score Evolution of the Game of Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in world: the game of cricket. By analyzing the scores event-by-event of more than two thousand matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a super-diffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describe all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  4. Anomalous diffusion and long-range correlations in the score evolution of the game of cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in the world: the game of cricket. By analyzing, event by event, the scores of more than 2000 matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a superdiffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describes all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  5. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  6. Female effects, but no intrinsic male effects on paternity outcome in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, L W; Lovegrove, M; Almbro, M

    2014-08-01

    Competitive fertilization success can depend on the relative abilities of competing males to fertilize available ova, and on mechanisms of cryptic female choice that moderate paternity. Competitive fertilization success is thus an emergent property of competing male genotypes, female genotype and their interactions. Accurate estimates of intrinsic male effects on competitive fertilization success are therefore problematic. We used a cross-classified nonbreeding design in which rival male family background was standardized to partition variation in competitive fertilization success among male and female family backgrounds in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Male effects were close to zero, supporting previous quantitative genetic designs in which male competitors were assigned at random. In contrast, some 22% of the variance in competitive fertilization success was explained by female effects, suggesting that paternity in this species is influenced strongly by cryptic female choice.

  7. Hammerhead-mediated processing of satellite pDo500 family transcripts from Dolichopoda cave crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A A; Vazquez-Tello, A; Ferbeyre, G; Venanzetti, F; Bachmann, L; Paquin, B; Sbordoni, V; Cedergren, R

    2000-10-15

    This work reports the discovery and functional characterization of catalytically active hammerhead motifs within satellite DNA of the pDo500 family from several DOLICHOPODA: cave cricket species. We show that in vitro transcribed RNA of some members of this satellite DNA family do self-cleave in vitro. This self-cleavage activity is correlated with the efficient in vivo processing of long primary transcripts into monomer-sized RNA. The high sequence conservation of the satellite pDo500 DNA family among genetically isolated DOLICHOPODA: schiavazzii populations, as well as other DOLICHOPODA: species, along with the fact that satellite members are actively transcribed in vivo suggests that the hammerhead-encoding satellite transcripts are under selective pressure, perhaps because they fulfil an important physiological role or function. Remarkably, this is the third example of hammerhead ribozyme structures associated with transcribed repetitive DNA sequences from animals. The possibility that such an association may not be purely coincidental is discussed.

  8. Ontogenetic changes in immunity and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2012-03-01

    Insects have innate immunity that may be weakened by resource allocation to growth. I measured enzymatic immunity, encapsulation response, and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets of known age. Although the concentrations of circulating spontaneous and total phenoloxidase (PO) increased with age from the most recent molt in late instar nymphs (5th, 6th, and 7th) and 0-5 day old adults, mean values did not differ between stadia, indicating that circulating PO titers are knocked back with each molt. In contrast, encapsulation rate increased throughout nymphal development and adult maturation. No longer required to molt, adult PO titers increased steadily with age. Survivorship also increased with the age at which Metarhizium acridum fungus was applied to adults. I conclude that immunity relevant to defense against fungi continues to develop well into the adult stage. With each molt setting the insects back in circulating PO titers, very young adults are much like nymphs in enzymatic immunity.

  9. The relationship of vision and skilled movement-a general review using cricket batting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmurr, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Skilled movement is not a spontaneous muscular response but represents the final step in a sequence of complicated processes within the central nervous system. An athlete absorbs information from the surrounding sporting environment and processes this information. The final output produces a movement response. The first type of visual information processing involves the reception of visual information that is affected by the ocular characteristics of the athlete's visual system (hardware). The second type of visual information processing involves the perception of visual information that is influenced by the strategies an athlete develops through experience, which results in processing the incoming information more efficiently (software). Drawing from the scientific literature, this presentation will use the sport of cricket to identify and explain the complex relationship between "hardware" and "software."

  10. The effect of central contracts on the stability and performance of the England Test cricket team. [El efecto de contratos centrales sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB decided to implement central contracts for elite player management to give them control over a group of players to represent the England national team in Test cricket. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that this change in policy has had on the stability and performance of the England Test team, and discuss implications thereof. Using a sample of 13 seasons pre-central contracts (1987-1999 and 13 seasons post-central contracts (2000-2012, the results, from secondary analysis of England’s Test match scorecards from both sample periods, allowed investigation of team performance and stability. To gain a greater understanding of how central contracts impacted on the England Test side, eight interviews were also organised with key stakeholders in English cricket. The results showed that both the stability and performance of the England Test side improved considerably in the sample period post-central contracts (2000-2012 with a much greater consistency of selection (fewer changes per match alongside an improvement in England’s on-field performance (better win ratio and points per match. The paper identifies two key challenges facing the current player management system in England from domestic and external sources. Resumen En 1999 El Consejo de Cricket en Inglaterra y Gales (ECB – England and Wales Cricket Board decidió implementar contratos centrales para la dirección de jugadores de élite, con el fin de darle control sobre el grupo de jugadores que representan el equipo nacional de Inglaterra de Test cricket. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el impacto que este cambio ha tenido sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket y considerar sus implicaciones. Tras emplear una muestra de 13 temporadas antes de la firma de los contratos centrales (entre 1987 y 1999 y otras 13 temporadas después de su implementación (entre 2000 y 2012, los

  11. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  12. Corollary discharge inhibition of ascending auditory neurons in the stridulating cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2003-06-01

    Acoustically communicating animals are able to process external acoustic stimuli despite generating intense sounds during vocalization. We have examined how the crickets' ascending auditory pathway copes with self-generated, intense auditory signals (chirps) during singing (stridulation). We made intracellular recordings from two identified ascending auditory interneurons, ascending neuron 1 (AN1) and ascending neuron 2 (AN2), during pharmacologically elicited sonorous (two-winged), silent (one-winged), and fictive (isolated CNS) stridulation. During sonorous chirps, AN1 responded with bursts of spikes, whereas AN2 was inhibited and rarely spiked. Low-amplitude hyperpolarizing potentials were recorded in AN1 and AN2 during silent chirps. The potentials were also present during fictive chirps. Therefore, they were the result of a centrally generated corollary discharge from the stridulatory motor network. The spiking response of AN1 and AN2 to acoustic stimuli was inhibited during silent and fictive chirps. The maximum period of inhibition occurred in phase with the maximum spiking response to self-generated sound in a sonorously stridulating cricket. In some experiments (30%) depolarizing potentials were recorded during silent chirps. Reafferent feedback elicited by wing movement was probably responsible for the depolarizing potentials. In addition, two other sources of inhibition were present in AN1: (1) IPSPs were elicited by stimulation with 12.5 kHz stimuli and (2) a long-lasting hyperpolarization followed spiking responses to 4.5 kHz stimuli. The hyperpolarization desensitized the response of AN1 to subsequent quieter stimuli. Therefore, the corollary discharge will reduce desensitization by suppressing the response of AN1 to self-generated sounds.

  13. Effects of inhibitory timing on contrast enhancement in auditory circuits in crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Z; Pollack, G S

    2000-09-01

    In crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus), the paired auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) responds to sounds with frequencies in the range from 3 to 40 kHz. The neuron is tuned to frequencies similar to that of conspecific songs (4.5 kHz), but its latency is longest for these same frequencies by a margin of 5-10 ms. Each ON1 is strongly excited by input from the ipsilateral ear and inhibits contralateral auditory neurons that are excited by the contralateral ear, including the interneurons ascending neurons 1 and 2 (AN1 and AN2). We investigated the functional consequences of ON1's long latency to cricket-like sound and the resulting delay in inhibition of AN1 and AN2. Using dichotic stimuli, we controlled the timing of contralateral inhibition of the ANs relative to their excitation by ipsilateral stimuli. Advancing the stimulus to the ear driving ON1 relative to that driving the ANs "subtracted" ON1's additional latency to 4.5 kHz. This had little effect on the spike counts of AN1 and AN2. The response latencies of these neurons, however, increased markedly. This is because in the absence of a delay in ON1's response, inhibition arrived at AN1 and AN2 early enough to abolish the first spikes in their responses. This also increased the variability of AN1 latency. This suggests that one possible function of the delay in ON1's response may be to protect the precise timing of the onset of response in the contralateral AN1, thus preserving interaural difference in response latency as a reliable potential cue for sound localization. Hyperpolarizing ON1 removed all detectable contralateral inhibition of AN1 and AN2, suggesting that ON1 is the main, if not the only, source of contralateral inhibition.

  14. Bilateral consequences of chronic unilateral deafferentation in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Hadley Wilson; Sheldon, Elizabeth; Cutting, Claire C; Williams, Claire R; Riker, Dana M; Peckler, Hannah R; Sangal, Rohit B

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system of the cricket has the unusual ability to respond to deafferentation by compensatory growth and synapse formation. Auditory interneurons such as ascending neuron 2 (AN-2) in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus possess a dendritic arbor that normally grows up to, but not over, the midline of the prothoracic ganglion. After chronic deafferentation throughout larval development, however, the AN-2 dendritic arbor changes dramatically, and medial dendrites sprout across the midline where they form compensatory synapses with the auditory afferents from the contralateral ear. We quantified the extent of the effects of chronic, unilateral deafferentation by measuring several cellular parameters of 3 different neuronal components of the auditory system: the deafferented AN-2, the contralateral (or nondeafferented) AN-2 and the contralateral auditory afferents. Neuronal tracers and confocal microscopy were used to visualize neurons, and double-label experiments were performed to examine the cellular relationship between pairs of cells. Dendritic complexity was quantified using a modified Sholl analysis, and the length and volume of processes and presynaptic varicosities were assessed under control and deafferented conditions. Chronic deafferentation significantly influenced the morphology of all 3 neuronal components examined. The overall dendritic complexity of the deafferented AN-2 dendritic arbor was reduced, while both the contralateral AN-2 dendritic arbor and the remaining, intact, auditory afferents grew longer. We found no significant changes in the volume or density of varicosities after deafferentation. These complex cellular changes after deafferentation are interpreted in the light of the reported differential regulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein and semaphorin 2a.

  15. Topographic mapping of the axons of the femoral chordotonal organ neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, H

    2000-01-01

    Central projections of the femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were investigated by selectively staining small numbers of axons. The FCOs in all legs consist of partly fused ventral and dorsal scoloparia in the proximal femur. The ventral scoloparium neurons can be reliably divided into two groups: the ventral group neurons (VG), which are arranged in a sequentially smaller manner distally, and dorsal group neurons (DG), which simply aggregate in the proximal region near the dorsal scoloparium. All axons of the FCO projected to the ipsilateral half of the respective thoracic ganglion. The VG axons possessed dorso-lateral branches in the motor association neuropile and antero-ventral branches dorso-lateral to the anterior ventral association centre. However, the more proximally the somata were situated, the more medially the main neurites terminated. The DG axons showed some variations: some axons of the distally located neurons possessed dorso-lateral branches and terminated on the boundary region of the mVAC, while the other axons terminated exclusively in the medical ventral association centre (mVAC), including the ventral part, which receives auditory sensory neuron projections. All axons of the dorsal scoloparium neurons projected exclusively into the dorsal part of the mVAC; however, the ventrally located neurons projected more ventrally than did the dorsally located neurons. The above characteristics were nearly identical in the pro- and metathoracic FCOs. These results suggest that the cricket FCO axons are roughly organized in a somatotopic map and are broadly differentiated in their function.

  16. Asymmetry in cricket song: female preference and proximate mechanism of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtenlehner, Stefan; Küng, Saskia; Kainz, Franz; Römer, Heiner

    2013-06-01

    Subtle random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral traits are suggested to signal reduced phenotypic and genetic quality of a sender, but little is known about the related receiver mechanisms for discriminating symmetrical from asymmetrical traits. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. A downward frequency modulation at the end of each syllable in the calling song has been suggested to indicate morphological asymmetry in sound radiating structures between left and right forewings. Even under ideal laboratory conditions on a trackball system, female crickets only discriminated between songs of symmetrical and asymmetrical males in two-choice experiments at carrier frequencies of 4.4 kHz and a large modulation depth of 600 and 800 Hz. Under these conditions they preferred the pure-tone calling songs over the modulated (asymmetrical) alternative, whereas no preference was observed at carrier frequencies of 4.9 and 5.2 kHz. These preferences correlate well with the responses of a pair of identified auditory interneurons (AN1), known for their importance in female phonotaxis. The AN1 interneuron is tuned to an average frequency of 4.9 kHz, and the roll-off towards lower and higher frequencies determines the magnitude of responses to pure-tone and frequency-modulated calling songs. The difference in response magnitude between the two neurons appears to drive the decision of females towards the song alternatives. We discuss the relevance of song differences based on asymmetry in the morphology of song-producing structures under natural conditions.

  17. Recognition of variable courtship song in the field cricket Gryllus assimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenina, Varvara Yu; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the courtship song of the field cricket Gryllus assimilis. The song comprises two elements: groups of ca. 10 pulses (chirps) with low fundamental frequency (3.5-3.7 kHz) alternating with high-frequency (15-17 kHz) pulses (ticks) that usually occur as doublets. Some elements of courtship song are quite variable (high coefficient of variation) both within and between males, whereas others are more stereotypical. In experiments with playback of synthesized courtship songs, we studied the importance of several song parameters for mating success, which we evaluated as the probability with which females mounted muted, courting males. Altering some features that show little variability, such as chirp-pulse rate or carrier frequency of ticks, resulted in significant decreases in mounting frequency, consistent with the notion that trait values showing little variability are constrained by stabilizing selection exerted by females. However, alteration of one invariant trait, the occurrence of both song components, by omitting either component from test songs only slightly affected female responsiveness. Alteration of a variable song trait, the number of ticks per song phrase, had no effect on female response rate, thus failing to provide support for the idea that variable traits provide a substrate for sexual selection. An unusual characteristic feature of the song of G. assimilis is that chirp pulses often contain substantial high-frequency power, and indeed may entirely lack power at the fundamental frequency. Playback experiments showed that such songs are, nevertheless, behaviorally effective. To understand the neural basis for this, we recorded the responses of the two principal ascending auditory interneurons of crickets, AN1 and AN2. Our results suggest that the frequency selectivity of the neurons is sufficiently broad to tolerate the spectral variability of courtship chirps.

  18. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system.

  19. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  20. Polyandry and fitness of offspring reared under varying nutritional stress in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Schaus, Jennifer M; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Snedden, W Andrew; Brady, Pamela L

    2002-10-01

    Females, by mating with more than one male in their lifetime, may reduce their risk of receiving sperm from genetically incompatible sires or increase their prospects of obtaining sperm from genetically superior sires. Although there is evidence of both kinds of genetic benefits in crickets, their relative importance remains unclear, and the extent to which experimentally manipulated levels of polyandry in the laboratory correspond to those that occur in nature remain unknown. We measured lifetime polyandry of free-living female decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and conducted an experiment to determine whether polyandry leads to an increase in offspring viability. We experimentally manipulated both the levels of polyandry and opportunities for females to select among males, randomly allocating the offspring of experimental females to high-food-stress or low-food-stress regimes to complete their development. Females exhibited a high degree of polyandry, mating on average with more than seven different males during their lifetime and up to as many as 15. Polyandry had no effect on either the developmental time or survival of offspring. However, polyandrous females produced significantly heavier sons than those of monandrous females, although there was no difference in the adult mass of daughters. There was no significant interaction between mating treatment and offspring nutritional regimen in their effects on offspring mass, suggesting that benefits accruing to female polyandry are independent of the environment in which offspring develop. The sex difference in the extent to which male and female offspring benefit via their mother's polyandry may reflect possible differences in the fitness returns from sons and daughters. The larger mass gain shown by sons of polyandrous females probably leads to their increased reproductive success, either because of their increased success in sperm competition or because of their increased life span.

  1. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eRillich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display. The efficacy of AS was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA or serotonin (5HT. In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA’s natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here.

  2. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  3. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  4. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  5. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  6. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  7. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  8. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  9. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  10. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... (Adedayo, 2013). It was the expectation of ... factor responsible for the increase in housing demand in the city centres as .... many architects simply discuss with the client.

  11. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  12. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  13. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko eYoshinaga; Hiroaki eAbe; Sayo eMorita; Tetsuya eYoshida; Takako eAboshi; Masao eFukui; Tumlinson, James H.; Naoki eMori

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrog...

  14. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.

  15. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  16. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous to the hearing organs in related taxa. We analyse the innervation pattern of the sensory organs (SGO and intermediate organ (IO)) and its variability between individuals. In T. neglectus, the IO consists of two major groups of closely associated sensilla with different positions. While the distal-most sensilla superficially resemble tettigoniid auditory sensilla in location and orientation, the sensory innervation does not show these two groups to be distinct organs. Though variability in the number of sensory nerve branches occurs, usually either organ is supplied by a single nerve branch. Hence, no sensory elements clearly homologous to the auditory organ are evident. In contrast to other non-hearing Ensifera, the cave cricket sensory structures are relatively simple, consistent with a plesiomorphic organization resembling sensory innervation in grasshoppers and stick insects. PMID:26064547

  17. Arginine vasotocin injection increases probability of calling in cricket frogs, but causes call changes characteristic of less aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, C A; Chu, J; Wilczynski, W

    1995-12-01

    Male cricket frogs, Acris crepitans communicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male-male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not only increased the probability that males called after injections, but also caused modifications in middle and end calls to produce calls characteristic of less aggressive males. Moreover, AVT-injected males showed significantly greater increases in call dominant frequency than saline-injected males, again, a characteristic of less aggressive males. Cricket frog calls are used to both repel males and attract females, thus call changes may relate to male-male and/or male-female interactions. Saline-injected males also demonstrated significant changes in several call traits, including changes that occurred in the beginning and middle calls of the call groups, but not the end calls. AVT appeared to block some call changes produced through handling. These data suggest that AVT can influence acoustic communication in frogs in several ways, including effects on call characteristics and dominant frequency, as well as potentially blocking some handling effects.

  18. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-10-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous to the hearing organs in related taxa. We analyse the innervation pattern of the sensory organs (SGO and intermediate organ (IO)) and its variability between individuals. In T. neglectus, the IO consists of two major groups of closely associated sensilla with different positions. While the distal-most sensilla superficially resemble tettigoniid auditory sensilla in location and orientation, the sensory innervation does not show these two groups to be distinct organs. Though variability in the number of sensory nerve branches occurs, usually either organ is supplied by a single nerve branch. Hence, no sensory elements clearly homologous to the auditory organ are evident. In contrast to other non-hearing Ensifera, the cave cricket sensory structures are relatively simple, consistent with a plesiomorphic organization resembling sensory innervation in grasshoppers and stick insects.

  19. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC vs SWISS COLTS on Sunday 31st July 2011 Swiss Colts were the visitors for CERN’s final league outing of the season. On a fine summer’s day, visiting captain George won the toss and elected to bat. Opening bowlers Campbell and D’Mello took an early wicket apiece as the Colts slumped to 3-2. George and Greenhalgh led a recovery with some aggressive shots before Paul snared them both, Crook holding onto a fine catch on the boundary. Ahmed then shed the wicketkeeping gloves and destroyed the remainder of the batting order with a fine spell, taking 5 wickets at a personal cost of only 4 runs. Swiss Colts finished on 103 all out. CERN openers Bolton and Osborne then reached 54 without loss when Bolton was run out, D’Mello and Phillips soon following as CERN reached 61 for 3. After Osborne was dismissed by Gaillet, Campbell saw CERN safely home to a 6 wicket victory. Special mention should be made of the wicket keeping prowess of Heggie. Rarely can a visiting kee...

  20. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Geneva XI Stars CC (Friendly) at CERN on July 25th, 2010 On a very sunny and pleasant day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Ahmed and Keigwin opened the innings, Keigwin departing early after offering a dolly catch. Wickets kept falling till Anand joined Ahmed. Both started building the CERN innings with brilliant hitting by Ahmed all around the ground. After the drinks break, Anand and Ahmed both got out with Ahmed on 74 runs (6 sixes and 7 fours) being the top scorer of CERN’s innings. Onions kept CERN’s innings ticking over until the end, scoring 35. CERN CC was eventually all out for 204 runs in the last over. A healthy lunch break with tables full of fruit, Aloo Parathas and sandwiches was served to both the teams. The response from XI Stars was explosive, with 60 runs on the board in just 6 overs. Bolton had to retire injured and stand-in captain Onions kept trying different options, changing bowlers to try to control the game but nothing succeeded and ...

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    Bern CC V CERN CC in Bern on Sunday 6th May 2012 The storm clouds gathered over Switzerland this weekend as a CERN XI travelled more in hope than expectation to Bern for our first league game of the season. Despite the gloomy weather forecast the sun shone and Captain Elvin won the toss and put Bern into bat on a damp, soft and tricky wicket. Early success came as D'Mello had the Bern captain caught by D. Ahmed in his second over. This was to prove the only success in the first 20 overs as BERN made light of the pitch and the CERN attack to go into the drinks break on 108-1. CERN came storming out after the break with Elvin making the breakthrough to dismiss the Bern number 2 for 74. D'Mello then came back into the attack and ended up with 4-34 as CERN held their catches and fielded well. Chauduri was in fine form and stormed in to take 3-27. Elvin was tight and economical until he went for 23 in his final over but D. Ahmed mopped up the tail with 2-16 in a fine 4 over spell. CERN...

  2. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  3. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition at Prevessin on 28.8.2011 Fourteen players turned out for this knock-out competition, which first took place 20 years ago. In each game, 2 overs are bowled by each player. Players under 18, and those over 50, benefit from one extra run per year of age difference up to a maximum of 10 runs. Two previous winners, Elvin and Ahmed, had the luck of the draw and had byes in the first round, with Ahmed sure to bat second in each round. The first round saw a shock result, young Irsalan Ahmed, 8 years old and benefitting from 10 extra runs, beating Muzaffar, dismissing him twice in consecutive balls (each dismissal costs 6 runs). In the second round, new boy Chaudhuri beat Elvin and Ahmed beat Onions (with 10 extra runs). Other games went as expected. Chaudhuri and Ahmed both won their semi-finals to meet in the 3 over final. Chaudhuri started well but then a drive to mid-on was brilliantly caught one-handed by Muzaffar to turn the match in Ahmed’s favour, especia...

  4. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    GICC v CERN CC at Bout-du-Monde on August 1st, 2010 On a beautiful summer’s day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Osborne and Chatoo opened the innings. Batting on a new GICC turf was made to look simple by Osborne and Chatoo hitting quick boundaries and sixes. Just when they looked like they were getting into a rhythm, Osborne mis-hit and was caught, bringing McNaught at the crease. The steady partnership for 30 runs was broken when Chatoo was caught by the wicket keeper for a quick fire 20. Captain Bolton was next. Bolton and McNaught then steadied the ship displaying good batting skills. After drinks McNaught reached his half century which included 6 fours and 2 sixes. Some good bowling by Suri got McNaught frustrated and eventually out for a good 57 runs. Bolton was next to go after a watchful 44 runs and a sore rib cage. Bolton’s departure gave way to the famous known-to-all CERN middle order collapse. The next 6 batsmen managed a mere 60 runs. CERN was all out in th...

  5. Not cricket?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jo Lucassen; Remco van den Dool; Janine van Kalmthout

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Weinig over de schreef. For many Dutch people, sport is an enjoyable way of spending their leisure time. Many people are themselves active participants in sport or attend matches. Top-level matches attract a great deal of media attention. A smaller but no less enthusiastic

  6. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC – Bellingham Tour 2011 – 2nd / 3rd July vs Trafford Solicitors CC The annual pilgrimage to Bellingham was met with unusually fine weather and a strong assembly of pilgrims to compete with the Mancunian legal team and co-defendants. On day 1 CERN won the toss and put the opposition in. The Trafford left-handed opener Horsford was missed off a sharp return catch and he went on to make 82 on his tour debut for Trafford, who eventually reached a total of 200. Elvin (95) and John Osborne (52) in a third wicket stand of 120 put CERN in control but when Elvin’s innings ended, shortly followed by Osborne, CERN rapidly collapsed and were all out for 195, thus losing by 5 runs. On day 2 Trafford won the toss and elected to bat first. The story of the Trafford innings was once more written with the bat of Horsford, who had scored 70 not out by the end of the innings out of a total of 152. The CERN reply after lunch never really got started. No batsman until Wall at No.5 got ...

  7. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010   On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...

  8. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC in the 20/20 Tournament at the Bout-du-Monde on 11th/12th September CERN played Nestlé in the first semi-final on Saturday. Nestlé were bowled out for 82 in the 20th over, thanks to excellent bowling by Campbell (4 overs, 3 for 9), D’Mello (4 overs, 2 for 14, including a beautiful C&B), Onions (4 overs, 2 for 20), Elvin (4 overs, 1 for 29) and Ahmed (4 overs, 1 for 16). Campbell (44 no) and Osborne (25no) made short work of the total, ably assisted by any number of wides, reaching the target in the 9th over. On Sunday, CERN played GICC in the final. This time batting first, CERN made 196 for 7 thanks mainly to a partnership of 124 runs between D’Mello and McNaught (whose two previous scores were ducks) that ran into the 16th over. D’Mello hit a superb and quick-fire 69 in 47 balls, including 8 fours and 3 sixes. It included sumptuous straight sixes from both ends. (Anything which ends up in the adjoining football fields or tennis courts...

  9. Mercury Pollution in Cricket in Different Biotopes Suffering from Pollution by Zinc Smelting%锌冶炼不同群落生境蟋蟀汞污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冬梅; 李昕馨; 罗庆

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury contents in cricket bodies were studied in different biotopes in the surrounding of Huludao Zinc Plant to discuss the mercury distribution characteristics in cricket and to reveal the effects of environmental mercury accumulation in the short life-cycle insects through comparing cricket with other insect species.The average mercury content in cricket was 0.081 mg·kg-1 and much higher than those in the control sites(0.012 mg·kg-1 in average) in different biotopes.Mercury contents were found in the order of cricket headwingthorax ≈ abdomenleg.Mercury contents in cricket bodies varied greatly with sample sites.Significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in cricket and the distance from the pollution source as well as the mercury contents in plant stems.No significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in soil and in cricket bodies.Mercury contents in cricket were lower than those in cicadae,similar to those in other insects with shorter life-cycle periods.%研究了葫芦岛锌厂周围不同群落生境蟋蟀汞含量,比较了蟋蟀与其它昆虫汞含量的差异,探讨了汞在不同群落蟋蟀体内的分布特征.结果表明,蟋蟀汞含量很高,平均值为0.081 mg.kg-1,远高于对照点群落汞含量(0.012 mg.kg-1);蟋蟀体内汞的分布特征为头〉翅膀〉胸≈腹〉足.不同群落生境中蟋蟀汞含量差异明显,蟋蟀汞含量与距离污染源的远近、植物茎汞存在显著的相关关系.与土壤汞之间无明显的相关关系.蟋蟀汞含量低于生命周期较长的蝉汞含量,与生命周期较短的其它昆虫相近.

  10. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  11. The teaching house officer.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although medical students on clinical ward rotations receive a large part of their education from house officers, very often house officers themselves have had little formal preparation as teachers. Because students and teachers work closely together under special conditions, unique educational situations are created where much more than factual information is conveyed. Although some house officers are "natural" teachers, others find such activities uncomfortable or burdensome. Most people, h...

  12. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  13. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings for every......The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...

  14. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  15. Are inertial forces ever of significance in cricket, golf and other sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In previous papers we investigated the motion of a spherical projectile rotating about an arbitrary axis, subject to a drag force, a lift or Magnus force, and in the presence of a wind. The aim was to determine the motion of balls used in sporting games, primarily cricket. Newton’s laws of motion apply in an inertial (unaccelerated) coordinate system, but the rotating Earth is not an inertial system. In such a non-inertial system two additional forces are present, the Coriolis force which produces a side-ways movement, and the centrifugal force. Generally these two inertial forces produce noticeable effects only on the large scale, when either the time of travel and/or the path length is large. In this paper we have added both of these forces to the equations of motion. In addition, we have also included a ground friction force in order to simulate a ball rolling over a surface or, more generally, a body moving through a resistive medium such as water. Here we quantitatively investigate the magnitude and direction of the effect of the inertial forces in a number of cases. It is found that, as expected, the effects of the inertial forces are generally small for ball games. In cricket the side-ways movement is ≲1 cm for a throw from the boundary and ≲1 mm for a slow bowler’s delivery, and for a long drive in golf it is ≲10 cm. In lawn bowls the side-ways movement can be ∼2.8 cm, which may be significant, given the nature of this sport. The inertial forces are also potentially of relevance in sporting events not employing spherical projectiles. For example, in Olympic rowing we find that the side-ways movement can be more than 40 m for a 2 km race if it is not compensated for, and nearly 20 m for a 4 min mile event in athletics. The effect is also of significance in events such as swimming and horse racing. The importance of this is that athletes may not be aware of the effect and, in the case of rowing for example, may attribute it to side-ways currents

  16. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2015-01-01

    A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂) = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis) and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis). The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the understanding of

  17. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez

    Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the

  18. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  19. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None

  20. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  1. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  2. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None o

  3. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  4. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  5. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...

  6. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  7. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  8. SECRETION OF LIPASES IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF THE CRICKET Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Sandy; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Woodring, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Little is known concerning the sites and the ratios of the lipase secretions in insects, therefore we undertook an examination of the lipase secretion of fed and unfed adult female Gryllus bimaculatus. The ratio of triacylglyceride lipase, diacylglyceride lipase, and phosphatidylcholine lipase secreted by fed females in the caecum and ventriculus is 1:1.4:0.4. These activities decrease in the caecum by 30-40% in unfed females. The total lipase activity (TLA) in the caecum is about 10 times that in the ventriculus. Minimal lipase secretion occurs before and during the final moult, and remains at this level in unfed crickets, indicating a basal secretion rate. In 2-day-old fed females, about 10% of the TLA in the entire gut is found in the crop, about 70% in the caecum, 20% in the ventriculus, and 3% in the ileum. Lipases in the ventriculus are recycled back to the caecum and little is lost in the feces. Oleic acid stimulated in vitro lipase secretion, but lipids did not. Feeding stimulated lipase secretion, starvation reduced lipase secretion, but this does not prove a direct prandal regulation of secretion, because feeding also induced a size and volume increase of the caecum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Morphology and electrophysiology of water receptors on legs of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Morita, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    To identify the sensory organs that are sensitive to water stimuli in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, cuticular structures on the legs and the number of sensory neurons innervating them were studied. Some small hair sensilla on the legs were innervated by 2-5 sensory neurons. All such sensilla had a tiny pore at the tip of their hairs. The diameter of the pore was approximately 0.2 mum. These findings suggest that these are chemosensitive hairs (LCS: leg chemosensillum). Of the three pairs of legs, the anterior legs (forelegs) possessed the largest number of LCSs. Of the five leg segments (i.e., coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus), the tarsus possessed the largest number of LCSs on each leg. Electrophysiological investigation by tip recording revealed that some of the LCSs contained water-receptor cells. Because the basitarsus possessed a larger number of LCSs than the other tarsomeres, the distribution of water-receptor-containing LCSs in the basitarsus of a foreleg was investigated morphologically and electrophysiologically. LCSs that contained water-receptor cells were mainly distributed on the ventral surface of the basitarsus. There were two types of water receptor that showed different response patterns to a stimulus, that is, phasic- and tonic-type water receptors. From the distribution of LCSs on the legs, the roles of these different types of water receptors in behavioral selection, that is, the initiation of swimming and the inhibition of flying, will be discussed.

  10. Efficient inhibition of bursts by bursts in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, G; Pollack, G S

    2007-06-01

    In crickets, auditory information about ultrasound is carried bilaterally to the brain by the AN2 neurons. The ON1 neuron provides contralateral inhibitory input to AN2, thereby enhancing bilateral contrast between the left and right AN2s, an important cue for sound localization. We examine how the structures of the spike trains of these neurons affect this inhibitory interaction. As previously shown for AN2, ON1 responds to salient peaks in stimulus amplitude with bursts of spikes. Spike bursts, but not isolated spikes, reliably signal the occurrence of specific features of the stimulus. ON1 and AN2 burst at similar times relative to the amplitude envelope of the stimulus, and bursts are more tightly time-locked to stimulus feature than the isolated spikes. As a consequence, spikes that, in the absence of contralateral inhibition, would occur within AN2 bursts are more likely to be preceded by spikes in ON1 (mainly also in bursts) than are isolated AN2 spikes. This leads to a large decrease in the burst rate of the inhibited AN2. We conclude that the match in coding properties of ON1 and AN2 allows contralateral inhibition to be most efficient for those portions of the response that carry the behaviourally relevant information, i.e. for bursts.

  11. Identified auditory neurons in the cricket Gryllus rubens: temporal processing in calling song sensitive units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Hamilton E; Mason, Andrew C; Hoy, Ronald R

    2004-07-01

    This study characterizes aspects of the anatomy and physiology of auditory receptors and certain interneurons in the cricket Gryllus rubens. We identified an 'L'-shaped ascending interneuron tuned to frequencies > 15 kHz (57 dB SPL threshold at 20 kHz). Also identified were two intrasegmental 'omega'-shaped interneurons that were broadly tuned to 3-65 kHz, with best sensitivity to frequencies of the male calling song (5 kHz, 52 dB SPL). The temporal sensitivity of units excited by calling song frequencies were measured using sinusoidally amplitude modulated stimuli that varied in both modulation rate and depth, parameters that vary with song propagation distance and the number of singing males. Omega cells responded like low-pass filters with a time constant of 42 ms. In contrast, receptors significantly coded modulation rates up to the maximum rate presented (85 Hz). Whereas omegas required approximately 65% modulation depth at 45 Hz (calling song AM) to elicit significant synchrony coding, receptors tolerated a approximately 50% reduction in modulation depth up to 85 Hz. These results suggest that omega cells in G. rubens might not play a role in detecting song modulation per se at increased distances from a singing male.

  12. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswell, Rachel; Girard, Madeline; Fricke, Claudia; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait) in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  13. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm.

  14. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  15. Thee effect of 5-HTP on the reproductive timer in the male cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureshi, M; Dainobu, M; Sakai, M

    2004-01-01

    The post-copulatory sexually refractory stage in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus consists of the two substages: the first refractory stage (RS1, time-variable) between copulation and spermatophore preparation, and the second refractory stage (RS2, time-constant) between spermatophore preparation and the recommencement of courtship. To understand the mechanism of the timer for RS2, subcuticular or intraganglionic injection of biogenic amines (10(-2) mol l(-1)) was performed immediately after spermatophore preparation. RS2 was shortened by octopamine, 5-HT, 5-HTP and NA-5-HT. Among these, 5-HTP was most potent. It shortened RS2 to maximally about 38% of the control. The shortening effect continued for 4.5 h after subcuticular injection even when the hemolymph was washed out with saline at 1 hour after injection. Simultaneous injection of 5-HTP with the inhibitor (NSD-1015) of 5-HT synthesis enzyme nullified the effect of 5-HTP, indicating that the shortening effect was caused by 5-HT synthesized from extrinsic 5-HTP. Injection of the inhibitor (CHX) of protein synthesis had no effect of on RS2. These results suggest that the reproductive timer in the TAG may be controlled by 5-HT or a second messenger mediated by 5-HT.

  16. Sexual conflict and cryptic female choice in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Luc F; Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence and evolutionary consequences of cryptic female choice (CFC) remain highly controversial, not least because the processes underlying its expression are often concealed within the female reproductive tract. However, even when female discrimination is relatively easy to observe, as in numerous insect species with externally attached spermatophores, it is often difficult to demonstrate directional CFC for certain male phenotypes over others. Using a biological assay to separate male crickets into attractive or unattractive categories, we demonstrate that females strongly discriminate against unattractive males by removing their spermatophores before insemination can be completed. This results in significantly more sperm being transferred by attractive males than unattractive males. Males respond to CFC by mate guarding females after copulation, which increases the spermatophore retention of both attractive and unattractive males. Interestingly, unattractive males who suffered earlier interruption of sperm transfer benefited more from mate guarding, and they guarded females more vigilantly than attractive males. Our results suggest that postcopulatory mate guarding has evolved via sexual conflict over insemination times rather than through genetic benefits of biasing paternity toward vigorous males, as has been previously suggested.

  17. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  18. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in "Nutcracker" Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Lauren P; Gray, David A

    2015-01-07

    Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. 'Huachuca summer,' P. 'Madera' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'). Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. 'Huachuca summer' and P. 'Mt. Pinos'), suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion.

  19. Premating reproductive barriers between hybridising cricket species differing in their degree of polyandry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Veen

    Full Text Available Understanding speciation hinges on understanding how reproductive barriers arise between incompletely isolated populations. Despite their crucial role in speciation, prezygotic barriers are relatively poorly understood and hard to predict. We use two closely related cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris, to experimentally investigate premating barriers during three sequential mate choice steps. Furthermore, we experimentally show a significant difference in polyandry levels between the two species and subsequently test the hypothesis that females of the more polyandrous species, G. bimaculatus, will be less discriminating against heterospecific males and hence hybridise more readily. During close-range mating behaviour experiments, males showed relatively weak species discrimination but females discriminated very strongly. In line with our predictions, this discrimination is asymmetric, with the more polyandrous G. bimaculatus mating heterospecifically and G. campestris females never mating heterospecifically. Our study shows clear differences in the strength of reproductive isolation during the mate choice process depending on sex and species, which may have important consequences for the evolution of reproductive barriers.

  20. Premating reproductive barriers between hybridising cricket species differing in their degree of polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Thor; Faulks, Joseph; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2011-05-05

    Understanding speciation hinges on understanding how reproductive barriers arise between incompletely isolated populations. Despite their crucial role in speciation, prezygotic barriers are relatively poorly understood and hard to predict. We use two closely related cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris, to experimentally investigate premating barriers during three sequential mate choice steps. Furthermore, we experimentally show a significant difference in polyandry levels between the two species and subsequently test the hypothesis that females of the more polyandrous species, G. bimaculatus, will be less discriminating against heterospecific males and hence hybridise more readily. During close-range mating behaviour experiments, males showed relatively weak species discrimination but females discriminated very strongly. In line with our predictions, this discrimination is asymmetric, with the more polyandrous G. bimaculatus mating heterospecifically and G. campestris females never mating heterospecifically. Our study shows clear differences in the strength of reproductive isolation during the mate choice process depending on sex and species, which may have important consequences for the evolution of reproductive barriers.

  1. PREDICTING THE MATCH OUTCOME IN ONE DAY INTERNATIONAL CRICKET MATCHES, WHILE THE GAME IS IN PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bailey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of dollars are wagered on the outcome of one day international (ODI cricket matches, with a large percentage of bets occurring after the game has commenced. Using match information gathered from all 2200 ODI matches played prior to January 2005, a range of variables that could independently explain statistically significant proportions of variation associated with the predicted run totals and match outcomes were created. Such variables include home ground advantage, past performances, match experience, performance at the specific venue, performance against the specific opposition, experience at the specific venue and current form. Using a multiple linear regression model, prediction variables were numerically weighted according to statistical significance and used to predict the match outcome. With the use of the Duckworth-Lewis method to determine resources remaining, at the end of each completed over, the predicted run total of the batting team could be updated to provide a more accurate prediction of the match outcome. By applying this prediction approach to a holdout sample of matches, the efficiency of the "in the run" wagering market could be assessed. Preliminary results suggest that the market is prone to overreact to events occurring throughout the course of the match, thus creating brief inefficiencies in the wagering market

  2. Impact of Power Play Overs on the Outcome of Twenty20 Cricket Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find if better performance in power play leads a team to victory in a Twenty20 match. Based on the methodology devised to do so, the study tries to measure the performance of both the teams during power play overs in terms of batting and bowling. The developed measure is called ‘Prod’ which is a product of the difference of batting and bowling performance of the teams during power play overs. The team with better performance in both the skills during power play is expected to win the match. But it would be difficult to predict the outcome of a match if the performance of a team is better in bowling and worse in batting and vice-versa. A total of 261 matches from different seasons of Indian Premier League (IPL are considered for the study. The outcomes of 220 matches are predicted based on the performance of two teams in power play out of which 153 of them were correctly predicted. Remaining 41 matches could not be predicted as it is not clear which team performed better during power play. Thus, out of the matches where the dominance of a team was clear in the power play, 70 percent cases that team ultimately won the match in Twenty20 cricket.

  3. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  4. Effects of landscape structure on movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekötter, Tim; Speelmans, Marjan; Dusoulier, François; Van Wingerden, Walter K R E; Malfait, Jean-Pierre; Crist, Thomas O; Edwards, Peter J; Dietz, Hansjörg

    2007-02-01

    Because the viability of a population may depend on whether individuals can disperse, it is important for conservation planning to understand how landscape structure affects movement behavior. Some species occur in a wide range of landscapes differing greatly in structure, and the question arises of whether these species are particularly versatile in their dispersal or whether they are composed of genetically distinct populations adapted to contrasting landscapes. We performed a capture-mark-resight experiment to study movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer 1773) in two contrasting agricultural landscapes in France and Switzerland. The mean daily movement of P. griseoaptera was significantly higher in the landscape with patchily distributed habitat (Switzerland) than in the landscape with greater habitat connectivity (France). Net displacement rate did not differ between the two landscapes, which we attributed to the presence of more linear elements in the connected landscape, resulting in a more directed pattern of movement by P. griseoaptera. Significant differences in the movement patterns between landscapes with contrasting structure suggest important effects of landscape structure on movement and dispersal success. The possibility of varying dispersal ability within the same species needs to be studied in more detail because this may provide important information for sustainable landscape planning aimed at maintaining viable metapopulations, especially in formerly well-connected landscapes.

  5. Hand and Eye Dominance in Sport: Are Cricket Batters Taught to Bat Back-to-Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; Runswick, Oliver R; Allen, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    When first learning to bimanually use a tool to hit a target (e.g., when chopping wood or hitting a golf ball), most people assume a stance that is dictated by their dominant hand. By convention, this means that a 'right-handed' or 'left-handed' stance that places the dominant hand closer to the striking end of the tool is adopted in many sports. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conventional stance used for bimanual hitting provides the best chance of developing expertise in that task. Our study included 43 professional (international/first-class) and 93 inexperienced (hand and eye dominance) to compare the proportion of batters who adopted a reversed stance when batting (that is, the opposite stance to that expected based on their handedness). We found that cricket batsmen who adopted a reversed stance had a stunning advantage, with professional batsmen 7.1 times more likely to adopt a reversed stance than inexperienced batsmen, independent of whether they batted right or left handed or the position of their dominant eye. Findings imply that batsmen who adopt a conventional stance may inadvertently be batting 'back-to-front' and have a significant disadvantage in the game. Moreover, the results may generalize more widely, bringing into question the way in which other bimanual sporting actions are taught and performed.

  6. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis.

  7. Quantitative genetics of shape in cricket wings: developmental integration in a functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Debat, Vincent; Roff, Derek A

    2010-10-01

    The role of developmental and genetic integration for evolution is contentious. One hypothesis states that integration acts as a constraint on evolution, whereas an alternative is that developmental and genetic systems evolve to match the functional modularity of organisms. This study examined a morphological structure, the cricket wing, where developmental and functional modules are discordant, making it possible to distinguish the two alternatives. Wing shape was characterized with geometric morphometrics, quantitative genetic information was extracted using a full-sibling breeding design, and patterns of developmental integration were inferred from fluctuating asymmetry of wing shape. The patterns of genetic, phenotypic, and developmental integration were clearly similar, but not identical. Heritabilities for different shape variables varied widely, but no shape variables were devoid of genetic variation. Simulated selection for specific shape changes produced predicted responses with marked deflections due to the genetic covariance structure. Three hypotheses of modularity according to the wing structures involved in sound production were inconsistent with the genetic, phenotypic, or developmental covariance structure. Instead, there appears to be strong integration throughout the wing. The hypothesis that genetic and developmental integration evolve to match functional modularity can therefore be rejected for this example.

  8. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  10. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  11. National Center for Healthy Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Search NCHH Resources Ask NCHH Blog Building Materials and Products Consumer Survey Healthcare Financing How Can We Help You? Additional Resources Healthy Housing Clearinghouse Healthy Housing Links Healthy Housing Videos Lead ...

  12. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  13. Environmental control of trypsin secretion in the midgut of the two-spotted field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, S; Huster, J; Hoffmann, K H; Woodring, J

    2012-11-01

    The two most important environmental factors controlling the release of trypsin in Gryllus bimaculatus are temperature and food consumption. Food consumption is in turn controlled by food availability (quantity), food quality (contained nutrients, inhibitors), developmental stage, age, sex and the daily light-dark cycle. The secretion of trypsin was higher at an acclimation temperature (AT) of 22°C than at 32°C, although the weight of caecal tissue and body weight were lower. The trypsin secretion at both experimental temperatures (25°C and 35°C) was almost 2 times greater in crickets maintained at 22°C AT since egg hatch than those maintained only since the last larval stage, but not at 32°C AT. Acclimation became increasingly rotational with increased exposure time at different rearing temperatures. The more food consumed the higher the trypsin secretion. Secretion was highest on day 3 in adult females and day 2 in males, corresponding to the day of maximal food consumption. Secretion was less than 20% in starved or cellulose fed females compared to those fed a control diet. Food reached the caeca in starved crickets within 30min and induced an increased trypsin secretion. Crickets started feeding at the onset of darkness, and trypsin secretion was significantly elevated near the end of the scotophase. The in vivo response to 0.4% soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) fed throughout the last larval stage resulted in reduced growth and a 50% decrease in trypsin secretion in 2day old adult females. An adaptation to the reduction of trypsin secretion occurred when G. bimaculatus was fed 0.1% and 0.2% SBTI, but not when fed with 0.4%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of auditory deafferentation on the synaptic connectivity of a pair of identified interneurons in adult field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodfuehrer, P D; Hoy, R R

    1988-01-01

    In adult crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, unilateral auditory deafferentation causes the medial dendrites of an afferent-deprived, identified auditory interneuron (Int-1) in the prothoracic ganglion to sprout and form new functional connections in the contralateral auditory neuropil. The establishment of these new functional connections by the deafferented Int-1, however, does not appear to affect the physiological responses of Int-1's homolog on the intact side of the prothoracic ganglion which also innervates this auditory neuropil. Thus it appears that the sprouting dendrites of the deafferented Int-1 are not functionally competing with those of the intact Int-1 for synaptic connections in the remaining auditory neuropil following unilateral deafferentation in adult crickets. Moreover, we demonstrate that auditory function is restored to the afferent-deprived Int-1 within 4-6 days following deafferentation, when few branches of Int-1's medial dendrites can be seen to have sprouted. The strength of the physiological responses and extent of dendritic sprouting in the deafferented Int-1 progressively increase with time following deafferentation. By 28 days following deafferentation, most of the normal physiological responses of Int-1 to auditory stimuli have been restored in the deafferented Int-1, and the medial dendrites of the deafferented Int-1 have clearly sprouted and grown across into the contralateral auditory afferent field. The strength of the physiological responses of the deafferented Int-1 to auditory stimuli and extent of dendritic sprouting in the deafferented Int-1 are greater in crickets deafferented as juveniles than as adults. Thus, neuronal plasticity persists in Int-1 following sensory deprivation from the earliest juvenile stages through adulthood.

  15. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Ellers, Olaf; Horch, Hadley W

    2013-01-01

    Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2) send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5). Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 h, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  16. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Abe, Hiroaki; Morita, Sayo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Aboshi, Takako; Fukui, Masao; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata), fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution cannot be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a different way.

  17. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Abe, Hiroaki; Morita, Sayo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Aboshi, Takako; Fukui, Masao; Tumlinson, James H.; Mori, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata), fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution cannot be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a different way. PMID

  18. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  19. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs, first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata, fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution can not be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a

  20. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ePfister

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2 send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5. Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 hours, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14 and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  1. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ben H; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands.

  2. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H Warren

    Full Text Available Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species. A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between

  3. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Heyer, Klaus; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4–10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  4. Neuropeptide imaging on an LTQ with vMALDI source: The complete `all-in-one' peptidome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Peter D.; Conaway, Maria C. Prieto; Pekar, Tonya M.; Miller, Ken

    2007-02-01

    Direct tissue imaging was performed on dissected insect tissue using a MALDI ion trap to visualize endogenous neuropeptides. Coupling tissue imaging to tandem MSn allows for the identification of previously known species and the ability to identify new ones by de novo sequencing, as searchable databases for insects are sparse. Direct tissue imaging is an attractive technique for the study of neuropeptides as minimal sample preparation is required prior to mass spectrometry. We successfully identified neuropeptides present in the corpora cardiaca and allata of Acheta domesticus (the house cricket). Diagnostic fragments at low m/z were used to distinguish between lipids and neuropeptides. The distribution of peptides appears to be more differentially localized than that of phospholipids, which seem to be more evenly distributed within the tissue.

  5. Spider Web DNA: A New Spin on Noninvasive Genetics of Predator and Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Y Xu

    Full Text Available Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp. fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus, we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs. Spider and prey DNA remained detectable at least 88 days after living organisms were no longer present on the web. Spider web DNA as a proof-of-concept may open doors to other practical applications in conservation research, pest management, biogeography studies, and biodiversity assessments.

  6. Spider Web DNA: A New Spin on Noninvasive Genetics of Predator and Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Charles C Y; Yen, Ivy J; Bowman, Dean; Turner, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus), we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs. Spider and prey DNA remained detectable at least 88 days after living organisms were no longer present on the web. Spider web DNA as a proof-of-concept may open doors to other practical applications in conservation research, pest management, biogeography studies, and biodiversity assessments.

  7. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  8. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  9. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  10. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  11. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  12. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  13. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  14. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  15. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  16. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  17. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  18. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  19. Adaptation and selective information transmission in the cricket auditory neuron AN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Hildebrandt, K Jannis; Hennig, R Matthias; Obermayer, Klaus

    2008-09-26

    Sensory systems adapt their neural code to changes in the sensory environment, often on multiple time scales. Here, we report a new form of adaptation in a first-order auditory interneuron (AN2) of crickets. We characterize the response of the AN2 neuron to amplitude-modulated sound stimuli and find that adaptation shifts the stimulus-response curves toward higher stimulus intensities, with a time constant of 1.5 s for adaptation and recovery. The spike responses were thus reduced for low-intensity sounds. We then address the question whether adaptation leads to an improvement of the signal's representation and compare the experimental results with the predictions of two competing hypotheses: infomax, which predicts that information conveyed about the entire signal range should be maximized, and selective coding, which predicts that "foreground" signals should be enhanced while "background" signals should be selectively suppressed. We test how adaptation changes the input-response curve when presenting signals with two or three peaks in their amplitude distributions, for which selective coding and infomax predict conflicting changes. By means of Bayesian data analysis, we quantify the shifts of the measured response curves and also find a slight reduction of their slopes. These decreases in slopes are smaller, and the absolute response thresholds are higher than those predicted by infomax. Most remarkably, and in contrast to the infomax principle, adaptation actually reduces the amount of encoded information when considering the whole range of input signals. The response curve changes are also not consistent with the selective coding hypothesis, because the amount of information conveyed about the loudest part of the signal does not increase as predicted but remains nearly constant. Less information is transmitted about signals with lower intensity.

  20. Dynamics of free intracellular Ca2+ during synaptic and spike activity of cricket tibial motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Tom; Hedwig, Berthold

    2009-04-01

    For all nervous systems, motoneurons are the main output pathway. They are involved in generating episodic motor activity as well as enduring motor rhythms. To determine whether changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) correlate with motor performance, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics, mode of entry and role of free intracellular Ca(2+) in cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) front leg tibial extensor and flexor motoneurons. Synaptic activation or intracellular depolarising current injection uniformly increased Ca(2+) with the same dynamics throughout the primary and secondary branches of the dendritic tree of all motoneurons. Ca(2+) rise times (mean tau(rise), 233-295 ms) were lower than decay times (mean tau(decay), 1927-1965 ms), and resulted in a Ca(2+) plateau during repetitive activation, such as during walking. The neurons therefore operate with a different Ca(2+) level during walking than during episodic leg movements. Ca(2+) enters the dendritic processes of motoneurons via a voltage-activated mechanism. Entry is driven by subthreshold excitation, and is largely independent of the neurons' spiking activity. To what extent ligand-activated mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry operate remains uncertain. We found no evidence for any prominent Ca(2+)-activated secondary currents in these motoneurons. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by extracellular stimulation of descending neurons were unaffected by the level of free intracellular Ca(2+). The activity of tibial motoneurons therefore appears to be only weakly dependent on the level of free intracellular Ca(2+) in dendrites. This is different to what has been found for many other neurons studied, and may represent an essential prerequisite for insect motoneurons to support a wide range of both episodic and rhythmic motor sequences underlying behaviour.

  1. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  3. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games.

  4. Body morphology, energy stores, and muscle enzyme activity explain cricket acoustic mate attraction signaling variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Thomson

    Full Text Available High mating success in animals is often dependent on males signalling attractively with high effort. Since males should be selected to maximize their reproductive success, female preferences for these traits should result in minimal signal variation persisting in the population. However, extensive signal variation persists. The genic capture hypothesis proposes genetic variation persists because fitness-conferring traits depend on an individual's basic processes, including underlying physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits, which are themselves genetically variable. To explore the traits underlying signal variation, we quantified among-male differences in signalling, morphology, energy stores, and the activities of key enzymes associated with signalling muscle metabolism in two species of crickets, Gryllus assimilis (chirper: 20 pulses/chirp. Chirping G. assimilis primarily fuelled signalling with carbohydrate metabolism: smaller individuals and individuals with increased thoracic glycogen stores signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with greater glycogen phosphorylase activity produced more attractive mating signals. Conversely, the more energetic trilling G. texensis fuelled signalling with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: individuals with increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and increased thoracic free carbohydrate content signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with higher thoracic and abdominal carbohydrate content and higher abdominal lipid stores produced more attractive signals. Our findings suggest variation in male reproductive success may be driven by hidden physiological trade-offs that affect the ability to uptake, retain, and use essential nutrients, although the results remain correlational in nature. Our findings indicate that a physiological perspective may help us to understand some of the causes of variation in behaviour.

  5. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Pauchet

    Full Text Available Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the

  6. Influence of the male ejaculate on post-mating prezygotic barriers in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Larson

    Full Text Available Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create 'spermless' males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.

  7. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Luo, Jin; Li, Wei; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T) was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis) living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T), which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52%) between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%). The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T).

  8. Differential threshold effects of habitat fragmentation on gene flow in two widespread species of bush crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rebecca; Durka, Walter; Holzhauer, Stephanie I J; Wolters, Volkmar; Diekötter, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity vary among species. This may be attributed to the interacting effects of species traits and landscape structure. While widely distributed and abundant species are often considered less susceptible to fragmentation, this may be different if they are small sized and show limited dispersal. Under intensive land use, habitat fragmentation may reach thresholds at which gene flow among populations of small-sized and dispersal-limited species becomes disrupted. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of two abundant and widespread bush crickets along a gradient of habitat fragmentation in an agricultural landscape. We applied traditional (G(ST), θ) and recently developed (G'ST', D) estimators of genetic differentiation on microsatellite data from each of twelve populations of the grassland species Metrioptera roeselii and the forest-edge species Pholidoptera griseoaptera to identify thresholds of habitat fragmentation below which genetic population structure is affected. Whereas the grassland species exhibited a uniform genetic structuring (G(ST) = 0.020-0.033; D = 0.085-0.149) along the whole fragmentation gradient, the forest-edge species' genetic differentiation increased significantly from D habitat dropped below a threshold of 20% and its proximity decreased substantially at the landscape scale. The influence of fragmentation on genetic differentiation was qualitatively unaffected by the choice of estimators of genetic differentiation but quantitatively underestimated by the traditional estimators. These results indicate that even for widespread species in modern agricultural landscapes fragmentation thresholds exist at which gene flow among suitable habitat patches becomes restricted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Analysis On Development Feasibility of Chinese Cricket%我国板球运动发展的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯坚; 刘玮

    2011-01-01

    The cricket is one of the movements promoted vigorously for recent two years in China. It is an item which emphasizes the association cooperation, has the body and mind exercise value and extremely leisure our sports items. This article through tracing cricket history, relates the development situation of Chinese present cricket, from socialized angle of view, carries on the analysis to promotion feasibility of Chinese cricket from sports' characteristics, development environment, development form etc.%板球运动是近两年来在我国大力推广的运动项目之一,是一项讲求团体合作,极具身心锻炼价值的休闲体育项目。通过溯源板球运动历史,结合中国板球运动发展现状,以社会化的视角,从板球项目的特点、发展环境、发展形式等方面对我国板球运动推广的可行性进行分析。

  10. EGFR signaling is required for re-establishing the proximodistal axis during distal leg regeneration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus nymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Taro; Mito, Taro; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2008-07-01

    Nymphs of hemimetabolous insects, such as cockroaches and crickets, possess functional legs with a remarkable capacity for epimorphic regeneration. In this study, we have focused on the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in regeneration of a nymphal leg in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We performed loss-of-function analyses with a Gryllus Egfr homolog (Gb'Egfr) and nymphal RNA interference (RNAi). After injection of double-stranded RNA for Gb'Egfr in the body cavity of the third instar cricket nymph, amputation of the leg at the distal tibia resulted in defects of normal distal regeneration. The regenerated leg lacked the distal tarsus and pretarsus. This result indicates that EGFR signaling is required for distal leg patterning in regeneration during the nymphal stage of the cricket. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR signaling acts downstream of the canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and regulates appendage proximodistal (PD) patterning genes aristaless and dachshund during regeneration. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling influences positional information along the PD axis in distal leg patterning of insects, regardless of the leg formation mode.

  11. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  12. Contributions of joint rotations to ball release speed during cricket bowling: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Unka, Jayesh; Liu, Guangyu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the contributions of individual upper body segmental rotations to ball release speed for cricket bowling and determine whether attempting to forcefully flex the lower trunk leads to an increase in ball release speed and bowling accuracy. Three dimensional kinematic data of eight male fast bowlers were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under three cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their stock delivery speeds (sub-max condition), (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (3) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds but forced to flex the lower trunk (max-trunk condition). The accuracy of each delivery was also measured. The results showed that the average ball release speeds for the max-trunk condition were faster than the other two conditions. A general pattern of proximal to distal sequencing was observed for all three conditions. There was a slight decrement in accuracy seen in the max-trunk condition with respect to the other two conditions. For all three conditions, the upper arm rotation made the largest contribution, followed in turn by torso and thorax rotation, pelvis rotation, linear velocity of pelvis, and forearm and hand rotation.

  13. The function of the cercal sensory system in escape behavior of the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus Krauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S

    2000-01-01

    Long cerci of cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus Krauss (Rhaphidophoridae, Orthoptera) are, in contrast to other investigated species, oriented perpendicularly to the ground. Behavioural experiments indicated that cave crickets detect wind direction and respond to stimulation by jumping away from the stimulus. Directed wind puffs deflect filiform sensory hairs on the cerci, trigger physiological responses of their sensory neurons and change activity of interneurons that control the escape direction. Two local interneuron pairs, one non-spiking and one spiking, were identified using intracellular recording and subsequent dye injection techniques. The non-spiking interneuron responds to the puffs from sides with a large depolarization and to the puffs from the front and back of the animal with a small depolarization. After stimulation from the ipsilateral side the spiking interneuron responds with a burst of spikes at the onset of stimulation and, after stimulation from the contralateral side, it responds with a burst of spikes at the onset and at the end of the stimulation.

  14. Socially flexible female choice differs among populations of the Pacific field cricket: geographical variation in the interaction coefficient psi (Ψ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene

    2012-09-07

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) occur when genes expressed in one individual affect the phenotype of a conspecific. Theoretical models indicate that the evolutionary consequences of IGEs critically depend on the genetic architecture of interacting traits, and on the strength and direction of phenotypic effects arising from social interactions, which can be quantified by the interaction coefficient Ψ. In the context of sexually selected traits, strong positive Ψ tends to exaggerate evolutionary change, whereas negative Ψ impedes sexual trait elaboration. Despite its theoretical importance, whether and how Ψ varies among geographically distinct populations is unknown. Such information is necessary to evaluate the potential for IGEs to contribute to divergence among isolated or semi-isolated populations. Here, we report substantial variation in Ψ for a behavioural trait involved in sexual selection in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: female choosiness. Both the strength and direction of Ψ varied among geographically isolated populations. Ψ also changed over time. In a contemporary population of crickets from Kauai, experience of male song increased female choosiness. In contrast, experience of male song decreased choosiness in an ancestral population from the same location. This rapid change corroborates studies examining the evolvability of Ψ and demonstrates how interpopulation variation in the interaction coefficient might influence sexual selection and accelerate divergence of traits influenced by IGEs that contribute to reproductive isolation in nascent species or subspecies.

  15. Toxicity of venoms from vipers of Pelias group to crickets Gryllus assimilis and its relation to snake entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2007-06-01

    The existing data indicate that snake venom is most toxic towards the natural vertebrate preys. Several species of snake include arthropods in their food. However, there is no available data on the toxicity of venom from entomophagous snakes towards their prey. We have studied the toxicity of venom from vipers of Pelias group towards crickets Gryllus assimilis. The Pelias group includes several closely related viper species inhabiting mainly the South European part of Russia, and they differ in their feeding preferences. Snakes from the Vipera renardi, Vipera lotievi, Vipera kaznakovi, and Vipera orlovi species feed on wide range of animals including insects, whereas snakes from Vipera berus and Vipera nikolskii species do not include insects in their diet. We have found that the venom from vipers that include insects in their diet possesses greater toxicity towards crickets. The greatest toxicity was observed for the venom from V. lotievi, which displays a preference for insects in its diet. Therefore, based on our data, we suggest that the viper entomophagy is not a result of behavior plasticity, but is probably determined at a genetic level.

  16. Predicting the names of the best teams after the knock-out phase of a cricket series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Hermanus Hofmeyr

    2014-01-01

    Cricket players' performances can best be judged after a large number of matches had been played. For test or one-day international (ODI) players, career data are normally used to calculate performance measures. These are normally good indicators of future performances, although various factors influence the performance of a player in a specific match. It is often necessary to judge players' performances based on a small number of scores, e.g. to identify the best players after a short series of matches. The challenge then is to use the best available criteria in order to assess performances as accurately and fairly as possible. In the present study the results of the knock-out phase of an International Cricket Council (ICC) World Cup ODI Series are used to predict the names of the best teams by means of a suitably formulated logistic regression model. Despite using very sparse data, the methods used are reasonably successful. It is also shown that if the same technique is applied to career ratings, very good results are obtained.

  17. Chamber music: an unusual Helmholtz resonator for song amplification in a Neotropical bush-cricket (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Thorin; Chivers, Benedict D; Robson Brown, Kate; Sarria-S, Fabio A; Walker, Matthew; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2017-08-15

    Animals use sound for communication, with high-amplitude signals being selected for attracting mates or deterring rivals. High amplitudes are attained by employing primary resonators in sound-producing structures to amplify the signal (e.g. avian syrinx). Some species actively exploit acoustic properties of natural structures to enhance signal transmission by using these as secondary resonators (e.g. tree-hole frogs). Male bush-crickets produce sound by tegminal stridulation and often use specialised wing areas as primary resonators. Interestingly, Acanthacara acuta, a Neotropical bush-cricket, exhibits an unusual pronotal inflation, forming a chamber covering the wings. It has been suggested that such pronotal chambers enhance amplitude and tuning of the signal by constituting a (secondary) Helmholtz resonator. If true, the intact system - when stimulated sympathetically with broadband sound - should show clear resonance around the song carrier frequency which should be largely independent of pronotum material, and change when the system is destroyed. Using laser Doppler vibrometry on living and preserved specimens, microcomputed tomography, 3D-printed models and finite element modelling, we show that the pronotal chamber not only functions as a Helmholtz resonator owing to its intact morphology but also resonates at frequencies of the calling song on itself, making song production a three-resonator system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  19. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  20. Evolution of nubbin function in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insect appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchyn, Nataliya; Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Couso, Juan P.; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Insects display a whole spectrum of morphological diversity, which is especially noticeable in the organization of their appendages. A recent study in a hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), showed that nubbin (nub) affects antenna morphogenesis, labial patterning, the length of the femoral segment in legs, and the formation of a limbless abdomen. To further determine the role of this gene in the evolution of insect morphology, we analyzed its functions in two additional hemimetabolous species, Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Periplaneta americana (cockroach), and re-examined its role in Drosophila. While both Acheta and Periplaneta nub-RNAi first nymphs develop crooked antennae, no visible changes are observed in the morphologies of their mouthparts and abdomen. Instead, the main effect is seen in legs. The joint between the tibia and first tarsomere (Ta-1) is lost in Acheta, which in turn, causes a fusion of these two segments and creates a chimeric nub-RNAi tibia-tarsus that retains a tibial identity in its proximal half and acquires a Ta-1 identity in its distal half. Similarly, our re-analysis of nub function in Drosophila reveals that legs lack all true joints and the fly tibia also exhibits a fused tibia and tarsus. Finally, we observe a similar phenotype in Periplaneta except that it encompasses different joints (coxa-trochanter and femur-tibia), and in this species we also show that nub expression in the legs is regulated by Notch signaling, as had previously been reported in flies and spiders. Overall, we propose that nub acts downstream of Notch on the distal part of insect leg segments to promote their development and growth, which in turn is required for joint formation. Our data represent the first functional evidence defining a role for nub in leg segmentation and highlight the varying degrees of its involvement in this process across insects. PMID:21708143

  1. Evolution of nubbin function in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insect appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchyn, Nataliya; Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Couso, Juan P; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2011-09-01

    Insects display a whole spectrum of morphological diversity, which is especially noticeable in the organization of their appendages. A recent study in a hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), showed that nubbin (nub) affects antenna morphogenesis, labial patterning, the length of the femoral segment in legs, and the formation of a limbless abdomen. To further determine the role of this gene in the evolution of insect morphology, we analyzed its functions in two additional hemimetabolous species, Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Periplaneta americana (cockroach), and re-examined its role in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). While both Acheta and Periplaneta nub-RNAi first nymphs develop crooked antennae, no visible changes are observed in the morphologies of their mouthparts and abdomen. Instead, the main effect is seen in legs. The joint between the tibia and first tarsomere (Ta-1) is lost in Acheta, which in turn, causes a fusion of these two segments and creates a chimeric nub-RNAi tibia-tarsus that retains a tibial identity in its proximal half and acquires a Ta-1 identity in its distal half. Similarly, our re-analysis of nub function in Drosophila reveals that legs lack all true joints and the fly tibia also exhibits a fused tibia and tarsus. Finally, we observe a similar phenotype in Periplaneta except that it encompasses different joints (coxa-trochanter and femur-tibia), and in this species we also show that nub expression in the legs is regulated by Notch signaling, as had previously been reported in flies and spiders. Overall, we propose that nub acts downstream of Notch on the distal part of insect leg segments to promote their development and growth, which in turn is required for joint formation. Our data represent the first functional evidence defining a role for nub in leg segmentation and highlight the varying degrees of its involvement in this process across insects.

  2. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  3. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  4. Influence of environmental stimulation on neurogenesis in the adult insect brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Lomassese, S; Strambi, C; Strambi, A; Charpin, P; Augier, R; Aouane, A; Cayre, M

    2000-11-15

    Mushroom bodies are the main integrative structures of insect brain. They receive sensory information from the eyes, the palps, and the antennae. In the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, a cluster of mushroom body neuroblasts keeps producing new interneurons during an insect's life span. The aim of the present work is to study the impact of environmental stimuli on mushroom body neurogenesis during adulthood. Crickets were reared either in an enriched environment, where they received complex environmental and congeneric stimulations or isolated in small cages and deprived of most visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli. They then were injected with a S-phase marker, 5-bromo, 2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and sacrificed at different periods of their life. Neurogenesis and cell survival were estimated by counting the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the mushroom bodies. Environmentally enriched crickets were found to have an increased number of newborn cells in their mushroom bodies compared with crickets housed in cages with an impoverished environment. This effect of external factors on neurogenesis seems to be limited to the beginning of imaginal life. Furthermore, no cell loss could be detected among the newborn neurons in either environmental situation, suggesting that cell survival was not affected by the quality of the environment. Considering vertebrate studies which showed that enriched environment increases hippocampal cell survival and improves animal performances in spatial learning tests, we suggest that the increased number of interneurons produced in an integrative brain structure after exposure to enriched environment could contribute to adaptive behavioral performances in adult insects.

  5. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  6. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... personal furnishing and zoning as well as interviews. The study is also based on analyses of the architectural configurations of space, light and materiality. Our main question is: can the goal of architectural quality be maintained together with greater possibilities for individual development...... research results will be employed to create a categorization of housing suitable for changing life conditions and with a strong emphasis on high architectural quality...

  7. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  8. Effects of adaptation on neural coding by primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, H; Theunissen, F; Miller, J P

    1997-01-01

    Methods of stochastic systems analysis were applied to examine the effect of adaptation on frequency encoding by two functionally identical primary interneurons of the cricket cercal system. Stimulus reconstructions were obtained from a linear filtering transformation of spike trains elicited in response to bursts of broadband white noise air current stimuli (5-400 Hz). Each linear reconstruction was compared with the actual stimulus in the frequency domain to obtain a measure of waveform coding accuracy as a function of frequency. The term adaptation in this paper refers to the decrease in firing rate of a cell after the onset or increase in power of a white noise stimulus. The increase in firing rate after stimulus offset or decrease in stimulus power is assumed to be a complementary aspect of the same phenomenon. As the spike rate decreased during the course of adaptation, the total amount of information carried about the velocity waveform of the stimulus also decreased. The quality of coding of frequencies between 70 and 400 Hz decreased dramatically. The quality of coding of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz decreased only slightly or even increased in some cases. The disproportionate loss of information about the higher frequencies could be attributed in part to the more rapid loss of spikes correlated with high-frequency stimulus components than of spikes correlated with low-frequency components. An increase in the responsiveness of a cell to frequencies > 70 Hz was correlated with a decrease in the ability of that cell to encode frequencies in the 5-70 Hz range. This nonlinear property could explain the improvement seen in some cases in the coding accuracy of frequencies between 5 and 70 Hz during the course of adaptation. Waveform coding properties also were characterized for fully adapted neurons at several stimulus intensities. The changes in coding observed through the course of adaptation were similar in nature to those found across stimulus powers

  9. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  10. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  11. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  12. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  13. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  14. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  15. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  16. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  17. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Schuepfen house, Schuepfen, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.

    1999-07-01

    This row (terrace) house, incorporates a PV-powered closed-loop solar system constructed in 1985. It was rebuilt 10 years later to incorporate a water storage tank for domestic hot water production in the summer. The system delivers 2600 kWh of heat per year, saving approximately 450 kg of wood and 1200 kWh of electricity. (author)

  19. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  20. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  1. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  2. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  3. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  4. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  5. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  6. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  7. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  8. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  9. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  10. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  11. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  12. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  13. Allergy-Proof Your House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vent moisture outside. Temperature and humidity. Hot, humid houses are breeding grounds for dust mites and mold. ... Smoking. Don't allow smoking anywhere inside your house. References Allergens and irritants. National Institute of Environmental ...

  14. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  15. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  16. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  17. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  18. Can insects increase food security in developing countries? An analysis of Kenyan consumer preferences and demand for cricket flour buns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Achieving food security in an environmentally sustainable manner is one of the biggest challenges of our time. Using insects as food can serve this purpose because they are nutritionally valuable and environmentally friendly. Embracing insects as food requires information on potential consumer...... demand as this would determine the success of product development. In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of consumer demand for an insect-based food. We assessed the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts...... market shares than standard buns. Results also suggested that a market for breads made with cricket flour is likely in Kenya since the demand is present. This signals that insect-based food products may serve as a viable and demand-driven way to increase food security in Kenya in the future....

  19. GeneKnockout by Targeted Mutagenesis in a Hemimetabolous Insect, the Two-Spotted Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, using TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahito; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal. These insects include many deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome-editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species. TALENs are artificial nucleases that are capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks into specified target sequences. Here, we describe a protocol for TALEN-based gene knockout in G. bimaculatus, including a mutant selection scheme via mutation detection assays, for generating homozygous knockout organisms.

  20. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a basis for chemosensory self-referencing in crickets: a potentially universal mechanism facilitating polyandry in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddle, Carie B; Steiger, Sandra; Hamaker, Christopher G; Ower, Geoffrey D; Mitchell, Christopher; Sakaluk, Scott K; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    Females of many species obtain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer novel males over previous mates. However, how do females recognise previous mates, particularly in the face of cognitive constraints? Female crickets appear to have evolved a simple but effective solution: females imbue males with their own cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) at mating and utilise chemosensory self-referencing to recognise recent mates. Female CHC profiles exhibited significant additive genetic variation, demonstrating that genetically unique chemical cues are available to support chemosensory self-referencing. CHC profiles of males became more similar to those of females after mating, indicating physical transfer of CHCs between individuals during copulation. Experimental perfuming of males with female CHCs resulted in a female aversion to males bearing chemical cues similar to their own. Chemosensory self-referencing, therefore, could be a widespread mechanism by which females increase the diversity of their mating partners. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Mechanisms of frequency-specific responses of omega neuron 1 in crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus): a polysynaptic pathway for song?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Z; Pollack, G S

    2001-04-01

    In crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus), the auditory interneuron omega neuron 1 (ON1) responds to sounds over a wide range of frequencies but is most sensitive to the frequency of conspecific songs (4.5 kHz). Response latency is longest for this same frequency. We investigate the mechanisms that might account for the longer latency of ON1 to cricket-like sounds. Intracellular recordings revealed no evidence for appropriately timed postsynaptic inhibition of ON1 that might increase its latency, nor was latency affected by picrotoxin. The onset of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was delayed for 4.5 kHz stimuli compared with ultrasound stimuli, pointing to a presynaptic locus for the latency difference. When ON1 is stimulated with high frequencies, discrete, apparently unitary EPSPs can be recorded in its dendrite, and these are latency-locked to spikes recorded simultaneously in the auditory nerve. This suggests that input to ON1 from high-frequency-tuned auditory receptor neurons is monosynaptic. In agreement with this, brief ultrasound stimuli evoke a single, short-latency EPSP in ON1. In contrast, the EPSP evoked by a brief 4.5 kHz stimulus consists of an early component, similar in latency to that evoked by ultrasound and possibly evoked by ultrasound-tuned receptors, and a later, dominant component. We interpret the early peak as arising from a monosynaptic afferent pathway and the late peak from a polysynaptic afferent pathway. Multiple-peak EPSPs, with timing similar to those evoked by sound stimuli, were also evoked by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve.

  2. Neural basis of stimulus-angle-dependent motor control of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent 'escape behavior' from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control wind

  3. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  4. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    an understanding of the built environment as a spatial continuum that is in constant alteration. When we engage in the renovation of a building, we inevitably enter into a dialogue with this continuum. The motivation to alter an existing building may be decay and change in the use, or, as has been the case...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  5. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    and flow of trade acrosss the Indian Ocean. Today the regional port is in Nacala, provincial capital is Nampula, and the only economic future for Ilha, currently a small sleepy city of ca 18.000 people on the island and 45.000 in the municipal district, seems to be tourism development. The little island...... for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... "Moçambicanidade", an official cultural policy of strengthening a national identity. Now parts of "the community" in Ilha with cultural links northwards, may see new tourism routes along old trading routes and a new academic interest in the Indian Ocean as a cultural space, as an opportunity to redefine themselves...

  6. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  7. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  8. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  9. It’s Not [Just] Cricket: The Art and Politics of the Popular – Cultural Imperialism, ‘Sly Civility’ & Postcolonial Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashutosh Gowariker’s critically acclaimed Lagaan (2001, is a marvellous piece of cinematic troubling, which, via an astute use of allegory, reflects upon identity politics and power relations in both colonial and postcolonial contexts. Bringing two cornerstones of Indian popular culture together, namely cricket and Hindi formulae films, Gowariker produces an engagingly, affective alchemy of image and sound, which intervenes critically in the discourses of British colonial rule. This article’s intention is to demonstrate the mimetic devices inherent in Lagaan’s narrative, and how they mirror the regional resilience evident in the global success of both popular Indian cinema and the Indian performance of cricket. The sport of cricket and its role and effectiveness within a larger colonial project, is contextualized and reconsidered by tracing some resistant tangents in the sports evolution and performance in the Asia Pacific region. Making the most of the South Asian diaspora, which has exploited the networks and routes of the former British Empire, Indian popular cinema, likewise, serves to illustrate the point that local cultural dynamics can add their own nuances to global media flows. Interdisciplinary approaches are required to traverse within and between cultures, and to underscore the deep currents of contestation, as well as the radical and often surprising politics that characterise popular culture. In this respect, a range of scholars from different fields of study are consulted; Ashis Nandy, Arjun Appadurai, Chandrima Chakraborty and Homi Bhabha amongst them. Their voices will help to open up uncertainties in the conventional discourses, and to articulate some of the cultural politics and poetics at play in Lagaan specifically and the performance of cricket more generally.

  10. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  11. Processing of species-specific auditory patterns in the cricket brain by ascending, local, and descending neurons during standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, M; Hedwig, B

    2011-05-01

    The recognition of the male calling song is essential for phonotaxis in female crickets. We investigated the responses toward different models of song patterns by ascending, local, and descending neurons in the brain of standing and walking crickets. We describe results for two ascending, three local, and two descending interneurons. Characteristic dendritic and axonal arborizations of the local and descending neurons indicate a flow of auditory information from the ascending interneurons toward the lateral accessory lobes and point toward the relevance of this brain region for cricket phonotaxis. Two aspects of auditory processing were studied: the tuning of interneuron activity to pulse repetition rate and the precision of pattern copying. Whereas ascending neurons exhibited weak, low-pass properties, local neurons showed both low- and band-pass properties, and descending neurons represented clear band-pass filters. Accurate copying of single pulses was found at all three levels of the auditory pathway. Animals were walking on a trackball, which allowed an assessment of the effect that walking has on auditory processing. During walking, all neurons were additionally activated, and in most neurons, the spike rate was correlated to walking velocity. The number of spikes elicited by a chirp increased with walking only in ascending neurons, whereas the peak instantaneous spike rate of the auditory responses increased on all levels of the processing pathway. Extra spiking activity resulted in a somewhat degraded copying of the pulse pattern in most neurons.

  12. Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorka, K. M. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Copeland, E. K. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Winterhalter, W. E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-07-18

    To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments.

  13. The anatomical structure and physiological function of cricket visual system%蟋蟀视觉系统的解剖结构与生理机能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷雪; 谢璐; 那杰

    2009-01-01

    The visual system of cricket is composed of ocelli, compound eyes and optic lobes. The ocelli of cricket are called dorsal ocelli, which consists of comea, comeagenous cells, and the retina etc. The ocelli of insects are to improve the perception of visual stimuli excited about the level of the excitation site. The compound eye of cricket is the most important organ of visual system. It is composed of cornea, crystalline conel, rhabdom, retinula cell and basement membrane. It is a center of photo and visual transduction cascade reaction. Optic lobe, the center of vision system, is constituted by lamina, medulla and lobula.%蟋蟀视觉系统由单眼、复眼、视叶三部分组成.蟋蟀的单眼为背单眼,由角膜、角膜生成细胞、视网膜等组成,是提高昆虫复眼所感知的视觉刺激的兴奋水平部位;复眼是最主要的视觉器官,由角膜、晶锥、感杆束和网膜细胞、基膜组成,是光电转导和视觉级联反应的中心;视叶由神经节层、外髓和内髓组成,是视觉神经系统的中心.

  14. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  15. Vigander house, Stavanger, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty solar buildings have been constructed in the Stavanger region, the majority with facade or roof- integrated solar air systems for space heating and/or heating of domestic hot water. The Vigander house is a typical example of architectural integration of a solar facade collector coupled to a hollow concrete floor heat distribution system. The concrete floor is 44 m{sup 2}. The system has been in uninterrupted service since 1989. The total additional costs for the whole system were US $2500 (ECU 2270). The occupants are extremely positive about the system. (author)

  16. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  17. Allying health care and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  18. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  19. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  20. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  1. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  2. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  3. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  4. Who now handles social housing provision - the role and performance of housing associations:

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Coatham

    1995-01-01

    In Britain, Housing Associations are organizations whose prime objectives are to develop and manage housing for people in housing need and who are on low incomes. They are sometimes referred to as the “voluntary housing sector” or the “third arm” of rented housing provisions, separate from private sector landlords and rented housing provided by statutory local (municipal) housing authorities. This article discusses the role of housing associations in the UK housing market.

  5. Postsynaptic inhibition mediates high-frequency selectivity in the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: implications for flight phonotaxis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, T G; Hoy, R R

    1987-07-01

    The frequency selectivity of the identified auditory interneuron, Int-1, in the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was examined using intracellular recording and staining techniques. Previous behavioral assays showed that crickets discriminate the low frequencies of the species calling song (4-5 kHz) from the high frequencies contained in the vocalizations of insectivorous bats (Nolen and Hoy, 1986a). Int-1 was excited by frequencies between 3 and 40 kHz, being similar, therefore, to the tympal organ (ear) in its broad range sensitivity; however, it responded differentially to high and low frequencies in terms of the number of action potentials evoked per stimulus tone pulse, the average discharge rate, and the latency of response. It was especially responsive to ultrasound (greater than 20 kHz), discharging at rates up to 400 spikes/sec (average rate), with 10 msec latencies; its response to pulses of the calling song was less than 150 spikes/sec, with 30 msec latencies. Int-1's dynamic range for ultrasound was also quite large, about 50 dB, compared to 20 dB for the calling song frequency. In addition, it responded well to trains of short, batlike pulses of ultrasound. These results are consistent with previous behavioral experiments showing that during flight, Int-1 was both necessary and sufficient for the ultrasound avoidance steering behavior (Nolen and Hoy, 1984), as long as it discharged above a rate of 180 spikes/sec. Ultrasound readily produced such high rates, whereas calling song rarely did; ultrasound reliably evoked avoidance steering over a wide dynamic range, while tone pulses of the calling song rarely did so (Nolen and Hoy, 1986a). A unique source of ipsilaterally mediated inhibition, tuned to the calling song frequency, accounted for the poor response to calling song and hence the neuron's high-frequency selectivity, and the behavioral and physiological effects of 2-tone suppression of high frequencies by the calling song (Nolen and Hoy, 1986b

  6. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  7. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  8. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    especially for the A&D architectural program and its intention of combining architectural and engineering skills in design work where ‘artistic learning, the creation of ideas, and an ability to see new possibilities and be creative become just as important parameters as the ability to identify problems....... Thus, if one wants to realistically solve the issue of sustainable housing design one must address the intertwined aspects of building construction, urban density and neighborhood qualities which calls for an interdisciplinary design approach. This paper tells of a thoroughly tested civil engineering...... education program at university master level dealing with the complex issue of combining zero energy building with dense urban living for children families. 2. Methodology The students are recommended to use the Integrated Design Process-method as described by Mary-Ann Knudstrup, that has been developed...

  9. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  10. Lenherr house, Schwyz, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filleux, C.

    1999-07-01

    This house includes an unusual window collector as the outer glazing of a sun space that covers the entire south facade. Thus, the living area behind the sun space is buffered from heat losses as well as sheltered from the overheating which can occur in rooms directly behind large areas of glazing. The combination of sun space and window collector reduces the heating load by approximately 30%. The collector heated air is channelled through insulated hollow core floors and walls by fans. The stored heat is later passively released to the rooms. This closed-loop charging-radiant discharging solar system also reduces the heating load by 30%, making a 60% overall reduction. (author)

  11. Frei house, Nueziders, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Frei house incorporates an air collector, a rock bed and hollow-core constructions for storage and distribution, leaving a requirement for only 17 kWh/m{sup a} (kWh/m{sup 2} per annum) for auxiliary heat in an average season. The system has minimal technical equipment, simple controls and only one fan. The back-draught dampers are self-operating. Another attribute is the high level of thermal comfort provided by the radiant heat from the hypocausts and murocausts. A wood stove in the cellar can supply hot air to the hypo/ murocausts if required. The larger part of the domestic hot water is solar heated by a heat exchanger in the duct from the air collector. (author)

  12. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    settled at the age of 30-35, and the last generation has yet to settle. In the course of this research project, it is of interest to examine the modern family home offered to each generation by the architects drawing houses at that time. Therefore the following periods of time span was investigated: 1950...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been......-55, 1970-75 and 1990-95. The purpose of the research is to explore the relationship between the physical space and the social patterns taking place in the modern family home during the investigated time frames....

  13. House While Woman Grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Öymen Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on woman/space relations boomed in the 90s. The fundamental reason was to give support to the Feminist Movement. This trend which has had feeble effect on architectural design remained controversial. The comprehensive research expounded in this article which was based on an open-ended questionnaire that targeted at determining the gender roles at home, applied to female subjects who simulated the national demographics, clearly demonstrated that the home experience of an average Turkish woman basically consists of kitchens; the female who runs the house does not really have a place for herself at home. However she does not perceive her restrained, secondary role an issue worthy of struggling to change and she grants spaces for recreation and study to the male. The well-established civil laws conducive for equality has not changed this disturbing situation and do not seem to do so in the near future.

  14. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  15. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    to the Danish and Swedish housing regimes are analysed and the responses and outcomes in terms of policy change and/or institutional continuity (path dependence) are compared. Overall, the more decentralized Danish housing regime seems to have resisted pressures for change and retrenchment better so far than...

  16. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  17. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  18. Renewal of Postwar Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses Danish postwar housing architecture in relation to the concept of ‘everyday tectonics’. It is argued that the extensive criticism of the architecture of the postwar housing developments is probably linked to their tectonic qualities, but that, to an even higher degree, it is a...

  19. Quality assurance for passive houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    For newly built houses national ambitions prescribe increasing levels of energy performances, even including achieving net zero energy or carbon neutral houses. This is in large contrast with the lack of quality in many building processes. The building regulations, processes and control will have to

  20. Studies on Dutch Housing Corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    One third of all dwellings in the Netherlands is owned by housing corporations. These are privately governed institutions executing a public task (social housing). Recently, corporations have received negative attention due to various incidents (such as fraud and excessive risk-taking). This put pre

  1. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  2. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    that the institutional differences between the Swedish model of municipal ownership and the Danish model of independent cooperative social housing associations provides different sources of resistance to the prospective dismantlement of social housing as we know it. The fifth section presents the recent Danish reform......It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...

  3. Malpighian Tubule Cells in Overwintering Cave Crickets Troglophilus cavicola (Kollar, 1833 and T. neglectus Krauss, 1879 (Rhaphidophoridae, Ensifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Lipovšek

    Full Text Available During winter, cave cricket larvae undergo dormancy in subterranean habitats; this dormancy is termed diapause in second year Troglophilus cavicola larvae because they mature during this time, and termed quiescence in T. neglectus, because they mature after dormancy. Here we used electron microscopy to analyze ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells in the Malpighian tubules (MTs of T. cavicola during diapause, in order to compare them with previous findings on T. neglectus. Moreover, the autophagosomes were studied with immunofluorescence microscopy in both species. Although the basic ultrastructure of the cells was similar, specific differences appeared during overwintering. During this natural starvation period, the nucleus, rER, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria did not show structural changes, and the spherites were exploited. The abundances of autophagic structures in both species increased during overwintering. At the beginning of overwintering, in both species and sexes, the rates of cells with autophagic structures (phagophores, autophagosomes, autolysosomes and residual bodies were low, while their rates increased gradually towards the end of overwintering. Between sexes, in T. cavicola significant differences were found in the autophagosome abundances in the middle and at the end, and in T. neglectus at the end of overwintering. Females showed higher rates of autophagic cells than males, and these were more abundant in T. cavicola. Thus, autophagic processes in the MT epithelial cells induced by starvation are mostly parallel in diapausing T. cavicola and quiescent T. neglectus, but more intensive in diapausing females.

  4. Malpighian Tubule Cells in Overwintering Cave Crickets Troglophilus cavicola (Kollar, 1833) and T. neglectus Krauss, 1879 (Rhaphidophoridae, Ensifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovšek, Saška; Novak, Tone; Janžekovič, Franc; Weiland, Nina; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    During winter, cave cricket larvae undergo dormancy in subterranean habitats; this dormancy is termed diapause in second year Troglophilus cavicola larvae because they mature during this time, and termed quiescence in T. neglectus, because they mature after dormancy. Here we used electron microscopy to analyze ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells in the Malpighian tubules (MTs) of T. cavicola during diapause, in order to compare them with previous findings on T. neglectus. Moreover, the autophagosomes were studied with immunofluorescence microscopy in both species. Although the basic ultrastructure of the cells was similar, specific differences appeared during overwintering. During this natural starvation period, the nucleus, rER, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria did not show structural changes, and the spherites were exploited. The abundances of autophagic structures in both species increased during overwintering. At the beginning of overwintering, in both species and sexes, the rates of cells with autophagic structures (phagophores, autophagosomes, autolysosomes and residual bodies) were low, while their rates increased gradually towards the end of overwintering. Between sexes, in T. cavicola significant differences were found in the autophagosome abundances in the middle and at the end, and in T. neglectus at the end of overwintering. Females showed higher rates of autophagic cells than males, and these were more abundant in T. cavicola. Thus, autophagic processes in the MT epithelial cells induced by starvation are mostly parallel in diapausing T. cavicola and quiescent T. neglectus, but more intensive in diapausing females.

  5. Selective processing of calling songs by auditory interneurons in the female cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus: possible roles in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jason; Navia, Benjamin; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2005-05-01

    Female crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), caught in the field as nymphs, responded as adults in the laboratory with selective phonotaxis to model calling songs (CSs) that reproduced the dominant carrier frequencies and syllable periods (SPs) characteristic of the male's natural calling song. Extracellular recordings demonstrated two types of auditory interneurons in the female's cervical connectives that were very similar to the AN1 and AN2 neurons previously described in other gryllid species. The AN2 neuron responded to model CSs with a phasically encoded immediate response, and a more tonically encoded prolonged response. AN2's immediate response exhibited SP-dependent decreases (termed decrement) in its responses to sequential syllables of the CS that were greatest to CSs with the shortest SPs and diminished as SPs were lengthened, resulting in an SP-dependent habituation. Picrotoxin application transformed this SP-dependent habituation by AN2 to SP-selective responses in which the degree of decrement was greatest to SPs that were most phonotactically attractive. AN2's prolonged response was most sensitive to 5 kHz CSs and correlated with the carrier frequency tuning for the thresholds of phonotaxis by females. Thus, in females, AN2's immediate (in the presence of picrotoxin) and prolonged responses were selectively tuned to the SPs and carrier frequencies of the male's calls that were most attractive behaviorally. AN1's responses at threshold were also tuned to the dominant carrier frequencies of the male's CS.

  6. Age-dependent occurrence of an ascending axon on the omega neuron of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G; Pollack, G S

    1986-01-22

    The omega neurons (ON1s) are a mirror-symmetrical pair of identified prothoracic auditory interneurons of crickets which have been previously described as intraganglionic. Using intracellular techniques we stained ON1s of female Teleogryllus oceanicus and found that many ON1s have axons which project anteriorly out of the prothoracic ganglion. The ascending axon arises contralateral to the soma at the most anteriolateral bend of the bow-shaped process of an otherwise "archetypical" ON1 and travels up the neck connective in a ventral position just inside the connective tissue sheath. The occurrence of the ascending axon is age-dependent. Seventy-five percent of ON1s stained in late nymphal stages and in young adults had an ascending axon while only 30% of ON1s in older adults had an ascending axon. Evidence is presented to show that ON1s having ascending axons are developmental variants of the "archetypical" ON1 and do not represent a separate neuron type. The two morphological types of ON1s are not distinguishable on the basis of their responses to sound stimuli having carrier frequencies of 3.5-60 kHz. Although we know that the ascending axon conducts action potentials, its target and terminal morphology are not yet known.

  7. Diurnal and circadian rhythm in compound eye of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus): changes in structure and photon capture efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, Midori; Takasuga, Kyo; Watanabe, Mami; Eguchi, Eisuke

    2003-07-01

    Day-night changes in rhabdom size of compound eyes were investigated in three groups of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus): nymphs and adult males and females. In both adults and nymphs, the rhabdoms were larger at night than during a day. In adults, the mean rhabdom occupation ratios (RORs) of ommatidial retinulae at midnight were about two times greater than the values at midday. This change contributes to control of the photon capture efficiency (PCE) of the eye according to photic environment. The RORs of adult males at midnight were higher than those of both adult females and nymphs. This suggests that the PCE of the compound eye of adult males is the greatest of all groups. Under constant darkness, day-night changes in ROR were detected only in adult males, but neither in adult females nor in nymphs. On the other hand, no day-night changes were detected in any experimental group under constant light. These results suggest that the change in rhabdom size between day and night is an adaptation to the photic environment that is controlled mainly by the light-dark (day-night) cycle. However, the change in male adults is induced by an endogenous circadian clock.

  8. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  9. Phalangopsidae crickets from Tropical Africa (Orthoptera, Grylloidea), with descriptions of new taxa and an identification key for African genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2015-04-22

    New Phalangopsidae crickets are described from tropical Africa, including three new genera and ten new species: Afrophaloria Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Afrophaloria amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Afrophaloria apiariensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Afrophaloria hempae Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria gabonensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria nigricornis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria trimaculata Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Phasmagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Phasmagryllus elegans Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Upupagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Upupagryllus subalatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, and Upupagryllus alatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. All these taxa, except Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., belong to the subfamily Phaloriinae. The subfamily is redefined, to take into account their morphological (apterous taxa) and ecological (straminicolous taxa) diversity. A key for phalangopsid African genera is proposed, and the status of Larandeicus Chopard, 1937 briefly discussed.

  10. Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera, Grylloidea: mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first three cases in which male crickets monopolize females by means of mating plugs. The origin of the plugs vary among the cases (i.e., they are not homologous. Female monogamy is assured by the permanent presence of the plug attached to their genitalia after first mating, while males are potentially polygamous. The presence of an additional clasping structure and the occurrence of forced copulation are also described.Este trabalho descreve os primeiros três casos em que grilos machos monopolizam suas fêmeas através de plugues de acasalamento. A origem dessas estruturas varia entre os casos (i.e., não há homologia entre as mesmas. A monogamia feminina é assegurada pela presença permanente do plugue de acasalamento aderido a sua genitália após a primeira cópula, enquanto que os machos são potencialmente poligâmicos. Descrevem-se ainda a presença de clásper adicional e a ocorrência de cópulas forçadas.

  11. Artificial selection on male longevity influences age-dependent reproductive effort in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Spyrou, Nicolle; Brooks, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Although the trade-off between reproductive effort and longevity is central to both sexual selection and evolutionary theories of aging, there has been little synthesis between these fields. Here, we selected directly on adult longevity of male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus and measured the correlated responses of age-dependent male reproductive effort, female lifetime fecundity, and several other life-history traits. Male longevity responded significantly to five generations of divergent selection. Males from downward-selected lines commenced calling sooner and reached their peak calling effort at a younger age. They called more per night and, despite living less than half as long, called more overall than males selected for increased longevity. Females from the downward-selected lines lived significantly shorter lives than females from the upward-selected lines but still produced the same number of offspring. Nymph survival, development time, and body size and weight at eclosion did not show significant correlated response to selection on male longevity, despite evidence for substantial genetic variation in each of these traits. Collectively, our findings directly support the antagonistic pleiotropy model of aging and suggest an important role for sexual selection in the aging process.

  12. The role of quadratus lumborum asymmetry in the occurrence of lesions in the lumbar vertebrae of cricket fast bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Hans; Adam, Clayton J; Crozier, Stuart; Pearcy, Mark J

    2007-10-01

    In cricket fast bowlers an increased incidence of stress fractures or lesions in the L4 pars interarticularis is observed, which shows a strong statistical correlation with the presence of hypertrophy in the contralateral Quadratus Lumborum (QL) muscle. This study aims to find a physical explanation for this correlation. A mathematical model was used to estimate the forces and moments on the L3 and L4 vertebrae in six postures attained during fast bowling. These forces and moments were used in finite element models to estimate the stresses in the pars interarticularis. Two scenarios were examined per posture: symmetric QL muscles, and right QL muscle volume 30% enlarged. Influence of muscle activation was also investigated. QL asymmetry only correlates with significant stress increases when stress levels are relatively low. When stress levels are high, due to extreme posture or muscle activation, asymmetry only causes small stress changes, suggesting that asymmetry is not the cause of stress fractures in the pars. There are even indications that asymmetry might help to reduce stresses, but more detailed knowledge of the size and activation of the lumbar muscles is needed to confirm this.

  13. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera.

  14. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  15. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  16. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  17. Smart (Domotic houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Herrera Quintero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of telecomunications via the use of Internet has led to IP network integration. Many networks have been working successfully and have been fundamental for many areas in measuring the automation of data, thus allowing researchers and professionals to have a wider view of production in various sectors. Remote control has been developed throught technological innovation making an enviroment consisting of human interaction based on telecommunications and control systems ever more tangible. Technological development has led to an infinite range of everyday deveices being remotely controlled via Internet, the human voice, a cell-phone or normal phone keyboard or a PALM, pocket PC or desktop computer. Amongst the new activities which can be controlled in a person's house via a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant would be the degree of illumination; such activities are defined as being domotic. The word domotic refers to integrating several areas of knowledge such as telecommunications, electronics, informatics and electricity to improve human beings' quality of life, thus aiding Colombian society's growth.

  18. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  19. Housing Policy in Ghana: The Feasible Paths

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... University for Development Studies, Wa Campus, Ghana ... Keywords: Housing Policy, Housing Finance, Planning Controls, Housing Research, Ghana ...... How To Motivate Faster Growth in Colombia: The Leading Sector.

  20. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  1. Nutritional physiology of life-history trade-offs: how food protein-carbohydrate content influences life-history traits in the wing-polymorphic cricket Gryllus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca M; Zera, Anthony J; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-01-15

    Although life-history trade-offs result from the differential acquisition and allocation of nutritional resources to competing physiological functions, many aspects of this topic remain poorly understood. Wing-polymorphic insects, which possess alternative morphs that trade off allocation to flight capability versus early reproduction, provide a good model system for exploring this topic. In this study, we used the wing-polymorphic cricket Gryllus firmus to test how expression of the flight capability versus reproduction trade-off was modified across a heterogeneous protein-carbohydrate nutritional landscape. Newly molted adult female long- and short-winged crickets were given one of 13 diets with different concentrations and ratios of protein and digestible carbohydrate; for each cricket, we measured consumption patterns, growth and allocation to reproduction (ovary mass) versus flight muscle maintenance (flight muscle mass and somatic lipid stores). Feeding responses in both morphs were influenced more by total macronutrient concentration than by protein-carbohydrate ratio, except at high-macronutrient concentration, where protein-carbohydrate balance was important. Mass gain tended to be greatest on protein-biased diets for both morphs, but was consistently lower across all diets for long-winged females. When long-winged females were fed high-carbohydrate foods, they accumulated greater somatic lipid stores; on high-protein foods, they accumulated greater somatic protein stores. Food protein-carbohydrate content also affected short-winged females (selected for early reproductive onset), which showed dramatic increases in ovary size, including ovarian stores of lipid and protein, on protein-biased foods. This is the first study to show how the concentration and ratio of dietary protein and carbohydrate affects consumption and allocation to key physiological features associated with the reproduction-dispersal life-history trade-off. © 2015. Published by The

  2. The thoracic morphology of the wingless dune cricket Comicus calcaris (Orthoptera: Schizodactylidae): Novel apomorphic characters for the group and adaptations to sand desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, Fanny; Bradler, Sven; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Schizodactylidae, splay-footed or dune crickets, represents a distinct lineage among the highly diverse orthopteran subgroup Ensifera (crickets, katydids and allies). Only two extant genera belong to the Schizodactylidae: the winged Eurasian genus Schizodactylus, whose ecology and morphology is well documented, and the wingless South African Comicus, for which hardly any studies providing morphological descriptions have been conducted since its taxonomic description in 1888. Based on the first in-depth study of the skeletomuscular system of the thorax of Comicus calcaris Irish 1986, we provide information on some unique characteristics of this character complex in Schizodactylidae. They include a rigid connection of prospinasternite and mesosternum, a T-shaped mesospina, and a fused meso- and metasternum. Although Schizodactylidae is mainly characterized by group-specific anatomical traits of the thorax, its bifurcated profuca supports a closer relationship to the tettigonioid ensiferans, like katydids, wetas, and hump-winged crickets. Some specific features of the thoracic musculature of Comicus seem to be correlated to the skeletal morphology, e.g., due to the rigid connection of the tergites and pleurites in the pterothorax not a single direct flight muscle is developed. We show that many of the thoracic adaptations in these insects are directly related to their psammophilous way of life. These include a characteristic setation of thoracic sclerites that prevent sand grains from intrusion into vulnerable membranous areas, the striking decrease in size of the thoracic spiracles that reduces the respirational water loss, and a general trend towards a fusion of sclerites in the thorax. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 基于单片机的蟋蟀玩具机器人研制%Development of the Cricket Toy Robot Based on Single-Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春蓝

    2012-01-01

    Service robot is one main direction of cutting edge research about today's robot. And toy robot is one important branch of service robot. The paper takes the cricket toy robot as an example, introduces the working principles, software and hardware of the System. In the cricket toy robot, single-chip STC89C51 is used as the controller. Signals from photoelectric triode and micro switch can be sent to the single-chip for further processing. Then output signals from the single-chip will drive motors. It can simulate the cricket fighting.%服务机器人是当前机器人及其相关领域前沿研究的一个主攻方向,其中的玩具机器人是服务机器人的一个重要分支.该文以蟋蟀玩具机器人为例,介绍了蟋蟀机器人的系统功能原理和软、硬件系统组成.蟋蟀玩具机器入以STC89C51单片机作为控制器,通过光电三极管和触碰开关等传感器,将输入信号传输给单片机进行处理和控制,单片机的输出信号再驱动多个电机旋转,可以模拟实现斗蟋蟀的过程.

  4. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. ... that the quality of housing can make a big difference in the extent of, and costs related to, ... the survey and the subsequent analyses of data.

  5. Housing authority of Baltimore City-Public Housing Energy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, T. S. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project operating at the Goddard Space Flight Center was called upon by the Housing Authority of Baltimore City to consider the problems of providing low cost public housing because of increased energy costs and suggest methods for correction and alleviation. The first step chosen was to elicit as many different options for solution as possible through means of a Public Housing Energy Workshop held in Easton, Md. in September 1980. A final role for the Workshop was a listing and qualifying of each alternative as to its suitability and cost. Specific areas were examined by three panels: (1) Systems, (2) Conservation and Motivation, and (3) Fuels. Each panel was made up of persons from differing but appropriate backgrounds; membership was not restricted to housing people alone. A summary of their deliberations is given - it will be used as a stepping stone to further selection and implementation of alternatives.

  6. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and the neighbourhood unity is a challenge for urban planners. However they represent good value for money, cost little to build, suit traditional inheritence patterns, allow independent life at low cost and allow sharing of services with a finite and known group (albeit within a potential conflictive domain). Compound...... of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...

  7. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  8. Architectural Strategies of Transformation to Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark......This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark...

  9. BoundaryOther_HOUS2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The House district lines for this layer were determined from maps posted on the Vermont Legislature website (http://www.leg.state.vt.us/reports/02redistricting/),...

  10. Ad Hoc Housing at Hofstra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    To meet an increased demand for campus housing, Hofstra University (New York) converted double dormitory rooms to triples. Specially designed furniture allowing each student personal space was the key to acceptance by the students. (Author/MLF)

  11. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  12. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  13. NPScape Metric GIS Data - Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape housing metrics are calculated using outputs from the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model. Metric GIS datasets are produced seamlessly for the United...

  14. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  15. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  16. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  17. The House that NASA Built

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Tech House, located at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, is a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined to produce an energy-efficient home. Advanced technology offers savings to the family in utility costs and energy conservation. Solar panels on the roof of tech house provide the principal energy saving. They capture the sun's rays to heat water in pipes that run through the solar collectors. The heated water is then stored in a large, well insulated underground tank. A heat exchanger extracts beat from the water and blows it through ducts to warm the house. Tech House is well insulated for energy savings. The principal insulation is fireproof Tripolymer foam which is sprayed onto walls and ceilings in thicknesses up to six inches.

  18. Chapter Houses, Navajo Nation, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing Chapter Houses in the Navajo Nation. Chapter Name is included in the Attributes. This dataset contains 111...

  19. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  20. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  1. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast - whose data forms the basis of this wind atlas - is placed. The paper will describe an experiment, where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  2. Reproductive behaviour in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. II. Neural control of the genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M; Sakai, M

    2001-03-01

    To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion.

  3. Solutions to the cocktail party problem in insects: selective filters, spatial release from masking and gain control in tropical crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne K D Schmidt

    Full Text Available Insects often communicate by sound in mixed species choruses; like humans and many vertebrates in crowded social environments they thus have to solve cocktail-party-like problems in order to ensure successful communication with conspecifics. This is even more a problem in species-rich environments like tropical rainforests, where background noise levels of up to 60 dB SPL have been measured.Using neurophysiological methods we investigated the effect of natural background noise (masker on signal detection thresholds in two tropical cricket species Paroecanthus podagrosus and Diatrypa sp., both in the laboratory and outdoors. We identified three 'bottom-up' mechanisms which contribute to an excellent neuronal representation of conspecific signals despite the masking background. First, the sharply tuned frequency selectivity of the receiver reduces the amount of masking energy around the species-specific calling song frequency. Laboratory experiments yielded an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of -8 dB, when masker and signal were broadcast from the same side. Secondly, displacing the masker by 180° from the signal improved SNRs by further 6 to 9 dB, a phenomenon known as spatial release from masking. Surprisingly, experiments carried out directly in the nocturnal rainforest yielded SNRs of about -23 dB compared with those in the laboratory with the same masker, where SNRs reached only -14.5 and -16 dB in both species. Finally, a neuronal gain control mechanism enhances the contrast between the responses to signals and the masker, by inhibition of neuronal activity in interstimulus intervals.Thus, conventional speaker playbacks in the lab apparently do not properly reconstruct the masking noise situation in a spatially realistic manner, since under real world conditions multiple sound sources are spatially distributed in space. Our results also indicate that without knowledge of the receiver properties and the spatial release mechanisms the

  4. Two Species with an Unusual Combination of Traits Dominate Responses of British Grasshoppers and Crickets to Environmental Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn C Beckmann

    Full Text Available There are large variations in the responses of species to the environmental changes of recent decades, heightening interest in whether their traits may explain inter-specific differences in range expansions and contractions. Using a long-term distributional dataset, we calculated range changes of grasshoppers and crickets in Britain between the 1980s and the 2000s and assessed whether their traits (resource use, life history, dispersal ability, geographic location explain relative performance of different species. Our analysis showed large changes in the distributions of some species, and we found a positive relationship between three traits and range change: ranges tended to increase for habitat generalists, species that oviposit in the vegetation above ground, and for those with a southerly distribution. These findings accord well with the nature of environmental changes over this period (climatic warming; reductions in the diversity and increases in the height of vegetation. However, the trait effects applied mainly to just two species, Conocephalus discolor and Metrioptera roeselii, which had shown the greatest range increases. Once they were omitted from the analysis, trait effects were no longer statistically significant. Previous studies on these two species emphasised wing-length dimorphism as the key to their success, resulting in a high phenotypic plasticity of dispersal and evolutionary-ecological feedback at their expanding range margins. This, combined with our results, suggests that an unusual combination of traits have enabled these two species to undertake extremely rapid responses to recent environmental changes. The fact that our results are dominated by two species only became apparent through cautious testing of the results' robustness, not through standard statistical checks. We conclude that trait-based analyses may contribute to the assessment of species responses to environmental change and provide insights into

  5. Two Species with an Unusual Combination of Traits Dominate Responses of British Grasshoppers and Crickets to Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Björn C; Purse, Bethan V; Roy, David B; Roy, Helen E; Sutton, Peter G; Thomas, Chris D

    2015-01-01

    There are large variations in the responses of species to the environmental changes of recent decades, heightening interest in whether their traits may explain inter-specific differences in range expansions and contractions. Using a long-term distributional dataset, we calculated range changes of grasshoppers and crickets in Britain between the 1980s and the 2000s and assessed whether their traits (resource use, life history, dispersal ability, geographic location) explain relative performance of different species. Our analysis showed large changes in the distributions of some species, and we found a positive relationship between three traits and range change: ranges tended to increase for habitat generalists, species that oviposit in the vegetation above ground, and for those with a southerly distribution. These findings accord well with the nature of environmental changes over this period (climatic warming; reductions in the diversity and increases in the height of vegetation). However, the trait effects applied mainly to just two species, Conocephalus discolor and Metrioptera roeselii, which had shown the greatest range increases. Once they were omitted from the analysis, trait effects were no longer statistically significant. Previous studies on these two species emphasised wing-length dimorphism as the key to their success, resulting in a high phenotypic plasticity of dispersal and evolutionary-ecological feedback at their expanding range margins. This, combined with our results, suggests that an unusual combination of traits have enabled these two species to undertake extremely rapid responses to recent environmental changes. The fact that our results are dominated by two species only became apparent through cautious testing of the results' robustness, not through standard statistical checks. We conclude that trait-based analyses may contribute to the assessment of species responses to environmental change and provide insights into underlying mechanisms, but

  6. Developmental gene discovery in a hemimetabolous insect: de novo assembly and annotation of a transcriptome for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zeng

    Full Text Available Most genomic resources available for insects represent the Holometabola, which are insects that undergo complete metamorphosis like beetles and flies. In contrast, the Hemimetabola (direct developing insects, representing the basal branches of the insect tree, have very few genomic resources. We have therefore created a large and publicly available transcriptome for the hemimetabolous insect Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket, a well-developed laboratory model organism whose potential for functional genetic experiments is currently limited by the absence of genomic resources. cDNA was prepared using mRNA obtained from adult ovaries containing all stages of oogenesis, and from embryo samples on each day of embryogenesis. Using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing, we sequenced over four million raw reads, and assembled them into 21,512 isotigs (predicted transcripts and 120,805 singletons with an average coverage per base pair of 51.3. We annotated the transcriptome manually for over 400 conserved genes involved in embryonic patterning, gametogenesis, and signaling pathways. BLAST comparison of the transcriptome against the NCBI non-redundant protein database (nr identified significant similarity to nr sequences for 55.5% of transcriptome sequences, and suggested that the transcriptome may contain 19,874 unique transcripts. For predicted transcripts without significant similarity to known sequences, we assessed their similarity to other orthopteran sequences, and determined that these transcripts contain recognizable protein domains, largely of unknown function. We created a searchable, web-based database to allow public access to all raw, assembled and annotated data. This database is to our knowledge the largest de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome resource available for any hemimetabolous insect. We therefore anticipate that these data will contribute significantly to more effective and higher-throughput deployment of molecular analysis tools in

  7. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory.

  8. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  9. A novel method of comparing mating success and survival reveals similar sexual and viability selection for mobility traits in female tree crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercit, K; Gwynne, D T

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sexual and viability selection in females is necessarily different than that in males, as investment in sexual traits potentially comes at the expense of both fecundity and survival. Accordingly, females do not usually invest in sexually selected traits. However, direct benefits obtained from mating, such as nuptial gifts, may encourage competition among females and subsidize investment into sexually selected traits. We compared sexual and viability selection on female tree crickets Oecanthus nigricornis, a species where females mate frequently to obtain nuptial gifts and sexual selection on females is likely. If male choice determines female mating success in this species, we expect sexual selection for fecundity traits, as males of many species prefer more fecund females. Alternatively, intrasexual scramble or combat competition on females may select for larger jumping legs or wider heads (respectively). We estimated mating success in wild caught crickets using microsatellite analysis of stored sperm and estimated relative viability by comparing surviving female O. nigricornis to those captured by a common wasp predator. In support of the scramble competition hypothesis, we found sexual selection for females with larger hind legs and narrower heads. We also found stabilizing viability selection for intermediate head width and hind leg size. As predicted, traits under viability and sexual selection were very similar, and the direction of that selection was not opposing. However, because the shape of sexual and viability selection differs, these episodes of selection may favour slightly different trait sizes.

  10. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  11. Tracking Changes in European Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the changing trends in the housing finance industry of Europe. The article further mentions that the modus operandi of the industry has remained stable amid economic fluctuations in the overall housing sector between 1990-2015. Moreover, the need to reduce the public spending...... on housing is considered as one of the reasons for introducing private housing finance....

  12. 24 CFR 954.103 - Housing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing strategy. 954.103 Section... INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.103 Housing strategy. Grantees are not required to submit a housing strategy to receive HOME funds. However, the application must demonstrate how...

  13. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. The paper shows that the spatial distribution of immigrants is strongly connected with the tenure composition...... of immigrants in social/public housing.......Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  14. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  15. Sustainable housing stock of housing corporations; Woningcorporaties verduurzamen bestaande voorraad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Helm, F.; Muller, G. [DOZ Energieregie, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Together with the Dutch government, housing corporations have formulated their sustainability ambitions in the covenant 'Energy saving housing corporations'. The covenant also focuses on living expenses. But what do these targets mean in practise? To what extent is it financially sound and what does it contribute?. [Dutch] Woningcorporaties hebben samen met de Nederlandse overheid hun duurzaamheidsambities geformuleerd in het convenant 'Energiebesparing corporatiesector'. Hierin wordt tevens aandacht besteed aan de woonlasten. Maar wat betekenen deze doelstellingen in de praktijk? Welke wijze en mate is financieel verantwoord en wat draagt het bij?.

  16. Social housing solutions for Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research today should focus on building a fairer and more sustainable longterm development model, compared to the present situation, capable of effectively meeting the political, economic, market and social demands. Social housing encompasses all these elements and is currently in a phase of applied experimentation. For some time now universities have been usefully contributing to furthering the issue of social housing and the time is now ripe to apply the results produced by the large number of researches in this field. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the design process and the environmental features of the Master Plan relating to a significant Social Housing project in the area of Collina Muratella, in Rome, within the framework of a research project commissioned to the DATA Department of La Sapienza University of Rome by the construction firm Lamaro Appalti Unipersonale spa.

  17. Problems of house arrest application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp

  18. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years in Denmark there has been an increasing focus on implementing passive and active strategies in buildings to fulfil low energy demands like for example the Passive House Standard. From a technical rational perspective, plenty of pilot projects and commercial projects have shown...... that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...

  19. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Pascalle M A; Hamers, Jan P H; Groot, Wim; Spreeuwenberg, Cor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati

  20. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.A. van Bilsen; J.P.H. Hamers; W. Groot; C. Spreeuwenberg

    2008-01-01

    Background: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati