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Sample records for hounsfield number conversion

  1. A method for conversion of Hounsfield number to electron density and prediction of macroscopic pair production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeoes, T.; Nilsson, M.; Ahlgren, L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the determination of electron density using a narrow beam attenuation geometry is described. The method does not require that the elemental composition of the phantom materials is known. The Hounsfield numbers for the phantom materials used were determined using five different CT scanners. A relationship between Hounsfield number and electron density can thus be established, which is of considerable value in radiation therapy treatment planning procedures. Measurements of the ratio coherent/incoherent scattering of low energy photons in a certain geometry has proven valuable for determination of atomic number, which in its turn can be used for estimation of macroscopic pair production coefficients for high energy photons. The combination of knowledge of electron density with methods for determination of processes, dependent on atomic number, can form a base for adequate composition of phantom materials for purposes of testing dose calculation algorithms for photons and electrons. (orig.)

  2. A quantitative theory of the Hounsfield unit and its application to dual energy scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R A

    1977-10-01

    A standard definition is proposed for the Hounsfield number. Any number in computed tomography can be converted to the Hounsfield scale after performing a simple calibration using air and water. The energy dependence of the Hounsfield number, H, is given by the expression H = (Hc + Hp Q)/(1 + Q), where Hc and Hp are the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of the material being measured, expressed in Hounsfield units, and Q is the "quality factor" of the scanner. Q can be measured by performing a scan of a single calibrating material, such as a potassium iodine solution. By applying this analysis to dual energy scans, the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of an unknown substance may easily be obtained. This can lead to a limited degree of chemical identification.

  3. TH-CD-207B-10: Effect of CT Reconstruction Filter On Measured Hounsfield Values in Lung Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, K; Reiser, I; Sanchez, A; Chung, J; MacMahon, H; Lu, Z [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Measured Hounsfield numbers in CT are used by radiologists to determine the presence of calcium or fat in lung nodules, either of which suggests a benign diagnosis. However, substantial variations in Hounsfield number may arise due to the use of different reconstruction parameters such as the filter/kernel, leading to measurement inaccuracies. This quality improvement project was developed to demonstrate measurement pitfalls and to identify acceptable conditions for incorporating Hounsfield values as a factor in lung nodule diagnosis. Methods: 12 mm-diameter spheres of polyurethane and urethane foam were placed into an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and 10 mm-diameter tubes with varying iodine concentrations were placed into a 16 cm PMMA cylindrical phantom. Additionally, 11 mm-diameter PMMA and HDPE spheres were placed in a 10 cm PMMA cylindrical phantom. Phantoms were scanned at 120 kVp using a Siemens Biograph mCT and on a Philips iCT and reconstructed using various reconstruction filters. Results: For the Siemens system, both sharp kernels and smooth kernels altered the Hounsfield numbers. Hounsfield numbers varied within a range of 8.9 HU for urethane foam and varied within 58.7 HU for polyurethane. The iodine measurements varied up to 37.9 HU for the lowest concentration. For the Philips system, Hounsfield numbers were relatively consistent but were higher for the “Detail” and “Lung Enhanced” filters, varying by 36.9 HU for PMMA and 15.9 HU for HDPE. Conclusion: Reconstruction filters can change the measured Hounsfield numbers of nodular objects, especially with detail-enhancing (sharpening) filters commonly used in lung imaging. Measured values should only be used for diagnostic decision support with filters that have demonstrated accuracy and consistency. While filter accuracy statements are available from manufacturers, radiologists are likely not aware of the extent of potential variations that can occur in a clinical setting.

  4. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besachio, David A. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States); United States Navy, Bethesda, MD (United States); Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  5. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besachio, David A.; Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  6. Hounsfield units variations: impact on CT-density based conversion tables and their effects on dose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurl, B; Tiefling, R; Winkler, P; Kindl, P; Kapp, K S

    2014-01-01

    Determination of dose error margins in radiation therapy planning due to variations in Hounsfield Units (HU) values dependent on the use of different CT scanning protocols. Based on a series of different CT scanning protocols used in clinical practice, conversion tables for radiation dose calculations were generated and subsequently tested on a phantom. These tables were then used to recalculate the radiation therapy plans of 28 real patients after an incorrect scanning protocol had inadvertently been used for these patients. Different CT parameter settings resulted in errors of HU values of up to 2.6% for densities of 1.1 g/cm(3). The largest errors were associated with changes in the tube voltage. Tests on a virtual water phantom with layers of variable thickness and density revealed a sawtooth-shaped curve for the increase of dose differences from 0.3 to 0.6% and 1.5% at layer thicknesses of 1, 3, and 7 cm, respectively. Use of a beam hardening filter resulted in a reference dose difference of 0.6% in response to a density change of 5%. The recalculation of data from 28 patients who received radiation therapy to the head revealed an overdose of 1.3 ± 0.4% to the bone and 0.7 ± 0.1% to brain tissue. On average, therefore, one monitor unit (range 0-3 MU) per 100 MU more than the correct dose had been given. Use of different CT scanning protocols leads to variations of up to 20% in the HU values. This can result in a mean systematic dose error of 1.5%. Specific conversion tables and automatic CT scanning protocol recognition could reduce dose errors of these types.

  7. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  8. The CT (Hounsfield unit) number of brain tissue in healthy infants. A new reliable method for detection of possible degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, P; Bundgaard, F; Olsen, A

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to correlate CT Hounsfield unit (H. U.) numbers from one CT investigation to another and from one CT scanner to another, especially when dealing with small changes in the brain substance, as in degenerative brain diseases in children. By subtracting the mean value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the mean value of grey and white matter, it is possible to remove most of the errors due, for example, to maladjustments, short and long-term drift, X-ray fan, and detector asymmetry. Measurements of white and grey matter using these methods showed CT H. U. numbers changing from 15 H. U. to 22 H. U. in white matter and 23 H. U. to 30 H. U. in grey matter in 86 healthy infants aged 0-5 years. In all measurements, the difference between grey and white matter was exactly 8 H. U. The method has proven to be highly accurate and reproducible.

  9. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM; Obtencion de la curva de conversion de numeros TC a densidad electronica a partir de la energia efectiva del TC usando el maniqui de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  10. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  11. SU-F-BRD-15: The Impact of Dose Calculation Algorithm and Hounsfield Units Conversion Tables On Plan Dosimetry for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, L; Yorke, E; Lim, S; Mechalakos, J; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess dosimetric differences in IMRT lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans calculated with Varian AAA and Acuros (AXB) and with vendor-supplied (V) versus in-house (IH) measured Hounsfield units (HU) to mass and HU to electron density conversion tables. Methods: In-house conversion tables were measured using Gammex 472 density-plug phantom. IMRT plans (6 MV, Varian TrueBeam, 6–9 coplanar fields) meeting departmental coverage and normal tissue constraints were retrospectively generated for 10 lung SBRT cases using Eclipse Vn 10.0.28 AAA with in-house tables (AAA/IH). Using these monitor units and MLC sequences, plans were recalculated with AAA and vendor tables (AAA/V) and with AXB with both tables (AXB/IH and AXB/V). Ratios to corresponding AAA/IH values were calculated for PTV D95, D01, D99, mean-dose, total and ipsilateral lung V20 and chestwall V30. Statistical significance of differences was judged by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p<0.05). Results: For HU<−400 the vendor HU-mass density table was notably below the IH table. PTV D95 ratios to AAA/IH, averaged over all patients, are 0.963±0.073 (p=0.508), 0.914±0.126 (p=0.011), and 0.998±0.001 (p=0.005) for AXB/IH, AXB/V and AAA/V respectively. Total lung V20 ratios are 1.006±0.046 (p=0.386), 0.975±0.080 (p=0.514) and 0.998±0.002 (p=0.007); ipsilateral lung V20 ratios are 1.008±0.041(p=0.284), 0.977±0.076 (p=0.443), and 0.998±0.018 (p=0.005) for AXB/IH, AXB/V and AAA/V respectively. In 7 cases, ratios to AAA/IH were within ± 5% for all indices studied. For 3 cases characterized by very low lung density and small PTV (19.99±8.09 c.c.), PTV D95 ratio for AXB/V ranged from 67.4% to 85.9%, AXB/IH D95 ratio ranged from 81.6% to 93.4%; there were large differences in other studied indices. Conclusion: For AXB users, careful attention to HU conversion tables is important, as they can significantly impact AXB (but not AAA) lung SBRT plans. Algorithm selection is also important for

  12. Hounsfield units are a useful predictor of pleural effusion cytological type in dogs but not in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Sarah J; Spriet, Mathieu; Safra, Noa; Cissell, Derek D; Borjesson, Dori L

    2018-04-23

    All categories of pleural effusion subjectively display as soft tissue opacity on computed tomography (CT). Quantitative measurement using Hounsfield units (HU) has the potential to bring additional information regarding the nature of the fluid in a noninvasive way. The purposes of this retrospective cross-sectional analytical study were to compare Hounsfield units of different pleural effusion categories in dogs and cats, assess association between specific cytologic parameters and Hounsfield units, and evaluate the effect of dependent vs. nondependent aspect of the effusion pool on Hounsfield unit. A total of 111 patients (74 dogs and 37 cats) with pleural effusion, that underwent thoracic CT and diagnostic thoracocentesis, were included in the study. Effusions were cytologically categorized as exudate, transudate, modified transudate, hemorrhage, or chyle. Significant differences existed in Hounsfield units between categories in dogs (P effusion (6.1 ± 4.7 HU (mean ± standard deviation)) and transudate (5.6 ± 2.0) were significantly lower than exudate (20.3 ± 9.5) and hemorrhage (21.4 ± 9.2). No significant differences were found between modified transudate (13.6 ± 10.3) and other categories. Significant, weak linear correlation was identified in dogs between Hounsfield units and total protein (P = 0.018, R   = 0.089), red blood cells (P = 0.021, R   = 0.077), and total nucleated cells (P = 0.013, R   = 0.089). The Hounsfield units of dependent effusion was not significantly higher than the nondependent effusion, except for canine chylous effusion (P = 0.008). Fourteen Hounsfield units was identified as the most clinically useful threshold: effusion with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 69%. A threshold >14 HU had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 69% for identifying exudate, modified transudate, or hemorrhage. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  13. Effect of object location on the density measurement and Hounsfield conversion in a NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravère, M O; Carey, J; Ben-Zvi, M; Packota, G V; Major, P W

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an object's location in a cone beam CT imaging chamber (CBCT-NewTom 3G) on its apparent density and to develop a linear conversion coefficient for Hounsfield units (HU) to material density (g cm(-3)) for the NewTom 3G Scanner. Three cylindrical models of materials with different densities were constructed and scanned at five different locations in a NewTom 3G Volume Scanner. The average HU value for each model at each location was obtained using two different types of software. Next, five cylinders of different known densities were scanned at the exact centre of a NewTom 3G Scanner. The collected data were analysed using the same two types of software to determine a standard linear relationship between density and HU for each type of software. There is no statistical significance of location of an object within the CBCT scanner on determination of its density. A linear relationship between the density of an object and the HU of a scan was rho = 0.001(HU)+1.19 with an R2 value of 0.893 (where density, rho, is measured in g cm(-3)). This equation is to be used on a range between 1.42 g cm(-3) and 0.4456 g cm(-3). A linear relationship can be used to determine the density of materials (in the density range of bone) from the HU values of a CBCT scan. This relationship is not affected by the object's location within the scanner itself.

  14. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and Hounsfield Unit (HU in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  15. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Noto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata 951-8520 (Japan); Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment

  16. Comparison of curves of units Hounsfields of planning and provided by the OBI cono beam CT; Comparacion de curvas de unidades hounsfields de planificacion y proporcionadas por el OBI cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Alarcon, C.; Vicent granado, D.; Gutierrez Ramos, S. M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the possibility for dosimetric calculations with the images provided by the imaging system OBI has emerged the need to study the difference between the densities Hounsfield curve used in the TPS and the corresponding of the OBI. As well as the dosimetric differences that may occur as a result of the differences between the two. (Author)

  17. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Mummification processes, either artificial or natural, preserve the tissues from postmortem decay, but change them from their original state. In this study we provided the first comprehensive set of Hounsfield Unit (HU) ranges specific for tissues mummified under different environmental conditions...... (peat bog, cold-dry and hot-dry environment). We also analyzed the impact of different museal preservation techniques on the HU ranges, as e.g. in the Tollund Man and Grauballe Man, two bog bodies from Denmark. The HU results for mummies were compared with HU results from forensic cases, cremated...

  18. Spectral Hounsfield units: a new radiological concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurrell, Michael Anthony; Butler, Anthony Philip Howard; Cook, Nicholas James; Butler, Philip Howard; Ronaldson, J.P.; Zainon, Rafidah

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) uses radiographical density to depict different materials; although different elements have different absorption fingerprints across the range of diagnostic X-ray energies, this spectral absorption information is lost in conventional CT. The recent development of dual energy CT (DECT) allows extraction of this information to a useful but limited extent. However, the advent of new photon counting chips that have energy resolution capabilities has put multi-energy or spectral CT (SCT) on the clinical horizon. This paper uses a prototype SCT system to demonstrate how CT density measurements vary with kilovoltage. While radiologists learn about linear attenuation curves during radiology training, they do not usually need a detailed understanding of this phenomenon in their clinical practice. However SCT requires a paradigm shift in how radiologists think about CT density. Because radiologists are already familiar with the Hounsfield Unit (HU), it is proposed that a modified HU be used that includes the mean energy used to obtain the image, as a conceptual bridge between conventional CT and SCT. A suggested format would be: HU keV . (orig.)

  19. Comparison of curves of units Hounsfields of planning and provided by the OBI cono beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Alarcon, C.; Vicent granado, D.; Gutierrez Ramos, S. M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the possibility for dosimetric calculations with the images provided by the imaging system OBI has emerged the need to study the difference between the densities Hounsfield curve used in the TPS and the corresponding of the OBI. As well as the dosimetric differences that may occur as a result of the differences between the two. (Author)

  20. Predicting the stone composition of children preoperatively by Hounsfield unit detection on non-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Mesut; Çitamak, Burak; Bozaci, Ali Cansu; Güneş, Altan; Doğan, Hasan Serkan; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Tekgül, Serdar

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have been performed on adult patients to reveal the relationship between Hounsfield unit (HU) value and composition of stone, but none have focused on childhood. We aimed to predict stone composition by HU properties in pre-intervention non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) in children. This could help to orient patients towards more successful interventions. Data of 94 children, whose pre-intervention NCCT and post-interventional stone analysis were available were included. Stones were grouped into three groups: calcium oxalate (CaOx), cystine, and struvite. Besides spot urine PH value, core HU, periphery HU, and Hounsfield density (HUD) values were measured and groups were compared statistically. The mean age of patients was 7 ± 4 (2-17) years and the female/male ratio was 51/43. The mean stone size was 11.7 ± 5 (4-24) mm. There were 50, 38, and 6 patients in the CaOx, cystine, and struvite groups, respectively. The median values for core HU, periphery HU, and mean HU in the CaOx group were significantly higher than the corresponding median values in the cystine and struvite groups. Significant median HUD difference was seen only between the CaOx and cystine groups. No difference was seen between the cystine and struvite groups in terms of HU parameters. To distinguish these groups, mean spot urine PH values were compared and were found to be higher in the struvite group than the cystine group (Table). The retrospective nature and small number of patients in some groups are limitations of this study, which also does not include all stone compositions. Our cystine stone rate was higher than childhood stone composition distribution in the literature. This is because our center is a reference center in a region with high recurrence rates of cystine stones. In fact, high numbers of cystine stones helped us to compare them with calcium stones more accurately and became an advantage for this study. NCCT at diagnosis can provide some information for

  1. All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2009-04-01

    To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.

  2. Diagnostic efficacy for coronary in-stent patency with parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto-Sekine, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hounsfield CT values across coronary CT angiograms constitute CT value-spatial profile curves. These CT profile curves are independent of window settings, and therefore, parameters derived from the curves can be used for objective anatomic analyses. Applicability of parameters derived from the curves to quantification of coronary in-stent patency has not yet been evaluated. Methods: Twenty-five CT value-spatial profile curves were delineated from 10 consecutive coronary stents to test correlation between the curve derived parameter (i.e., the minimum extreme value normalized by dividing by the maximum value of the curves obtained at neighboring outside of stents) and three intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters. Results: Correlation coefficients between normalized minimum extreme value of CT value-spatial profile curves and three IVUS parameters (such as patent cross-sectional in-stent area, the percentage of patent cross-sectional in-stent area, and coronary artery intra-stent diameter) were 0.65 (p < 0.01), 0.44 (p < 0.05) and 0.51 (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: CT parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves correlated significantly with IVUS parameters for quantitative coronary in-stent patency. A new approach with CT coronary angiography is therefore indicated for the noninvasive assessment of in-stent re-stenosis

  3. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male a...

  5. Generalized look-ahead number conversion from signed digit to complement representation with optical logic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Li, Guoqiang

    2001-12-01

    In this paper a generalized look-ahead logic algorithm for number conversion from signed-digit to its complement representation is developed. By properly encoding the signed digits, all the operations are performed by binary logic, and unified logical expressions can be obtained for conversion from modified-signed-digit (MSD) to 2's complement, trinary signed-digit (TSD) to 3's complement, and quaternary signed-digit (QSD) to 4's complement. For optical implementation, a parallel logical array module using electron-trapping device is employed, which is suitable for realizing complex logic functions in the form of sum-of-product. The proposed algorithm and architecture are compatible with a general-purpose optoelectronic computing system.

  6. Measurement of hard tissue density of head phantom based on the HU by using CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kang, Dong Wan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a conversion coefficient for Hounsfield Units(HU) to material density (g cm -3 ) obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBMercuRay TM ) data and to measure the hard tissue density based on the Hounsfield scale on dental head phantom. CT Scanner Phantom (AAPM) equipped with CT Number Insert consists of five cylindrical pins of materials with different densities and teflon ring was scanned by using the CBMercuRay TM (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) volume scanner. The raw data were converted into DICOM format and the HU of different areas of CT number insert measured by using CBWorks TM . Linear regression analysis and Student t-test were performed statistically. There was no significant difference (P>0.54) between real densities and measured densities. A linear regression was performed using the density, ρ (g cm -3 ), as the dependent variable in terms of the HU (H). The regression equation obtained was ρ=0.00072 H-0.01588 with an R2 value of 0.9968. Density values based on the Hounsfield scale was 1697.1 ± 24.9 HU in cortical bone, 526.5 ± 44.4 HU in trabecular bone, 2639.1 ± 48.7 HU in enamel, 1246.1 ± 39.4 HU in dentin of dental head phantom. CBCT provides an effective option for determination of material density expressed as Hounsfield Units.

  7. Relationship between Infill patterns in 3D printing and Hounsfield Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, M.; Cechinel, C.M.; Silveira, L.C.; Soares, F.A.P.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: One of the requirements for a phantom to correctly simulate the human body is that the radiation attenuation of the material used is compatible with the values of its corresponding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the values of Hounsfield Unit (HU) in a 3D printed material in order to verify its compatibility, on tomography, with human tissues, so that it can be used as feedstock for simulators constructed in 3D printers. Methods: Cubes with 2cm of edge were printed using ABS filament with 8 different forms of internal filling. The samples were irradiated by a CT scanner, the measured HUs and their results compared to the literature. Results: Modification of the filling form as well as its percentage influenced the HU values that ranged from -133 to -451. Conclusion: The specific variations of internal fill patterns directly influence the interaction of the material used with the radiation, thus altering the HU values. Despite the variation found, the HU values were sufficient to simulate few tissues in the human body, which requires future studies with new materials that further attenuate the radiation and the range of tissues to be expanded. (author)

  8. Relationship between Infill patterns in 3D printing and Hounsfield Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, M.; Cechinel, C.M.; Silveira, L.C.; Soares, F.A.P., E-mail: Matheus.savi@ifsc.edu.br [Instituo Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianópolis (Brazil). Departamento Acadêmico de Saúde e Serviços; Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Calibração de Instrumentos

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: One of the requirements for a phantom to correctly simulate the human body is that the radiation attenuation of the material used is compatible with the values of its corresponding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the values of Hounsfield Unit (HU) in a 3D printed material in order to verify its compatibility, on tomography, with human tissues, so that it can be used as feedstock for simulators constructed in 3D printers. Methods: Cubes with 2cm of edge were printed using ABS filament with 8 different forms of internal filling. The samples were irradiated by a CT scanner, the measured HUs and their results compared to the literature. Results: Modification of the filling form as well as its percentage influenced the HU values that ranged from -133 to -451. Conclusion: The specific variations of internal fill patterns directly influence the interaction of the material used with the radiation, thus altering the HU values. Despite the variation found, the HU values were sufficient to simulate few tissues in the human body, which requires future studies with new materials that further attenuate the radiation and the range of tissues to be expanded. (author)

  9. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Behrens, Claus F

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise conversion of CT number to density and proper differentiation between air and lung. Existing tools do not address this issue specifically. Moreover, their density conversion may depend on the number of media used. Differentiation between air and lung is an important task in MC treatment planning and misassignment may lead to local dose errors on the order of 10%. A novel algorithm, CTC-ask, is presented in this study. It enables locally confined constraints for the media assignment and is independent of the number of media used for the conversion of CT number to density. MC compatible phantoms were generated for two clinical cases using a CT-conversion scheme implemented in both CTC-ask and the DICOM-RT toolbox. Full MC dose calculation was subsequently conducted and the resulting dose distributions were compared. The DICOM-RT toolbox inaccurately assigned lung in 9.9% and 12.2% of the voxels located outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors. (note)

  10. Usefulness of computed tomography hounsfield unit measurement for diagnosis of congenital cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Yong Woo; Baik, Seung Kug; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Il Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements for diagnosing of congenital cholesteatoma. A total of 43 patients who underwent surgery due to middle ear cavity lesions were enrolled. Twenty-one patients were confirmed to have congenital cholesteatoma by histopathological results and the other 22 patients were confirmed to have otitis media (OM) by operation. Their computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed. We measured HU of the soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity. In addition, we evaluated the largest diameter and location of the mass, the presence of bony erosion in the ear ossicle, and the status of the tympanic membrane in the cholesteatoma group. The mean HU was 37.36 ± 6.11 (range, 27.5-52.5) in the congenital cholesteatoma group and 76.09 ± 8.74 (range, 58.5-96) in the OM group (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was 55.5. The most common location for congenital cholesteatoma was the mesotympanum, and ear ossicle erosion was present in 24%. All patients had an intact tympanic membrane. HU measurement may be useful as an additional indicator to diagnose congenital cholesteatoma.

  11. Usefulness of computed tomography hounsfield unit measurement for diagnosis of congenital cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Yong Woo; Baik, Seung Kug; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Il Woo [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements for diagnosing of congenital cholesteatoma. A total of 43 patients who underwent surgery due to middle ear cavity lesions were enrolled. Twenty-one patients were confirmed to have congenital cholesteatoma by histopathological results and the other 22 patients were confirmed to have otitis media (OM) by operation. Their computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed. We measured HU of the soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity. In addition, we evaluated the largest diameter and location of the mass, the presence of bony erosion in the ear ossicle, and the status of the tympanic membrane in the cholesteatoma group. The mean HU was 37.36 ± 6.11 (range, 27.5-52.5) in the congenital cholesteatoma group and 76.09 ± 8.74 (range, 58.5-96) in the OM group (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was 55.5. The most common location for congenital cholesteatoma was the mesotympanum, and ear ossicle erosion was present in 24%. All patients had an intact tympanic membrane. HU measurement may be useful as an additional indicator to diagnose congenital cholesteatoma.

  12. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  13. Internal conversion coefficients for atomic numbers Z less than or equal to 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, I.M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.; Listengarten, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Presented here are internal conversion coefficients (ICC) of gamma rays for 20 values of atomic number, Z, in the range 3 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 30, including all Z greater than or equal to 14. The tables provide the previously missing data for light elements. Coefficients are given for 19 values of gamma-ray transition energies up to 6 MeV for the K-electron shell and 18 values up to 2 MeV for three L-subshells. The minimum enegy is 15 keV. The first five electric and magnetic nuclear transition multipolarities are covered. The calculations are relativistic, with screening and finite nuclear size effect taken into account

  14. Combining Mean and Standard Deviation of Hounsfield Unit Measurements from Preoperative CT Allows More Accurate Prediction of Urinary Stone Composition Than Mean Hounsfield Units Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailly, Thomas; Larish, Yaniv; Nadeau, Brandon; Violette, Philippe; Glickman, Leonard; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Alenezi, Husain; Amann, Justin; Denstedt, John; Razvi, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of a urinary stone may influence its surgical and medical treatment. Previous attempts at identifying stone composition based on mean Hounsfield Units (HUm) have had varied success. We aimed to evaluate the additional use of standard deviation of HU (HUsd) to more accurately predict stone composition. We identified patients from two centers who had undergone urinary stone treatment between 2006 and 2013 and had mineral stone analysis and a computed tomography (CT) available. HUm and HUsd of the stones were compared with ANOVA. Receiver operative characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC), Youden index, and likelihood ratio calculations were performed. Data were available for 466 patients. The major components were calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid, hydroxyapatite, struvite, brushite, cystine, and CO dihydrate (COD) in 41.4%, 19.3%, 12.4%, 7.5%, 5.8%, 5.4%, and 4.7% of patients, respectively. The HUm of UA and Br was significantly lower and higher than the HUm of any other stone type, respectively. HUm and HUsd were most accurate in predicting uric acid with an AUC of 0.969 and 0.851, respectively. The combined use of HUm and HUsd resulted in increased positive predictive value and higher likelihood ratios for identifying a stone's mineral composition for all stone types but COM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CT data aiding in the prediction of brushite stone composition. Both HUm and HUsd can help predict stone composition and their combined use results in higher likelihood ratios influencing probability.

  15. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  16. Ethnicity as Conversational Style. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    The relationship of one aspect of conversational style, the degree of directness in the sending and interpretation of messages, to ethnicity was investigated in a comparison of the communication styles of Greeks and Americans. It was hypothesized that Greeks tend to be more indirect in speech than Americans, and that English speakers of Greek…

  17. A conversational introduction to algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Gauss famously referred to mathematics as the "queen of the sciences" and to number theory as the "queen of mathematics". This book is an introduction to algebraic number theory, meaning the study of arithmetic in finite extensions of the rational number field \\mathbb{Q}. Originating in the work of Gauss, the foundations of modern algebraic number theory are due to Dirichlet, Dedekind, Kronecker, Kummer, and others. This book lays out basic results, including the three "fundamental theorems": unique factorization of ideals, finiteness of the class number, and Dirichlet's unit theorem. While these theorems are by now quite classical, both the text and the exercises allude frequently to more recent developments. In addition to traversing the main highways, the book reveals some remarkable vistas by exploring scenic side roads. Several topics appear that are not present in the usual introductory texts. One example is the inclusion of an extensive discussion of the theory of elasticity, which provides a precise w...

  18. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  19. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  20. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  1. Tin-filter enhanced dual-energy-CT: image quality and accuracy of CT numbers in virtual noncontrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Sauter, Alexander; Spira, Daniel; Gatidis, Sergios; Ketelsen, Dominik; Heuschmid, Martin; Claussen, Claus D; Thomas, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    To measure and compare the objective image quality of true noncontrast (TNC) images with virtual noncontrast (VNC) images acquired by tin-filter-enhanced, dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of upper abdomen. Sixty-three patients received unenhanced abdominal CT and enhanced abdominal DECT (100/140 kV with tin filter) in portal-venous phase. VNC images were calculated from the DECT datasets using commercially available software. The mean attenuation of relevant tissues and image quality were compared between the TNC and VNC images. Image quality was rated objectively by measuring image noise and the sharpness of object edges using custom-designed software. Measurements were compared using Student two-tailed t-test. Correlation coefficients for tissue attenuation measurements between TNC and VNC were calculated and the relative deviations were illustrated using Bland-Altman plots. Mean attenuation differences between TNC and VNC (HUTNC - HUVNC) image sets were as follows: right liver lobe -4.94 Hounsfield units (HU), left liver lobe -3.29 HU, vena cava -2.19 HU, spleen -7.46 HU, pancreas 1.29 HU, fat -11.14 HU, aorta 1.29 HU, bone marrow 36.83 HU (all P VNC and TNC series were observed for liver, vena portae, kidneys, pancreas, muscle and bone marrow (Pearson's correlation coefficient ≥0.75). Mean image noise was significantly higher in TNC images (P VNC and TNC images (P = .19). The Hounsfield units in VNC images closely resemble TNC images in the majority of the organs of the upper abdomen (kidneys, liver, pancreas). In spleen and fat, Hounsfield numbers in VNC images are tend to be higher than in TNC images. VNC images show a low image noise and satisfactory edge sharpness. Other criteria of image quality and the depiction of certain lesions need to be evaluated additionally. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monte Carlo calculated CT numbers for improved heavy ion treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamhiyeh Sima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Better knowledge of CT number values and their uncertainties can be applied to improve heavy ion treatment planning. We developed a novel method to calculate CT numbers for a computed tomography (CT scanner using the Monte Carlo (MC code, BEAMnrc/EGSnrc. To generate the initial beam shape and spectra we conducted full simulations of an X-ray tube, filters and beam shapers for a Siemens Emotion CT. The simulation output files were analyzed to calculate projections of a phantom with inserts. A simple reconstruction algorithm (FBP using a Ram-Lak filter was applied to calculate the pixel values, which represent an attenuation coefficient, normalized in such a way to give zero for water (Hounsfield unit (HU. Measured and Monte Carlo calculated CT numbers were compared. The average deviation between measured and simulated CT numbers was 4 ± 4 HU and the standard deviation σ was 49 ± 4 HU. The simulation also correctly predicted the behaviour of H-materials compared to a Gammex tissue substitutes. We believe the developed approach represents a useful new tool for evaluating the effect of CT scanner and phantom parameters on CT number values.

  3. Absolute Hounsfield unit measurement on noncontrast computed tomography cannot accurately predict struvite stone composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Gebreselassie, Surafel; Liu, Xiaobo; Pynadath, Cindy; Snyder, Grace; Monga, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine, in vivo, whether single-energy noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) can accurately predict the presence/percentage of struvite stone composition. We retrospectively searched for all patients with struvite components on stone composition analysis between January 2008 and March 2012. Inclusion criteria were NCCT prior to stone analysis and stone size ≥4 mm. A single urologist, blinded to stone composition, reviewed all NCCT to acquire stone location, dimensions, and Hounsfield unit (HU). HU density (HUD) was calculated by dividing mean HU by the stone's largest transverse diameter. Stone analysis was performed via Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Independent sample Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare HU/HUD among groups. Spearman's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between HU and stone size and also HU/HUD to % of each component within the stone. Significance was considered if pR=0.017; p=0.912) and negative with HUD (R=-0.20; p=0.898). Overall, 3 (6.8%) had stones (n=5) with other miscellaneous stones (n=39), no difference was found for HU (p=0.09) but HUD was significantly lower for pure stones (27.9±23.6 v 72.5±55.9, respectively; p=0.006). Again, significant overlaps were seen. Pure struvite stones have significantly lower HUD than mixed struvite stones, but overlap exists. A low HUD may increase the suspicion for a pure struvite calculus.

  4. Comparison of Tissue Density in Hounsfield Units in Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshowsaz, Masoud; Goorang, Sepideh; Ehsani, Sara; Azizi, Zeynab; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-03-01

    Bone quality and quantity assessment is one of the most important steps in implant treatment planning. Different methods such as computed tomography (CT) and recently suggested cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with lower radiation dose and less time and cost are used for bone density assessment. This in vitro study aimed to compare the tissue density values in Hounsfield units (HUs) in CBCT and CT scans of different tissue phantoms with two different thicknesses, two different image acquisition settings and in three locations in the phantoms. Four different tissue phantoms namely hard tissue, soft tissue, air and water were scanned by three different CBCT and a CT system in two thicknesses (full and half) and two image acquisition settings (high and low kVp and mA). The images were analyzed at three sites (middle, periphery and intermediate) using eFilm software. The difference in density values was analyzed by ANOVA and correction coefficient test (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between density values in CBCT and CT scans in most situations, and CBCT values were not similar to CT values in any of the phantoms in different thicknesses and acquisition parameters or the three different sites. The correction coefficients confirmed the results. CBCT is not reliable for tissue density assessment. The results were not affected by changes in thickness, acquisition parameters or locations.

  5. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  6. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  7. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  8. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females. PMID:28553763

  9. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females.

  10. Computing with impure numbers - Automatic consistency checking and units conversion using computer algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The computer algebra language MACSYMA enables the programmer to include symbolic physical units in computer calculations, and features automatic detection of dimensionally-inhomogeneous formulas and conversion of inconsistent units in a dimensionally homogeneous formula. Some examples illustrate these features.

  11. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  12. The optimal balance between quality and efficiency in proton radiography imaging technique at various proton beam energies : A Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A K; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; van Beuzekom, M; Koffeman, E N; Nakaji, T; Takatsu, J; Visser, J; Brandenburg, S

    Proton radiography is a novel imaging modality that allows direct measurement of the proton energy loss in various tissues. Currently, due to the conversion of so-called Hounsfield units from X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) into relative proton stopping powers (RPSP), the uncertainties of RPSP are

  13. Theory of mind understanding and conversational patterns in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2013-01-01

    The author investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding and perceptions of self and social conversations in 17 school-aged children (12 girls, 5 boys, age 8-12 years). ToM was assessed at Time 1 (T1; M age = 8 years 5 months, SD = 8.7 months, and perceptions of self and conversational experiences assessed two years later at Time 2 (T2; M age = 10 years 4 months, SD = 7.9 months. Most importantly, longitudinal findings showed that children who scored relatively high on ToM at T1 reported relatively lower perceptions of self-worth and higher number of mental states verbs in their perceptions of peer and family conversations at T2. Significant negative longitudinal associations were found between children's number of siblings and their perceptions of self-worth (T1) and number of cognitive terms in their perceptions of peer and family conversations (T2). Frequency analysis suggested that girls' perceptions of conversations referred to more social and psychological aspects of self and relationships, whereas boys focused mainly on physical activities. Most children were more likely to prefer listening to talking during social conversations. The majority of children reported feelings of mixed or ambiguous emotions during experiences of silence. Implications for socioemotional and cognitive development in early adolescents are discussed.

  14. Conversion problems at the enterprises of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurodze, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the republic Georgia and other countries of former Soviet Union, various scientific research and experimental construction work for the production of special military techniques was conducted for Military Institutions. Much of the conversion work has been done and the brightest example was performed by Georgian aviation industry. Intensive research was conducted on improving the quality of the existing power systems as well as on search for new power sources and means of power savings. A number of significant projects were developed, the implementation of which will considerably improve the crisis situation in the sphere of power supply. A number of laboratories and research centres have submitted proposals for conversion programs

  15. Coherent and incoherent (μ-, e-) conversion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, H.C.; Oset, E.; Kosmas, T.S.; Faessler, A.; Vergados, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Coherent and incoherent (μ - , e - ) conversion in nuclei is studied within the framework of several theories which violate flavour lepton number. A useful approach is followed which allows a factorization of the conversion widths into nuclear factors and other factors which depend only on the elementary process. The nuclear factors are evaluated in a wide range of nuclei allowing simple calculations of the conversion rates throughout the periodic table for a given theory with a minimum of work in the elementary sector. The coherent conversion is found to dominate the process. The results obtained modify appreciable previous results in the literature, particularly in the incoherent process. (orig.)

  16. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  17. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  18. Conversion Rate Optimization through Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Miikkulainen, Risto; Iscoe, Neil; Shagrin, Aaron; Cordell, Ron; Nazari, Sam; Schoolland, Cory; Brundage, Myles; Epstein, Jonathan; Dean, Randy; Lamba, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Conversion optimization means designing a web interface so that as many users as possible take a desired action on it, such as register or purchase. Such design is usually done by hand, testing one change at a time through A/B testing, or a limited number of combinations through multivariate testing, making it possible to evaluate only a small fraction of designs in a vast design space. This paper describes Sentient Ascend, an automatic conversion optimization system that uses evolutionary op...

  19. Rectenna session: Micro aspects. [energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of the rectenna design are addressed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these micro aspects involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  20. Predicting factors for conversion from fluoroscopy guided Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy to cone-beam CT guided Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Ji; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Song, Ji Soo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the predicting factors for conversion from fluoroscopy guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) to cone-beam CT guided PTNB. From January 2011 to December 2012, we retrospectively identified 38 patients who underwent cone-beam CT guided PTNB with solid pulmonary lesions, and 76 patients who underwent fluoroscopy guided PTNB were matched to the patients who underwent cone-beam CT guided PTNB for age, sex, and lesion location. We evaluated predicting factors such as, long-axis diameter, short-axis diameter, anterior-posterior diameter, and CT attenuation value of the solid pulmonary lesion affecting conversion from fluoroscopy guided PTNB to cone-beam CT guided PTNB. Pearson χ 2 test, Fisher exact test, and independent t test were used in statistical analyses; in addition, we also used receiver operating characteristics curve to find the proper cut-off values affecting the conversion to cone-beam CT guided PTNB. Short-axis, long-axis, anterior-posterior diameter and CT attenuation value of the solid pulmonary lesion in patients who underwent fluoroscopy guided PTNB were 2.70 ± 1.57 cm, 3.40 ± 1.92 cm, 3.06 ± 1.81 cm, and 35.67 ± 15.70 Hounsfield unit (HU), respectively. Short-axis, long-axis, anterior-posterior diameter and CT attenuation value of the solid pulmonary lesion in patients who underwent cone-beam CT guided PTNB were 1.60 ± 1.30 cm, 2.20 ± 1.45 cm, 1.91 ± 1.99 cm, and 18.32 ± 23.11 HU, respectively. Short-axis, long-axis, anterior-posterior diameter, and CT attenuation value showed a significantly different mean value between the 2 groups (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, respectively). Odd ratios of CT attenuation value and short-axis diameter of the solid pulmonary lesion were 0.952 and 0.618, respectively. Proper cut-off values affecting the conversion to cone-beam CT guided PTNB were 1.65 cm (sensitivity 68.4%, specificity 71.1%) in short-axis diameter and 29.50 HU (sensitivity 65.8%, specificity 65.8%) in

  1. 27 CFR 31.161 - Conversion between metric and U.S. units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.161 Conversion between metric and U.S. units. When liters are... number of cases to be converted, as follows: (a) If the conversion from liters to U.S. units is made... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion between metric...

  2. A strong deletion bias in nonallelic gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Assis

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is the unidirectional transfer of genetic information between orthologous (allelic or paralogous (nonallelic genomic segments. Though a number of studies have examined nucleotide replacements, little is known about length difference mutations produced by gene conversion. Here, we investigate insertions and deletions produced by nonallelic gene conversion in 338 Drosophila and 10,149 primate paralogs. Using a direct phylogenetic approach, we identify 179 insertions and 614 deletions in Drosophila paralogs, and 132 insertions and 455 deletions in primate paralogs. Thus, nonallelic gene conversion is strongly deletion-biased in both lineages, with almost 3.5 times as many conversion-induced deletions as insertions. In primates, the deletion bias is considerably stronger for long indels and, in both lineages, the per-site rate of gene conversion is orders of magnitudes higher than that of ordinary mutation. Due to this high rate, deletion-biased nonallelic gene conversion plays a key role in genome size evolution, leading to the cooperative shrinkage and eventual disappearance of selectively neutral paralogs.

  3. 27 CFR 19.722 - Conversion between metric and U.S. units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General § 19.722 Conversion between metric and U.S. units. When liters are converted to wine gallons, the...: (a) If the conversion from liters to U.S. units is made before multiplying by the number of cases, the quantity in U.S. units shall be rounded to the sixth decimal; or (b) If the conversion is made...

  4. Geometric and Algebraic Approaches in the Concept of Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaoura, A.; Elia, I.; Gagatsis, A.; Giatilis, G.-P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores pupils' performance and processes in tasks involving equations and inequalities of complex numbers requiring conversions from a geometric representation to an algebraic representation and conversions in the reverse direction, and also in complex numbers problem solving. Data were collected from 95 pupils of the final grade from…

  5. The Hounsfield value for cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus - an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Fat, Daren; Kennedy, Jim; Galvin, Rose; O'Brien, Fergal; Mc Grath, Frank; Mullett, Hannan

    2012-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus represent a major osteoporotic burden. Recent developments in CT imaging have emphasized the importance of cortical bone thickness distribution in the prevention and management of fragility fractures. We aimed to experimentally define the CT density of cortical bone in the proximal humerus for building cortical geometry maps. With ethical approval, we used ten fresh-frozen human proximal humeri. These were stripped of all soft tissue and high-resolution CT images were then taken. The humeral heads were then subsequently resected to allow access to the metaphyseal area. Using curettes, cancellous bone was removed down to hard cortical bone. Another set of CT images of the reamed specimen was then taken. Using CT imaging software and a CAD interface, we then compared cortical contours at different CT density thresholds to the reference inner cortical contour of our reamed specimens. Working with 3D model representations of these cortical maps, we were able to accurately make distance comparison analyses based on different CT thresholds. We could compute a single closest value at 700 HU. No difference was found in the HU-based contours generated along the 500-900 HU pixels (p = 1.000). The contours were significantly different from those generated at 300, 400, 1,000, and 1,100 HU. A Hounsfield range of 500-900 HU can accurately depict cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus. Thresholding outside this range leads to statistically significant inaccuracies. Our results concur with a similar range reported in the literature for the proximal femur. Knowledge of regional variations in cortical bone thickness has direct implications for basic science studies on osteoporosis and its treatment, but is also important for the orthopedic surgeon since our decision for treatment options is often guided by local bone quality. (orig.)

  6. Propane Canada: Propane Canada's Second Annual Auto Propane Conversion Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A directory of companies engaged in automotive propane conversion in Alberta and British Columbia is provided. There are a total of eight entries : three in Calgary, one in Edmonton in Alberta and two in Burnaby, one in Dawson Creek and one in Fort St. John in British Columbia. Each entry provides information about the company, including name, address, phone and fax numbers, owner's or manager's name, conversion equipment brands used, number of bays, type of retail sales and accreditation

  7. Conversion of Indigenous Agricultural Waste Feedstocks to Fuel Ethanol. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-27

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a world leader in biomass conversion research and Ecopetrol American Inc., Ecopetrol S.A.'s U.S. subsidiary. The research and development efforts described in the Joint Work Statement (JWS) will take advantage of the strengths of both parties. NREL will use its Integrated Biorefinery Facility and vast experience in the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuel ethanol to develop processes for the conversion of Ecopetrol's feedstocks. Ecopetrol will establish the infrastructure in Columbia to commercialize the conversion process.

  8. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  9. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Wang Kyun; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the operators' subjective ability has a great impact on diagnosis of lesion in Ultrasonography diagnosis of a fatty liver, and that in check up chest CT, under 40 HU in the measurement of Liver HU can be used for reference materials in diagnosis of a fatty liver

  10. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wang Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Cheongju Medical Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the operators' subjective ability has a great impact on diagnosis of lesion in Ultrasonography diagnosis of a fatty liver, and that in check up chest CT, under 40 HU in the measurement of Liver HU can be used for reference materials in diagnosis of a fatty liver.

  11. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  12. Modal spectrum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion with noncollinear phase matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the down-conversion angle between the signal and idler beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion on the bandwidth of the modal spectrum (Schmidt number) of the down-converted quantum state. For this purpose, we...

  13. Internal conversion theory of gamma radiation in unfilled atomic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Eh.M.; Trusov, V.F.; Ehglajs, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    The internal conversion theory of gamma radiation in unfilled shells, when the atom is in a state with certain energy and momentum, is considered. A formula for the conversion coefficient between the atom and ion levels is obtained. This coefficient turns to be dependent on genealogic characteristics of the atom. It is discussed when the conversion coefficients are proportional to the numbers of filling subshells in the atom. Exact calculations have been carried out in the multiconfigurational approximation taking into account intermediate coupling for the d-shell of the Fe atom Single-electron radial wave functions have been calculated on the basis of the relativistic method of the Hartree-Fock-Dirak self-consistent field. Conversion coefficients on certain subshells as well as submatrix elements of the production operator are calculated. The electric coefficient of internal conversion (CIC) in the calculation for one electron does not depend on spin orientation. That is why the electric CIC from the level will not depend on filling number distribution by subshells. For magnetic CIC the dependence on the atom state is significant. Using multiconfiguration basis for calculating energy matrix and its succeeding diagonalization means the account of the intermediate coupling type, which takes place for the unfilled shells

  14. A Review of Previous Research in Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUONG, HENRY; POLANSKY, GARY F.; SANDERS, THOMAS L.; SIEGEL, MALCOLM D.

    1999-01-01

    From the earliest days of power reactor development, direct energy conversion was an obvious choice to produce high efficiency electric power generation. Directly capturing the energy of the fission fragments produced during nuclear fission avoids the intermediate conversion to thermal energy and the efficiency limitations of classical thermodynamics. Efficiencies of more than 80% are possible, independent of operational temperature. Direct energy conversion fission reactors would possess a number of unique characteristics that would make them very attractive for commercial power generation. These reactors would be modular in design with integral power conversion and operate at low pressures and temperatures. They would operate at high efficiency and produce power well suited for long distance transmission. They would feature large safety margins and passively safe design. Ideally suited to production by advanced manufacturing techniques, direct energy conversion fission reactors could be produced more economically than conventional reactor designs. The history of direct energy conversion can be considered as dating back to 1913 when Moseleyl demonstrated that charged particle emission could be used to buildup a voltage. Soon after the successful operation of a nuclear reactor, E.P. Wigner suggested the use of fission fragments for direct energy conversion. Over a decade after Wigner's suggestion, the first theoretical treatment of the conversion of fission fragment kinetic energy into electrical potential appeared in the literature. Over the ten years that followed, a number of researchers investigated various aspects of fission fragment direct energy conversion. Experiments were performed that validated the basic physics of the concept, but a variety of technical challenges limited the efficiencies that were achieved. Most research in direct energy conversion ceased in the US by the late 1960s. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this

  15. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Rezapour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  17. Anomalous ortho-para conversion of solid hydrogen in constrained geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rall, M.; Brison, J.P.; Sullivan, N.S.

    1991-01-01

    Using cw NMR techniques, we have measured the ortho-para conversion of solid hydrogen constrained to the interior of the molecular cages of zeolite. The conversion observed in the constrained geometry is very different from that of bulk solid hydrogen. Two distinct conversion rates were observed for short and long times. An apparently bimolecular conversion rate of 0.43% h -1 (one-fourth of the bulk value) dominates during the first 500 h, and the rate then increases to 2.2% h -1 . The initial slow rate is explained in terms of a reduced number of nearest neighbors and possible wall effects, and the fast rate is attributed to the formation of small ortho-H 2 Rclusters at later times. Surface effects due to magnetic impurities do not appear to determine the conversion rate in the samples studied

  18. Resonance internal conversion as a way of accelerating nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeshin, F.F.

    2006-01-01

    Theory of resonance conversion is presented. Being a natural extension of the traditional internal conversion into the subthreshold area, resonance conversion in a number of cases strongly affects the nuclear processes. Moreover, concentrating the transition strength on the narrow bands corresponding to the spectral atomic lines, it offers a unique tool capable of accelerating nuclear decay rates. Furthermore, along with the conventional nonradiative process of nuclear excitation through NEET and its reverse, TEEN, resonance conversion offers an appropriate mathematics for consideration of a number of cross-invariant processes involving both nuclei and electrons: excitation and deexcitation of the nuclei by hyperfine magnetic field, nuclear spin mixing, hyperfine interaction and magnetic anomalies in the atomic spectra, collisional nuclear excitation via ionization of the shells in the muon decay in the orbit, etc. The mechanisms of the optical pumping of the isomers are also considered, as well as triggering their energy in the resonance field of a laser. The effect is especially high in the hydrogen-like heavy ions due to practical absence of any damping of the resonance. The theory is also generalized to the case of the discrete Auger transitions [ru

  19. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  20. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions.

  1. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  2. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  3. MIL-HDBK-338-Environmental Conversion Table Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Frank; Novack, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In reliability analysis for space launch vehicles, limited data is frequently a challenge due to the pure number of launches. A common solution is to use surrogate historical data of similar components from other industries (military data). The operating environment of the common data may be different from that of the necessary target analysis. The military electronic design handbook (MIL-HDBK-338) has a table for converting Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) data from one environment to another. However, the table has some discrepancies and rounding of complementary conversions; namely going from environment A to B does not given the same result as going from B to A. This presentation will show the discrepancies in the original conversation table, the greater than expected magnitude, the problem with the updated published table and a suggested corrected table to reference when doing MTBF data environment conversion.

  4. Trends in Modern War Gaming: The Art of Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    War Gaming: The Art of Conversation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...conflict to the sum of its parts. In 1916, frederick lanchester, a brit- ish mathematician , sought to apply two equations—the law of squares to “‘aimed...differences “cannot be comprehended by linear models.”36 the american physicist and author fritjof Capra notes that “the process of model making consists

  5. 77 FR 23273 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage Counseling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Collection; Comment Request: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage Counseling Client Survey AGENCY: Office of the... information: Title of Proposal: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage Counseling Client Survey. OMB Control Number... reverse mortgage counseling. As part of HUD's evaluation of its HECM counseling program, performance...

  6. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  7. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on electron mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takamura, Akira; Kimura, Keiichi; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kawagoe, Shio; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Y e is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Y e . At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs in Y e e >0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Y e values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs. The final ν e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Y e e >0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low ν e energy to high ν e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron fraction in the innermost region exceeds 0.5. In inverted mass hierarchy, on the other hand, a dip of the event ratio should be observed. Therefore, the time variation of the event number ratio is useful to investigate the effect of the RSF conversion.

  8. Conversation therapy with people with aphasia and conversation partners using video feedback: a group and case series investigation of changes in interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversation therapies employing video for feedback and to facilitate outcome measurement are increasingly used with people with post-stroke aphasia and their conversation partners; however the evidence base for change in everyday interaction remains limited. We investigated the effect of Better Conversations with Aphasia, an intervention that is freely available online (https:// extend.ucl.ac.uk/. Eight people with chronic agrammatic aphasia, and their regular conversation partners participated in the tailored 8 week program involving significant video feedback. We explored changes in (i conversation facilitators (such as multi-modal turns by people with aphasia and (ii conversation barriers (such as use of test questions by conversation partners. The outcome of intervention was evaluated directly by measuring change in video-recorded everyday conversations. The study employed a pre-post design with multiple 5 minute samples of conversation before and after intervention, scored by trained raters blind to the point of data collection. Group level analysis showed no significant increase in conversation facilitators. There was, however, a significant reduction in the number of conversation barriers. The case series data revealed variability in conversation behaviors across occasions for the same dyad and between different dyads. Specifically, post-intervention there was a significant increase in facilitator behaviors for two dyads, a decrease for one and no significant change for five dyads. There was a significant decrease in barrier behaviors for five dyads and no significant change for three dyads. The reduction in barrier behaviors was considerable; on average change from over 8 to fewer than 3 barrier behaviors in 5 minutes conversation. The pre-post design has the limitation of no comparison group. However, change occurs in targeted conversational behaviors and in people with chronic aphasia and their partners. The findings suggest change

  9. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility.

  10. Synthesis and up-conversion luminescence of Yb 3+

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1.5Na0.5)F6 nanorods synthesized by employing a facile hydrothermal method. Numbers of Ho3+ ion up-conversion emissions have been observed under 980 nm infrared diode laser excitation. Three UC emissions of interest, ultraviolet, ...

  11. Alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulpek, Demet; Kelemence Kaplan, Figen; Kesebir, Sermin; Bora, Ozlem

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, it has been observed that alexithymia is not specified for the psychosomatic disorders. It is known that alexithymia is observed frequently in various psychiatric disorders especially in the somatoform disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate alexithymia in the patients with the conversion disorder. The study was performed in the Psychiatry Outpatients Clinics of the Izmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital and Erenköy Psychiatry Education and Research Hospital. A total of 93 cases-47 outpatients who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria and 46 age, gender and educational level matched healthy controls-were included in the study. All the cases were assessed by a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were evaluated with a questionnaire (which included demographics and clinical data), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. When the two groups were compared, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale scores (except "externally oriented thinking" subscale) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale score of the conversion disorder group were statistically significantly higher than the control group. The number of the alexithymic cases of the patient group was significantly higher than the control group's. The level of alexithymia in conversion disorder patients, without any other psychiatric disorder, is higher than that of the healthy controls. During the evaluation of the psychological state of patients with conversion disorder, it could be useful to keep in mind the probability of them having alexithymia to determine the type of suitable therapy.

  12. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A and analog-to-digital (A/D conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM. Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  13. Analytical solution for the mode conversion equations with steep exponential density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, M.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A general analytical solution for the converted power from the fast magnetosonic wave to an ion Bernstein wave in a magnetized plasma with an exponential steeply increasing density profile is given in the closed form. The solution covers both the conversion at the lower-hybrid resonance and the conversion through the density gradient for small parallel wave numbers. As an application, the conversion coefficients at the scrape-off layer plasma are estimated in the context of ion cyclotron heating of a tokamak plasma

  14. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  15. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-8 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... classifications, stock numbers, names, and identification data to using those of the Federal Catalog System in all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conversion. 101-30.101-8 Section 101-30.101-8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  17. Lepton flavour violating μ-e conversion rate for various nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masafumi; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Okada, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The coherent μ-e conversion rate for general LFV interactions for various nuclei is calculated. The branching ratio increases for the light nuclei such as Z ∼ 60. Although this tendency of Z dependence is the same for different types of coupling constants, there are significant differences in Z dependence of branching ratios. The atomic number dependence of the conversion ratio calculated here is useful to distinguish theoretical models with lepton flavour violation

  18. Effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.

    1985-11-01

    The effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion is examined by treating the wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium as an eigenvalue problem for ω 2 (m,n),m,n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers. Since the frequency regime near ω 2 = ω/sub LH/ 2 is an accumulation point for the eigenvalue spectrum, the degenerate perturbation technique must be applied. The toroidal eigenmodes are constructed by a zeroth order superposition of monochromatic solutions with different poloidal dependence m, thus they generically exhibit a wide spectrum in k/sub parallel/ for given fixed ω 2 even for small inverse aspect ratio epsilon. In case that the average is in the neighborhood of k/sub min/, the minimum wave number for accessibility of the mode conversion regime, it is expected that excitation of toroidal modes rather than geometric optics will determine the wave coupling to the plasma

  19. Discourse analysis: Conversational analysis of the internal conversation in Oracle Corporation Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Marwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the internal conversation which takes place in Oracle CorporationMalaysia. Through the study, it will be shown how conversational analysis is used toanalyze the transcription of a telephone conversation between Oracle staffs. The analysisof the transcriptions will apply a few basic concepts of conversational analysis; turntakingorganization, and the adjacency pair. The objective of the study is to find out howthe internal conversations takes place by focusing on the conversation itself, that is, theconversational structures spontaneously produced by people during talk ranging fromturn-taking strategies, how topics are introduced, conversation closings and so on. Bylooking in detail at such talk, we can gain a detailed understanding of how the staffs seethemselves in relation to the company that influence their daily lives.Keywords: conversational analysis, turn-taking, adjacency pairs

  20. 4 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0409 TITLE: 4 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-04094 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT 5c...testicular androgens, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ). Men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer or failure potentially curative therapy are

  1. Online Education: Let's Start the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    National shortages of school psychologists have started conversations about training, the number of training programs needed, and how to initiate new programs. This article discusses the difficulties associated with traditional training programs for school psychologists and proposes exploring online education and virtual school psychology service…

  2. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijo, Keiichi (Kamijo Thyroid and Pituitary Clinic, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122[+-]18 H.U.([+-]SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number ([+-]SD) of 85[+-]22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116[+-]22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T[sub 3] were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65[+-]11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76[+-]14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102[+-]11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84[+-]16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57[+-]7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61[+-]5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author).

  3. Phenomenology of muon number violation in spontaneously broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.U.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomenology of muon number violation in gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is studied. In the first chapter a brief introduction to the concept of muon number and to spontaneously broken gauge theories is given. A review of the phenomenology and experimental situation regarding different muon number violating processes is made in the second chapter. A detailed phenomenological study of the μe conversion process μ - + (A,Z) → e - + (A,Z) is given in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter some specific gauge theories incorporating spontaneously broken horizontal gauge symmetries between different fermion generations are discussed with special reference to muon number violation in the theories. The μe conversion process seems to be a good process to search for muon number violation if it occurs. The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference is likely to constrain muon number violating rates to lie far below present experimental limits unless strangeness changing neutral currents changing strangeness by two units are suppressed

  4. Ultralow dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging and iterative reconstruction techniques: variability of Hounsfield units and contrast-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Alexander; Stratis, Andreas; Kakar, Apoorv; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Pauwels, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of ultralow dose protocols and iterative reconstruction technology (IRT) influence quantitative Hounsfield units (HUs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Methods: A phantom with inserts of five types of materials was scanned using protocols for (a) a clinical reference for navigated surgery (CT dose index volume 36.58 mGy), (b) low-dose sinus imaging (18.28 mGy) and (c) four ultralow dose imaging (4.14, 2.63, 0.99 and 0.53 mGy). All images were reconstructed using: (i) filtered back projection (FBP); (ii) IRT: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-50 (ASIR-50), ASIR-100 and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR); and (iii) standard (std) and bone kernel. Mean HU, CNR and average HU error after recalibration were determined. Each combination of protocols was compared using Friedman analysis of variance, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Results: Pearson's sample correlation coefficients were all >0.99. Ultralow dose protocols using FBP showed errors of up to 273 HU. Std kernels had less HU variability than bone kernels. MBIR reduced the error value for the lowest dose protocol to 138 HU and retained the highest relative CNR. ASIR could not demonstrate significant advantages over FBP. Conclusions: Considering a potential dose reduction as low as 1.5% of a std protocol, ultralow dose protocols and IRT should be further tested for clinical dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Advances in knowledge: HU as a surrogate for bone density may vary significantly in CT ultralow dose imaging. However, use of std kernels and MBIR technology reduce HU error values and may retain the highest CNR. PMID:26859336

  5. Generation of photon number states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states

  6. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies...... that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry...... with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder...

  7. Conversion and the Real: The (Im)Possibility of Testimonial Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremac, Srdjan

    Although the spiritual vibration of conversion can be felt (by the curious outsider) through what conversion performers say in their testimonial discourse, what transforms the convert 'on stage' into a 'new being' and what is 'the real' ( le réel ) in conversion performance remain unclear. An important question in this connection is, What is 'real' in a conversion representation, both with respect to the convert's interaction with the audience and to the construction of social reality? Following Lacan's tripartite register of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, in this essay I argue that through testimonial discourse converts construct social reality as an answer to the impossibility of 'the real' in their performative discursive practice. In the first part, I question the constructed nature of testimonial representations-as well as some academic knowledge production that has governed conversion research in the last few decades-and how these representations encourage 'outsiders' to read the narrative repertoire as a negation or mirroring 'the real' of the conversion experience. In the second part, I apply Roland Barthes' analytic reflections on photography to conversion research, especially the notions of the studium (the common ground of cultural meanings) and the punctum (a personal experience that inspires private meaning). This brings me to a number of theorists (mostly never used in the field of religious conversion)-Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes, and Slavoj Žižek-who are important to the perspective that is developed in this essay.

  8. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  9. Nuclear (μ-,e+) conversion mediated by Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domin, P.; Kovalenko, S.; Faessler, Amand; Simkovic, F.

    2004-01-01

    We study the lepton number violating (LNV) process of (μ - ,e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by the exchange of light and heavy Majorana neutrinos. Nuclear structure calculations have been carried out for the case of an experimentally interesting nucleus 48 Ti in the framework of a renormalized proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation. We demonstrate that the imaginary part of the amplitude of a light Majorana neutrino exchange mechanism gives an appreciable contribution to the (μ - ,e + ) conversion rate. This specific feature is absent in the allied case of 0νββ decay. Using the present neutrino oscillations, tritium beta decay, accelerator, and cosmological data, we derived the limits on the effective masses of light μe and heavy N -1 > μe neutrinos. The expected rates of nuclear (μ - ,e + ) conversion, corresponding to these limits, were found to be so small that even within a distant future the (μ - ,e + ) conversion experiments will hardly be able to detect the neutrino signal. Therefore, searches for this LNV process can only rely on the presence of certain physics beyond the trivial extension of the standard model by inclusion of massive Majorana neutrinos

  10. Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: •Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. •A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. •The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. •The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. •Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

  11. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Geraghty, J. A. Seibert, and S. L. Wootton-Gorges, “Dose reduction in pediatric CT : A rational approach,” Radiology 228, 352–360 (2003). Medical...improvement in image quality can be quantified as large as 450 [Fig. 6(c)] and 350 [Fig. 6(d)] Hounsfield units (HUs), where the Hounsfield unit is defined...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  12. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K; Bjerregaard Stage, T; Mørkeberg Nilsson, F; Bjerregaard Stage, K; Valentin, J B; Bech, P; Ernst Nielsen, R

    2017-02-01

    In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM-D subscales included was found. The patients were followed-up through the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, which resulted in inherent limitations such as possible misclassification of outcome. In a sample of middle-aged hospitalized unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, the risk of conversion was associated with the number of previous depressive episodes. Therefore, this study emphasizes that unipolar depressed patients experiencing a relatively high number of recurrences should be followed more closely, or at least be informed about the possible increased risk of conversion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. The chromatic class and the chromatic number of the planar conjugated triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Malinina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This material is dedicated to the estimation of the chromatic number and chromatic class of the conjugated triangulation (first conversion) and also of the second conversion of the planar triangulation. Also this paper introduces some new hypotheses, which are equivalent to Four Color Problem.

  14. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  16. Computed Tomography Number Changes Observed During Computed Tomography–Guided Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mei; Yang, Cungeng; Chen, Xiaojian; Xu, Shouping; Moraru, Ion; Lang, Jinyi; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate CT number (CTN) changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) and organ at risk (OAR) according to daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography scans acquired using a CT-on-rails during daily CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for 15 patients with stage II to IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were analyzed. The GTV, parotid glands, spinal cord, and nonspecified tissue were generated on each selected daily CT. The changes in CTN distributions and the mean and mode values were collected. Pearson analysis was used to assess the correlation between the CTN change, organ volume reduction, and delivered radiation dose. Results: Volume and CTN changes for GTV and parotid glands can be observed during radiation therapy delivery for HNC. The mean (±SD) CTNs in GTV and ipsi- and contralateral parotid glands were reduced by 6 ± 10, 8 ± 7, and 11 ± 10 Hounsfield units, respectively, for all patients studied. The mean CTN changes in both spinal cord and nonspecified tissue were almost invisible (<2 Hounsfield units). For 2 patients studied, the absolute mean CTN changes in GTV and parotid glands were strongly correlated with the dose delivered (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). For the correlation between CTN reductions and delivered isodose bins for parotid glands, the Pearson coefficient varied from −0.98 (P<.001) in regions with low-dose bins to 0.96 (P<.001) in high-dose bins and were patient specific. Conclusions: The CTN can be reduced in tumor and parotid glands during the course of radiation therapy for HNC. There was a fair correlation between CTN reduction and radiation doses for a subset of patients, whereas the correlation between CTN reductions and volume reductions in GTV and parotid glands were weak. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism for the radiation-induced CTN changes

  17. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  18. The (μ-, e+) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simkovic, F.; Domin, P.; Kovalenko, S.G.; Faessler, A.

    2001-01-01

    The lepton number violating (μ - ,e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by the exchange of virtual light Majorana neutrinos is studied. We found that a previously overlooked imaginary part of this amplitude plays an important role. The numerical calculation has been made for the experimentally interesting (μ - ,e + ) conversion in 48 Ti using realistic renormalized proton-neutron QRPA wave functions. We also discuss the very similar case of the neutrinoless double beta decay of 48 Ca. The ratio of (μ - ,e + ) conversion over the total μ - absorption has been computed taking into account the current constraints from neutrino oscillation phenomenology. We compare our results with the experimental limits as well as with previous theoretical predictions. We have found that the Majorana neutrino mode of (μ - ,e + ) conversion in 48 Ti is too small to be measurable in the foreseeable future

  19. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  20. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  1. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122±18 H.U.(±SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number (±SD) of 85±22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116±22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T 3 were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65±11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76±14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102±11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84±16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57±7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61±5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author)

  2. Optimum size of a calibration phantom for x-ray CT to convert the Hounsfield units to stopping power ratios in charged particle therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T; Tashima, H; Kanematsu, N

    2018-03-01

    In charged-particle therapy treatment planning, the volumetric distribution of stopping power ratios (SPRs) of body tissues relative to water is used for patient dose calculation. The distribution is conventionally obtained from computed tomography (CT) images of a patient using predetermined conversion functions from the CT numbers to the SPRs. One of the biggest uncertainty sources of patient SPR estimation is insufficient correction of beam hardening arising from the mismatch between the size of the patient cross section and the calibration phantom for producing the conversion functions. The uncertainty would be minimized by selecting a suitable size for the cylindrical water calibration phantom, referred to as an 'effective size' of the patient cross section, Leffective. We investigated the Leffective for pelvis, abdomen, thorax, and head and neck regions by simulating an ideal CT system using volumetric models of the reference male and female phantoms. The Leffective values were 23.3, 20.3, 22.7 and 18.8 cm for the pelvis, abdomen, thorax, and head and neck regions, respectively, and the Leffective for whole body was 21.0 cm. Using the conversion function for a 21.0-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom, we could reduce the root mean square deviation of the SPRs and their mean deviation to ≤0.011 and ≤0.001, respectively, in the whole body. Accordingly, for simplicity, the effective size of 21.0 cm can be used for the whole body, irrespective of body-part regions for treatment planning in clinical practice.

  3. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  4. WO3 and W Thermal Atomic Layer Etching Using "Conversion-Fluorination" and "Oxidation-Conversion-Fluorination" Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas R; George, Steven M

    2017-10-04

    The thermal atomic layer etching (ALE) of WO 3 and W was demonstrated with new "conversion-fluorination" and "oxidation-conversion-fluorination" etching mechanisms. Both of these mechanisms are based on sequential, self-limiting reactions. WO 3 ALE was achieved by a "conversion-fluorination" mechanism using an AB exposure sequence with boron trichloride (BCl 3 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). BCl 3 converts the WO 3 surface to a B 2 O 3 layer while forming volatile WO x Cl y products. Subsequently, HF spontaneously etches the B 2 O 3 layer producing volatile BF 3 and H 2 O products. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies determined that the BCl 3 and HF reactions were self-limiting versus exposure. The WO 3 ALE etch rates increased with temperature from 0.55 Å/cycle at 128 °C to 4.19 Å/cycle at 207 °C. W served as an etch stop because BCl 3 and HF could not etch the underlying W film. W ALE was performed using a three-step "oxidation-conversion-fluorination" mechanism. In this ABC exposure sequence, the W surface is first oxidized to a WO 3 layer using O 2 /O 3 . Subsequently, the WO 3 layer is etched with BCl 3 and HF. SE could simultaneously monitor the W and WO 3 thicknesses and conversion of W to WO 3 . SE measurements showed that the W film thickness decreased linearly with number of ABC reaction cycles. W ALE was shown to be self-limiting with respect to each reaction in the ABC process. The etch rate for W ALE was ∼2.5 Å/cycle at 207 °C. An oxide thickness of ∼20 Å remained after W ALE, but could be removed by sequential BCl 3 and HF exposures without affecting the W layer. These new etching mechanisms will enable the thermal ALE of a variety of additional metal materials including those that have volatile metal fluorides.

  5. Analysis of CT and PET/SPECT images for dosimetry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massicano, Felipe; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Silva, Natanael Gomes da; Cintra, Felipe Belonsi; Yoriyaz, Helio; Carvalho, Rodrigo Mueller de

    2009-01-01

    Computer images are routinely used in diagnostic centers and hospitals. In particular in the field of Nuclear Medicine they help in the diagnosis and planning therapy against cancer. In the case of the planning therapy the quantifying the distribution of dose in patients is very important, because it provides an estimate of the dose in the tumor and healthy tissues, allowing a greater understanding on the response and toxicity caused by this dose. The aim of this study is to analyze both kinds of images: CT and PET/SPECT and their potential utilization for dosimetry calculation. PET or SPECT images were analyzed using a Gamma Camera, brand Medis, model Nuclide-TH/22 through image acquisition of scanned phantoms containing a known activity inside their volume so that a relationship between the number of counts for each voxel in the image and the real activity will be constructed. The heterogeneous organism patient's is specified from the computed tomography (CT) through number of Hounsfield. However, there is not a simple correlation to convert Hounsfield numbers into material tissues, therefore, in this work we developed a software in Java to convert Hounsfield numbers in mass density. Moreover, the software provides a map of tissues and a text file containing the elemental weights to be used by the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 to perform dose calculations. (author)

  6. Legal issues in cash balance pension plan conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J B

    2001-01-01

    Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.

  7. Conversion of non-nuclear grade feedstock to UF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponelis, A.A.; Slabber, M.N.; Zimmer, C.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The South African Conversion route is based on the direct feed of ammonium di-uranate produced by any one of a number of different mines. The physical and chemical characteristics of the feedstock can thus vary considerably and influence the conversion rate as well as the final UF 6 product purity. The UF 4 conversion reactor is a Moving Bed Reactor (MBR) with countercurrent flow of the reacting gas phases. Initial problems to continuously operate the MBR were mostly concerned with the physical nature of the UO 3 feed particles. Different approaches to eventually obtain a successful MBR are discussed. Besides obtaining UO 3 feed particles with certain physical attributes, the chemical impurities also have an effect on the operability of the MBR. The influence of the feedstock variables on the reduction and hydrofluorination rates after calcining has largely been determined from laboratory and pilot studies. The effect of chemical impurities such as sodium and potassium on the sinterability of the reacting particles and therefore the optimum temperature range in the MBR is also discussed. Confirmation of the effect of sodium and potassium impurities on the conversion rate has been obtained from large scale reactor operation. (author)

  8. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  9. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  10. On the frequency and field linewidth conversion of ferromagnetic resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yajun; Svedlindh, Peter; Liang Chin, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Both frequency swept and field swept ferromagnetic resonance measurements have been carried out for a number of different samples with negligible, moderate and significant extrinsic frequency independent linewidth contribution to analyze the correlation between the experimentally measured frequency and field linewidths. Contrary to the belief commonly held by many researchers, it is found that the frequency and field linewidth conversion relation does not hold for all cases. Instead it holds only for samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions. For samples with non-negligible frequency independent linewidth contribution, the field linewidth values converted from the measured frequency linewidth are larger than the experimentally measured field linewidth. A close examination of the literature reveals that previously reported results support our findings, with successful conversions related to samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions and unsuccessful conversions related to samples with significant frequency independent linewidth. The findings are important in providing guidance in ferromagnetic resonance linewidth conversions. (paper)

  11. Mathematical conversations multicolor problems, problems in the theory of numbers, and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    2006-01-01

    Comprises Multicolor Problems, dealing with map-coloring problems; Problems in the Theory of Numbers, an elementary introduction to algebraic number theory; Random Walks, addressing basic problems in probability theory. 1963 edition.

  12. Conversational behaviour of children with Asperger syndrome and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Anne; Cox, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Social communication problems in individuals who have Asperger syndrome constitute one of the most significant problems in the syndrome. This study makes a systematic analysis of the difficulties demonstrated with the use of language (pragmatics) in adolescents who have Asperger syndrome. Recent advances in discourse analysis were applied to conversational samples from a group of children with Asperger syndrome and a matched control group of children with severe conduct disorder. Two types of conversation were sampled from each group, differing in emotional content. The results showed that in these contexts children with Asperger syndrome were no more verbose as a group than controls, though they showed a tendency to talk more in more emotion-based conversations. Children with Asperger syndrome, as a group, performed similarly to control subjects in ability to respond to questions and comments. However, they were more likely to show responses which were problematic in both types of conversation. In addition, individuals with Asperger syndrome showed more problems in general conversation than during more emotionally and socially loaded topics. The group with Asperger syndrome was found to contain a small number of individuals with extreme verbosity but this was not a reliable characteristic of the group as a whole.

  13. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  14. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  15. Geographic differences in time to culture conversion in liquid media: Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study 28. Culture conversion is delayed in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Mac Kenzie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 28, was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 clinical trial examining smear positive pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Over the course of intensive phase therapy, patients from African sites had substantially delayed and lower rates of culture conversion to negative in liquid media compared to non-African patients. We explored potential explanations of this finding.In TBTC Study 28, protocol-correct patients (n = 328 provided spot sputum specimens for M. tuberculosis culture in liquid media, at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of study therapy. We compared sputum culture conversion for African and non-African patients stratified by four baseline measures of disease severity: AFB smear quantification, extent of disease on chest radiograph, cavity size and the number of days to detection of M. tuberculosis in liquid media using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. We evaluated specimen processing and culture procedures used at 29 study laboratories serving 27 sites.African TB patients had more extensive disease at enrollment than non-African patients. However, African patients with the least disease by the 4 measures of disease severity had conversion rates on liquid media that were substantially lower than conversion rates in non-African patients with the greatest extent of disease. HIV infection, smoking and diabetes did not explain delayed conversion in Africa. Some inter-site variation in laboratory processing and culture procedures within accepted practice for clinical diagnostic laboratories was found.Compared with patients from non-African sites, African patients being treated for TB had delayed sputum culture conversion and lower sputum conversion rates in liquid media that were not explained by baseline severity of disease, HIV status, age, smoking, diabetes or race. Further investigation is warranted into whether modest variation in laboratory processes substantially

  16. All-optical conversion scheme from binary to its MTN form with the help of nonlinear material based tree-net architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Anup Kumar; Nath Roy, Jitendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu

    2007-08-01

    In the field of optical computing and parallel information processing, several number systems have been used for different arithmetic and algebraic operations. Therefore an efficient conversion scheme from one number system to another is very important. Modified trinary number (MTN) has already taken a significant role towards carry and borrow free arithmetic operations. In this communication, we propose a tree-net architecture based all optical conversion scheme from binary number to its MTN form. Optical switch using nonlinear material (NLM) plays an important role.

  17. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  18. Catalytic conversion of ethanol on H-Y zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čegar Nedeljko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of the H-form of synthetic zeolite NaY was examined in this study. The catalytic activity was determined according to the rate of ethanol conversion in a gas phase in the static system. In the conversion of ethanol on synthetic NaY zeolite at 585, 595, and 610 K, on which the reaction develops at an optimal rate, ethene and diethyl ether are evolved in approximately the same quantity. After transforming the NaY zeolite into the H-form, its catalytic activity was extremely increases so, the reaction develops at a significantly lower temperature with a very large increase in the reaction rate. The distribution of the products also changes, so that at lower temperatures diethyl ether is elvolved in most cases, and the development of ethene is favored at higher ones, and after a certain period of time there is almost complete conversion of ethanol into ethene. The increase in catalytic activity, as well as the change of selectivity of conversion of ethanol on the H-form of zeolite, is the result of removing Na+ cations in the NaY zeolite, so that more acidic catalyst is obtained which contains a number of acidic catalytically active centers, as well as a more powerful one compared to the original NaY zeolite.

  19. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  20. About the lepton number non conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of lepton number non conservation through the mixing of lepton flavours, as well as the IΔLI=2 lepton antilepton conversion, is discussed. The paper follows the scheme: i) Experimental Situation; ii) Relation with the Neutrino Mass problem; iii) Majorana Neutrinos?; iv) Extensions of the Standard Model; v) Lepton Flavour Violating Decays of μ and τ; vi) Z∞ Boson Decays. (Author)

  1. Wavelength conversion from C- to L-band at 10 Gbit/s including transmission over 80 km of SSMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Clausen, Anders

    2000-01-01

    As the need for capacity increases, means to accommodate the growth is getting increasingly important. Hence, higher bit rates and an ever increasing number of WDM channels is being employed. This has led to the introduction of the L-band (ranging from 1570 to 1610 nm) as the new transmission...... window, opening up for-in conjunction with the C-band-an astonishing 80 nm of available bandwidth. However, as the number of wavelength channels increases, the need for wavelength conversion is becoming ever more pronounced. To perform the wavelength conversion, interferometric structures...... such as the monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (SOA-MZI) using semiconductor optical amplifiers as phase-shifting elements have proven excellent candidates. Here we present the conversion and transmission properties of a fully packaged device capable of wavelength conversion from C- to L-band having more...

  2. A proposal to manage multi-task dialogs in conversational interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GRIOL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart devices and recent advances in spoken language technology are currently extending the use of conversational interfaces and spoken interaction to perform many tasks. The dialog management task of a conversational interface consists of selecting the next system response considering the user's actions, the dialog history, and the results of accessing the data repositories. In this paper we describe a dialog management technique adapted to multi-task conversational systems. In our proposal, specialized dialog models are used to deal with each specific subtask of dialog objective for which the dialog system has been designed. The practical application of the proposed technique to develop a dialog system acting as a customer support service shows that the use of these specialized dialog models increases the quality and number of successful interactions with the system in comparison with developing a single dialog model.

  3. Four questions and a conversation: Can theory enrich conversation partner training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pound, Carole; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Simmons-Mackie, NIna

    Background and aimsConversation partner training (CPT) is an umbrella term for different approaches to intervention aiming to facilitate and improve communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and their conversation partners (CP). Some approaches are grounded in a bottom-up approach...... and interactions. Philosophically informed by existential-phenomenological perspectives, the humanisation framework encourages reflection on what practices can make people feel more (or less) human. Reviewing experiences of conversation against the eight suggested dimensions of what it means to be human may offer...

  4. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  5. Technology transfer and design conversion of a dry spent fuel storage system in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, R.C.; Marcelli, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    A number of unique issues surfaced in the technology transfer and design conversion of a US dry spent fuel storage technology in Ukraine. Unique challenges were encountered in the areas of nuclear design conversion, technical codes and standards, material selection and qualification, fabrication, construction and testing, quality assurance, documentation, and translation and verification processes. Technology transfer and design conversion were undertaken for both concrete and steel components for the project. The overall effort presented significant technical and cultural challenges to both the US and Ukrainian side, but technical exchange and design improvements to achieve a common goal have been reached. (author)

  6. Lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, Anna; Hejzlar, Pavel; Todreas, Neil E.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-cooled reactor systems capable of accepting either zero or unity conversion ratio cores depending on the need to burn actinides or operate in a sustained cycle are presented. This flexible conversion ratio reactor is a pool-type 2400 MWt reactor coupled to four 600 MWt supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) power conversion system (PCS) trains through intermediate heat exchangers. The cores which achieve a power density of 112 kW/l adopt transuranic metallic fuel and reactivity feedbacks to achieve inherent shutdown in anticipated transients without scram, and lead coolant in a pool vessel arrangement. Decay heat removal is accomplished using a reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) complemented by a passive secondary auxiliary cooling system (PSACS). The transient simulation of station blackout (SBO) using the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA code shows that inherent shutdown without scram can be accommodated within the cladding temperature limit by the enhanced RVACS and a minimum (two) number of PSACS trains. The design of the passive safety systems also prevents coolant freezing in case all four of the PSACS trains are in operation. Both cores are also shown able to accommodate unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected transient overpower (UTOP) accidents using the S-CO 2 PCS.

  7. Assessing the effects of lumbar posterior stabilization and fusion to vertebral bone density in stabilized and adjacent segments by using Hounsfield unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüz, Erol; Deniz, Fatih Ersay; Demir, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) with Hounsfield unit (HU) is being used with increasing frequency for determining bone density. Established correlations between HU and bone density have been shown in the literature. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the bone density changes of the stabilized and adjacent segment vertebral bodies by comparing HU values before and after lumbar posterior stabilization. Methods Sixteen patients who had similar diagnosis of lumbar spondylosis and stenosis were evaluated in this study. Same surgical procedures were performed to all of the patients with L2-3-4-5 transpedicular screw fixation, fusion and L3-4 total laminectomy. Bone mineral density measurements were obtained with clinical CT. Measurements were obtained from stabilized and adjacent segment vertebral bodies. Densities of vertebral bodies were evaluated with HU before the surgeries and approximately one year after the surgeries. The preoperative HU value of each vertebra was compared with postoperative HU value of the same vertebrae by using statistical analysis. Results The HU values of vertebra in the stabilized and adjacent segments consistently decreased after the operations. There were significant differences between the preoperative HU values and the postoperative HU values of the all evaluated vertebral bodies in the stabilized and adjacent segments. Additionally first sacral vertebra HU values were found to be significantly higher than lumbar vertebra HU values in the preoperative group and postoperative group. Conclusions Decrease in the bone density of the adjacent segment vertebral bodies may be one of the major predisposing factors for adjacent segment disease (ASD). PMID:29354730

  8. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  9. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  10. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  11. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  12. Mode conversion efficiency to Laguerre-Gaussian OAM modes using spiral phase optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Andrew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2017-07-24

    An analytical model for the conversion efficiency from a TEM 00 mode to an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode with null radial index spiral phase optics is presented. We extend this model to include the effects of stepped spiral phase optics, spiral phase optics of non-integer topological charge, and the reduction in conversion efficiency due to broad laser bandwidth. We find that through optimization, an optimal beam waist ratio of the input and output modes exists and is dependent upon the output azimuthal mode number.

  13. Sex Distribution and Psychiatric Features of Child and Adolescent Conversion Disorder Across 2 Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lin Huang

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: The sex distribution in conversion disorder might have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. There is an increasing need for screening and interventions for psychiatric comorbidity and experiences of being abused in children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Because of the small sample size of our study, further studies that include multiple study sites and a larger number of patients are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

  14. Engaging in a Conversation with Synthetic Characters along the Virtuality Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Elisabeth; Dorfmueller-Ulhaas, Klaus; Rehm, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade research groups as well as a number of commercial software developers have started to deploy embodied conversational characters in the user interface especially in those application areas where a close emulation of multimodal human-human communication is needed. Most...

  15. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  17. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  18. Looking at the Complexity of Two Young Children's Understanding of Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Jennifer S.; Pirie, Susan E. B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study that investigated two third-grade students' understanding of number. The children were videotaped while they worked to record everything they knew about the number, 72. Their artifacts and conversations were then analyzed using the Pirie-Kieren dynamical theory for the growth of mathematical understanding as…

  19. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  20. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  1. Mimicry in online conversations : an exploratory study of linguistic analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrick, Tom; Rashid, Awais; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Kumar, Ravi; Caverlee, James; Tong, Hanghang

    2016-01-01

    A number of computational techniques have been proposed that aim to detect mimicry in online conversations. In this paper, we investigate how well these reflect the prevailing cognitive science model, i.e. the Interactive Alignment Model. We evaluate Local Linguistic Alignment, word vectors, and

  2. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  3. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?; Laserinduzierte Interstitielle Thermotherapie (LITT) maligner Lebertumoren. Kann durch eine Messung der Hounsfieldeinheiten des Lebergewebes der Energiebedarf fuer die Ablation vorhergesagt werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-10

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  4. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  5. Electrohydrodynamics: a high-voltage direct energy conversion process; L'electrohydrodynamique: Un procede de conversion directe d'energie a haute tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    This analysis consists of a theoretical and practical study of a high-tension electrical power generator based on the Van de Graaff generator principle, the main difference being that the charges produced are transported by a gas in motion and not by a belt. The electrical and thermal properties of such a generator are studied, as well as the difficult problem of the production of the ionised particles used in the conversion. A certain number of results already published on this process for converting kinetic energy into electrical energy is given, as well as some possible applications in the field of space technology. (author) [French] Cette analyse est une etude theorique et pratique d'un generateur de puissance electrique a haute tension, base sur le principe du generateur Van de Graaff, la difference principale etant que les charges produites sont transportees pur un gaz en mouvement et non par une courroie. Les proprietes electriques et thermiques d'un tel generateur sont etudiees ainsi que le probleme delicat de la production des particules ionisees utilisees dans la conversion. Un certain nombre de resultats publies sur ce procede de conversion d'energie cinetique en energie electrique sont reproduits, ainsi que les applications possibles aux problemes spatiaux. (auteur)

  6. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  7. Identification of infusion strategy for achieving repeatable nanoparticle distribution and quantification of thermal dosage using micro-CT Hounsfield unit in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Alexander; Joglekar, Tejashree; Bieberich, Charles; Ma, Ronghui; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify an injection strategy leading to repeatable nanoparticle deposition patterns in tumours and to quantify volumetric heat generation rate distribution based on micro-CT Hounsfield unit (HU) in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. In vivo animal experiments were performed on graft prostatic cancer (PC3) tumours in immunodeficient mice to investigate whether lowering ferrofluid infusion rate improves control of the distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in tumour tissue. Nanoparticle distribution volume obtained from micro-CT scan was used to evaluate spreading of the nanoparticles from the injection site in tumours. Heating experiments were performed to quantify relationships among micro-CT HU values, local nanoparticle concentrations in the tumours, and the ferrofluid-induced volumetric heat generation rate (q(MNH)) when nanoparticles were subject to an alternating magnetic field. An infusion rate of 3 µL/min was identified to result in the most repeatable nanoparticle distribution in PC3 tumours. Linear relationships have been obtained to first convert micro-CT greyscale values to HU values, then to local nanoparticle concentrations, and finally to nanoparticle-induced q(MNH) values. The total energy deposition rate in tumours was calculated and the observed similarity in total energy deposition rates in all three infusion rate groups suggests improvement in minimising nanoparticle leakage from the tumours. The results of this study demonstrate that micro-CT generated q(MNH) distribution and tumour physical models improve predicting capability of heat transfer simulation for designing reliable treatment protocols using magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  8. SU-E-T-161: Characterization and Validation of CT Simulator Hounsfield Units to Relative Stopping Power Values for Proton Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a calibration curve that includes and minimizes the variations of Hounsfield Unit (HU) from a CT scanner to Relative Stopping Power (RSP) of tissues along the proton beam path. The variations are due to scanner and proton energy, technique, phantom size and placement, and tissue arrangement. Methods: A CIRS 062 M phantom with 10 plugs of known relative electron density (RED) was scanned through a 16 slice GE Discovery CT Simulator scanner. Three setup combinations of plug distributions and techniques clinically implemented for five treatment regions were scanned with energies of 100, 120, and 140 kV. Volumetric HU values were measured for each plug and scan. The RSP values derived through the Bethe-Bloch formula are currently being verified with parallel-plate ionization chamber measurements in water using 80, 150, and 225 MeV proton beam. Typical treatment plans for treatment regions of brain, head-&-neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are being planned and dose delivered will be compared with film and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) measurements. Results: Percentage variations were determined for each variable. For tissues close to water, variations were <1% from any given parameter. Tissues far from water equivalence (lung and bone) showed the greatest sensitivity to change (7.4% maximum) with scanner energy and up to 5.3% with positioning of the phantom. No major variations were observed for proton energies within the treatment range. Conclusion: When deriving a calibration curve, attention should be placed to low and high HU values. A thorough verification process of calculated vs. water-phantom measured RSP values at different proton energies, followed by dose validation of planned vs. measured doses in phantom with film and OSL detectors are currently being undertaken

  9. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Perez Leal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  10. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso JoséI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  11. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, H.; Costa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters have been compared to assess the influence of the substrate geometrical and physical parameters on the exhaust gas conversions for several vehicle operating conditions. Both catalysts were placed on a vehicle equipped with a 2.8 l DOHC V6 spark ignition engine that was tested on a chassis dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds and loads. The data obtained include exhaust gas species concentrations and temperature taken both upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter, as well as temperatures in various locations within the substrate of the catalysts. The experimental data revealed that: (i) at low space velocities, the ceramic substrate presents better conversions, particularly for HC and CO, as compared to the metallic substrate, possibly because of its lower thermal conductivity which facilitates local ignition; (ii) at high space velocities, the metallic substrate presents better conversions, as compared to the ceramic substrate, mainly because of its larger geometric surface area and lower transverse Peclet number; and (iii) in general, the HC conversion for small space velocities is kinetically controlled while for high space velocities it is mass transfer limited; both limitations are less pronounced for the CO conversion and insignificant for the NO x conversion

  12. Effects of polymorphisms in ovine and caprine prion protein alleles on cell-free conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiden Martin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep polymorphisms of the prion gene (PRNP at the codons 136, 154 and 171 strongly influence the susceptibility to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE infections. In goats a number of other gene polymorphisms were found which are suspected to trigger similar effects. However, no strong correlation between polymorphisms and TSE susceptibility in goats has yet been obtained from epidemiological studies and only a low number of experimental challenge data are available at present. We have therefore studied the potential impact of these polymorphisms in vitro by cell-free conversion assays using mouse scrapie strain Me7. Mouse scrapie brain derived PrPSc served as seeds and eleven recombinant single mutation variants of sheep and goat PrPC as conversion targets. With this approach it was possible to assign reduced conversion efficiencies to specific polymorphisms, which are associated to low frequency in scrapie-affected goats or found only in healthy animals. Moreover, we could demonstrate a dominant-negative inhibition of prion polymorphisms associated with high susceptibility by alleles linked to low susceptibility in vitro.

  13. Status of the conversion working plan in the High Flux Reactor (Petten, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.A.; Thijssen, P.J.M.; Wijtsma, F.J.; Gevers, A.; Guidez, J.

    2000-01-01

    The conversion from HEU to LEU has often many disadvantages: flux penalties, increase of fuel consumption, cost and delay to obtain a new license etc. But to fulfill the non-proliferation programme, and to simplify the future fuel supply, the HFR renewed in 1998 studies on conversion possibilities. To minimize the conversion costs, these studies were made with a progressive conversion that avoids the need of one new core and permits to begin the conversion with a replacement of 5 elements at each cycle. Hence the conversion can be made in 7 cycles, without special elements and with a normal bum-up for each element. To avoid an increase of fuel consumption, an increase of the fuel cycle length from 24.7 to 28.3 days was also considered. This point allows reducing the number of annual cycles from 1 to 10 and enables in one cycle to have the possibility of four successive irradiations for Molybdenum production (7 days) in one irradiation position. A working plan for fuel licensing has been sent to the safety authorities and is presented in the paper. (author)

  14. La conversion de Paul, regards croisés Paul’s conversion. Cross perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Cuvillier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Au plan historique, les traditions relatives à la conversion de Paul, chutant de son cheval sur le chemin de Damas, confrontent l’exégète à trois problèmes importants : y avait-il un cheval, cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas et était-ce bien une conversion ? Entendues avec l’humour et la distance critique nécessaires, ces trois questions constituent les trois chapitres de cet article. Le premier « Y avait-il un cheval ? » s’intéresse à l’histoire de la réception de l’épisode de la conversion de Paul, en particulier dans la peinture et la littérature. Le second « Cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas ? » est consacrée au récit que l’auteur du livre des Actes propose de la conversion de Paul, récit qui constitue, bien souvent, la porte d’entrée exclusive pour aborder le thème. Le troisième « Etait-ce bien une conversion ? » analyse les témoignages de l’apôtre lui-même à travers deux passages clés de ses épîtres authentiques.Historically speaking, the traditions concerning the conversion of Paul, falling from his horse on the road to Damascus, confront the exegete with three important problems : was there a horse, did it happen on the road to Damacus and was it really a conversion ? These three questions, considered with humor and critical distance, constitute the three sections of this article. The first part « Was there a horse ? » considers the history of the reception of the episode of the conversion of Paul, particularly in art and literature. The second one « Did it happen on the road to Damascus ? » is devoted to the story of the conversion of Paul proposed by the author of the book of Acts, which is very often the exclusive entrance to the discussion of this theme. The third section « Was it really a conversion ? » analyzes the account given by the apostle himself in two key passages of his authentic epistles.

  15. Conversational Agents in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Alice; Ellis, Richard; Bull, Susan

    This paper discusses the use of natural language or 'conversational' agents in e-learning environments. We describe and contrast the various applications of conversational agent technology represented in the e-learning literature, including tutors, learning companions, language practice and systems to encourage reflection. We offer two more detailed examples of conversational agents, one which provides learning support, and the other support for self-assessment. Issues and challenges for developers of conversational agent systems for e-learning are identified and discussed.

  16. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  18. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  19. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  20. Fault-tolerant conversion between adjacent Reed-Muller quantum codes based on gauge fixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dong-Xiao; Zhu, Li-Li; Pei, Chang-Xing; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-03-01

    We design forward and backward fault-tolerant conversion circuits, which convert between the Steane code and the 15-qubit Reed-Muller quantum code so as to provide a universal transversal gate set. In our method, only seven out of a total 14 code stabilizers need to be measured, and we further enhance the circuit by simplifying some stabilizers; thus, we need only to measure eight weight-4 stabilizers for one round of forward conversion and seven weight-4 stabilizers for one round of backward conversion. For conversion, we treat random single-qubit errors and their influence on syndromes of gauge operators, and our novel single-step process enables more efficient fault-tolerant conversion between these two codes. We make our method quite general by showing how to convert between any two adjacent Reed-Muller quantum codes \\overline{\\textsf{RM}}(1,m) and \\overline{\\textsf{RM}}≤ft(1,m+1\\right) , for which we need only measure stabilizers whose number scales linearly with m rather than exponentially with m obtained in previous work. We provide the explicit mathematical expression for the necessary stabilizers and the concomitant resources required.

  1. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  2. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  3. Evolution of models for conversion of smectite to non-expandable minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of smectite has long been regarded as conversion to illite and chlorite as concluded from investigations of Gulf sediments. As manifested by statements given earlier at various international scientific meetings and in the literature, smectite-to-illite conversion (S→I) has been assumed to be a solid-state reaction with layer-by-layer alteration via mixed layer I/S to illite. In the last 10 years this opinion has successively changed and in recent years the concept of dissolution of smectite and accessory minerals and precipitation of illite and possibly I/S has been favored by many investigators. The present report reports laboratory and field investigations on bentonite and also calculations based on geochemical codes, which all support the dissolution/precipitation process. Applying Pytte's model for calculating the rate of conversion to illite, one finds good agreement with a number of experiments and field data, and this model is therefore recommended for practical use

  4. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  5. New preemptive scheduling for OBS networks considering cascaded wavelength conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbo; Bassiouni, Mostafa A.; Li, Guifang

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a new preemptive scheduling technique for next generation optical burst-switched networks considering the impact of cascaded wavelength conversions. It has been shown that when optical bursts are transmitted all optically from source to destination, each wavelength conversion performed along the lightpath may cause certain signal-to-noise deterioration. If the distortion of the signal quality becomes significant enough, the receiver would not be able to recover the original data. Accordingly, subject to this practical impediment, we improve a recently proposed fair channel scheduling algorithm to deal with the fairness problem and aim at burst loss reduction simultaneously in optical burst switching. In our scheme, the dynamic priority associated with each burst is based on a constraint threshold and the number of already conducted wavelength conversions among other factors for this burst. When contention occurs, a new arriving superior burst may preempt another scheduled one according to their priorities. Extensive simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme further improves fairness and achieves burst loss reduction as well.

  6. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  7. Methanol and ethanol vapor conversion in gas discharge with strongly non-uniform distribution of electric field on atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Kotyukov, O.V.; Kudin, D.V.; Rodionov, S.V.; Pis'menetskoj, A.S.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The barrierless gas discharge of negative polarity with strongly non-uniform distribution of electrical field in the methanol and ethanol vapour was studied. It is shown that level of methanol and ethanol conversion depended from power consumed by the discharge and exposition time for gas mixture in discharge zone. The condition for deep conversion of the methanol and ethanol vapours were determined. The water and carbon dioxide are the end products for the methanol and ethanol conversion. Formaldehyde and formic acid are the intermediates products in the conversion of methanol. And ethanol has a number of different compounds, including acetic acid, acetaldehyde, etc.

  8. U.S. Domestic Reactor Conversion Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Conversion Projects Include: the revision of the facilities safety basis documents and supporting analysis, the fabrication of new LEU fuel, the change-out of the reactor core, and the removal of the used HEU fuel (by INL University Fuels Program or DOE-NE). The major entities involved are: the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the University reactor department, the fuel and hardware fabricators, the Spent fuel receipt facilities, the Spent fuel shipping services, and the U.S. Department of Energy and their subcontractors. Three major Reactor Conversion Program milestones have been accomplished since 2006: the conversion of the TRIGA reactor at Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, the conversion of the University of Florida Training Reactor, and the conversion of the Purdue University Reactor. Four Reactor Conversion Program milestones yet to be accomplished in 2008 and 2009: the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center reactor, the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor, the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor, and the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility. NNSA is committed to doing things cheaper, better, smarter, safer through a 'Lessons Learned' process. The conversion team assessed each major activity grouping: Project Initiation, Conversion Proposal Development, Fuel Fabrication and Hardware, Core Conversion, and Spent Nuclear Fuel Removal. Issues were identified and recommendations were given

  9. Planning for Retrospective Conversion: A Simulation of the OCLC TAPECON Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heidi; Pronevitz, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Describes a simulation of OCLC's TAPECON retrospective conversion service and its impact on an online catalog in a large university research library. The analysis includes results of Library of Congress Card Numbers, author/title, and title searches, and hit rates based on an analysis of OCLC and locally generated reports. (three references)…

  10. COMET/PRISM Muon to Electron Conversion at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungerford, Ed V.

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental search for coherent, neutrinoless, muon-to-electron conversion from a muonic atom has been proposed for the Japanese Proton Accelerator, J-PARC, now under commissioning. The experiment is completing a conceptual design which proposes a single event sensitivity in the branching ratio of lepton number violating to lepton conserving decays of ≅0.26x10 -16 . This note briefly describes the experiment and its objectives.

  11. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  12. Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - from TGA measurements to char gasification particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J.T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Renewable Energy Programme, POB 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Moilanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, Espoo (Finland); Martini, N. de; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Process Chemistry Centre, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    When a solid fuel particle is injected into a hot fluidized bed, the reactivity of fuel char in gasification reactions (between char carbon and steam and CO{sub 2}) plays a significant role for reaching a good carbon conversion. In this paper, the gasification reactivity data of some solid waste recovered fuels (SRF) obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments is presented. Gas mixtures (H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO), were used in the experiments to find the inhibitive effects of CO and H{sub 2}. Average char gasification reactivity values are determined from the TGA results. Kinetic parameters for char carbon gasification reactivity correlations are determined from this data. The Uniform Conversion model is used to account for the change of gasification reaction rate as function of carbon conversion. Some discrepancies, due to complicated ash-carbon interactions, are subjects of further research. In the carbon conversion predictor, laboratory measured reactivity numbers are converted into carbon conversion numbers in a real-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The predictor is a relatively simple and transparent tool for the comparison of the gasification reactivity of different fuels in fluidized bed gasification. The residence times for solid fuels in fluidized bed gasifiers are simulated. Simulations against some pilot-scale results show reasonable agreement. (orig.)

  13. Increasing conversion efficiency of two-step photon up-conversion solar cell with a voltage booster hetero-interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Shigeo; Kusaki, Kazuki; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2018-01-17

    Development of high-efficiency solar cells is one of the attractive challenges in renewable energy technologies. Photon up-conversion can reduce the transmission loss and is one of the promising concepts which improve conversion efficiency. Here we present an analysis of the conversion efficiency, which can be increased by up-conversion in a single-junction solar cell with a hetero-interface that boosts the output voltage. We confirm that an increase in the quasi-Fermi gap and substantial photocurrent generation result in a high conversion efficiency.

  14. Do we notice when communication goes awry? An investigation of people's sensitivity to coherence in spontaneous conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galantucci

    Full Text Available In the dominant theoretical framework, human communication is modeled as the faithful transmission of information. This implies that when people are involved in communicational exchanges, they should be sensitive to the success with which information is transmitted, easily detecting when conversations lack coherence. The expectation that humans are good at detecting conversational incoherence is in line with common intuition, but there are several reasons to suspect that it might be unrealistic. First, similar intuitions have been shown to be unrealistic for a number of psychological processes. Second, faithful information transmission may conflict with other conversational goals. Third, mechanisms supporting information transmission may themselves lead to cases of incoherence being missed. To ascertain the extent to which people are insensitive to patches of serious conversational incoherence, we generated such patches in the laboratory by repeatedly crossing two unrelated conversations. Across two studies, involving both narrowly and broadly focused conversations, between 27% and 42% of the conversants did not notice that their conversations had been crossed. The results of these studies suggest that it may indeed be unrealistic to model spontaneous conversation as faithful information transmission. Rather, our results are more consistent with models of communication that view it as involving noisy and error-prone inferential processes, serving multiple independent goals.

  15. Ownership conversions and nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.

  16. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION (DEC) FISSION REACTORS - A U.S. NERI PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.; Polansky, G.

    2000-01-01

    The direct conversion of the electrical energy of charged fission fragments was examined early in the nuclear reactor era, and the first theoretical treatment appeared in the literature in 1957. Most of the experiments conducted during the next ten years to investigate fission fragment direct energy conversion (DEC) were for understanding the nature and control of the charged particles. These experiments verified fundamental physics and identified a number of specific problem areas, but also demonstrated a number of technical challenges that limited DEC performance. Because DEC was insufficient for practical applications, by the late 1960s most R and D ceased in the US. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this day, but there have been no recent programs to develop the technology. This has changed with the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative that was funded by the U.S. Congress in 1999. Most of the previous concepts were based on a fission electric cell known as a triode, where a central cathode is coated with a thin layer of nuclear fuel. A fission fragment that leaves the cathode with high kinetic energy and a large positive charge is decelerated as it approaches the anode by a charge differential of several million volts, it then deposits its charge in the anode after its kinetic energy is exhausted. Large numbers of low energy electrons leave the cathode with each fission fragment; they are suppressed by negatively biased on grid wires or by magnetic fields. Other concepts include magnetic collimators and quasi-direct magnetohydrodynamic generation (steady flow or pulsed). We present the basic principles of DEC fission reactors, review the previous research, discuss problem areas in detail and identify technological developments of the last 30 years relevant to overcoming these obstacles. A prognosis for future development of direct energy conversion fission reactors will be presented

  17. Computational Analysis of Igbo Numerals in a Number-to-text Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Deborah NINAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available System for converting Arabic numerals to their textual equivalence is an important tool in Natural Language processing (NLP especially in high-level speech processing and machine translation. Such system is scarcely available for most African languages including the Igbo language. This translation system is essential as Igbo language is one of the three major Nigerian languages feared to be among the endangered African languages. The system was designed using sequence as well as activity diagram and implemented using the python programming language and PyQt. The qualitative evaluation was done by administering questionnaires to selected native Igbo speakers and experts to provide preferred representation of some random numbers. The responses were compared with the output of the system. The result of the qualitative evaluation showed that the system was able to generate correct and accurate representations for Arabic numbers between 1-1000 in Igbo language being the scope of this study. The resulting system can serve as an effective teaching and learning tool of the Igbo language.

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  19. Conversational Styles and Misunderstanding in Cross-Sex Conversations in He’s Just Not That into You Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Nyoman Aryani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversation is a social interaction among societies. In this case, gender differences in daily communication lead to men’s and women’s different point of views in performing styles of the conversations. Misunderstanding is likely to occur in crosssex conversations when the idea or thought are understood differently by men and women. This study was intended to analyze the use of conversational styles by men and women and also investigate the misunderstanding phenomena that happened in cross-sex conversations. The researcher identified that the conversational styles used by Alex as a male character in the cross-sex conversations were qualifiers, controlling the topics, verbal fillers, intensifiers, swear words, compound requests, tag questions, questions, interruptions, overlapping, and talk domination. Meanwhile, Gigi, as a female character used qualifiers, controlling the topics, verbal fillers, intensifiers, swear words, tag questions, questions, interruptions, overlapping, talk domination, and silence. In answering the second question, the researcher discovered factors that affected the misunderstanding in the cross-sex conversations between Alex and Gigi were involvement versus independence and message versus metamessage.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2016.190101

  20. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  1. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  2. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2008-02-01

    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  3. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Philips Healthcare System, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose

  4. Responsive turns in Indonesian informal conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. van Naerssen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People have all sorts of expectations about how interlocutors will and should behave linguistically when engaged in a conversation. These conversational norms are usually implicit and are sometimes difficult to master in a language that is new to you. This paper presents a model of different types of responses in informal conversation, illustrated with Indonesian examples. It builds upon the conversation analytic notion of preference; distinguishing preferred – or constructive – responses and dispreferred – or competitive – responses. The model is meant as a tool to cross-linguistically compare response behaviour to gain insight in language specific expectations about interaction in informal conversation.

  5. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  7. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  8. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  9. Statistical thermodynamics foundation for photovoltaic and photothermal conversion. II. Application to photovoltaic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Landsberg, Peter T.

    1995-08-01

    The general theory developed in part I was applied to build up two models of photovoltaic conversion. To this end two different systems were analyzed. The first system consists of the whole absorber (converter), for which the balance equations for energy and entropy are written and then used to derive an upper bound for solar energy conversion. The second system covers a part of the absorber (converter), namely the valence and conduction electronic bands. The balance of energy is used in this case to derive, under additional assumptions, another upper limit for the conversion efficiency. This second system deals with the real location where the power is generated. Both models take into consideration the radiation polarization and reflection, and the effects of concentration. The second model yields a more accurate upper bound for the conversion efficiency. A generalized solar cell equation is derived. It is proved that other previous theories are particular cases of the present more general formalism.

  10. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  11. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  12. Theoretical Conversions of Different Hardness and Tensile Strength for Ductile Materials Based on Stress-Strain Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cai, Li-Xun

    2018-04-01

    Based on the power-law stress-strain relation and equivalent energy principle, theoretical equations for converting between Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HR), and Vickers hardness (HV) were established. Combining the pre-existing relation between the tensile strength ( σ b ) and Hollomon parameters ( K, N), theoretical conversions between hardness (HB/HR/HV) and tensile strength ( σ b ) were obtained as well. In addition, to confirm the pre-existing σ b -( K, N) relation, a large number of uniaxial tensile tests were conducted in various ductile materials. Finally, to verify the theoretical conversions, plenty of statistical data listed in ASTM and ISO standards were adopted to test the robustness of the converting equations with various hardness and tensile strength. The results show that both hardness conversions and hardness-strength conversions calculated from the theoretical equations accord well with the standard data.

  13. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  14. "Spiritual but not religious": Cognition, schizotypy, and conversion in alternative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2017-08-01

    The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e.g. have mystical experiences and feelings of universal connectedness), but are similar to religious participants in their profile of cognitive biases. SBNR participants score higher on measures of schizotypy than the religious or non-religious. Reported conversions from one group (religious, SBNR, or non-religious) to another since childhood corresponds with predictable differences in cognitive biases, with dualism predicting conversion to religion and schizotypy predicting conversion to SBNR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  16. Maximum Efficiency of Thermoelectric Heat Conversion in High-Temperature Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khvesyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in development of aircraft engineering go with development of vehicles of the fifth generation. The features of aircrafts of the fifth generation are motivation to use new high-performance systems of onboard power supply. The operating temperature of the outer walls of engines is of 800–1000 K. This corresponds to radiation heat flux of 10 kW/m2 . The thermal energy including radiation of the engine wall may potentially be converted into electricity. The main objective of this paper is to analyze if it is possible to use a high efficiency thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. The paper considers issues such as working processes, choice of materials, and optimization of thermoelectric conversion. It presents the analysis results of operating conditions of thermoelectric generator (TEG used in advanced hightemperature power devices. A high-temperature heat source is a favorable factor for the thermoelectric conversion of heat. It is shown that for existing thermoelectric materials a theoretical conversion efficiency can reach the level of 15–20% at temperatures up to 1500 K and available values of Ioffe parameter being ZT = 2–3 (Z is figure of merit, T is temperature. To ensure temperature regime and high efficiency thermoelectric conversion simultaneously it is necessary to have a certain match between TEG power, temperature of hot and cold surfaces, and heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system. The paper discusses a concept of radiation absorber on the TEG hot surface. The analysis has demonstrated a number of potentialities for highly efficient conversion through using the TEG in high-temperature power devices. This work has been implemented under support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation; project No. 1145 (the programme “Organization of Research Engineering Activities”.

  17. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Accuracy of Dual-Energy Virtual Monochromatic CT Numbers: Comparison between the Single-Source Projection-Based and Dual-Source Image-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi, Takashi; Ogihara, Ryota; Yamada, Sachiko

    2018-03-21

    To investigate the accuracy of dual-energy virtual monochromatic computed tomography (CT) numbers obtained by two typical hardware and software implementations: the single-source projection-based method and the dual-source image-based method. A phantom with different tissue equivalent inserts was scanned with both single-source and dual-source scanners. A fast kVp-switching feature was used on the single-source scanner, whereas a tin filter was used on the dual-source scanner. Virtual monochromatic CT images of the phantom at energy levels of 60, 100, and 140 keV were obtained by both projection-based (on the single-source scanner) and image-based (on the dual-source scanner) methods. The accuracy of virtual monochromatic CT numbers for all inserts was assessed by comparing measured values to their corresponding true values. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the dependency of measured CT numbers on tissue attenuation, method, and their interaction. Root mean square values of systematic error over all inserts at 60, 100, and 140 keV were approximately 53, 21, and 29 Hounsfield unit (HU) with the single-source projection-based method, and 46, 7, and 6 HU with the dual-source image-based method, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that the interaction between the attenuation and the method had a statistically significant effect on the measured CT numbers at 100 and 140 keV. There were attenuation-, method-, and energy level-dependent systematic errors in the measured virtual monochromatic CT numbers. CT number reproducibility was comparable between the two scanners, and CT numbers had better accuracy with the dual-source image-based method at 100 and 140 keV. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conversing as Metaphor of Human Thinking: Is Mind like a Conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2018-06-01

    How can researchers shape their ideas so that they understand the mind better? This theoretical paper discusses the merits of the conversation metaphor as a means of analyzing the human mind. We will develop arguments concerning conversation as i) a situated and distributed activity, ii) a "product" in perpetual construction, and iii) the amount of credence and belief we afford it. Finally, we will advocate for metaphorical tools that promote a more dynamic conceptualization of human thinking.

  20. Conversational Styles and Misunderstanding in Cross-Sex Conversations in He’s Just Not That into You Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Nyoman Aryani

    2017-01-01

    Conversation is a social interaction among societies. In this case, gender differences in daily communication lead to men’s and women’s different point of views in performing styles of the conversations. Misunderstanding is likely to occur in crosssex conversations when the idea or thought are understood differently by men and women. This study was intended to analyze the use of conversational styles by men and women and also investigate the misunderstanding phenomena that happened in cross-s...

  1. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  2. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  3. Non-Contrast Computed Tomography Scan Based Parameters of Ureteric Stones Affecting the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz Khan, Mohammad; Waqas Iqbal, Muhammad; Akbar, Mian Khalid; Saqib, Imad-ud-din; Akhter, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To compare the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan-based parameters of ureteric stones affecting the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and methods We retrospectively evaluated the pre-procedure NCCT of 74 patients who had ESWL for solitary ureteric calculi of 5-20 mm in diameter. We assessed the age, sex, basal metabolic index (BMI), laterality, location, presence of double 'J' (DJ) stent, skin to stone distance (SSD), stone maximum diameter, Hounsfield unit (HU), Hounsfield density (HD), area, and volume. All those who had no stone on follow-up imaging within 30 days were declared successful while those who had residual stone were declared failures. Results The overall success rate was 78% (58/74). Sixty (81.1%) patients were male. The success of ESWL was correlated with lower SSD, Hounsfield units (HU) and Hounsfield density (HD). However, in multivariate analysis, SSD, Hounsfield unit, and stone area showed correlation with success of procedure but Hounsfield density failed to show correlation. The success rate in patients with stone HU 1000 were 93.9%, 69%, and 58.3%, respectively. Patients with lower BMI (30 kg/m2) and higher HD (>76 HU/mm). Conclusion BMI, SSD, stone Hounsfield units and Hounsfield unit density were strong predictors of outcome of ESWL for ureteric stone. PMID:28589076

  4. 24 CFR 972.109 - Conversion of developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing whether it has approved the conversion plan. Units that are vacant or vacated on or after the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of developments. 972.109... DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing...

  5. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  6. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  7. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  8. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  9. Communal biomass conversion plants. From idea to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The first Danish biomass conversion plant for the production of methane was built in the nineteen seventies. It was just a little plant based on manure slurries from a local herd of farm animals. It was not until the nineteen eighties that larger plants were established so that enough methane could be produced as part fuels for decentral district heating and/or cogeneration plants. By November 1995 there were 15 communal biomass conversion plants producing methane in Denmark, three more plants were in the course of establishment and a number of similar projects were on the drawing board. The history of this development is narrated and plans for the future are indicated. The document also deals with the technological aspects, operational economics, environmental impacts, resources and re-use, wastes used as fertilizers, household organic wastes and sewage slam, standards of hygiene and reduction of infection risks, exports and commercial development and socio-economic evaluations in addition to areas within this field which need special attention in the very near future. It is concluded that the economics of Danish biomass conversion plants have improved significantly since 1987, and many older plants have been brought right up to date. Improvements in technology and an increase in the supply of industrial wastes have increased production. Details of the basis of many other betterments that have taken place in recent years are also given. (AB) 27 refs

  10. Solid-state personal dosimeter using dose conversion algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Lee, Wanno; Cho, Gyuseong; Chang, S.Y.; Rho, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state personal dosimeters using semiconductor detectors have been widely used because of their simplicity and real time operation. In this paper, a personal dosimeter based on a silicon PIN photodiode has been optimally designed by the Monte Carlo method and also developed. For performance test, the developed dosimeter was irradiated within the energy range between 50 keV and 1.25 MeV, the exposure dose rate between 3 mR/h and 25 R/h. The thickness of 0.2 mm Cu and 1.0 mm Al was selected as an optimal filter by simulation results. For minimizing the non-linear sensitivity on energy, dose conversion algorithm was presented, which was able to consider pulse number as well as pulse amplitude related to absorbed energies. The sensitivities of dosimeters developed by the proposed algorithm and the conventional method were compared and analyzed in detail. When dose conversion algorithm was used, the linearity of sensitivity was better about 38%. This dosimeter will be used for above 65 keV within the relative response of ±10% to 137 Cs

  11. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Unitizing with Whole Numbers and Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Roy, George J.; Safi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    This article examines prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of unitizing with whole numbers and fraction concepts and operations throughout a semester-long mathematics content course. Student work samples and classroom conversations are used to illustrate the types of unitizing understandings that prospective teachers bring to teacher…

  12. The Effects of Cell Phone and Text Message Conversations on Simulated Street Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Sarah E; Ward, Nathan; Gaspar, John G; Schab, Kurt R; Crowell, James A; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-02-01

    A fully immersive, high-fidelity street-crossing simulator was used to examine the effects of texting on pedestrian street-crossing performance. Research suggests that street-crossing performance is impaired when pedestrians engage in cell phone conversations. Less is known about the impact of texting on street-crossing performance. Thirty-two young adults completed three distraction conditions in a simulated street-crossing task: no distraction, phone conversation, and texting. A hands-free headset and a mounted tablet were used to conduct the phone and texting conversations, respectively. Participants moved through the virtual environment via a manual treadmill, allowing them to select crossing gaps and change their gait. During the phone conversation and texting conditions, participants had fewer successful crossings and took longer to initiate crossing. Furthermore, in the texting condition, smaller percentage of time with head orientation toward the tablet, fewer number of head orientations toward the tablet, and greater percentage of total characters typed before initiating crossing predicted greater crossing success. Our results suggest that (a) texting is as unsafe as phone conversations for street-crossing performance and (b) when subjects completed most of the texting task before initiating crossing, they were more likely to make it safely across the street. Sending and receiving text messages negatively impact a range of real-world behaviors. These results may inform personal and policy decisions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...

  14. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...

  15. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. METHOD: A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.......8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years...... per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM...

  16. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1997. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikku, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the research programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy, by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The total funding for 1997 was 33.5 million FIM, and the number of projects 62. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 17 and biomass conversion 4. Results from the projects that were going on in 1997 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate at least 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2-0.3 million toe per year till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small scale combustion concepts, but the large scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seem to be a very challenging goal. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of the use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of the biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilization of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe per year by 2005 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  17. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  18. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  19. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  20. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  2. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  3. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  4. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  6. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge; Andersen, Per Kragh; Bukh, Jens Drachman

    2017-08-01

    For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder, the prevalence of psychotic depression, the prevalence of chronic depression, and severity of depression. It was not possible to identify risk factors that were consistently or mainly confirmed to predict conversion across studies. The conversion rate from unipolar to bipolar disorder decreases with time. It was not possible to identify predictors of conversion that were consistently or mainly confirmed across studies, which may be due to variations in methodology across studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  8. Conversational AI: The Science Behind the Alexa Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Ashwin; Prasad, Rohit; Khatri, Chandra; Venkatesh, Anu; Gabriel, Raefer; Liu, Qing; Nunn, Jeff; Hedayatnia, Behnam; Cheng, Ming; Nagar, Ashish; King, Eric; Bland, Kate; Wartick, Amanda; Pan, Yi; Song, Han

    2018-01-01

    Conversational agents are exploding in popularity. However, much work remains in the area of social conversation as well as free-form conversation over a broad range of domains and topics. To advance the state of the art in conversational AI, Amazon launched the Alexa Prize, a 2.5-million-dollar university competition where sixteen selected university teams were challenged to build conversational agents, known as socialbots, to converse coherently and engagingly with humans on popular topics ...

  9. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  10. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  11. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  13. Large-video-display-format conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.

    2000-01-01

    High-quality video-format converters apply motion estimation and motion compensation to prevent jitter resulting from picture-rate conversion, and aliasing due to de-interlacing, in sequences with motion. Although initially considered as too expensive, high-quality conversion is now economically

  14. Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, M H; Milstein, J P

    1989-01-01

    We assessed the effects of video modeling on acquisition and generalization of conversational skills among autistic children. Three autistic boys observed videotaped conversations consisting of two people discussing specific toys. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of conversational skills was assessed with untrained topics of conversation; new stimuli (toys); unfamiliar persons, siblings, and autistic peers; and other settings. The results indicated that the children learned through video modeling, generalized their conversational skills, and maintained conversational speech over a 15-month period. Video modeling shows much promise as a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills such as conversational speech. PMID:2793634

  15. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li 2 O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li 2 O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li 2 O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive

  16. Interaction of Number Magnitude and Auditory Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Jungilligens, Johannes; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers can influence performance involving the left side of space, while larger numbers have an influence toward the right. Here, we investigated in the auditory modality whether a related effect may bias the perception of sound location. Subjects (n = 28) used a swivel pointer to localize noise bursts presented from various azimuth positions. The noise bursts were preceded by a spoken number (1-9) or, as a nonsemantic control condition, numbers that were played in reverse. The relative constant error in noise localization (forward minus reversed speech) indicated a systematic shift in localization toward more central locations when the number was smaller and toward more peripheral positions when the preceding number magnitude was larger. These findings do not support the traditional left-right number mapping. Instead, the results may reflect an overlap between codes for number magnitude and codes for sound location as implemented by two channel models of sound localization, or possibly a categorical mapping stage of small versus large magnitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  18. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  19. [Dissociation (conversion) - malingering - antisocial personality disorder: differential diagnostic reflection on the basis of a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothuber, Helfried; Mitterauer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In this case report we refer to the big challenge of making a diagnosis in a deliberate malingering in the field of mental disorders. We specifically describe the difficulty regarding the differentiation between a conversion disorder and malingering of a serial delinquent. For such a person avoiding criminal persecution is one of the most frequent reason to deceitfully simulate a mental illness. In this field, symptoms of conversion disorders exceed the average; furthermore, a great number of organic-neurological illnesses may appear to be very similar to a conversion disorder or in many cases a neurological disorder can actually be detected in the course of a somatic examination. A further obstacle for the differential diagnosis can be seen in the difficulty to discern it from factitious disorders. However, it is quite possible to discern the deliberate malingering of a mental disorder from a conversion disorder by means of the diligent diagnosis of a competent and experienced doctor/assessor who specialises.

  20. Conversion electrons in the SDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region (η less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of ''isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered ''nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from π 0 ,η production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons

  1. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  2. High-order harmonic conversion efficiency in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the energy, number of photons, and conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation in helium. The results show the maximum values that we should expect to achieve experimentally with our current apparatus and the important parameters for scaling this source to higher output. In the desired operating regime where the coherence length, given by L coh =πb/(q-1), is greater than the gas column length, l, the harmonic output can be summarized by a single equation: N q =[(π z n z b 3 τ q |d q | z )/4h]{(p/q)(2l/b) z }. N q - numbers of photons of q-th harmonic; n - atom density; b - laser confocal parameter; τ q - pulse width of harmonic radiation; q - harmonic order; p - effective order of nonlinearity. (Note the term in brackets, the phase-matching function, has been separated from the rest of the expression in order to be consistent with the relevant literature)

  3. evaluation of commercial FCC catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. I. Physicochemical characterization and n-hexane conversion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brait, A.; Brait, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of six steam-stabilized, commercial FCC catalysts were compared in respect of their catalytic activity for n-hexane conversion. The conversion of n-hexane over these catalysts could be fully explained by three reaction pathways: protolytic cracking, protolytic

  4. Effect of field-of-view size on gray values derived from cone-beam computed tomography compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Ramezani, Leila; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Ghazikhanlu-Sani, Karim; Fallahi-Sichani, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of field-of-view (FOV) size on the gray values derived from conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans as the gold standard. A radiographic phantom was designed with 4 acrylic cylinders. One cylinder was filled with distilled water, and the other 3 were filled with 3 types of bone substitute: namely, Nanobone, Cenobone, and Cerabone. The phantom was scanned with 2 CBCT systems using 2 different FOV sizes, and 1 MDCT system was used as the gold standard. The mean gray values (MGVs) of each cylinder were calculated in each imaging protocol. In both CBCT systems, significant differences were noted in the MGVs of all materials between the 2 FOV sizes ( P <.05) except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Significant differences were found in the MGVs of each material compared with the others in both FOV sizes for each CBCT system. No significant difference was seen between the Cranex3D CBCT system and the MDCT system in the MGVs of bone substitutes on images obtained with a small FOV. The size of the FOV significantly changed the MGVs of all bone substitutes, except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Both CBCT systems had the ability to distinguish the 3 types of bone substitutes based on a comparison of their MGVs. The Cranex3D CBCT system used with a small FOV had a significant correlation with MDCT results.

  5. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  6. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  7. SU-G-IeP2-12: The Effect of Iterative Reconstruction and CT Tube Voltage On Hounsfield Unit Values of Iodinated Contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Vallabhaneni, D; Scalzetti, E [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. Method: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA). The phantom was scanned at 80, 100, 120, 140 kV using 400, 255, 180, and 130 mAs, respectively, for the VCT scanner, and 80, 100, 120, and 135 kV using 400, 250, 200, and 150 mAs, respectively, on the Aquilion One. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm (VCT) and 0.5 mm (Aquilion One). The VCT images were reconstructed using Advanced Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) at 6 different strengths: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Aquilion One images were reconstructed using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) at 4 strengths: no AIDR, Weak AIDR, Standard AIDR, and Strong AIDR. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the images to measure the HU values and standard deviations of the diluted contrast. Second order polynomials were used to fit the HU values as a function of Iodine concentration. Results: For both scanners, there was no significant effect of changing the iterative reconstruction strength. The polynomial fits yielded goodness-of-fit (R2) values averaging 0.997. Conclusion: Changing the strength of the iterative reconstruction has no significant effect on the HU values of Iodinated contrast in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Fit values of HU vs Iodine concentration are useful in quantitative imaging protocols such as the determination of cardiac output from time-density curves in the main pulmonary artery.

  8. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Wei

    Full Text Available The progranulin (PGRN is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg, and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff. In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

  9. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  10. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  12. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  13. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian female...

  14. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  15. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Bayer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm 3 to 0.52 g.cm 3 . Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g -1 ), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g -1 ). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V micro ) was between 0.33cm 3 .g -1 - 0.40cm 3 .g -1 , while the mesopore volume(V meso ) was between 0.05 cm 3 .g -1 - 0.07 cm 3 .g -1 . The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m 2 .g -1 . All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  16. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  17. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  18. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  19. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  20. Calibration of megavoltage cone-beam CT for radiotherapy dose calculations: Correction of cupping artifacts and conversion of CT numbers to electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J. C. van; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L. A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) is used for three-dimensional imaging of the patient anatomy on the treatment table prior to or just after radiotherapy treatment. To use MV CBCT images for radiotherapy dose calculation purposes, reliable electron density (ED) distributions are needed. Patient scatter, beam hardening and softening effects result in cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distort the CT number to ED conversion. A method based on transmission images is presented to correct for these effects without using prior knowledge of the object's geometry. The scatter distribution originating from the patient is calculated with pencil beam scatter kernels that are fitted based on transmission measurements. The radiological thickness is extracted from the scatter subtracted transmission images and is then converted to the primary transmission used in the cone-beam reconstruction. These corrections are performed in an iterative manner, without using prior knowledge regarding the geometry and composition of the object. The method was tested using various homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms with varying shapes and compositions, including a phantom with different electron density inserts, phantoms with large density variations, and an anthropomorphic head phantom. For all phantoms, the cupping artifact was substantially removed from the images and a linear relation between the CT number and electron density was found. After correction the deviations in reconstructed ED from the true values were reduced from up to 0.30 ED units to 0.03 for the majority of the phantoms; the residual difference is equal to the amount of noise in the images. The ED distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose calculation accuracy for homogeneous cylinders of different size; errors decreased from 7% to below 1% in the center of the objects for the uncorrected and corrected images, respectively, and maximum differences were reduced from 17% to 2%, respectively. The

  1. Having "The Talk": Youth-Parent Climate Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. K.; Flora, J. A.; Lertzman, R.; Saphir, M.

    2017-12-01

    Youth are concerned about climate change. Recent research conducted by the Alliance for Climate Education, in partnership with the Skoll Global Threats Fund, demonstrates that youth have agency within their families regarding climate relevant behaviors, particularly resulting from conversations that rely on listening. In this pilot project, we examined whether youth involved in a year-long climate action program will carry out climate related conversations with their parents, and whether youth who have engaged online with a climate education group, will carry out similar conversations with their parents when asked to do so via SMS. In study one, we used mixed methods to determine if youth participating in a training would carry out a climate conversation with their parents, adhere to guidelines such as reflective listening, and have positive experiences. Further, we investigated to what extent parents would experience the conversation as a positive and impactful event. Parents overall reported a positive experience, and were proud of their child's work. In study two, in a randomized controlled trial conducted entirely via SMS, we investigated whether youth would watch a brief instructional animated video, and have a conversation with a parent. Results showed the majority of youth reported gained confidence in conducting a climate conversation and intended to speak to relatives. Preliminary results indicate when youth can express their climate engagement to a parent using these techniques, they have positive experiences, gain confidence in future engagements and can influence family. The studies highlight the positive impact of climate conversations as well as the potential to scale climate conversations to reach more youth and families.

  2. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  3. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  4. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  5. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyekli, Utkan; Calıyurt, Okan; Tiyekli, Nimet Dilek

    2013-06-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels and conversion disorder both commonly known as stress regulated. Baseline proinflammatory cytokine levels-[Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)]-were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 35 conversion disorder patients and 30 healthy controls. Possible changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated again, after their acute phase in conversion disorder patients. Statistically significant decreased serum TNF-α levels were obtained in acute phase of conversion disorder. Those levels increased after acute conversion phase. There were no statistically significant difference observed between groups in serum IL-1β and (IL-6) levels. Stress associated with conversion disorder may suppress immune function in acute conversion phase and may have diagnostic and therapeutic value.

  6. Biotechnological conversion of methane to methanol: evaluation of progress and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Bjorck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of methane are numerous, and vary greatly in their use and sustainable credentials. A Jekyll and Hyde character, it is a valuable energy source present as geological deposits of natural gas, however it is also potent greenhouse gas, released during many waste management processes. Gas-to-liquid technologies are being investigated as a means to exploit and monetise non-traditional and unutilised methane sources. The product identified as having the greatest potential is methanol due to it being a robust, commercially mature conversion process from methane and its beneficial fuel characteristics. Commercial methane to methanol conversion requires high temperatures and pressures, in an energy intensive and costly process. In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO enzymes. Despite the great potential of these bacteria a number of biotechnical difficulties are hindering progress towards an industrially suitable process. We have identified five major challenges that exist as barriers to a viable conversion process that, to our knowledge, have not previously been examined as distinct process challenges. Although biotechnological applications of methanotrophic bacteria have been reviewed in part, no review has comprehensively covered progress and challenges for a methane to methanol process from an industrial perspective. All published examples to date of methanotroph catalysed conversion of methane to methanol are collated, and standardised to allow direct comparison. The focus will be on conversion of methane to methanol by whole-cell, wild type, methanotroph cultures, and the potential for their application in an industrially relevant process. A recent shift in the research community focus from a mainly biological angle to an overall engineering approach, offers potential to exploit methanotrophs in an industrially relevant biotechnological gas

  7. User's manual for SPLPLOT-2: a computer code for data plotting and editing in conversational mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Ken; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Maniwa, Masaki.

    1985-07-01

    The computer code SPLPLOT-2 for plotting and data editing has been developed as a part of the code package: SPLPACK-1. The SPLPLOT-2 code has capabilities of both conversational and batch processings. This report describes the user's manual for SPLPLOT-2. The following improvements have been made in the SPLPLOT-2. (1) It has capabilities of both conversational and batch processings, (2) function of conversion of files from the input SPL (Standard PLotter) files to internal work files have been implemented to reduce number of time consuming access to the input SPL files, (3) user supplied subroutines can be assigned for data editing from the SPL files, (4) in addition to the two-dimensional graphs, streamline graphs, contour line graphs and bird's-eye view graphs can be drawn. (author)

  8. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  9. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  10. Antecedents of hospital ownership conversions, mergers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.

  11. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang

    2005-01-01

    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  12. Conversation in Place and About Place: Response to Chimakonam, “Conversational Philosophy as a New School of Thought in African Philosophy: A Conversation with Bruce Janz on the Concept of “Philosophical Space”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce janz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Jonathan Chimakonam’s paper in which he presents an approach to dialogue in philosophical space, and raises questions about my own approach. I raise four questions to his understanding of conversation. First, I ask him for more details on his conception of conversation. Second, what happens if not everyone cares to enter into conversation? Third, is conversation a prerequisite to philosophy, or a part of philosophy? And fourth, how does wonder fit into conversation in and about place?

  13. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  14. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  15. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  16. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  17. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Machin, Lizet; Perez Bermudez, Raul; Quintana Perez, Candido Enrique; Ocanna Guevara, Victor Samuel; Duffus Scott, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  18. Teaching Spanish Pragmatics Through Colloquial Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albelda Marco, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the advantages of teaching and learning a foreign language with and through spoken discursive corpora, and especially colloquial and conversational ones. The benefits of developing oral competence and communicative skills in language learners using colloquial conversations will be exposed and discussed. In this paper, we characterise the colloquial conversation and the features that define this register and discursive genre. Being the most natural and original way to communicate among human beings, the colloquial conversation is the most common means to communicate, and therefore, this genre should have a greater presence in foreign-language classrooms. Secondly, we expound on the advantages of teaching using colloquial conversations corpora, particularly resulting from its contextualisation (the linguistic input is learnt in its real and authentic context and from its oral and conversational features (prosodic elements and interactional mechanisms. Thirdly, the paper provides a list of corpora of colloquial conversations that are available in Spanish, focusing on Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus (peninsular Spanish oral corpus, Briz et al., 2002; Cabedo & Pons online, www.valesco.es. Finally, a set of pragmatic applications of corpora in foreign-language classroom is offered, in particular using the Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus: functions of discourse markers and interjections (whose meanings change depending on the context, strategies of turn-takings, ways of introducing new topic in the dialogues, mechanisms of keeping or “stealing” the turn, devices to introduce direct speech, attitudes expressed by the falling and rising intonations, hedges and intensifiers, and so on. In general, this paper pretends to offer ideas, resources and materials to make the students more competent in communication using authentic discursive oral corpora.

  19. Conversion electron spectroscopy in transfermium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy is an essential tool for the spectroscopy of heavy deformed nuclei. The conversion electron spectrometer SACRED has been used in conjunction with the gas-filled recoil separator RITU to study conversion electron cascades in 254 No. The spectra reveal the ground state rotational bands down to low spin. A detailed analysis of the background seen for 254 No shows that approximately 40% of the decay path goes via excited high K bands which may be built on an isomer. (orig.)

  20. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  1. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Especially designed or prepared systems for plutonium metal production. This process usually... or UF6, conversion of UF4 to UF6, conversion of UF6 to UF4, conversion of UF4 to uranium metal, and... several segments of the chemical process industry, including furnaces, rotary kilns, fluidized bed...

  3. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  4. Risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M E; Kountanis, J A; Tsen, L C; Greenfield, M L; Mhyre, J M

    2012-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates evidence for seven risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia. Online scientific literature databases were searched using a strategy which identified observational trials, published between January 1979 and May 2011, which evaluated risk factors for failed conversion of epidural analgesia to anesthesia or documented a failure rate resulting in general anesthesia. 1450 trials were screened, and 13 trials were included for review (n=8628). Three factors increase the risk for failed conversion: an increasing number of clinician-administered boluses during labor (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.5), greater urgency for cesarean delivery (OR=40.4, 95% CI 8.8-186), and a non-obstetric anesthesiologist providing care (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.5). Insufficient evidence is available to support combined spinal-epidural versus standard epidural techniques, duration of epidural analgesia, cervical dilation at the time of epidural placement, and body mass index or weight as risk factors for failed epidural conversion. The risk of failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia is increased with an increasing number of boluses administered during labor, an enhanced urgency for cesarean delivery, and care being provided by a non-obstetric anesthesiologist. Further high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the many potential risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  6. SPOKEN-LANGUAGE FEATURES IN CASUAL CONVERSATION A Case of EFL Learners‘ Casual Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Novi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken text differs from written one in its features of context dependency, turn-taking organization, and dynamic structure. EFL learners; however, sometime find it difficult to produce typical characteristics of spoken language, particularly in casual talk. When they are asked to conduct a conversation, some of them tend to be script-based which is considered unnatural. Using the theory of Thornburry (2005, this paper aims to analyze characteristics of spoken language in casual conversation which cover spontaneity, interactivity, interpersonality, and coherence. This study used discourse analysis to reveal four features in turns and moves of three casual conversations. The findings indicate that not all sub-features used in the conversation. In this case, the spontaneity features were used 132 times; the interactivity features were used 1081 times; the interpersonality features were used 257 times; while the coherence features (negotiation features were used 526 times. Besides, the results also present that some participants seem to dominantly produce some sub-features naturally and vice versa. Therefore, this finding is expected to be beneficial to provide a model of how spoken interaction should be carried out. More importantly, it could raise English teachers or lecturers‘ awareness in teaching features of spoken language, so that, the students could develop their communicative competence as the native speakers of English do.

  7. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  8. Laser-accelerated proton conversion efficiency thickness scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, D. S.; Foord, M. E.; Key, M. H.; LePape, S. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Fedosejevs, R.; Friesen, H.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energy is measured with the 0.6 ps, 9x10 19 W/cm 2 Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility as a function of target thickness in Au foils. For targets thicker than 20 μm, the conversion efficiency scales approximately as 1/L, where L is the target thickness. This is explained by the domination of hot electron collisional losses over adiabatic cooling. In thinner targets, the two effects become comparable, causing the conversion efficiency to scale weaker than 1/L; the measured conversion efficiency is constant within the scatter in the data for targets between 5 and 15 μm, with a peak conversion efficiency of 4% into protons with energy greater than 3 MeV. Depletion of the hydrocarbon contaminant layer is eliminated as an explanation for this plateau by using targets coated with 200 nm of ErH 3 on the rear surface. The proton acceleration is modeled with the hybrid-particle in cell code LSP, which reproduced the conversion efficiency scaling observed in the data.

  9. The United States pit disassembly and conversion project -- Meeting the MOX fuel specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.O.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US is actively involved in demonstrating the disassembly of nuclear weapons pits to an unclassified form readied for disposition. The MOX option is the most likely path forward for plutonium that originated from nuclear weapon pits. The US demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion is known as ARIES, the advanced recovery and integrated extraction system. The ARIES demonstration line is being used to gather data in an integrated fashion of the technologies needed for pit disassembly and conversion. These activities include the following modules: pit bisection, hydride-dehydride, oxide conversion, canning, electrolytic decontamination, and nondestructive assay (NDA). Pit bisection swages in a pit in half. Hydride-dehydride converts the pit plutonium metal to an unclassified metal button. To convert the plutonium metal to an oxide the US is investigating a number of options. The primary oxide conversion approach involves variations of combining plutonium hydriding and subsequent oxidation. Another approach is to simply oxidize the metal under controlled conditions-direct metal oxidation (DMO). To remove the gallium from the plutonium oxide, a thermal distillation approach is being used. These pyrochemical approaches will substantially reduce the wastes produced for oxide conversion of weapon plutonium, compared to traditional aqueous processing. The packaging of either the plutonium metal or oxide to long term storage criteria involves the canning and electrolytic decontamination modules. The NDA suite of instruments is then used to assay the material in the containers, which enables international verification without the need to open the containers and repackage them. All of these processes are described

  10. Fast-to-Alfvén Mode Conversion in the Presence of Ambipolar Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Paul S.; Khomenko, Elena

    2018-03-01

    It is known that fast magnetohydrodynamic waves partially convert to upward and/or downward propagating Alfvén waves in a stratified atmosphere where Alfvén speed increases with height. This happens around the fast wave reflection height, where the fast wave’s horizontal phase speed equals the Alfvén speed (in a low-β plasma). Typically, this takes place in the mid to upper solar chromosphere for low-frequency waves in the few-millihertz band. However, this region is weakly ionized and thus susceptible to nonideal MHD processes. In this article, we explore how ambipolar diffusion in a zero-β plasma affects fast waves injected from below. Classical ambipolar diffusion is far too weak to have any significant influence at these low frequencies, but if enhanced by turbulence (in the quiet-Sun chromosphere but not in sunspot umbrae) or the production of sufficiently small-scale structure, can substantially absorb waves for turbulent ambipolar Reynolds numbers of around 20 or less. In that case, it is found that the mode conversion process is not qualitatively altered from the ideal case, though conversion to Alfvén waves is reduced because the fast wave flux reaching the conversion region is degraded. It is also found that any upward propagating Alfvén waves generated in this process are almost immune to further ambipolar attenuation, thereby reducing local ambipolar heating compared to cases without mode conversion. In that sense, mode conversion provides a form of “Alfvén cooling.”

  11. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  12. Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Garwin; Wright, David J.; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA. Methods Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis. Results Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA. PMID:26387923

  13. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  14. Electrohydrodynamics: a high-voltage direct energy conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, S.

    1967-04-01

    This analysis consists of a theoretical and practical study of a high-tension electrical power generator based on the Van de Graaff generator principle, the main difference being that the charges produced are transported by a gas in motion and not by a belt. The electrical and thermal properties of such a generator are studied, as well as the difficult problem of the production of the ionised particles used in the conversion. A certain number of results already published on this process for converting kinetic energy into electrical energy is given, as well as some possible applications in the field of space technology. (author) [fr

  15. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  16. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  17. Factors determining conversion of laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapash Kumar Maitra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC has virtually replaced conventional open cholecystectomy (OC as the standard procedure of treatment for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. However, OC sometimes becomes a necessity considering the feasibility and safety of the surgical procedure. But the factors that demand conversion from LC to OC differ widely. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of conversion from LC to OC and to assess the causes of conversion and risk factors related to conversion. Methods: The study was conducted in a referral hospital – ‘Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder (BIRDEM’ from September 2014 to September 2016. Cases of cholelithiasis with or without cholecystitis, and other gall bladder pathology were included in the study. A team of experienced surgeon performed LC of all selected cases. The causes of conversion to OC were systematically recorded by the surgical team and the risk factors (age, sex, obesity, history of previous abdominal surgery, gallbladder thickness related to conversion from LC to OC was investigated. Results: A total of 261 (M / F = 87 /174 patients were considered eligible for the study. The mean age of all patients was 43 (±1.75 years. For the male and female groups the mean ages were 44±1.9 and 42±1.6 years respectively. Of the total 261 cases, 210 (80.5% patients had cholelithiasis with chronic cholecystitis, 47 (18.0% had gallbladder stone plus acute cholecystitis and 4 (1.5% had gallbladder polyp. Open conversion was required in case of 19 patients. Thus, overall conversion rate was 7.3%. The common causes of conversion were a difficulty in defining Calot’s triangle (42.1%, b injury to cystic artery (21.1% and c injury to bile duct (15.8%. Both male and female had equal risk for conversion. The investigated risk factors like history of previous abdominal surgery, preoperative ERCP, acute

  18. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebowale, K O [Department of Chemistry, University of lbadan, lbadan (Nigeria); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Bayer, E [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Forschungstelle Nukleinsaeure- und Peptidchemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm{sup 3} to 0.52 g.cm{sup 3}. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g{sup -1}), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g{sup -1}). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V{sub micro}) was between 0.33cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.40cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}, while the mesopore volume(V{sub meso}) was between 0.05 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.07 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  19. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  20. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  1. Comparison of Hounsfield units by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest by using the CT phantom made with a 3D printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung, Youl Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have observed the change of the Hounsfield (HU) in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest (ROI) at focus on kVp and mAs. Four-channel multi-detector computed tomography was used to get transverse axial scanning images and HU. Three dimensional printer which is type of fused deposition modeling (FDM) was used to produce the Phantom. The structure of the phantom was designed to be a type of cylinder that contains 33 mm, 24 mm, 19 mm, 16 mm, 9 mm size of circle holes that are symmetrically located. It was charged with mixing iodine contrast agent and distilled water in the holes. The images were gained with changing by 90 kVp, 120 kVp, 140 kVp and 50 mAs, 100 mAs, 150 mAs, respectively. The ‘image J’ was used to get the HU measurement of gained images of ROI. As a result, it was confirmed that kVp affects to HU more than mAs. And it is suggested that the smaller size of physical area, the more decreasing HU even in material of a uniform density and the smaller setting size of ROI, the more increasing HU. Therefore, it is reason that to set maximum ROI within 5 HU is the best way to minimize in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest

  2. Comparison of Hounsfield units by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest by using the CT phantom made with a 3D printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we have observed the change of the Hounsfield (HU) in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest (ROI) at focus on kVp and mAs. Four-channel multi-detector computed tomography was used to get transverse axial scanning images and HU. Three dimensional printer which is type of fused deposition modeling (FDM) was used to produce the Phantom. The structure of the phantom was designed to be a type of cylinder that contains 33 mm, 24 mm, 19 mm, 16 mm, 9 mm size of circle holes that are symmetrically located. It was charged with mixing iodine contrast agent and distilled water in the holes. The images were gained with changing by 90 kVp, 120 kVp, 140 kVp and 50 mAs, 100 mAs, 150 mAs, respectively. The ‘image J’ was used to get the HU measurement of gained images of ROI. As a result, it was confirmed that kVp affects to HU more than mAs. And it is suggested that the smaller size of physical area, the more decreasing HU even in material of a uniform density and the smaller setting size of ROI, the more increasing HU. Therefore, it is reason that to set maximum ROI within 5 HU is the best way to minimize in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest.

  3. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 238,239}Pu and {sup 241}Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P., E-mail: michael.dion@pnnl.gov; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-11

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for {sup 241}Am.

  4. Four-body conversion of atomic helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vries, C.P.; Oskam, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of atomic helium ions into molecular ions was studied in pure helium and in helium-neon mixtures containing between 0.1 at. % and 50 at. % neon. The experiments showed that the termolecular conversion reaction, He + +2He → He 2 + +He, is augmented by the four-body conversion reaction He + +3He → products, where the products could include either He 2 + or He 3 + ions. Conversion rate coefficients of (5.7 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 and (2.6 +- 0.4) x 10 -49 cm 9 sec -1 were found for the termolecular and four-body conversion reactions, respectively. In addition, rate coefficients for the following Ne + conversion reactions were measured: Ne + +He+He → (HeNe) + +He, (2.3 +- 0.1) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; Ne + +He+Ne → (HeNe) + +Ne or Ne 2 + +He, (8.0 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; and Ne + +Ne+Ne → Ne 2 + +Ne, (5.1 +- 0.3) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 . All rate coefficients are at a gas temperature of 295 K

  5. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  6. In-beam conversion electron spectroscopy using the SACRED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Jones, G.D.; Julin, R.; Schulze, B.; Smith, J.F.; Wilson, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion electron studies of medium-heavy to heavy nuclear mass systems are important where the internal conversion process begins to dominate over gamma-ray emission. The use of a segmented detector array sensitive to conversion electrons has been used to study multiple conversion electron cascades from nuclear transitions. The application of the silicon array for conversion electron detection (SACRED) for in-beam measurements has successfully been implemented. (orig.). With 2 figs

  7. Visual communication and the content and style of conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, D R; Stephenson, G M; Dewey, M E

    1981-02-01

    Previous research suggests that visual communication plays a number of important roles in social interaction. In particular, it appears to influence the content of what people say in discussions, the style of their speech, and the outcomes they reach. However, the findings are based exclusively on comparisons between face-to-face conversations and audio conversations, in which subjects sit in separate rooms and speak over a microphone-headphone intercom which precludes visual communication. Interpretation is difficult, because visual communication is confounded with physical presence, which itself makes available certain cues denied to audio subjects. The purpose of this paper is to report two experiments in which the variables were separated and content and style were re-examined. The first made use of blind subjects, and again compared the face-to-face and audio conditions. The second returned to sighted subjects, and examined four experimental conditions: face-to-face; audio; a curtain condition in which subjects sat in the same room but without visual communication; and a video condition in which they sat in separate rooms and communicated over a television link. Neither visual communication nor physical presence proved to be critical variable. Instead, the two sources of cues combined, such that content and style were influenced by the aggregate of available cues. The more cueless the settings, the more task-oriented, depersonalized and unspontaneous the conversation. The findings also suggested that the primary effect of cuelessness is to influence verbal content, and that its influence on both style and outcome occurs indirectly, through the mediation of content.

  8. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  9. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  10. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  11. Experiments on topographies lacking tidal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Leo; Paci, Alexandre; Yuan, Bing

    2015-11-01

    In a stratified sea, internal tides are supposedly generated when the tide passes over irregular topography. It has been shown that for any given frequency in the internal wave band there are an infinite number of exceptions to this rule of thumb. This ``stealth-like'' property of the topography is due to a subtle annihilation of the internal waves generated during the surface tide's passage over the irregular bottom. We here demonstrate this in a lab-experiment. However, for any such topography, subsequently changing the surface tide's frequency does lead to tidal conversion. The upshot of this is that a tidal wave passing over an irregular bottom is for a substantial part trapped to this irregularity, and only partly converted into freely propagating internal tides. Financially supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme HYDRALAB IV.

  12. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  13. Conceptual design of a FGM thermoelectric energy conversion system for high temperature heat source. 1. Design of thermoelectric energy conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Teraki, Junichi; Hirano, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power conversion system has been focused as a candidate of direct energy conversion systems for high temperature heat source to meet the various power requirements in next century. A concept of energy conversion unit by using TE cell elements combined with FGM compliant pads has been presented to achieve high thermal energy density as well as high energy conversion efficiency. An energy conversion unit consists of 8 couples of P-N cell elements sandwiched between two FGM compliant pads. Performance analysis revealed that the power generated by this unit was 11 watts which is nearly ten times as much as conventional unit of the same size. Energy conversion efficiency of 12% was expected based on the assumption of ZT = 1. All the member of compliant pads as well as TE cells could be bonded together to avoid thermal resistance. (author)

  14. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…

  15. Conversion planning for the two FRGs of the GKSS-Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.

    1984-01-01

    The German Research Centre GKSS at Geesthacht operates two research reactors, the FRG-1 with 5 MW power and the FRG-2 with 15 MW power. Both plants use the same fuel element for a number of reasons. Such a case is the background of the following report. The conversion planning for both plants has to be taken into account these reasons and to result in a common fuel element again. Moreover, the efforts for the conversion and the related licensing steps will be linked to some other improvements of the performance of the FRGs the operator planned long ago such as (1) upgrading of the FRG-2 to 21 MW and improvement of fuel economy (2) reduction of core size of FRG-1 to improve the effectiveness of the beam tubes. The report deals with all the nuclear and thermal hydraulic investigations carried out for these tasks at INTERATOM including the harmonizing with the operators. (author)

  16. Matched conversion sales in the nuclear fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations leading up to the Suspension Agreement with Russia focused solely on uranium and SWU, leaving conversion in its traditional role as the overlooked constituent of the fuel cycle. In fact, the initial agreement did not even distinguish U 3 O 8 from UF 6 ; it effectively ignored the conversion component contained in UF 6 and the possibility of matched conversion sales. After some criticism from ConverDyn and others, The US Department of Commerce issued a clarification, confirming that all three major components of the fuel cycle can be sold under matched sales agreements. However, matched conversion sales remain somewhat of an enigma as few have been done and the logistics are poorly understood. Nonetheless, in a conversion market where supply and demand are closely balanced, secondary supplies, including those from matched sales, will likely play an important role in the evolution of conversion prices

  17. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  18. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  19. TFTR power conversion and plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    1985-01-01

    Major components of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) power conversion system include 39 thyristor rectifier power supplies, 12 energy storage capacitor banks, and 6 ohmic heating interrupters. These components are connected in various series/parallel configurations to provide controlled pulses of current to the Toroidal Field (TF), Ohmic Heating (OH), Equilibrium (vertical) Field (EF), and Horizontal Field (HF) magnet coil systems. Real-time control of the power conversion system is accomplished by a centralized dedicated computer; local control is minimal. Power supply firing angles, capacitor bank charge and discharge commands, interrupter commands, etc., are all determined and issued by the central computer. Plasma Position and Current Control (PPCC) reference signals to power conversion (OH, EF, HF) are determined by separate analog electronics but invoked through the power conversion computer. Real-time fault sensing of plasma parameters, gas injection, neutral beams, etc., are monitored by a separate Discharge Fault System (DFS) but routed through the power conversion computer for pre-programmed shutdown response

  20. Baryon number violation, baryogenesis, and defects with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2002-01-01

    In generic models for grand unified theories (GUT), various types of baryon-number-violating processes are expected when quarks and leptons propagate in the background of GUT strings. On the other hand, in models with large extra dimensions, the baryon number violation in the background of a string is not trivial because it must depend on the mechanism of the proton stabilization. In this paper, we argue that cosmic strings in models with extra dimensions can enhance the baryon number violation to a phenomenologically interesting level, if the proton decay is suppressed by the mechanism of localized wave functions. We also make some comments on baryogenesis mediated by cosmological defects. We show that at least two scenarios will be successful in this direction. One is the scenario of leptogenesis where the required lepton number conversion is mediated by cosmic strings, and the other is the baryogenesis from the decaying cosmological domain wall. Both scenarios are new and have not been discussed in the past

  1. In Search of New Social and Spiritual Space: Heritage, Conversion, and Identity of Chinese-Indonesian Muslims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiou, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with a number of aspects of the conversion of Chinese Indonesians to Islam. Chinese have since colonial times had a social and economic status distinct from the indigenous Indonesians, and religious difference has reinforced the social boundaries between these groups. Islam is the

  2. 24 CFR 972.203 - Definition of “conversion.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Voluntary Conversion of Public Housing Developments Purpose; Definition of Conversion § 972.203 Definition of “conversion.” For purposes of this subpart, the term “conversion” means the removal of public housing units from the inventory of a Public...

  3. Strong converse theorems using Rényi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leditzky, Felix; Datta, Nilanjana [Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Computation and Technology, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We use a Rényi entropy method to prove strong converse theorems for certain information-theoretic tasks which involve local operations and quantum (or classical) communication between two parties. These include state redistribution, coherent state merging, quantum state splitting, measurement compression with quantum side information, randomness extraction against quantum side information, and data compression with quantum side information. The method we employ in proving these results extends ideas developed by Sharma [preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.5940 [quant-ph] (2014)], which he used to give a new proof of the strong converse theorem for state merging. For state redistribution, we prove the strong converse property for the boundary of the entire achievable rate region in the (e, q)-plane, where e and q denote the entanglement cost and quantum communication cost, respectively. In the case of measurement compression with quantum side information, we prove a strong converse theorem for the classical communication cost, which is a new result extending the previously known weak converse. For the remaining tasks, we provide new proofs for strong converse theorems previously established using smooth entropies. For each task, we obtain the strong converse theorem from explicit bounds on the figure of merit of the task in terms of a Rényi generalization of the optimal rate. Hence, we identify candidates for the strong converse exponents for each task discussed in this paper. To prove our results, we establish various new entropic inequalities, which might be of independent interest. These involve conditional entropies and mutual information derived from the sandwiched Rényi divergence. In particular, we obtain novel bounds relating these quantities, as well as the Rényi conditional mutual information, to the fidelity of two quantum states.

  4. Pathology Observed on Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Scans: A Comparison of Prevalence and Type of Incidental Findings for Child/Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-13

    the radiation passed through the subject. For conventional CT , this value is called a Hounsfield unit (HU), named in the honor of Godfrey Hounsfield ...in the younger population, with the tonsillectomy being the second most common performed procedure among children in the United States (Clayburgh...concretions and tonsilloliths. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1987 May;20(2):305-9. 39. Reeves TE, Mah P, McDavid WD. Deriving Hounsfield units using grey

  5. A preliminary report on OCR problems in LSS document conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartker, T.A.; Kanal, J.; Rice, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a study to identify the predominant problems which contemporary OCR devices have in converting LSS document images into computer readable text. The results indicate that the majority of residual OCR errors are caused by either broken or touching characters. The relationship between the cost of constructing the LSS system and the number of OCR errors made during LSS data capture is analyzed. if 100% of the conversion problems caused by broken characters alone could be eliminated, the potential LSS cost savings is approximately $31,000,000

  6. Effective preemptive scheduling scheme for optical burst-switched networks with cascaded wavelength conversion consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbo

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a new preemptive scheduling technique for next-generation optical burst switching (OBS) networks considering the impact of cascaded wavelength conversions. It has been shown that when optical bursts are transmitted all optically from source to destination, each wavelength conversion performed along the lightpath may cause certain signal-to-noise deterioration. If the distortion of the signal quality becomes significant enough, the receiver would not be able to recover the original data. Accordingly, subject to this practical impediment, we improve a recently proposed fair channel scheduling algorithm to deal with the fairness problem and aim at burst loss reduction simultaneously in OBS environments. In our scheme, the dynamic priority associated with each burst is based on a constraint threshold and the number of already conducted wavelength conversions among other factors for this burst. When contention occurs, a new arriving superior burst may preempt another scheduled one according to their priorities. Extensive simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme further improves fairness and achieves burst loss reduction as well.

  7. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  8. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  9. The national conversion pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Puy, M.; Francis, G.; Konczal, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy is now faced with the prospect of terminating traditional defense production missions at several Department of Energy sites. Because of this, there is a critical need to develop a DOE process to convert former defense production facilities to private use so that underutilized workers and facilities may be used to minimize the impact on the United States economy. The purpose of the National Conversation Pilot Project (NCPP) at Rocky Flats near Denver, Colorado is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of economic conversion of DOE facilities, in a manner consistent with ongoing site waste management and cleanup activities, and non-prejudicial to future land use planning decisions. The NCPP is divided into three stages: The first stage, now under way, is one of detailed planning for cleanup and building maintenance activities. The second stage involves building cleanup necessary to support the proposed industrial activities, maintenance of equipment and building infrastructure necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment, declassification work, and some small scale research and development activities. Stage III would involve DOE metals recycling. Specific approval from the DOE is required prior to each project stage. To ensure stakeholder involvement, a steering committee will advise the DOE on the desirability to proceed with the project from stage to stage. A key question in the conversion process is whether a competitive economic and regulatory environment can be created on a DOE facility, allowing an onsite conversion business to effectively compete with offsite businesses. If successful, the Rocky Flats project could become the model for economic conversion at other DOE facilities

  10. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  11. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  12. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  13. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  14. How gas-guzzler conversions can accelerate transportation electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremban, R. [California Cars Initiative, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) can ramp up to accelerate greenhouse gas reductions. Specific topics that were presented included required battery manufacturing capacity; rapid conversion of light, medium, and heavy-duty ICE vehicles in the United States into battery electric vehicles and PHEVs; the low hanging fruits such as pickups, vans, larger vehicles, and those with defined drive cycles; the economics of gas guzzler conversions; and Canada and Japan policies on conversions. United States' measures supporting electric vehicle/(PHEV) conversions was also addressed. Some examples of converting vehicles to PHEVs were also outlined. The presentation concluded with some key themes to begin now for market penetration. It was concluded that without ICE conversions, market penetration was too slow. figs.

  15. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......This work concerns the analysis of an adaptive analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion channel for use with a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) microphone for audio applications. The adaptive A/D conversion channel uses an automatic gain control (AGC) for adjusting the analog preamplifier gain...... of the conversion channel in comparison to a static A/D conversion channel; this at the cost of a reduced peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The adaptive A/D conversion channel compensates for the change in analog gain by a digital gain, thus achieving a constant channel gain in the full dynamic range. However...

  16. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...... hydrothermal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and upgrading pathways of bio-crude components with focus on hydrodeoxygenation reactions....

  17. MIL-HDBK-338: Environmental Conversion Table Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Frank; Novack, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In reliability analysis, especially for launch vehicles, limited data is frequently a problem. Component data from other environments must be used. MIL-HBK-338 has a matrix showing the conversation between environments. Due to round off the conversions are not commutative, converting from A to B will not equal converting from B to A. Agenda: Introduction to environment conversions; Original table; Original table with edits; How big is the problem?; First attempt at correction; Proposed solution.

  18. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  19. Muon number violation in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1980-11-01

    Horizontal gauge models have been studied which have a mechanism for suppressing flavour changing processes involving only two flavours, i.e., processes like μ→eγ, μ→ ee anti e and the K 0 - anti K 0 transition. It is found that the rates for some muon-number violating processes, in particular for μe conversion and kaon decays, can be close to experimental upper limits. This is in contrast to horizontal gauge models in which the K 0 - anti K 0 transition is not suppressed. (auth)

  20. Conversion of Deletions during Recombination in Pneumococcal Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, J. C.; Mostachfi, P.; Gasc, A. M.; Guillot, E.; Pasta, F.; Sicard, M.

    1989-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 16 deletions obtained in the amiA locus of pneumococcus is described. When present on donor DNA, all deletions increased drastically the frequency of wild-type recombinants in two-point crosses. This effect was maximal for deletions longer than 200 bases. It was reduced for heterologies shorter than 76 bases and did not exist for very short deletions. In three-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between two point mutations, we demonstrated that this excess of wild-type recombinants was the result of a genetic conversion. This conversion extended over several scores of bases outside the deletion. Conversion takes place during the heteroduplex stage of recombination. Therefore, in pneumococcal transformation, long heterologies participated in this heteroduplex configuration. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene it is proposed that the mechanism of conversion is not a DNA repair synthesis but involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. Conversion of deletions did not require the Hex system of correction of mismatched bases. It differs also from localized conversion. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long heterologies and which are not eliminated by other systems. PMID:2599365

  1. Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria and related features of conversion disorder are under revision for DSM-5, including the requirement that psychological factors accompany the symptoms or deficits in question (Criterion B) and whether conversion disorder should be re-labeled as a dissociative, rather than a somatoform, condition. We examined the cross-cultural evidence on the prevalence, characteristics, and associated features of pseudoneurological symptoms more generally, and conversion disorder in particular, in order to inform the ongoing re-evaluation of the conversion disorder category. We also examined the relationship between these constructs and dissociative symptoms and disorders across cultural groups. Searches were conducted of the mental health literature, particularly since 1994, regarding culture, race, or ethnicity factors related to conversion disorder. Many proposed DSM-5 revisions were supported, such as the elimination of Criterion B. We also found cross-cultural variability in predominant symptoms, disorder prevalence, and relationship with cultural syndromes. Additional information that may contribute to DSM-5 includes the elevated rates across cultures of traumatic exposure and psychiatric comorbidity in conversion disorder. Cross-culturally, conversion disorder is associated strongly with both dissociative and somatoform presentations, revealing no clear basis on which to locate the disorder in DSM-5. Careful consideration should be given to the possible alternatives.

  2. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  3. Improvement of conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells using up-conversion molybdate La2Mo2O9:Yb,R (R=Er, Ho) phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-Chi Chen; Teng-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was aimed to improve the power conversion efficiency of single crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle,which employs an up-conversion phosphor to convert a low energy infrared photon to the more energetic visible photons to improve the spectral response.In this study,the surface of multicrystalline silicon solar cells was coated with an up-conversion molybdate phosphor to improve the spectral response of the solar cell in the ncar-infiared spectral range.The short circuit current (Isc),open circuit voltage (Voc),and conversion efficiency (η) of spectral conversion cells were measured.Preliminary experimental results revealed that the light conversion efficiency of a 1.5%-2.7% increase in Si-based cell was achieved.

  4. Development of high conversion boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki; Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    It is expected that the period of LWRs being the main source of electric power supply becomes long, therefore, the development of next generation LWRs placing emphasis on the effective utilization of uranium resources and the improvement of economical efficiency is necessary. In this paper, as the next generation BWRs subsequent to ABWRs, the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs is reported, in which emphasis is placed on the saving of natural uranium resources by raising the rate of conversion to plutonium. This core is that of realizing the high rate of conversion by utilizing the void in the core, which is the feature of BWRs, and the case of making the change of the core structure relatively small by using cross type control rods and the case of changing the core structure for further heightening the rate of conversion and making control rods into cluster type are described. In order to meet the demand like this, Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in the development of the concept of the core of next generation LWRs. In the high conversion type BWRs, there is not large change in the reactor system and turbine system from the current BWRs. The features and the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  6. The dialogues conversations about the nature of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2017-01-01

    A series of conversations about science in graphic form, on subjects that range from the science of cooking to the multiverse. Physicist Clifford Johnson thinks that we should have more conversations about science. Science should be on our daily conversation menu, along with topics like politics, books, sports, or the latest prestige cable drama. Conversations about science, he tells us, shouldn't be left to the experts. In The Dialogues, Johnson invites us to eavesdrop on a series of nine conversations, in graphic-novel form -- written and drawn by Johnson -- about "the nature of the universe." The conversations take place all over the world, in museums, on trains, in restaurants, in what may or may not be Freud's favorite coffeehouse. The conversationalists are men, women, children, experts, and amateur science buffs. The topics of their conversations range from the science of cooking to the multiverse and string theory. The graphic form is especially suited for physics; one drawing can show what it would ...

  7. Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Savage, Meghan C; Worrall, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A diverse literature addresses elements of conversation therapy in aphasia including intervention rooted in conversation analysis, partner training, group therapy and behavioural intervention. Currently there is no resource for clinicians or researchers that defines and organizes this information into a coherent synopsis describing various conversation therapy practices. To organize information from varied sources into a descriptive overview of conversation therapy for aphasia. Academic search engines were employed to identify research articles published between 1950 and September 2013 reporting on conversation therapy for aphasia. Thirty articles met criteria for review and were identified as primary sources for the qualitative review. Using qualitative methodology, relevant data were extracted from articles and categories were identified to create a descriptive taxonomy of conversation therapy for aphasia. Conversation interventions were divided into descriptive categories including: treatment participants (person with aphasia, partner, dyad), primary guiding orientation (conversation analysis, social model, behavioural, relationship centred), service delivery (individual, group), focus of intervention (generic/individualized; problem/solution oriented; compensatory), training methods (explicit/implicit; external/embedded), activities or tasks, and outcomes measured. Finally, articles were categorized by research design. There was marked variation in conversation therapy approaches and outcome measures reported and a notable gap in information about one-on-one conversation therapy for individuals with aphasia. This review provides a description of various conversation therapy approaches and identified gaps in the existing literature. Valid measures of natural conversation, research on one-on-one conversation approaches for individuals with aphasia, and a systematic body of evidence consisting of high quality research are needed. © 2014 Royal College of Speech

  8. Conversion of ionization measurements to radiation absorbed dose in non-water density material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, E.; Connors, S.

    1992-01-01

    In bone-equivalent materials two different calculations of absorbed dose are possible: the absorbed dose to soft tissue plastic (polystyrene) within bone-equivalent material and the dose to the bone-equivalent material itself. Both can be calculated from ionization measurements in phantoms. These two calculations result in significantly different doses in a heterogeneous phantom composed of polystyrene and aluminium (a bone substitute). The dose to a thin slab of polystyrene in aluminium is much higher than the dose to the aluminium itself at the same depth in the aluminium. Monte Carlo calculations confirm that the calculation of dose to polystyrene in aluminium can be accurately carried out using existing dosimetry protocols. However, the conversion of ionization measurements to absorbed dose to high atomic number materials cannot be accurately carried out with existing protocols and appropriate conversion factors need to be determined. (author)

  9. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  10. General Conversion for Obtaining Strongly Existentially Unforgeable Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Oyama, Takuro; Ogata, Wakaha

    We say that a signature scheme is strongly existentially unforgeable (SEU) if no adversary, given message/signature pairs adaptively, can generate a signature on a new message or a new signature on a previously signed message. We propose a general and efficient conversion in the standard model that transforms a secure signature scheme to SEU signature scheme. In order to construct that conversion, we use a chameleon commitment scheme. Here a chameleon commitment scheme is a variant of commitment scheme such that one can change the committed value after publishing the commitment if one knows the secret key. We define the chosen message security notion for the chameleon commitment scheme, and show that the signature scheme transformed by our proposed conversion satisfies the SEU property if the chameleon commitment scheme is chosen message secure. By modifying the proposed conversion, we also give a general and efficient conversion in the random oracle model, that transforms a secure signature scheme into a SEU signature scheme. This second conversion also uses a chameleon commitment scheme but only requires the key only attack security for it.

  11. Exergy conversion in the Japanese society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Japanese society are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy are described in some detail

  12. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  13. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  15. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  16. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  17. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  18. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  19. Revisiting non-degenerate parametric down-conversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conversion process is studied by recasting the time evolution equations for the basic op- erators in an equivalent ... We consider a model of non-degenerate parametric down-conversion process com- posed of two coupled ..... e−iωat and eiωbt have been left out in writing down the final results in ref. [4], even though these ...

  20. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multistage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases. (author)

  1. 6 -V C A NWEKE-FT-4-2-2015-CONVERSATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. P age. 9. 3. CONVERSATIONS: Conversational thinking is articulated as the new approach to philosophical inquiry. It has two strands: conversational philosophy and interrogatory theory with conversationalism and interrogationism as their ...

  2. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO₂, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C₁₂{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO₂, allene, C₂–C₆ olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water

  3. Low Nephron Number and Its Clinical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Luyckx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available decades ago, that developmental programming of the kidney impacts an individual’s risk for hypertension and renal disease in later life. Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. Other clinical correlates of low nephron number include female gender, short adult stature, small kidney size, and prematurity. Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Glomerular volume is universally found to vary inversely with nephron number, suggesting a degree of compensatory hypertrophy and hyperfunction in the setting of a low nephron number. This adaptation may become overwhelmed in the setting of superimposed renal insults, e.g. diabetes mellitus or rapid catch-up growth, leading to the vicious cycle of on-going hyperfiltration, proteinuria, nephron loss and progressive renal functional decline. Many millions of babies are born with low birth weight every year, and hypertension and renal disease prevalences are increasing around the globe. At present, little can be done clinically to augment nephron number; therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual’s nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide.

  4. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  5. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  6. Characterizing Pedophile Conversations on the Internet using Online Grooming

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Sureka, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-crime targeting children such as online pedophile activity are a major and a growing concern to society. A deep understanding of predatory chat conversations on the Internet has implications in designing effective solutions to automatically identify malicious conversations from regular conversations. We believe that a deeper understanding of the pedophile conversation can result in more sophisticated and robust surveillance systems than majority of the current systems relying only on sh...

  7. Power Conversion Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Richard Moore; Robert Barner

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. There are some technical issues to be resolved before the selection of the final design of the high temperature gas cooled reactor, called as a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is supposed to be built at the INEEL by year 2017. The technical issues are the selection of the working fluid, direct vs. indirect cycle, power cycle type, the optimized design in terms of a number of intercoolers, and others. In this paper, we investigated a number of working fluids for the power conversion loop, direct versus indirect cycle, the effect of intercoolers, and other thermal hydraulics issues. However, in this paper, we present part of the results we have obtained. HYSYS computer code was used along with a computer model developed using Visual Basic computer language

  8. Les contextes de la conversion à l’époque de la Réforme Contexts of conversion at time of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mentzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La conversion – le passage d’une affiliation religieuse à une autre - est un processus à la fois émouvant et ardu, même dans le cas où elle est estimée correcte du point de vue théologique avec la promesse du salut éternel. A l’époque de la Réforme, des hommes aussi bien que des femmes nous en ont donné la preuve. Pour examiner les questions autour du thème des contextes de la conversion et les protestants français, cet article divise le problème en trois parties. D'abord, il traite de la conversion au niveau de la communauté. Il s’agit des structures politiques, professionnelles et économiques qui favorisaient la conversion. Deuxièmement, la famille, qui conversions souvent les plus fortes et les plus durables. Enfin, et c'est le troisième point, tous protestants français ont été obligés eux-mêmes de se convertir au catholicisme en 1685 quand le Roi Soleil révoqua l’édit de Nantes. Comment ont-ils soumis à l’obligation de se convertir, et en même temps quelle stratégie ont-ils mis en place pour maintenir leur foi réformée, sauvegarder leurs familles, et d’essayer d’éviter la menace d’une monarchie catholique et ses alliés ecclésiastiques ?Conversion – the passage from one faith to another – was a challenging and painful process, even when it was deemed theologically correct and held the promise of eternal salvation. The men and women of the Reformation era offer poignant testimony. In its assessment investigation of the various question concerning conversion and Protestantism in early modern France, this article takes up three main themes. To begin, it examines conversion within the context of the community. What were the political, professional and economic structures that encouraged conversion? Secondly, the family, beyond any doubt a fundamental institution in pre-industrial society, was the site of the strongest and more enduring conversions. Finally, Protestants throughout France were

  9. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  10. Conversion of the Amazon rainforest to agriculture results in biotic homogenization of soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Pellizari, Vivian H; Mueller, Rebecca; Baek, Kyunghwa; Jesus, Ederson da C; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur; Hamaoui, George S; Tsai, Siu Mui; Feigl, Brigitte; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2013-01-15

    The Amazon rainforest is the Earth's largest reservoir of plant and animal diversity, and it has been subjected to especially high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. This conversion has had a strongly negative effect on biological diversity, reducing the number of plant and animal species and homogenizing communities. We report here that microbial biodiversity also responds strongly to conversion of the Amazon rainforest, but in a manner different from plants and animals. Local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria increases after conversion, but communities become more similar across space. This homogenization is driven by the loss of forest soil bacteria with restricted ranges (endemics) and results in a net loss of diversity. This study shows homogenization of microbial communities in response to human activities. Given that soil microbes represent the majority of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems and are intimately involved in ecosystem functions, we argue that microbial biodiversity loss should be taken into account when assessing the impact of land use change in tropical forests.

  11. Energy conversion of source separated packaging; Energiutvinning ur kaellsorterade foerpackningsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blidholm, O; Wiklund, S E [AaF-Energikonsult (Sweden); Bauer, A C [Energikonsult A. Bauer (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The basic idea of this project is to study the possibilities to use source separated combustible material for energy conversion in conventional solid fuel boilers (i.e. not municipal waste incineration plants). The project has been carried out in three phases. During phase 1 and 2 a number of fuel analyses of different fractions were carried out. During phase 3 two combustion tests were carried out; (1) a boiler with grate equipped with cyclone, electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser, and (2) a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser. During the tests source separated paper and plastic packagings were co-fired with biomass fuels. The mixing rate of packagings was approximately 15%. This study reports the results of phase 3 and the conclusions of the whole project. The technical terms of using packaging as fuel are good. The technique is available for shredding both paper and plastic packaging. The material can be co-fired with biomass. The economical terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion can be very advantageous, but can also form obstacles. The result is to a high degree guided by such facts as how the fuel is collected, transported, reduced in size and handled at the combustion plant. The results of the combustion tests show that the environmental terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion are good. The emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere are very low. The emissions are well below the emission standards for waste incineration plants. 35 figs, 13 tabs, 8 appendices

  12. Fast flavor conversions of supernova neutrinos: Classifying instabilities via dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Lisi, Eligio; Marrone, Antonio; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Supernova neutrinos can exhibit a rich variety of flavor conversion mechanisms. In particular, they can experience "fast" self-induced flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Very recently, a novel method has been proposed to investigate these phenomena, in terms of the dispersion relation for the complex frequency and wave number (ω ,k ) of disturbances in the mean field of the νeνx flavor coherence. We discuss a systematic approach to such instabilities, originally developed in the context of plasma physics, and based of the time-asymptotic behavior of the Green's function of the system. Instabilities are typically seen to emerge for complex ω and can be further characterized as convective (moving away faster than they spread) and absolute (growing locally), depending on k -dependent features. Stable cases emerge when k (but not ω ) is complex, leading to disturbances damped in space, or when both ω and k are real, corresponding to complete stability. The analytical classification of both unstable and stable modes leads not only to qualitative insights about their features but also to quantitative predictions about the growth rates of instabilities. Representative numerical solutions are discussed in a simple two-beam model of interacting neutrinos. As an application, we argue that supernova and binary neutron star mergers exhibiting a "crossing" in the electron lepton number would lead to an absolute instability in the flavor content of the neutrino gas.

  13. SU-E-J-272: Auto-Segmentation of Regions with Differentiating CT Numbers for Treatment Response Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Noid, G; Dalah, E; Paulson, E; Li, X; Gilat-Schmidt, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It has been reported recently that the change of CT number (CTN) during and after radiation therapy (RT) may be used to assess RT response. The purpose of this work is to develop a tool to automatically segment the regions with differentiating CTN and/or with change of CTN in a series of CTs. Methods: A software tool was developed to identify regions with differentiating CTN using K-mean Cluster of CT numbers and to automatically delineate these regions using convex hull enclosing method. Pre- and Post-RT CT, PET, or MRI images acquired for sample lung and pancreatic cancer cases were used to test the software tool. K-mean cluster of CT numbers within the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) delineated based on PET SUV (standard uptake value of fludeoxyglucose) and/or MRI ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) map was analyzed. The cluster centers with higher value were considered as active tumor volumes (ATV). The convex hull contours enclosing preset clusters were used to delineate these ATVs with color washed displays. The CTN defined ATVs were compared with the SUV- or ADC-defined ATVs. Results: CTN stability of the CT scanner used to acquire the CTs in this work is less than 1.5 Hounsfield Unit (HU) variation annually. K-mean cluster centers in the GTV have difference of ∼20 HU, much larger than variation due to CTN stability, for the lung cancer cases studied. The dice coefficient between the ATVs delineated based on convex hull enclosure of high CTN centers and the PET defined GTVs based on SUV cutoff value of 2.5 was 90(±5)%. Conclusion: A software tool was developed using K-mean cluster and convex hull contour to automatically segment high CTN regions which may not be identifiable using a simple threshold method. These CTN regions were reasonably overlapped with the PET or MRI defined GTVs

  14. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  15. Code conversion from signed-digit to complement representation based on look-ahead optical logic operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Feng

    2001-11-01

    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a generalized lookahead logic algorithm for number conversion from signed-digit to complement representation. By properly encoding the signed-digits, all the operations are performed by binary logic, and unified logical expressions can be obtained for conversion from modified-signed- digit (MSD) to 2's complement, trinary signed-digit (TSD) to 3's complement, and quarternary signed-digit (QSD) to 4's complement. For optical implementation, a parallel logical array module using an electron-trapping device is employed and experimental results are shown. This optical module is suitable for implementing complex logic functions in the form of the sum of the product. The algorithm and architecture are compatible with a general-purpose optoelectronic computing system.

  16. Development of a dc low pressure D- surface-conversion source using a 10-cm-diameter solid barium converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.; Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; deVries, G.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Lietzke, A.F.; Steele, W.F.; van Os, C.F.A.; Wells, R.P.; Williams, M.D.

    1991-09-01

    A D - surface-conversion source using a solid barium converter is designed for steady-state operation to produce 200 mA of D - . A similar ion source of twice the size as the one discussed here will meet the requirements set by the present US-ITER neutral beam injector design. Among the possible types of ion sources being considered for the US-ITER neutral beam design, the barium converter surface-conversion source is the only kind that does not use cesium in the discharge. This absence of cesium will minimize the number of accelerator breakdowns. 15 refs., 4 figs

  17. Study on carbon dioxide conversion by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Geun Il; Cho, Il Hoon; Choi, Sang Do; Hong, Kwang Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the synergistic effects on the CO 2 conversion by the application of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray. Gamma-ray irradiation was performed to examine the effects of semiconductor application on CO 2 conversion in water and the formation of organic material from carbonate solution. From experimental results it is clear that the supplication of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray increases the efficiency for CO 2 conversion to organic matter. Based on the obtained experimental results it is obvious that the synergistic effects of semiconductor materials in the gamma-ray field leads to increase of the CO 2 conversion yield to organic matter up to 50 percent compared to the gamma-ray irradiation. The way of achieving higher activity is due to the catalytic action of semiconductor by gamma-ray irradiation. Zr-doped TiO 2 catalyst prepared by sol-gel method exhibits the higher efficiency for CO 2 conversion in aqueous solution and carbonate containing solution. This effect of Zr-doping can be explained by the formation of additional defects in surface of TiO 2 film. (author)

  18. Pocess for the conversion of coal into benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, S M; Kuo, J C.W.; Wise, J J; Garwood, W E

    1976-10-21

    The effective conversion of coal into liquid hydrocarbon benzine with a high octane number is described in the claimed method for coal enrichment. The coal is converted with O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O at about 788 to 982/sup 0/C giving a synthesis product (containing CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/). The conversion of the carbon oxides and hydrogen to a product containing H/sub 2/O, C/sup -//sub 4/gas and C/sup +//sub 5/ aromatic benzine is catalyzed with a catalyst consisting of a crystalline alumino silicate zeolite with a SiO/sub 2//AlO/sub 2/ ratio of at least 12 and a forced index of 1 to 12. The C/sup -//sub 4/gas is separated into a C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas (CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) and alkylation material (saturated and unsaturated C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons), the latter alkylated with strong acid at about 232/sup 0/C, 35.2Kg/cm/sup 2/ pressure, the C/sub 7//C/sub 8/ product is mixed with the aromatic benzine, the C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas steam reformed to an auxiliary synthesis gas and converted into a synthetic natural gas by methanation catalysts.

  19. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  20. The Non-Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Theis I.; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Stephansen, Anne B.

    2014-01-01

    The absorption of light by molecules can induce ultrafast dynamics and coupling of electronic and nuclear vibrational motion. The ultrafast nature in many cases rests on the importance of several potential energy surfaces in guiding the nuclear motion—a concept of central importance in many aspects...... of chemical reaction dynamics. This Minireview focuses on the non-ergodic nature of internal conversion, that is, on the concept that the nuclear dynamics only sample a reduced phase space, potentially resulting in localization of the dynamics in real space. A series of results that highlight...... it takes to reach it. 2) Localization of energy into a single reactive mode, which is dictated by the internal conversion process. 3) Initiation of the internal conversion by activation of a single complex motion, which then specifically couples to a reactive mode. 4) Nonstatistical internal conversion...

  1. Improving tribological and anti-bacterial properties of titanium external fixation pins through surface ceramic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huan; Mukinay, Tatiana; Li, Maojun; Hood, Richard; Soo, Sein Leung; Cockshott, Simon; Sammons, Rachel; Li, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an advanced ceramic conversion surface engineering technology has been applied for the first time to self-drilling Ti6Al4V external fixation pins to improve their performance in terms of biomechanical, bio-tribological and antibacterial properties. Systematic characterisation of the ceramic conversion treated Ti pins was carried out using Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, nano- and micro-indentation and scratching; the biomechanical and bio-tribological properties of the surface engineered Ti pins were evaluated by insertion into high density bone simulation material; and the antibacterial behaviour was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571. The experimental results have demonstrated that the surfaces of Ti6Al4V external fixation pins were successfully converted into a TiO 2 rutile layer (~2 μm in thickness) supported by an oxygen hardened case (~15 μm in thickness) with very good bonding due to the in-situ conversion nature. The maximum insertion force and temperature were reduced from 192N and 31.2 °C when using the untreated pins to 182N and 26.1 °C when the ceramic conversion treated pins were tested. This is mainly due to the significantly increased hardness (more than three times) and the effectively enhanced wear resistance of the cutting edge of the self-drilling Ti pins following the ceramic conversion treatment. The antibacterial tests also revealed that there was a significantly reduced number of bacteria isolated from the ceramic conversion treated pins compared to the untreated pins of around 50 % after 20 h incubation, P < 0.01 (0.0024). The results reported are encouraging and could pave the way towards high-performance anti-bacterial titanium external fixation pins with reduced pin-track infection and pin loosing.

  2. Ortho-para conversion in the solid hydrogens at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzhemechny; Hemley, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    At low pressures the ortho-para conversion in H 2 and D 2 is a slow process governed by the magnetic dipole interaction of nuclear magnetic moments, phonons being the main energy sink. As the pressure is raised to a few GPa and the Debye temperature increases substantially, the conversion energy finds itself in an area where phonon states are depleted and conversion slows down. The recent Raman and NMR experiments showed that the conversion rate in H 2 after an initial slowdown predicted by theory increases immensely. As for solid D 2 , conversion rates have apparently not yet been directly measured under pressure. In order to explain the anomaly observed in H 2 , we have suggested a new conversion mechanism, in which the basic conversion-producing interaction only initiates conversion whereas the energy is removed by rotational excitations via the stronger electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Estimated conversion rates are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental observations. Here we extend the theory to solid D 2 taking into account the differences between H 2 and D 2 in the molecular and solid-state parameters. The new libron-mediated channel is predicted to result for D 2 in conversion rates under pressure that are by an order of magnitude larger than at P = 0

  3. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  4. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  5. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  6. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  7. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  8. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  9. Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-09-01

    The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.

  10. Predictive models for conversion of prediabetes to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, N; Miyakoshi, T; Sato, Y; Nakasone, Y; Yamashita, K; Imai, T; Hirabayashi, K; Koike, H; Yamauchi, K; Aizawa, T

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the natural course of prediabetes and develop predictive models for conversion to diabetes. A retrospective longitudinal study of 2105 adults with prediabetes was carried out with a mean observation period of 4.7years. Models were developed using multivariate logistic regression analysis and verified by 10-fold cross-validation. The relationship between [final BMI minus baseline BMI] (δBMI) and incident diabetes was analyzed post hoc by comparing the diabetes conversion rate for low (Prediabetes conversion to diabetes could be predicted with accuracy, and weight reduction during the observation was associated with lowered conversion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative values of quasidistributions and quantum wave and number statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peřina, J.; Křepelka, J.

    2018-04-01

    We consider nonclassical wave and number quantum statistics, and perform a decomposition of quasidistributions for nonlinear optical down-conversion processes using Bessel functions. We show that negative values of the quasidistribution do not directly represent probabilities; however, they directly influence measurable number statistics. Negative terms in the decomposition related to the nonclassical behavior with negative amplitudes of probability can be interpreted as positive amplitudes of probability in the negative orthogonal Bessel basis, whereas positive amplitudes of probability in the positive basis describe classical cases. However, probabilities are positive in all cases, including negative values of quasidistributions. Negative and positive contributions of decompositions to quasidistributions are estimated. The approach can be adapted to quantum coherence functions.

  12. Effects of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Conversational Turns between Parents and Their Young Children with Autism. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the conversational turns between four young children with autism and their mothers were investigated as part of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes where a practitioner facilitated…

  13. Formal description of styrene conversion in ionized air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselov, Yu.N.; Filatov, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    The styrene conversion in the air flow under the effect of the electron beam with the energy of 180 keV and the streamer corona charge is studied with the purpose of searching the general criterion of the efficiency of the air purification from the toxic aromatic unsaturated compounds with application of the electrophysical methods. It is established, that dependence of the styrene concentration on the radiation pulse number have the character of the falling curves specific for the first order reactions. It is shown that it is advisable to use as the criterion of the efficiency of the electrophysical air purification methods the initial characteristic energy, the numerical value whereof corresponds to the energy quantity, removed substance concentration by e = 2.718 times [ru

  14. Conversion of U3O8 to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodu, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Three main processes for the production of UF 6 from the uranium ores (yellow cake) is described. The economic aspects of the conversion - capital cost, operating costs and conversion market and the future of conversion - capacity and prices - are discussed. (HPH) [de

  15. Nitrous oxide for labor analgesia: Utilization and predictors of conversion to neuraxial analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Caitlin D; Butwick, Alexander J; Riley, Edward T; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-08-01

    We examined the characteristics of women who choose nitrous oxide for labor analgesia and identified factors that predict conversion from nitrous oxide to labor neuraxial analgesia. Retrospective descriptive study. Labor and Delivery Ward. 146 pregnant women who used nitrous oxide for analgesia during labor and delivery between September 2014 and September 2015. Chart review only. Demographic, obstetric, and intrapartum characteristics of women using nitrous oxide were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial analgesia. Data are presented as n (%), median [IQR], adjusted relative risk (aRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as appropriate. During the study period, 146 women used nitrous oxide for labor analgesia (accounting for 3% of the total deliveries). The majority (71.9%) of women who used nitrous oxide were nulliparous, and over half (51.9%) had expressed an initial preference for "nonmedical birth." The conversion rate to neuraxial blockade was 63.2%, compared to a concurrent institutional rate of 85.1% in women who did not use nitrous oxide. Factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial blockade were labor induction (aRR=2.0, CI 1.2-3.3) and labor augmentation (aRR=1.7, CI 1.0-2.9). Only a small number of women opted to use nitrous oxide during labor, analgesia was minimal, and most converted to neuraxial analgesia. Women with induced and augmented labors should be counseled about the increased likelihood that they will convert to neuraxial analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  17. Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Sandijck, P.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion disorder has been associated with hypnotic susceptibility for over a century and is currently still believed to be a form of autohypnosis. There is, however. little empirical evidence for the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and conversion symptoms. The authors compared 50

  18. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  19. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses...

  20. Rehabilitation targeted at everyday communication: can we change the talk of people with aphasia and their significant others within conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wielaert, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether aphasia therapy can change the talk of speakers with aphasia and/or their significant others within conversation. Small number of intervention studies targeting conversations involving speakers with aphasia are reviewed. All are single case studies. Key assessment in the studies was an audio or video recording of 1 or more conversations between the dyad, usually made in the home setting. Intervention in these studies took place in the participants' home or another setting, such as a therapy room. In all of the studies reviewed, the participants consisted of a person with aphasia (PWA) and a significant other, usually the PWA's spouse. In all studies, therapy took the form of a behavioral intervention involving the provision of feedback to the significant other and/or PWA on their conversational behaviors uncovered by a conversation analysis assessment. Handouts, transcripts, discussion, and video feedback were used. Suggestions to permit participants to cope better with the effects of aphasia within conversation were given, and opportunities for practicing these strategies within conversation were provided. Postintervention, 1 or more conversations involving the PWA and significant other were recorded in the same manner as the preintervention. Conversations were analyzed in relation to changes in the behaviors targeted in intervention, such as those involved in topic initiation or repair of linguistic errors. Each of the studies reviewed presented evidence that the talk of people with aphasia and/or their significant others can be changed in conversation. In some studies the evidence is primarily qualitative, in the form of observed changes to conversational behaviors postintervention. Some studies produce stronger evidence by combining qualitative and quantitative analyses of change. There is evidence that intervention targeting conversations involving an aphasic speaker can achieve change. Future studies should move beyond single case

  1. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  2. Thermodynamic limits to the conversion of blackbody radiation by quantum systems. [with application to solar energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.; Byvik, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Using general thermodynamic arguments, we analyze the conversion of the energy contained in the radiation from a blackbody to useful work by a quantum system. We show that the energy available for conversion is bounded above by the change in free energy in the incident and reradiated fields and that this free energy change depends upon the temperature of the receiving device. Universal efficiency curves giving the ultimate thermodynamic conversion efficiency of the quantum system are presented in terms of the blackbody temperature and the temperature and threshold energy of the quantum system. Application of these results is made to a variety of systems including biological photosynthetic, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  3. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  4. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  5. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  6. Improved picture rate conversion using classification based LMS-filters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Heinrich, A.; Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent explosion of multimedia formats and the need to convert between them, more attention is drawn to picture rate conversion. Moreover, growing demands on video motion portrayal without judder or blur requires improved format conversion. The simplest conversion repeats the latest

  7. Educational design as conversation : A conversation analytical perspective on teacher dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruiningen, Jacqueline F.

    The aim of this methodological paper is to expound on and demonstrate the value of conversation-analytical research in the area of (informal) teacher learning. The author discusses some methodological issues in current research on interaction in teacher learning and holds a plea for

  8. Couples, contentious conversations, mobile telephone use and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Terry C; Stephens, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that the inappropriate use of in-vehicle technology may lead to hazardous disruption of driver performance. This paper reports an investigation into the socio-technical implications of maintaining a difficult conversation while driving. Twenty romantically involved couples participated in a driving-simulator experiment. The participants engaged in emotionally difficult conversations while one partner drove. The contentious conversation topics were identified using a revealed differences protocol, requiring partners to discuss sources of ongoing disagreement in their relationship. The conversations were conducted either using handsfree telephone or with both parties present in the simulator. Results indicate that the revealed differences tasks were subjectively viewed as emotionally more difficult than a control. Driver performance was found to be adversely effected for both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Performance was worst during contentious conversations with the partner present, suggesting the drivers may be better able to regulate driving task demands with the partner not in the vehicle during difficult discussions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating interactional competencies in Parkinson's disease: the potential benefits of a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Barnes, Rebecca; Britten, Nicky; Wilkinson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Around 70% of people who develop Parkinson's disease (PD) experience speech and voice changes. Clinicians often find that when asked about their primary communication concerns, PD clients will talk about the difficulties they have 'getting into' conversations. This is an important area for clients and it has implications for quality of life and clinical management. To review the extant literature on PD and communication impairments in order to reveal key topic areas, the range of methodologies applied, and any gaps in knowledge relating to PD and social interaction and how these might be usefully addressed. A systematic search of a number of key databases and available grey literatures regarding PD and communication impairment was conducted (including motor speech changes, intelligibility, cognitive/language changes) to obtain a sense of key areas and methodologies applied. Research applying conversation analysis in the field of communication disability was also reviewed to illustrate the value of this methodology in uncovering common interactional difficulties, and in revealing the use of strategic collaborative competencies in naturally occurring conversation. In addition, available speech and language therapy assessment and intervention approaches to PD were examined with a view to their effectiveness in promoting individualized intervention planning and advice-giving for everyday interaction. A great deal has been written about the deficits underpinning communication changes in PD and the impact of communication disability on the self and others as measured in a clinical setting. Less is known about what happens for this client group in everyday conversations outside of the clinic. Current speech and language therapy assessments and interventions focus on the individual and are largely impairment based or focused on compensatory speaker-oriented techniques. A conversation analysis approach would complement basic research on what actually happens in everyday

  10. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung Yu, Dae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kihong [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  11. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region

  12. Leiomyoma: a rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-19

    Sep 19, 2012 ... tomography (CT) imaging, malignancy is suggested by a diameter ... Hounsfield units (HUs) (> 10) and limited washout of contrast after .... Hounsfield units. Air ... in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr ...

  13. A Converse of Fermat's Little Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    As the name of the paper implies, a converse of Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT) is stated and proved. FLT states the following: if p is any prime, and x any integer, then x[superscript p] [equivalent to] x (mod p). There is already a well-known converse of FLT, known as Lehmer's Theorem, which is as follows: if x is an integer coprime with m, such…

  14. Conversational Effects of Gender and Children's Moral Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Björnberg, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aimed partly to examine the effects of gender on conversation dynamics, partly to investigate whether interaction between participants with contrasting opinions promotes cognitive development on a moral task. Another objective was to explore whether particular conversational features of interaction would have any impact upon a pair’s joint response or on each child’s moral development. The conversations were coded with regard to simultaneous speech acts, psychosocial behaviour and...

  15. ForConX: A forcefield conversion tool based on XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Volker; Diddens, Diddo; Bernardes, Carlos E S; Golub, Benjamin; Dequidt, Alain; Zeindlhofer, Veronika; Sega, Marcello; Schröder, Christian

    2017-04-05

    The force field conversion from one MD program to another one is exhausting and error-prone. Although single conversion tools from one MD program to another exist not every combination and both directions of conversion are available for the favorite MD programs Amber, Charmm, Dl-Poly, Gromacs, and Lammps. We present here a general tool for the force field conversion on the basis of an XML document. The force field is converted to and from this XML structure facilitating the implementation of new MD programs for the conversion. Furthermore, the XML structure is human readable and can be manipulated before continuing the conversion. We report, as testcases, the conversions of topologies for acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate comprising also Urey-Bradley and Ryckaert-Bellemans potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Entropy fluxes, endoreversibility, and solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Landsberg, P. T.; Baruch, P.; Parrott, J. E.

    1993-09-01

    A formalism illustrating the conversion of radiation energy into work can be obtained in terms of energy and entropy fluxes. Whereas the Landsberg equality was derived for photothermal conversion with zero bandgap, a generalized inequality for photothermal/photovoltaic conversion with a single, but arbitrary, bandgap was deduced. This result was derived for a direct energy and entropy balance. The formalism of endoreversible dynamics was adopted in order to show the correlation with the latter approach. It was a surprising fact that the generalized Landsberg inequality was derived by optimizing some quantity W(sup *), which obtains it maximum value under short-circuit condition.

  17. The conversion factor of α radiation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin; Xia Junding

    1997-01-01

    It is important in fine-grain TL dating that the full α dose must be converted into the equivalent β dose. Although the conversion coefficient K for internal radiation efficiency can not be measured directly for each sample, it is possible to measure the external radiation efficiency K 3.7 . For this purpose a special study for the conversion factor of K to K 3.7 has been made using ultrathin TLD. The results show that the conversion factor of the TLD for archaeological samples is 0.847, which is in agreement with the calculated value 0.85

  18. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  19. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  20. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  1. Kinetics of Scheelite Conversion in Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete conversion of scheelite in H2SO4 solution plays a key role in exploration of cleaner technology for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this work, the factors influencing scheelite conversion were investigated experimentally to model its kinetics. The results indicated that the conversion rate increases with increasing temperature and reducing particle size, but is almost independent of stirring speed. Moreover, although the conversion rate increases with increasing initial H2SO4 concentration (≤ 1.25 mol/L), it decreases rapidly at 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 after 10 min due to formation of a H2WO4 layer. The experimental data agree quite well with the shrinking core model under chemical reaction control in ≤ 1.25 mol/L H2SO4 solution, and the kinetic equation was established as: 1- ( 1- α )^{ 1 / 3} = 2 2 2 5 4 6. 6\\cdot C_{{{H}_{ 2} {SO}_{ 4} }}^{ 1. 2 2 6} \\cdot r_{ 0}^{ - 1} \\cdot e^{{ - 3 9 2 6 0/RT}} \\cdot t (t, min). This work could contribute to better understanding of scheelite conversion in H2SO4 solution and development of a new route for ammonium paratungstate production.

  2. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents’ Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911

  4. Prospective content in the friendship conversations of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Murray, John

    2017-01-01

    Prospection is cognitive processes that involve constructing, encoding, and remembering the future. Less is known about the how these processes are evident in the prospective content of conversations. This study sought to identify and describe evidence of the prospective content in the conversations of friends as they transition to adulthood. The present secondary content analysis of the videotaped conversations of 15 young adult friendship dyads (n = 30, 16 females, 14 males, mean age = 21.3 years) in Canada examined these conversations based the following characteristics of prospection: simulation, reasoning about counterfactuals, constructing multiple possible futures, and episodic memory of the past. Four categories of prospective content were evident in these conversations, these processes were used sparingly in all but one conversation, and relatively few of them were collaborative in that dyad partners did not appear to serve to augment, clarify, or disconfirm prospective content. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  6. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  7. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  8. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  9. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  10. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  11. Parametric down conversion of X-rays, recent experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, B; Novikov, D V; Materlik, G; Mills, D M

    2001-01-01

    Parametric down conversion of X-ray photons in diamond crystals was detected in six experiments, all using the phase matching scheme first employed in the X-ray regime by Eisenberger and McCall (Eisenberger and McCall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 (1971) 684). The conversion events were detected by a combination of time correlation spectroscopy and energy discrimination. The time correlation spectra gave a direct comparison of the conversion rate over the accidental coincidence rate.

  12. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  13. Resonant Spin-Flavor Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, K.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversions of supernova neutrinos which are induced by the interaction of neutrino magnetic moment and supernova magnetic fields. With a new diagram we propose, it is found that four conversions occur in supernovae, two are induced by the RSF effect and two by the pure Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. The realistic numerical calculation of neutrino conversions indicates that the RSF-induced νe ↔ ντ tran¯ -12 9 -1 sition occurs efficiently, when µν > 10 µB (B0 /5 × 10 G) , where B0 is the strength of the magnetic field at the surface of iron core. We also evaluate the energy spectrum as a function of µν B0 at the super-Kamiokande detector using the calculated conversion probabilities, and find that the spectral deformation might have possibility to provide useful information on the neutrino magnetic moment as well as the magnetic field strength in supernovae.

  14. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  15. Conversation in the museum: experiments in dynamic hypermedia with the intelligent labelling explorer

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlander, Jon; O'donnell, Mick; Mellish, Chris; Knott, Alistair

    1998-01-01

    We outline experience with the Intelligent Labelling Explorer, a dynamic hypertext system developed at the University of Edinburgh, in collaboration with the National Museums of Scotland. First, we indicate a number of ways in which labels on museum objects ought to be tuned to take into account types of visit, the interests of visitors, and their evolving knowledge during a visit. Secondly, we sketch the general architecture of our system, and then focus on the conversational effects which t...

  16. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  17. Neuroanatomy of Shared Conversational Laughter in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Pressman

    2018-06-01

    ' emotional cues. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size given the number of covariates. While further investigation is needed, these results support our understanding of the neural underpinnings of shared conversational laughter.

  18. 24 CFR 965.404 - Order of conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) In projects for which retail service is provided by the utility supplier and the PHA is paying... DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Individual Metering of Utilities for Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.404 Order of conversion. Conversions to individually metered utility service shall...

  19. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  20. 49 CFR 583.14 - Currency conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Currency conversion rate. 583.14 Section 583.14... conversion rate. For purposes of calculations of content value under this part, manufacturers and suppliers shall calculate exchange rates using the methodology set forth in this section. (a) Manufacturers. (1...

  1. Direct and converse theorems the elements of symbolic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gradshtein, I S; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1963-01-01

    Direct and Converse Theorems: The Elements of Symbolic Logic, Third Edition explains the logical relations between direct, converse, inverse, and inverse converse theorems, as well as the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions. This book consists of two chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the question of negation. Connected with the question of the negation of a proposition are interrelations of the direct and converse and also of the direct and inverse theorems; the interrelations of necessary and sufficient conditions; and the definition of the locus of a point. The second chap

  2. Memory for conversation and the development of common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Geoffrey L; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-11-01

    Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener. The process of developing common ground was positively related to both item and context memory. In addition, content that was spoken was remembered better than content that was heard. Our findings illustrate how memory assessments can complement language measures by revealing the impact that basic conversational processes have on memory for what has been discussed. By taking this approach, we show that not only does the process of forming common ground facilitate communication in the present, but it also promotes an enduring record of that event, facilitating conversation into the future.

  3. 24 CFR 972.103 - Definition of “conversion.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subpart, the term “conversion” means the removal of public housing units from the inventory of a PHA, and... units that are being removed. The term “conversion,” as used in this subpart, does not necessarily mean... DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing...

  4. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-03-13

    Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest that intervention facilitators

  5. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of

  6. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  7. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: 213@ctemsp.mar.mil.br

    2007-07-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CONVERSION TO ALFVÉN WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, E.; Cally, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the conversion of fast magnetoacoustic waves to Alfvén waves by means of 2.5D numerical simulations in a sunspot-like magnetic configuration. A fast, essentially acoustic, wave of a given frequency and wave number is generated below the surface and propagates upward through the Alfvén/acoustic equipartition layer where it splits into upgoing slow (acoustic) and fast (magnetic) waves. The fast wave quickly reflects off the steep Alfvén speed gradient, but around and above this reflection height it partially converts to Alfvén waves, depending on the local relative inclinations of the background magnetic field and the wavevector. To measure the efficiency of this conversion to Alfvén waves we calculate acoustic and magnetic energy fluxes. The particular amplitude and phase relations between the magnetic field and velocity oscillations help us to demonstrate that the waves produced are indeed Alfvén waves. We find that the conversion to Alfvén waves is particularly important for strongly inclined fields like those existing in sunspot penumbrae. Equally important is the magnetic field orientation with respect to the vertical plane of wave propagation, which we refer to as 'field azimuth'. For a field azimuth less than 90° the generated Alfvén waves continue upward, but above 90° downgoing Alfvén waves are preferentially produced. This yields negative Alfvén energy flux for azimuths between 90° and 180°. Alfvén energy fluxes may be comparable to or exceed acoustic fluxes, depending upon geometry, though computational exigencies limit their magnitude in our simulations.

  9. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  10. A perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W. B.

    1963-10-15

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  11. A perspective on direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1963-10-01

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  12. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  13. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  14. A functional-pragmatic analysis of conversation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonetheless, they have a communicative function and their role of giving the conversations a structure by encoding the emotive aspects of interpersonal interaction are of a pragmatic nature, hence their interpretation is derived from the contexts in which they are applied. They regulate the structure of the conversations by ...

  15. Conversion of Continuous-Valued Deep Networks to Efficient Event-Driven Networks for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Lungu, Iulia-Alexandra; Hu, Yuhuang; Pfeiffer, Michael; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2017-01-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNNs) can potentially offer an efficient way of doing inference because the neurons in the networks are sparsely activated and computations are event-driven. Previous work showed that simple continuous-valued deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be converted into accurate spiking equivalents. These networks did not include certain common operations such as max-pooling, softmax, batch-normalization and Inception-modules. This paper presents spiking equivalents of these operations therefore allowing conversion of nearly arbitrary CNN architectures. We show conversion of popular CNN architectures, including VGG-16 and Inception-v3, into SNNs that produce the best results reported to date on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and the challenging ImageNet dataset. SNNs can trade off classification error rate against the number of available operations whereas deep continuous-valued neural networks require a fixed number of operations to achieve their classification error rate. From the examples of LeNet for MNIST and BinaryNet for CIFAR-10, we show that with an increase in error rate of a few percentage points, the SNNs can achieve more than 2x reductions in operations compared to the original CNNs. This highlights the potential of SNNs in particular when deployed on power-efficient neuromorphic spiking neuron chips, for use in embedded applications.

  16. Conversion of Continuous-Valued Deep Networks to Efficient Event-Driven Networks for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Rueckauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiking neural networks (SNNs can potentially offer an efficient way of doing inference because the neurons in the networks are sparsely activated and computations are event-driven. Previous work showed that simple continuous-valued deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs can be converted into accurate spiking equivalents. These networks did not include certain common operations such as max-pooling, softmax, batch-normalization and Inception-modules. This paper presents spiking equivalents of these operations therefore allowing conversion of nearly arbitrary CNN architectures. We show conversion of popular CNN architectures, including VGG-16 and Inception-v3, into SNNs that produce the best results reported to date on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and the challenging ImageNet dataset. SNNs can trade off classification error rate against the number of available operations whereas deep continuous-valued neural networks require a fixed number of operations to achieve their classification error rate. From the examples of LeNet for MNIST and BinaryNet for CIFAR-10, we show that with an increase in error rate of a few percentage points, the SNNs can achieve more than 2x reductions in operations compared to the original CNNs. This highlights the potential of SNNs in particular when deployed on power-efficient neuromorphic spiking neuron chips, for use in embedded applications.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Iron Within the Normal Human Liver Using Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, Andres F; Grant, Katharine L; Carey, Kathleen E; Bolch, Wesley E; Morin, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Explore the potential of dual-source dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) to retrospectively analyze the uniformity of iron distribution and establish iron concentration ranges and distribution patterns found in healthy livers. Ten mixtures consisting of an iron nitrate solution and deionized water were prepared in test tubes and scanned using a DSDE 128-slice CT system. Iron images were derived from a 3-material decomposition algorithm (optimized for the quantification of iron). A conversion factor (mg Fe/mL per Hounsfield unit) was calculated from this phantom study as the quotient of known tube concentrations and their corresponding CT values. Retrospective analysis was performed of patients who had undergone DSDE imaging for renal stones. Thirty-seven patients with normal liver function were randomly selected (mean age, 52.5 years). The examinations were processed for iron concentration. Multiple regions of interest were analyzed, and iron concentration (mg Fe/mL) and distribution was reported. The mean conversion factor obtained from the phantom study was 0.15 mg Fe/mL per Hounsfield unit. Whole-liver mean iron concentrations yielded a range of 0.0 to 2.91 mg Fe/mL, with 94.6% (35/37) of the patients exhibiting mean concentrations below 1.0 mg Fe/mL. The most important finding was that iron concentration was not uniform and patients exhibited regionally high concentrations (36/37). These regions of higher concentration were observed to be dominant in the middle-to-upper part of the liver (75%), medially (72.2%), and anteriorly (83.3%). Dual-source dual-energy CT can be used to assess the uniformity of iron distribution in healthy subjects. Applying similar techniques to unhealthy livers, future research may focus on the impact of hepatic iron content and distribution for noninvasive assessment in diseased subjects.

  18. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  19. Enhancement of the up-conversion luminescence from NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hölsä, Jorma, E-mail: jholsa@utu.fi [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química, São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Laihinen, Tero [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Laamanen, Taneli; Lastusaari, Mika [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Pihlgren, Laura [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Graduate School of Materials Research (GSMR), Turku (Finland); Rodrigues, Lucas C.V. [University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química, São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Soukka, Tero [University of Turku, Department of Biochemistry, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The synthesis conditions of the Yb{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped NaYF{sub 4} were optimized by reducing the number of washings to include only ethanol. The avoidance of the loss of amorphous NaF prior to post-annealing of the as-prepared materials resulted in the enhancement of the otherwise rather weak up-conversion from Tb{sup 3+} by 1–2 orders of magnitude. At the same time, the temperature of formation of the hexagonal NaRF{sub 4} phase with high up-conversion could be lowered by 100 °C down to 350 °C. This improvement in up-conversion was concluded to result from the better stoichiometry of the material without washing with water. The deficit of Na{sup +} would result in the excess of fluoride which, although not as fatal to the luminescence as the fluoride vacancies, has serious implications to the up-conversion intensity. A further enhancement in the up-conversion luminescence was observed to be due to the Er{sup 3+} ion impurity frequently associated with high-concentration Yb{sup 3+} materials. The mechanism involving the unintentional Er{sup 3+} sensitizer and the resonance energy transfer in the Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+} co-doped NaYF{sub 4} were discussed based on the energy level schemes of the Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Tb{sup 3+} ions in NaYF{sub 4}.

  20. Modeling users' activity on twitter networks: validation of Dunbar's number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Microblogging and mobile devices appear to augment human social capabilities, which raises the question whether they remove cognitive or biological constraints on human communication. In this paper we analyze a dataset of Twitter conversations collected across six months involving 1.7 million individuals and test the theoretical cognitive limit on the number of stable social relationships known as Dunbar's number. We find that the data are in agreement with Dunbar's result; users can entertain a maximum of 100-200 stable relationships. Thus, the 'economy of attention' is limited in the online world by cognitive and biological constraints as predicted by Dunbar's theory. We propose a simple model for users' behavior that includes finite priority queuing and time resources that reproduces the observed social behavior.

  1. Causes and frequency of conversion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in own material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Kopeć

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the causes, frequency and time of conversion from laparoscopic to classic cholecystectomy in our ownmaterial.Material and methods: 547 patients were qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the Surgery Department ofthe Mogilno District Hospital in Strzelno during the period of 1999-2005; 515 minimally invasive operations were performedand 32 patients required conversion.Results: The 547 patients were qualified for the laparoscopic operation; of these 148 were operated on as emergencycases and 399 as elective cases. There were 20 conversions among emergency patients and 12 conversions amongelective patients. On average the decision to convert was made in the 35th min of the operation. The shortest time toconversion was 15 min and the longest was 90 min. Five conversions were performed in the 25th and 35th minand 4 in the 20th, 30th, and 40th mine. Most frequently conversions occurred between the 20th and 40th min of theprocedure. Intentional conversions were performed in 27 patients. Adhesions and clumps around the gallbladder werethe cause of conversion in 10 patients and that was the most frequent reason for the operative modality change. Thenext cause of conversion was changes observed in the course of acute cholecystitis in the form of gallbladder empyemaor cholecystocele (9 patients. Small, fibrotic gallbladder, immersed in the liver, was the reason for conversion ina further 4 patients. In 4 cases the conversion was caused by difficulties in the identification of anatomical structures.Four cases of forced conversions and 1 anticipated conversion were found in the analysed material.Conclusions: A change of operative modality during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was made on average in 5.85% ofoperations. The average time before the conversion was 35 min. Emergency patients required a change of operativemodality 4 times more often. The most frequent were intentional conversions (84%, caused by pericystic adhesionsand by

  2. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  3. 42 CFR 414.30 - Conversion factor update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion factor update. 414.30 Section 414.30... Practitioners § 414.30 Conversion factor update. Unless Congress acts in accordance with section 1848(d)(3) of... preceding FY over the third preceding FY exceeds the performance standard rate of increase established for...

  4. 19 CFR 351.415 - Conversion of currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of currency. 351.415 Section 351.415... Conversion of currency. (a) In general. In an antidumping proceeding, the Secretary will convert foreign currencies into United States dollars using the rate of exchange on the date of sale of the subject...

  5. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and riparian...

  6. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Rickard; Behrens, Claus F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise c...... outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors....

  7. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziv, Guy; Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available.

  8. Everyday conversation requires cognitive inference: neural bases of comprehending implicated meanings in conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gijeong; Yoon, Shin-ae; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Haeil; Kim, Joohan; Ko, Jeong Hoon; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2013-11-01

    In ordinary conversations, literal meanings of an utterance are often quite different from implicated meanings and the inference about implicated meanings is essentially required for successful comprehension of the speaker's utterances. Inference of finding implicated meanings is based on the listener's assumption that the conversational partner says only relevant matters according to the maxim of relevance in Grice's theory of conversational implicature. To investigate the neural correlates of comprehending implicated meanings under the maxim of relevance, a total of 23 participants underwent an fMRI task with a series of conversational pairs, each consisting of a question and an answer. The experimental paradigm was composed of three conditions: explicit answers, moderately implicit answers, and highly implicit answers. Participants were asked to decide whether the answer to the Yes/No question meant 'Yes' or 'No'. Longer reaction time was required for the highly implicit answers than for the moderately implicit answers without affecting the accuracy. The fMRI results show that the left anterior temporal lobe, left angular gyrus, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus had stronger activation in both moderately and highly implicit conditions than in the explicit condition. Comprehension of highly implicit answers had increased activations in additional regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex and right anterior temporal lobe. The activation results indicate involvement of these regions in the inference process to build coherence between literally irrelevant but pragmatically associated utterances under the maxim of relevance. Especially, the left anterior temporal lobe showed high sensitivity to the level of implicitness and showed increased activation for highly versus moderately implicit conditions, which imply its central role in inference such as semantic integration. The right

  9. Understanding Conversion-Type Electrodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Feng, Xinran; Zhang, Na; Seok, Jeesoo; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-02-20

    , sulfides, fluorides, phosphides, and nitrides can undergo conversion reactions yielding materials with high theoretical capacity (generally from 500 to 1500 mA h g -1 ). In particular, a number of transition metal oxides and sulfides have shown excellent electrochemical properties as high-capacity anode materials. In addition, some transition metal fluorides have shown great potential as cathode materials for Li rechargeable batteries. In this Account we present mechanistic studies, with emphasis on the use of operando methods, of selected examples of conversion-type materials as both potentially high-energy-density anodes and cathodes in EES applications. We also include examples of the conceptually similar conversion-type reactions involving chalcogens and halogens, with emphasis on the Li-S system. In this case we focus on the problems arising from the low electrical conductivities of elemental sulfur and Li 2 S and the "redox shuttle" phenomena of polysulfides. In addition to mechanistic insights from the use of operando methods, we also cover several key strategies in electrode materials design such as controlling the size, morphology, composition, and architecture.

  10. Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.; Murthy, M.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion to arginine independence was studied in a heteroallelic diploid strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BZ 34. When stationary phase cells were incubated in phosphate buffer (pH 7 ) at 30 0 C under aerated condition for 48 hours, the conversion frequency increased by a factor of about 1000 times the background. This was found to be so even when the cells were incubated in saline (0.85%) or distilled water. Various conditions influencing this enhancement have been investigated. Conversion frequency enhancement was not significant under anoxic conditions and was absent at low temperatures and in log phase cells. Caffeine could inhibit this enhancement when present in the suspension medium. These results can be explained on the basis of the induction of meiosis in cells held in buffer. Microscopic examination confirmed this view. Under conditions not favourable for the onset of meiosis there is no significant enhancement in conversion frequency. In stationary phase cells exposed to series of gamma doses, the conversion frequency increases with dose. Post irradiation incubation in buffer further increases the conversion frequency. However, the increase expressed as the ratio of the conversion frequency on buffer holding to that on immediate plating decreased with increasing dose. This decrease in enhancement with increasing dose may be due to the dose dependent inhibition of meiosis. (author)

  11. Absorption and emission from mode conversion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of mode conversion theory on emission have led to some surprising results. The classical expressions were originally derived from models which did not include mode conversion or its attendant reflection. When mode conversion was included, the first surprise was that the transmission coefficient is totally independent of absorption and due exclusively to tunneling. The other surprise is that the observed emission arises from two distinct sources, one direct, and one from an indirect Bernstein wave source which is partially converted in the cyclotron layer to outgoing electromagnetic waves, with the net result that mode conversion cancels out for the electron case. The only corrections to electron cyclotron emission are then due to reflection effects, and these have been shown to be small for laboratory plasmas, leading to the validation of the classical formula, but via an entirely new paradigm in its interpretation. This paper includes a summary of the absorption process for electron cyclotron harmonics, and reviews the emission physics, including both potential error estimates and a discussion of the spatial emission source distribution

  12. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clodagh; Hannigan, Oisin; Coen, Robert; Bruce, Irene; Gibb, Matthew; McCarthy, Marie; Robinson, David; Lawlor, Brian A

    2018-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual's emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. We propose that our patient's adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that "primed" him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  13. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  14. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  15. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  16. A software to edit voxel phantoms and to calculate conversion coefficients for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.W.; Stosic, B.; Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Santos, A.M.; Lima, V.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The MAX and FAX phantoms have been developed based on a male and female, respectively, adult body from ICRP and coupled to the Monte Carlo code (EGS4). These phantoms permit the calculating of the equivalent dose in organs and tissues of the human body for the radiation protection purposes . In the constructing of these anthropomorphic models, the software developed called FANTOMAS, which performs tasks as file format conversion, filtering 2D and 3D images, exchange of identifying numbers of organs, body mass adjustments based in volume, resampling of 2D and 3D images, resize images, preview consecutive slices of the phantom, running computational models of exposure FANTOMA/EGS4 and viewing graphics of conversion factors between equivalent dose and a measurable dosimetric quantity. This paper presents the main abilities of FANTOMAS and uses the MAX and/or FAX to exemplify some procedures

  17. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E; Gomez, Odina R; Sapno, Lorelei D; Lim, Steve L; Morales, Marcelino L

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT)- scout film with an optimal non-contrast helical CT scan Hounsfield unit (HU) in predicting the appearance of urinary calculus in the plain kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder (KUB)-radiograph. A prospective cross-sectional study was executed and data were collected from June 2007 to June 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The included subjects were diagnosed to have value, CT-scout film and KUB radiograph appearance were recorded independently by two observers. Univariate logistic analysis with receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to determine the best cut-off HU value of urolithiases not identified in CT-scout film, but determined radio-opaque in KUB X-ray. Subsequently, its sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P value of 0.05 or less. Two hundred and three valid cases were included. 73 out of 75 CT-scout film detected urolithiasis were identified on plain radiograph and determined as radio-opaque. The determined best cut off value of HU utilized for prediction of radiographic characteristics was 630HU at which urinary calculi were not seen at CT-scout film and were KUB X-ray radio-opaque. The set HU cut-off was established of ideal accuracy with an overall sensitivity of 82.2%, specificity of 96.9% and a positive predictive value of 96.5% and negative predictive value of 83.5%. Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  18. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  19. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  20. NASA-OAST program in photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion includes research and technology development efforts on solar cells, blankets, and arrays. The overall objectives are to increase conversion efficiency, reduce mass, reduce cost, and increase operating life. The potential growth of space power requirements in the future presents a major challenge to the current state of technology in space photovoltaic systems.