Sample records for hot-wall cvd gan

  1. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD (United States)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng


    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2-SiH4-C2H4-HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  2. Structural Characterization of Lateral-grown 6H-SiC am-plane Seed Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy (United States)

    Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Spry, David J.


    The performance of commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) power devices is limited due to inherently high density of screw dislocations (SD), which are necessary for maintaining polytype during boule growth and commercially viable growth rates. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently proposed a new bulk growth process based on axial fiber growth (parallel to the c-axis) followed by lateral expansion (perpendicular to the c-axis) for producing multi-faceted m-plane SiC boules that can potentially produce wafers with as few as one SD per wafer. In order to implement this novel growth technique, the lateral homoepitaxial growth expansion of a SiC fiber without introducing a significant number of additional defects is critical. Lateral expansion is being investigated by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) growth of 6H-SiC am-plane seed crystals (0.8mm x 0.5mm x 15mm) designed to replicate axially grown SiC single crystal fibers. The post-growth crystals exhibit hexagonal morphology with approximately 1500 m (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Preliminary analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms that the growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed crystal. Axial and transverse sections from the as grown crystal samples were characterized in detail by a combination of SWBXT, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy to map defect types and distribution. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the seed crystal contained stacking disorders and this appears to have been reproduced in the lateral growth sections. Analysis of the relative intensity for folded transverse acoustic (FTA) and optical (FTO) modes on the Raman spectra indicate the existence of stacking faults. Further, the density of stacking faults is higher in the seed than in the grown crystal. Bundles of dislocations are observed propagating from the seed in m-axis lateral directions

  3. GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall


    Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N15H3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.

  4. The role of NH3 and hydrocarbon mixtures in GaN pseudo-halide CVD: a quantum chemical study. (United States)

    Gadzhiev, Oleg B; Sennikov, Peter G; Petrov, Alexander I; Kachel, Krzysztof; Golka, Sebastian; Gogova, Daniela; Siche, Dietmar


    The prospects of a control for a novel gallium nitride pseudo-halide vapor phase epitaxy (PHVPE) with HCN were thoroughly analyzed for hydrocarbons-NH3-Ga gas phase on the basis of quantum chemical investigation with DFT (B3LYP, B3LYP with D3 empirical correction on dispersion interaction) and ab-initio (CASSCF, coupled clusters, and multireference configuration interaction including MRCI+Q) methods. The computational screening of reactions for different hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, and C2H2) as readily available carbon precursors for HCN formation, potential chemical transport agents, and for controlled carbon doping of deposited GaN was carried out with the B3LYP method in conjunction with basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ. The gas phase intermediates for the reactions in the Ga-hydrocarbon systems were predicted at different theory levels. The located π-complexes Ga…C2H2 and Ga…C2H4 were studied to determine a probable catalytic activity in reactions with NH3. A limited influence of the carbon-containing atmosphere was exhibited for the carbon doping of GaN crystal in the conventional GaN chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with hydrocarbons injected in the gas phase. Our results provide a basis for experimental studies of GaN crystal growth with C2H4 and C2H2 as auxiliary carbon reagents for the Ga-NH3 and Ga-C-NH3 CVD systems and prerequisites for reactor design to enhance and control the PHVPE process through the HCN synthesis.

  5. The effects of flow multiplicity on GaN deposition in a rotating disk CVD reactor (United States)

    Gkinis, P. A.; Aviziotis, I. G.; Koronaki, E. D.; Gakis, G. P.; Boudouvis, A. G.


    The effect of gas flow multiplicity, i.e. the possibility of two very different flow regimes prevailing at random in a rotating disk metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, on the deposited GaN film is investigated. A transport model coupled with a system of chemical reactions in the gas phase and on the wafer where the film is formed, is implemented in the parameter regions where multiple flows are possible. In the region of multiplicity where either plug flow, imposed by forced convection, or buoyancy-dominated flow is possible, the results in the latter case indicate high deposition rate and decreased uniformity. In the former case, increasing the pressure and the rotation rate has a favorable effect on the deposition rate without sacrificing uniformity. In the parameter window of multiplicity where either rotation or combined rotation/buoyancy may prevail, the effects of buoyancy lead to higher deposition rate at the center of the wafer and reduced uniformity. The Arrhenius plots in the regions of multiplicity for exactly the same operating conditions reveal that the system operates in a diffusion-limited regime in the plug flow and in the rotation-dominated flow, in the first and second region of multiplicity respectively. In contrast, in the buoyancy-dominated flow and the combined rotation/buoyancy flow (first and second region of multiplicity respectively) the process shifts into the kinetics-limited regime.

  6. Comparison of laser-ablation and hot-wall chemical vapour deposition techniques for nanowire fabrication (United States)

    Stern, E.; Cheng, G.; Guthrie, S.; Turner-Evans, D.; Broomfield, E.; Lei, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Reed, M. A.


    A comparison of the transport properties of populations of single-crystal, In2O3 nanowires (NWs) grown by unassisted hot-wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) versus NWs grown by laser-ablation-assisted chemical vapour deposition (LA-CVD) is presented. For nominally identical growth conditions across the two systems, NWs fabricated at 850 °C with laser-ablation had significantly higher average mobilities at the 99.9% confidence level, 53.3 ± 5.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 versus 10.2 ± 1.9 cm2 V-1 s-1. It is also observed that increasing growth temperature decreases mobility for LA-CVD NWs. Transmission electron microscopy studies of CVD-fabricated samples indicate the presence of an amorphous In2O3 region surrounding the single-crystal core. Further, low-temperature measurements verify the presence of ionized impurity scattering in low-mobility CVD-grown NWs.

  7. Enhanced cold wall CVD reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan


    HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall CVD, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall CVD chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established process to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the CVD growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of process parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall CVD chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Hot-wall corrosion testing of simulated high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.T.; Zapp, P.E.; Mickalonis, J.I.


    Three materials of construction for steam tubes used in the evaporation of high level radioactive waste were tested under heat flux conditions, referred to as hot-wall tests. The materials were type 304L stainless steel alloy C276, and alloy G3. Non-radioactive acidic and alkaline salt solutions containing halides and mercury simulated different high level waste solutions stored or processed at the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Alloy C276 was also tested for corrosion susceptibility under steady-state conditions. The nickel-based alloys C276 and G3 exhibited excellent corrosion resistance under the conditions studied. Alloy C276 was not susceptible to localized corrosion and had a corrosion rate of 0.01 mpy (0.25 {mu}m/y) when exposed to acidic waste sludge and precipitate slurry at a hot-wall temperature of 150{degrees}C. Type 304L was susceptible to localized corrosion under the same conditions. Alloy G3 had a corrosion rate of 0.1 mpy (2.5 {mu}m/y) when exposed to caustic high level waste evaporator solution at a hot-wall temperature of 220{degrees}C compared to 1.1 mpy (28.0 {mu}/y) for type 304L. Under extreme caustic conditions (45 weight percent sodium hydroxide) G3 had a corrosion rate of 0.1 mpy (2.5 {mu}m/y) at a hot-wall temperature of 180{degrees}C while type 304L had a high corrosion rate of 69.4 mpy (1.8 mm/y).

  9. Numerical study of natural melt convection in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold bottom sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmanache Abdennacer


    Full Text Available Numerical study of natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold sink is conducted. Calculations are performed in terms of the cavity aspect ratio, the heat exchanger length and the thermo physical properties expressed via the Prandtl number and the Rayleigh number. Results are presented in the form of isotherms, streamlines, average Nusselt number and average bulk temperature for a range of Rayleigh number up to 106. It is observed that Rayleigh number and heat exchanger length influences fluid flow and heat transfer, whereas the cavity aspect ratio has no significant effects.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the theory of grain boundary segregation,a kinetics model of temper embrittlement caused by long-term service for hot-wall hydrofining reactors was studied.The kinetics model was applied to phosphorus(P)segregation in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for a hot-wall hydrofining reactor,and the kinetics of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in the steel exposed to the process environment of the hydrofining reactor was calculated on the basis of the model.The Auger electron spectroscopy test was performed in order to determine the grain boundary concentration of P.The experimental result is agreement with the theoretical calculated data.The results show that the kinetics equation is reasonable for predicting the levels of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for hot-wall hydrofining reactors.

  11. Roughness of CdTe thin films grown on glass by hot wall epitaxy. (United States)

    Leal, F F; Ferreira, S O; Menezes-Sobrinho, I L; Faria, T E


    Cadmium telluride films were grown on glass substrates using the hot wall epitaxy (HWE) technique. The samples were polycrystalline with a preferential (111) orientation. Scanning electron micrographs reveal a grain size between 0.1 and 0.5 µm. The surface morphology of the samples was studied by measuring the roughness profile using a stylus profiler. The roughness as a function of growth time and scale size were investigated to determine the growth and roughness exponents, β and α, respectively. From the results we can conclude that the growth surface has a self-affine character with a roughness exponent α equal to 0.69 ± 0.03 and almost independent of growth time. The growth exponent β was equal to 0.38 ± 0.06. These values agree with that determined previously for CdTe(111) films grown on GaAs(100).

  12. Design of a three-layer hot-wall horizontal flow MOCVD reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Chengyan; Lee Chengming; Liu Xianglin


    A new three-layer hot-wall horizontal flow metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor is proposed.When the susceptor is heated,the temperature of the wall over the susceptor also increases to the same temperature.Furthermore,the flowing speed of the top layer is also increased by up to four times that of the bottom layer.Both methods effectively decrease the convection and make most of the metal organic (MO) gas and the reactive gas distribute at the bottom surface of the reactor.By selecting appropriate shapes,sizes,nozzles array,and heating area of the walls,the source gases are kept in a laminar flow state.Results of the numeric simulation indicate that the nitrogen is a good carrier to reduce the diffusion among the precursors before arriving at the substrate,which leads to the reduction of pre-reaction.To get a good comparison with the conventional MOCVD horizontal reactor,the two-layer horizontal MOCVD reactor is also investigated.The results indicate that a twolayer reactor cannot control the gas flow effectively when its size and shape are the same as that of the three-layer reactor,so that the concentration distributions of the source gases in the susceptor surface are much more uniform in the new design than those in the conventional one.

  13. Gas temperature measurements inside a hot wall chemical vapor synthesis reactor. (United States)

    Notthoff, Christian; Schilling, Carolin; Winterer, Markus


    One key but complex parameter in the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of nanoparticles is the time temperature profile of the gas phase, which determines particle characteristics such as size (distribution), morphology, microstructure, crystal, and local structure. Relevant for the CVS process and for the corresponding particle characteristics is, however, not the T(t)-profile generated by an external energy source such as a hot wall or microwave reactor but the temperature of the gas carrying reactants and products (particles). Due to a complex feedback of the thermodynamic and chemical processes in the reaction volume with the external energy source, it is very difficult to predict the real gas phase temperature field from the externally applied T(t)-profile. Therefore, a measurement technique capable to determine the temperature distribution of the gas phase under process conditions is needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate with three proof of principle experiments the use of laser induced fluorescence thermometry to investigate the CVS process under realistic conditions.

  14. Gas temperature measurements inside a hot wall chemical vapor synthesis reactor (United States)

    Notthoff, Christian; Schilling, Carolin; Winterer, Markus


    One key but complex parameter in the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of nanoparticles is the time temperature profile of the gas phase, which determines particle characteristics such as size (distribution), morphology, microstructure, crystal, and local structure. Relevant for the CVS process and for the corresponding particle characteristics is, however, not the T(t)-profile generated by an external energy source such as a hot wall or microwave reactor but the temperature of the gas carrying reactants and products (particles). Due to a complex feedback of the thermodynamic and chemical processes in the reaction volume with the external energy source, it is very difficult to predict the real gas phase temperature field from the externally applied T(t)-profile. Therefore, a measurement technique capable to determine the temperature distribution of the gas phase under process conditions is needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate with three proof of principle experiments the use of laser induced fluorescence thermometry to investigate the CVS process under realistic conditions.

  15. High-speed deposition of high-quality RE123 films by a PLD system with hot-wall heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, K; Igarashi, M; Hanada, Y; Hayashida, T; Tashita, C; Morita, K; Hanyu, S; Sutoh, Y; Kutami, H; Iijima, Y; Saitoh, T [Fujikura Ltd, 1440, Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba, 285-8550 (Japan)


    We have studied the use of a hot-wall heating system for producing GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-X} (Gd123) films with large critical current (I{sub c}), stably, at high speed, by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. We achieved a material yield from the PLD system with hot-wall heating of about 50% through optimization of the evaporation conditions. With the PLD system, we were able to fabricate a Gd123 film about 20 cm long with a high I{sub c} of 997 A (77 K, self-field) at about 6 {mu}m thickness. The maximum I{sub c} that we achieved for a Gd123 film about 2 cm long was 1040 A (77 K, self-field) at about 6 {mu}m thickness. Furthermore, we were able to form a Gd123 film about 1 {mu}m thick and 20 cm long with an I{sub c} of 352 A (77 K, self-field) at a high speed of 60 m h{sup -1} using high laser power. For the production of long conductors coated with RE123 (REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-X}, where RE stands for rare earth) using hot-wall heating, it was found that RE123 coated conductors over 100 m long with I{sub c} of over 200 A had uniform I{sub c} distributions with {+-} 2% variations in the direction of the length.

  16. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkirov, S.A., E-mail: [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, P. Brovka str. 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V. [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, P. Brovka str. 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Gladyshev, P.P. [Dubna International University for Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya str. 19, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Oblast (Russian Federation)


    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed.

  17. Increase of production rate of RE-123 film by PLD system with the hot-wall type heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, K., E-mail: [Fujikura Ltd., 1440 Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan); Fuji, H.; Igarashi, M.; Hanada, Y.; Hanyu, S.; Hayashida, T.; Tashita, C.; Kutami, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., 1440 Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan)


    We have studied two types of heating systems to produce thick GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-X} (Gd123) films with high critical current (I{sub c}) stably at a high speed by the PLD method. Material yields of both PLD systems reached about 50-60% by optimization of evaporation condition. Hot-wall heating type (type 2) could fabricate the thicker Gd123 film with the higher I{sub c} compared to contact heating type (type 1) and maximum I{sub c} reached 1040 A at about 6 mum thick. Furthermore, it was estimated that type 2 could fabricate Gd123 film with an I{sub c} of about 700 A at about twice speed compared to type 1. Finally, it was considered that the hot-wall heating type was very advantageous to prepare thick Gd123 film with high I{sub c} at a high speed from the system structure.

  18. High-speed deposition of RE123 film with large current capacity by hot-wall type PLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, M., E-mail: [Fujikura Ltd., 1440 Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan); Kakimoto, K.; Hayashida, T.; Hanada, Y.; Fujita, S.; Morita, K.; Nakamura, N.; Hanyu, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Kutami, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., 1440 Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan)


    We have studied a hot-wall heating system to produce GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (GdBCO) films with large critical currents (I{sub c}) at a high production rate by a pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) method. GdBCO films fabricated at a production rate of 30 m/h under the optimized conditions, especially a distance of 95 mm between the target and the substrate (T-S), exhibited high critical current densities (J{sub c}) of about 3 MA/cm{sup 2} and I{sub c} over 300 A at a thickness of 1-2 {mu}m. Furthermore, long GdBCO tapes prepared by repeated depositions at each tape-passing speed of 80 m/h showed uniform I{sub c} distribution along the longitudinal direction, because the hot-wall system enabled to stabilize temperature within a few degrees at 800 deg. C. A 170 m long tape with I{sub c} over 600 A was successfully fabricated at a production rate of 16 m/h using a laser power of 360 W.

  19. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene


    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  20. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene


    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  1. Hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition growth and characterization of AlN thin films (United States)

    Heinselman, Karen N.; Brown, Richard J.; Shealy, James R.


    Hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of highly crystalline epitaxial thin-film AlN grown on silicon (1 1 1) substrates is reported for the first time. Deposition was carried out in a modified commercial LPCVD at 1000 °C and 2 torr. Preflow time for the aluminum precursor, trimethylaluminum, was varied to nucleate Al, and the resulting variation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystalline AlN peaks is presented. With a 30 s dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) pretreatment at 700 °C and the optimal TMAl preflow time, the FWHM of the resulting film was 1116 arcsec for the AlN (0 0 2) 2 θ - ω peak, and the AlN (0 0 2) peak had an omega rocking curve FWHM of 1.6°. This AlN film was shown to be epitaxially aligned to the Si (1 1 1) substrate.

  2. Developing the Beijing CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Slowly but surely, the high-end villa property in Beijing is gaining new momentum. Limited amounts of new properties, rising prices and increasing demand will be the trend in the villa market in 2006, real estate experts predict. Among them, the exclusive Central Villa District(CVD), a top-tier villa area along the Wenyu River in northeast Beijing, has emerged as a hot spot of the market.

  3. GaN HEMTs (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan W.; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Piner, Edwin L.


    Gallium nitride (GaN) has enormous potential for applications in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) used in RF and power devices. Intrinsic device properties such as high electron mobility, high breakdown voltage, very high current density, electron confinement in a narrow channel, and high electron velocity in the 2-dimensional electron gas of the HEMT structure are due in large part to the wide band gap of this novel semiconductor material system. This presentation discusses the properties of GaN that make it superior to other semiconductor materials, and outlines the research that will be undertaken in a new program at Texas State University to advance GaN HEMT technology. This program's aim is to further innovate the exceptional performance of GaN through improved material growth processes and epitaxial structure design.

  4. Fabrication and Examination for Hot-wall Hydrotreating Reactor%热壁加氢反应器的制造和检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An example of hydrotreating reactor was taken to introduce the hot wall hydrogena-tion reactor manufacturing technology points, nondestructive testing technology requirements, and manufacturing in the problem as well, which should be noticed.%以某加氢精制反应器为例,介绍了热壁加氢反应器的制造技术要点、无损检测技术要求以及制造中应注意的问题.

  5. Growth of ZnO and GaN Films (United States)

    Chang, J.; Hong, S.-K.; Matsumoto, K.; Tokunaga, H.; Tachibana, A.; Lee, S. W.; Cho, M.-W.

    . Zinc oxide (ZnO) and gallium nitride (GaN) are wide bandgap semi conductors applicable to light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to blue light. Now ZnO and GaN are key ma terials for optoelectronic device applications and their applications are being rapidly expanded to lots of other technology including electronics, biotechnology, nanotech-nology, and fusion technology among all these. As a fundamental starting point for the development of this new technique, epitaxy of ZnO and GaN films is one of the most important key technology. Hence, development of the growth technique for high quality epitaxial films is highly necessary. Among the various kinds of epi taxy technique for semiconductor films developed so far, physical vapor deposition (PVD)-based epitaxy technique has been revealed to be the appropriate way for the high quality ZnO film and related alloy growths, while chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based epitaxy technique has been proved to be the best method for the high quality GaN film and related alloy growths.

  6. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III ni

  7. a Cdlts Study of the Deep Levels in n- and P - Cadmium Telluride Thin Films Deposited by Hot Wall Evaporation (United States)

    Ginting, Masno

    CdTe thin films, both undoped and with different dopants, have been deposited unto graphite and Corning 7059 glass substrates using a Three-Stage Hot Wall Vacuum Evaporator (TSHWVE) system. The dopants were incorporated into the CdTe thin films using a "delta doping" technique. The conductivity type of the doped CdTe thin films was determined using the hot probe method, and the film stoichiometry was determined using X-ray and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements. Schottky diodes fabricated on the CdTe thin films that were deposited on graphite substrates have been studied using Current-Voltage (I-V), Capacitance-Voltage (C-V), and Capacitance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (CDLTS). The conductivity type of CdTe films that were undoped and doped with Antimony (Sb), Phosphorus (P), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), and Copper (Cu) were found to be p-type, while Indium (In) doped CdTe thin films were found to be n-type. The highest carrier concentration of the CdTe films are 1 times 10^ {16} cm^{-3} , 1 times 10^ {17} cm^{-3} , and 7.5 times 10 ^{15} cm^{ -3} for In-, Sb-, and P-doped CdTe, respectively. For the In-doped CdTe films three majority carrier trap are found with activation energies measured from the conduction band of 0.23 +/- 0.05 eV, 0.46 +/- 0.06 eV, and 0.78 +/- 0.05 eV. For the Sb-doped CdTe films three majority carrier traps are found with activation energies measured from the valence band of 0.27 +/- 0.06 eV, 0.50 +/- 0.06 eV, and 0.80 +/- 0.06 eV. For the P-doped CdTe films three majority carrier traps are found with activation energies measured from the valence band of 0.28 +/- 0.05 eV, 0.50 +/- 0.06 eV and 0.75 +/- 0.05 eV. Our capture measurements on In-, Sb-, and P-doped CdTe showed non-exponential transients, however they could be fitted very well by Pons theory, and allowed us to determine values for the trap concentration (N_{ rm T}), the trap capture rate (c _{rm n,p}) and the trap capture cross-section (sigma_{rm n,p}). However, the capture

  8. Physicochemical features of the hot wall technique in preparing of (SnTe)sub(1-x)(PbSe)sub(x) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, D.M.; Chobanyuk, V.M.; Shperun, V.M.; Pavlyuk, M.F.


    The hot wall method has been used to prepare layers (SmTe)sub(1-x)(PbSe)sub(x) (x=0.0-1.0) on BaF/sub 2/ substrates. Choosing temperatures for deposition (Tsub(s)9423-623 K) and additional sources of Se and Pb vapours Tsub(al) (Tsub(al)=303-628 K) in the process of growing layers one can efficiently control their structural property, type of conductivity, concentration and mobility of charge carriers. The layers having composition with x=0.0-0.1 are both n- and p-type conductors, while those with 0.2<=x<=1.0 are p-type conductors. Perfect layers are characterized by high carrier mobility (up to 25000 cm/sup 2/ (Vxs) at 77 K).

  9. 火墙对严寒地区村镇住宅热环境的影响研究%Influences of Hot-wall on Rural Residential Thermal Environment in Severe Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西平; 张鹏; 周铁钢


    The hot -wall is a common traditional heating facility in north chilling region. In this paper, the present situation investigation and field testing of hot -wall are taken on rural residences in severe cold areas. The effect of hot-wall on indoor thermal environment in winter was analyzed in the two aspects of its heating effect and heat dissipating performance. The results show that the thermal environment of the hot-wall room basically meets the requirements of comfort. Some conditions are found, such as the temperature is volatile, and the distributions of temperature and wall temperature are not uniform. In view of the defects, the corresponding improvement measures and design method are proposed to make hot-wall meeting higher comfort and energy-saving requirements after improvement.%火墙是北方寒地常用的传统采暖设施。通过对严寒地区村镇住宅火墙的现状调查与实地测试,从火墙的采暖效果和散热性能两方面分析其在冬季对室内热环境的影响。结果表明火墙房间的热环境基本满足舒适性要求。但也发现火墙供暖房间室温波动较大、室温及壁面温度分布不均等现象,并针对此缺陷提出了相应的改进措施和设计方法,使改进后的火墙更能满足舒适和节能要求。

  10. Application of picosecond four-wave mixing and photoluminescence techniques for investigation of carrier dynamics in bulk crystals and heterostructures of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarasiunas, K.; Malinauskas, T.; Kadys, A.; Aleksiejunas, R.; Sudzius, M.; Miasojedovas, S.; Jursenas, S.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio ave. 9-3, 2040 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gogova, D.; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.; Janzen, E.; Larsson, H.; Monemar, B. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Gibart, P.; Beaumont, B. [LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, 06220 Vallauris (France)


    Complementary characterization of the highly-excited nitrides has been performed by using time-resolved four-wave mixing and photoluminescence techniques. Defect-density and excitation dependent carrier recombination and transport have been studied in GaN heterostructures and free-standing crystals, grown by various technologies (hot-wall MOCVD, standard MOCVD, and HVPE) on different substrates (6H-SiC, 4H-SiC, or sapphire). The determined value of carrier lifetime varied from 300 ps in the GaN/SiC epilayers up to 3 ns in the bulk crystals, while the bipolar diffusion coefficient D was found to be in the range from 1.5 cm{sup 2}/s to 2.9 cm{sup 2}/s, correspondingly. An increase of D with excitation density in bulk HVPE crystals was attributed to screening of potential barriers around dislocations. A complete saturation of FWM diffraction in hot-wall MOCVD grown GaN/SiC heterostructures revealed a low threshold of stimulated recombination (0.5 mJ/cm{sup 2}), as confirmed by spectra and intensity of photoluminesce. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes (United States)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.


    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  12. Electrocatalysts with platinum, cobalt and nickel preparations by mechanical alloyed and CVD for the reaction of oxygen reduction; Electrocatalizadores a base de platino, cobalto y niquel preparados por aleado mecanico y CVD para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this research, the molecular oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated on electrocatalysts of Co, Ni, Pt and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi and PtCoNi by using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 and KOH 0.5 M solutions as electrolytes. The electrocatalysts were synthesized by Mechanical Alloying (MA) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) processes. For MA, metallic powders were processed during 20 h of milling in a high energy SPEX 8000 mill. For CVD, a hot-wall reactor was utilized and Co, Ni and Pt acetilactetonates were used as precursors. Films were deposited at a total pressure of 1 torr and temperatures of 400-450 C. Electrocatalysts were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Electrocatalysts prepared by mechanical alloying showed a homogeneously dispersed agglomeration of particles with nano metric size. Electrocatalysts obtained by CVD showed, in some cases, non uniform films, with particles of nano metric size, as well. The electrocatalytic performance was evaluated by using the Rotating Disk Electrode technique (RDE). Electrocatalysts prepared by MA showed higher activity than those obtained by CVD. All electrocatalysts were evaluated in alkaline media. Only electrocatalysts containing Pt were evaluated in acid media, because those materials with Co, Ni and their alloys showed instability in acidic media. Most electrocatalysts followed a mechanism for the ORR producing a certain proportion of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. All electrocatalysts, exhibited a fair or good electrocatalytic activity in comparison with other similar reported materials. It was found that MA and CVD are appropriate processes to prepare electrocatalysts for the ORR with particles of nano metric size and performing with an acceptable catalytic activity. PtCoNi 70-23-7% by MA and PtCoNi-CVD electrocatalysts showed the highest activity in alkaline media, while in acidic

  13. Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer CVD-Graphene (United States)

    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo


    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the CVD-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the CVD-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized.

  14. Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer CVD-Graphene


    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo


    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. ...

  15. CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA, and CVD 909 live oral typhoid vaccines: a logical progression. (United States)

    Tacket, Carol O; Levine, Myron M


    Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the availability of oral Ty21a (Vivotif; Berna Biotech) and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur), improved typhoid fever vaccines have been sought. These include a series of vaccine candidates developed at the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, based on attenuation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by deletions in the aroC, aroD, and htrA genes. These vaccine candidates, designated "CVD 908," "CVD 908-htrA," and "CVD 909," have been developed and tested in volunteers with variable success. This review summarizes the clinical data that directed the logical progression of this vaccine development strategy.

  16. Anelasticity of GaN Epitaxial Layer in GaN LED (United States)

    Chung, C. C.; Yang, C. T.; Liu, C. Y.


    In this work, the anelasticity of the GaN layer in the GaN light-emitting-diode device was studied. The present results show that the forward-voltage of GaN LED increases with time, as the GaN light-emitting-diode was maintained at a constant temperature of 100 °C. We found that the increase of the forward-voltage with time attributes to the delay-response of the piezoelectric fields (internal electrical fields in GaN LED device). And, the delay-response of the internal electrical fields with time is caused by the anelasticity (time-dependent strain) of the GaN layer. Therefore, using the correlation of strain-piezoelectric-forward voltage, a plot of thermal strain of the GaN layer against time can be obtained by measuring the forward-voltage of the studied GaN LED against time. With the curves of the thermal strain of GaN epi-layers versus time, the anelasticity of the GaN compound can be studied. The key anelasticity parameter, characteristic relaxation time, of the GaN is defined to be 2623.76 min in this work.

  17. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD. (United States)

    Kilkenny, Monique F; Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Purvis, Tara; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A


    There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Data from the Stroke Foundation 'Know your numbers' program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world.

  18. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram


    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  19. Substrate Strengthening of CVD Coated Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.Kessler; M.Heidkamp; F.Hoffmann; P.Mayr


    Properties of components and tools can be improved by the combination of coating and heat treatment processes due to the addition of single process advantages and due to the utilization of process interactions. Several low and high alloyed, structural and tool steels (AISI 4140, 52100, H13, A2, D2, etc.) have been treated by CVD-TiN-coating plus laser beam hardening respectively carburizing plus CVD-TiN-coating. Homogeneous, dense TiN-coatings with high hardness,high compressive residual stresses and good adhesion were supported by high strength substrate surfaces. Especially CVD plus laser beam hardening offers the possibility to reduce distortion due to the small heated surface volume.

  20. Bandgap engineering of GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Bang-Ming; Yan, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Ru-Zhi, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Yam, Chi-Yung, E-mail:, E-mail: [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Xu, Li-Chun [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R& D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610207 (China)


    Bandgap engineering has been a powerful technique for manipulating the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors. In this work, a systematic investigation of the electronic properties of [0001] GaN nanowires was carried out using the density functional based tight-binding method (DFTB). We studied the effects of geometric structure and uniaxial strain on the electronic properties of GaN nanowires with diameters ranging from 0.8 to 10 nm. Our results show that the band gap of GaN nanowires depends linearly on both the surface to volume ratio (S/V) and tensile strain. The band gap of GaN nanowires increases linearly with S/V, while it decreases linearly with increasing tensile strain. These linear relationships provide an effect way in designing GaN nanowires for their applications in novel nano-devices.

  1. Epitaxial growth of aligned GaN nanowires and nanobridges



    Homo-epitaxialy grown aligned GaN nanowires were prepared on crystalline GaN mesas. The GaN nanowires showed preferential growth along the 〈100〉 direction (m-axis direction). By using selectively positioned and crystallographically well defined GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) mesas as substrate, we obtained horizontally aligned GaN nanowires, in comb-like arrays and hexagonal network interconnecting the ELO mesas. Preliminary testing of the nanomechanical behavior of horizontal nanowir...

  2. Mg-doped Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.; Nilsson, D.; Forsberg, U.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Stattin, M.; Haglund, Aa.; Larsson, A. [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)


    We report on the hot-wall MOCVD growth of Mg-doped Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1-x}N layers with an Al content as high as x{proportional_to}0.85. After subjecting the layers to post-growth in-situ annealing in nitrogen in the growth reactor, a room temperature resistivity of 7 k{omega} cm was obtained indicating an enhanced p-type conductivity compared to published data for Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1-x}N layers with a lower Al content of x{proportional_to}0.70 and a room temperature resistivity of about 10 k{omega} cm. It is believed that the enhanced p-type conductivity is a result of reduced compensation by native defects through growth conditions enabled by the distinct hot-wall MOCVD system. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Bulk ammonothermal GaN (United States)

    Dwiliński, R.; Doradziński, R.; Garczyński, J.; Sierzputowski, L. P.; Puchalski, A.; Kanbara, Y.; Yagi, K.; Minakuchi, H.; Hayashi, H.


    In this work, results of structural characterization of high-quality ammonothermal GaN are presented. Besides expected low dislocation density (being of the order of 10 3 cm -2) the most interesting feature seems perfect flatness of the crystal lattice of studied crystals. Regardless the size of crystals, lattice curvature radius exceeds 100 m, whereas better crystals reveal radius of several hundred meters and the best above 1000 m. Excellent crystallinity manifests in very narrow X-ray diffraction peaks of full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) values about 16 arcsec.

  4. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N


    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  5. 北方农村地区火墙兼生活热水系统应用实验研究%Experimental Study on Application of Hot Wall with Heating Water System in North Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨婷; 王万江; 齐典伟


    The hot wall system includes a stove (or furnace), firewall, chimney, as one kind of building traditional heating system, in recent years, is still the main forms of supply heating in most of the Xinjiang rural area. For the moment, the wall construction based on mainly experience. and has large differences in performance, A common problem with hot wall is that:high temperature of exhaust gas, energy consumption, low energy utilization rate. This article in view of the above shortcomings, the hot wall and domestic hot water system is proposed, arrangementin the copper tube in the original wall as new system. At different outdoor temperatures and the indoor thermal comfort conditions needs, the energy efficiency of new system were studied and compared with the traditional hot wall. The experimental results show that, the new hot wall and domestic hot water system can ensure indoor thermal comfort at the same time can heat domestic water use flue gas, reducing the exhaust gas temperature, the energy utilization rate is improved obviously. It is of certain significance to promotion and intensive study.%火墙系统包括炉灶(或火炉)、火墙、烟囱,作为一种建筑传统供暖系统,近年来,依然是新疆大部分农村地区民居采用的主要供暖形式。目前使用的火墙,建造多以经验为指导,性能参差不齐,普遍存在排烟温度高,能耗大,能源利用率低的缺点。本文针对上述缺点,提出了供暖火墙兼生活热水系统,即在原有火墙中加入了生活热水加热铜盘管。在不同室外温度下,满足室内热舒适性条件下,对该系统的能源利用率进行了实验研究并与传统火墙进行了对比。实验结果表明,供暖火墙兼生活热水系统的新式火墙能在保证室内热舒适性的同时又可以用烟气加热生活用水,降低了排烟温度,明显提高能源利用率,具有现实的推广和深入研究的意义。

  6. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J


    exclude that genetically elevated CRP cause CVD. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that elevated CRP per se does not cause CVD; however, inflammation per se possibly contributes to CVD. Elevated CRP levels more likely is a marker for the extent of atherosclerosis or for the inflammatory activity...

  7. GaN three dimensional nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V.; Irvin, K. [Cree Research, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Zubrilov, A.; Tsvetkov, D.; Nikolaev, V. [Cree Research EED, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Jakobson, M.; Nelson, D.; Sitnikova, A. [A.F. Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The authors report on the growth and characterization of three dimensional nanoscale structures of GaN. GaN dots were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on 6H-SiC substrates. The actual size of the dots measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ranged from {approximately}20 nm to more than 2 {micro}m. The average dot density ranged from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2}. The single crystal structure of the dots was verified by reflectance high energy electron diffraction (HEED) and TEM. Cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) of the dots were studied at various temperatures and excitation levels. The PL and CL edge peak for the GaN dots exhibited a blue shift as compared with edge peak position for continuous GaN layers grown on SiC.

  8. Deposition and Coating Properties on CVD Tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ji-hong; LI Zheng-xiang; LIU Gao-jian; ZHOU Hui-Huang; CHUN liang


    Surface characterization and microstructure studies are performed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten coating. There is about 2 μm thickness diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The thermal shock test shows tungsten coating has good adhesion with molybdenum substrate, but the elements of oxygen and carbon in the tungsten coating have the bad affection to the adhesion. The result of high-temperature diffusion experiment is the diffusion rate from molybdenum substrate to tungsten coating is faster.

  9. Growth and characterization of GaN thin film on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) (United States)

    Kundakçı, Mutlu; Mantarcı, Asim; Erdoğan, Erman


    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material with a wide-direct band gap (3.4 eV) and is one of the significant III-nitride materials, with many advantageous device applications such as high electron mobility transistors, lasers, sensors, LEDs, detectors, and solar cells, and has found applications in optoelectronic devices. GaN could also be useful for industrial research in the future. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sputter, and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are some of the methods used to fabricate GaN thin film. In this research, a GaN thin film grown on a silicon substrate using the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique has been extensively studied. Fast deposition, short production time, homogeneity, and uniform nanostructure with low roughness can be seen as some of the merits of this method. The growth of the GaN was conducted at an operating pressure of 1× {{10}-6} \\text{Torr} , a plasma current 0.6 \\text{A} and for a very short period of time of 40 s. For the characterization process, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to determine the structure and surface morphology of the material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to comprehend the elemental analysis characterization of the film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structure of the film. Raman measurements were taken to investigate the phonon modes of the material. The morphological properties of the material were analyzed in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  10. Self-organization of dislocation-free, high-density, vertically aligned GaN nanocolumns involving InGaN quantum wells on graphene/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer. (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Konno, Yuta; Kishino, Katsumi


    We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO2/Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities of the self-organized GaN nanocolumns were 2.0-2.6 times higher than those of a GaN substrate grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Moreover, no yellow luminescence or ZB-phase GaN emission was observed from the nanocolumns. An InGaN/GaN MQW and p-type GaN were integrated into GaN nanocolumns grown on MLG, displaying a single-peak PL emission at a wavelength of 533 nm. Thus, high-density nitride p-i-n nanocolumns were fabricated on SiO2/Si using the transferred MLG interlayer, indicating the possibility of developing visible nanocolumn LEDs on graphene/SiO2.

  11. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel


    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  12. Synthetic Strategies and Applications of GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Suo


    Full Text Available GaN is an important III-V semiconductor material with a direct band gap of 3.4 eV at 300 K. The wide direct band gap makes GaN an attractive material for various applications. GaN nanowires have demonstrated significant potential as fundamental building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and also offer substantial promise for integrated nanosystems. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on the general synthetic strategies, characterizations, and applications of GaN nanowires. We first summarize several growth techniques of GaN nanowires. Subsequently, we discuss mechanisms involved to generate GaN nanowires from different synthetic schemes and conditions. Then we review some characterization methods of GaN nanowires. Finally, several kinds of main applications of GaN nanowires are discussed.

  13. Modeling for CVD of Solid Oxide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.


    Because of its low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion and high oxygen ion conductivity yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the material of choice for high temperature electrolyte applications. Current coating fabrication methods have their drawbacks, however. Air plasma spray (APS) is a relatively low-cost process and is suitable for large and relatively complex shapes. it is difficult to produce uniform, relatively thin coatings with this process, however, and the coatings do not exhibit the columnar microstructure that is needed for reliable, long-term performance. The electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process does produce the desirable microstructure, however, the capital cost of these systems is very high and the line-of-sight nature of the process limits coating uniformity and the ability to coat large and complex shapes. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process also produces the desirable columnar microstructure and--under proper conditions--can produce uniform coatings over complex shapes. CVD has been used for many materials but is relatively undeveloped for oxides, in general, and for zirconia, in particular. The overall goal of this project--a joint effort of the University of Louisville and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)--is to develop the YSZ CVD process for high temperature electrolyte applications. This report describes the modeling effort at the University of Louisville, which supports the experimental work at ORNL. Early work on CVD of zirconia and yttria used metal chlorides, which react with water vapor to form solid oxide. Because of this rapid gas-phase reaction the water generally is formed in-situ using the reverse water-gas-shift reaction or a microwave plasma. Even with these arrangements gas-phase nucleation and powder formation are problems when using these precursors. Recent efforts on CVD of zirconia and YSZ have focused on use of metal-organic precursors (MOCVD). These are more stable in the gas

  14. Stress distribution of GaN layer grown on micro-pillar patterned GaN templates (United States)

    Nagarajan, S.; Svensk, O.; Ali, M.; Naresh-Kumar, G.; Trager-Cowan, C.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.


    High-resolution Raman mapping of the stress distribution in an etched GaN micro-pillar template and a 5 μm thick GaN layer grown on a micro-pillar patterned GaN template is investigated. Raman mapping of the E2 (high) phonon shows differences in stress between the coalescing boundary, the top surface of the pillar region and around the GaN micro-pillar. Increased compressive stress is observed at the coalescing boundary of two adjacent GaN micro-pillars, when compared to the laterally grown GaN regions. The electron channeling contrast image reveals the reduction of threading dislocation density in the GaN layer grown on the micro-pillar patterned GaN template.

  15. Theoretical study of gallium nitride molecules, GaN2 and GaN4. (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D


    The electronic and geometric structures of gallium dinitride GaN 2, and gallium tetranitride molecules, GaN 4, were systematically studied by employing density functional theory and perturbation theory (MP2, MP4) in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. In addition, for the ground-state of GaN 4( (2)B 1) a density functional theory study was carried out combining different functionals with different basis sets. A total of 7 minima have been identified for GaN 2, while 37 structures were identified for GaN 4 corresponding to minima, transition states, and saddle points. We report geometries and dissociation energies for all the above structures as well as potential energy profiles, potential energy surfaces and bonding mechanisms for some low-lying electronic states of GaN 4. The dissociation energy of the ground-state GaN 2 ( X (2)Pi) is 1.1 kcal/mol with respect to Ga( (2)P) + N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)). The ground-state and the first two excited minima of GaN 4 are of (2)B 1( C 2 v ), (2)A 1( C 2 v , five member ring), and (4)Sigma g (-)( D infinityh ) symmetry, respectively. The dissociation energy ( D e) of the ground-state of GaN 4, X (2)B 1, with respect to Ga( (2)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)), is 2.4 kcal/mol, whereas the D e of (4)Sigma g (-) with respect to Ga( (4)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)) is 17.6 kcal/mol.

  16. Mo-C Multilayered CVD Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sagalovych


    Full Text Available Production processes of multi-layered Mo-C coatings by the method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD with the use of organometallic compounds were developed. Coatings are applied on technical purpose steel DIN 1.2379 (H12F1 and DIN 1.7709 (25H2MF (ÉI10 heat-treated ball with the high class of surface roughness (> 10. The average deposition rate was 50 μm / h. The optimal conditions of deposition coatings for different technological schemas were defined. Metallographic investigations of the obtained coatings were carried out. Tribological studies of the friction and wear characteristics of sliding friction in conditions of boundary lubrication of Ï-S multilayered CVD coatings shows, that coatings have low friction coefficients (0075-0095 at loads up to 2.0 kN, showed high resistance to wear and are effective in increasing the stability of the pair for precision friction pairs of hydraulical units.

  17. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College London (United Kingdom). Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.


    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used.

  18. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  19. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S


    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  1. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M


    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  2. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis. (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline


    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  3. Rare genetic variants associated with early onset CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiwald, S.


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. CVD is mainly triggered by atherosclerosis. A combination of lipid accumulation, inflammation at the vessel wall and thrombotic reactions are underlying its pathobiology. Despite improvements in the ther

  4. Prevention: Reducing the risk of CVD in patients with periodontitis. (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E


    The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for CVD.

  5. Heat transfer model of an iCVD reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.; Verlaan, V.; Verkerk, A.D.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; van Dijk, L.; Rudolph, H.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.


    Contrary to conventional HWCVD, the power consumption in the iCVD process is dominated by heat conduction rather than radiation. This is due to the fact that while the typical wire temperature for HWCVD is about 1750–2200 °C, for iCVD the temperature is only 250–500 °C. Typical deposition pressures

  6. Growth and characterisation of GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T


    This thesis describes mainly the studies on growth mechanism of GaN in UHV-MOVPE process, and structural and optical properties of As-doped GaN films grown by PA-MBE. In a novel Thomas Swan growth chamber, we have grown GaN films on Si substrates using TEGa, plasma nitrogen and ammonia. Using a combination of in-situ optical reflectivity and mass spectrometry, we have investigated the parameters controlling the growth process of UHV-MOVPE. In particular we have used sup 1 sup 5 N in order to distinguish gas phase species containing N from those associated purely with metal-organics. We found the surface pyrolysis of TEGa is the rate limiting step, which is similar to GaAs grown by CBE. We also identify the parasitic reactions costing the active nitrogen from plasma, which in turn limits the growth rate. Using Philips X' pert MRD, we have investigated the structural properties of As-doped GaN epitaxial films on sapphire grown by PA-MBE including phase, lattice parameters and mosacity. We have also studied the ...

  7. Si衬底上热壁外延制备GaAs单晶薄膜材料%Growth of Monocrystalline GaAs Layer on Si by Hot Wall Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 谭红琳; 吴长树; 张鹏翔; 赵德锐; 陈庭金; 廖世坤; 吴刚; 杨家明


    This paper reports the growth of GaAs layer on Si substrate by hot wall epitaxy (HWE). Si surface prior to epitaxy of GaAs layer is activated. Then two - step epitaxy is used to achieve GaAs layer. Finally, intermittent multi - layer cycle annealing (IMCA) is implemented to improve morphology and quality of the epitaxial layer. Measurement and analysis by electron probe micro - analysis (EPMA), Raman spectrum, Hall measurement and photo - luminescence (PL) confirm that GaAs layer with thickness of approximately 4 μm has been obtained.%报道了采用热壁外延(HWE)技术,在Si表面生长GaAs薄膜。先通过活化剂活化Si表面,再采取两步生长法外延GaAs单晶薄膜,最后进行断续多层循环退火(IMCA)。经电子探针(EPMA)、Raman光谱、Hall测量和荧光(PL)光谱测试分析,证实在Si表面获得了近4μm厚的GaAs单晶薄膜。

  8. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ansari


    Full Text Available This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111 substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W/silicon dioxide (SiO2 forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33 for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF2 etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.

  9. GaN membrane MSM ultraviolet photodetectors (United States)

    Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kostopoulos, A.; Dragoman, M.; Neculoiu, D.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Vasilache, D.; Buiculescu, C.; Petrini, I.


    GaN exhibits unique physical properties, which make this material very attractive for wide range of applications and among them ultraviolet detection. For the first time a MSM type UV photodetector structure was manufactured on a 2.2 μm. thick GaN membrane obtained using micromachining techniques. The low unintentionally doped GaN layer structure was grown by MOCVD on high resistivity (ρ>10kΩcm) oriented silicon wafers, 500μm thick. The epitaxially grown layers include a thin AlN layer in order to reduce the stress in the GaN layer and avoid cracking. Conventional contact lithography, e-gun Ni/Au (10nm /200nm) evaporation and lift-off techniques were used to define the interdigitated Schottky metalization on the top of the wafer. Ten digits with a width of 1μm and a length of 100μm were defined for each electrode. The distance between the digits was also 1μm. After the backside lapping of the wafer to a thickness of approximately 150μm, a 400nm thick Al layer was patterned and deposited on the backside, to be used as mask for the selective reactive ion etching of silicon. The backside mask, for the membrane formation, was patterned using double side alignment techniques and silicon was etched down to the 2.2μm thin GaN layer using SF 6 plasma. A very low dark current (30ρA at 3V) was obtained. Optical responsivity measurements were performed at 1.5V. A maximum responsivity of 18mA/W was obtained at a wavelength of 370nm. This value is very good and can be further improved using transparent contacts for the interdigitated structure.

  10. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus


    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  11. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te


    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz


    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  13. Raman modes in transferred bilayer CVD graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niilisk Ahti


    Full Text Available A systematic experimental Raman spectroscopic study of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG domains localized inside wide-area single layer graphene (SLG produced by low-pressure CVD on Cu foil and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrate has been performed. According to the Raman characterization the tBLG domains had a great variety of twisting angles θ between the bottom and top graphene layers (6° < θ < 25°. The twisting angle θ was estimated from the spectral position of the rotating R and R' modes in the Raman spectrum.Under G band resonance conditions the breathing mode ZO' with a frequency of 95- 97 cm−1 was detected, and a breathing mode ZO was found in the spectra between 804 cm−1 and 836 cm−1, its position depending on the twisting angle θ. An almost linear relationship was found between the frequencies ωZO and ωR. Also a few other spectral peculiarities were found, e.g. a high-energy excitation of the G band resonance, the 2G overtone appearing at 3170-3180 cm−1 by the G band resonance, revealing a linear dispersion of 80 cm−1/eV of the 2D band in tBLG

  14. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, S; Conway, J; Whitehead, A J; Sussman, R S; Hill, G; Walker, S


    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after approx 6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields (1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices show...

  15. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) (United States)


    for HPE GaN high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) compared to SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Although a few...Figure 16. Asymmetric rocking curve for an HVPE film grown on an HVPE substrate. ............19 Figure 17. Schematic of a GaN /AlGaN HEMT structure grown...frequency (RF) HEMTs . These considerable investments can be leveraged for GaN HPE. Some people are concerned about the relative scarcity of gallium

  16. Temperature Dependence of GaN HEMT Small Signal Parameters (United States)


    original work is properly cited. This study presents the temperature dependence of small signal parameters of GaN /SiC HEMTs across the 0–150◦C range...the performance of GaN /SiC device, two state-of-the-art AlGaN/ GaN HEMT devices were characterized at −25, 25, 75, and 125◦C base plate (on-wafer...number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temperature Dependence of GaN HEMT

  17. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Rita, E; Soares, JC


    We have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. We give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As$\\scriptstyle_{Ga}\\,$ " anti-sites ” are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called “ miscibility gap ” in ternary GaAs$\\scriptstyle_{1-x}$N$\\scriptstyle_{x}$ compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of $x$ in the range 0.1<${x}$< 0.99.

  18. Red-yellow CdSSe-ZnS SLs and blue-green SrS and CdSSe-SrS SLs double insulating EL devices prepared by hot wall epitaxy (United States)

    Fujiyasu, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Hikida, K.; Masuo, K.; Gotou, Y.; Kiichi, T.; Ishino, K.; Ishida, A.


    We have prepared CdSSe (Mn doped, Eg = 1.9-2.5 eV, lattice constant a = 6.1-5.8 Å)-ZnS ( Eg = 3.56 eV, a = 5.41 Aring;) superlattices (SLs) (A) and SrS (Ce doped, Eg = 4.4 eV, a = 6.02 Å) and CdSSe-SrS (Ce doped) SL active layer by hot wall epitaxy and measured the electroluminescence characteristics. For (A) the maximum luminance was 800 cd/m 2 at applied sinusoidal voltage ( V0-p 200 V) of 1 kHz and the peak luminance spectra wave length was 610 nm due to the large strain for the lattice mismatch (8-15%) between the CdSSe and ZnS layers. The maximum illuminance and CIE (Commisson Internationale de Enluminare) chromaticity of the CdS(Mn)-ZnS SL abd CdSe-ZnS SL devices were 557 cd/m 2 and ( x, y) = (0.58, 0.41), and 982 cd/m 2 and (0.61, 0.38), respectively. For (B), the maximum luminance of the SrS active layer device was 700 cd/m 2 at a voltage of 340 V. For CdSSe-SrS SLs blue-color EL emission was observed in the photon wave length region less than 450 nm due to carrier dropping into the quantum wells of the SL active layer device.

  19. Influence of growth pressure of a GaN buffer layer on the properties of MOCVD GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Jun(陈俊); ZHANG; Shuming(张书明); ZHANG; Baoshun(张宝顺); ZHU; Jianjun(朱建军); FENG; Gan(冯淦); DUAN; Lihong(段俐宏); WANG; Yutian(王玉田); YANG; Hui(杨辉); ZHENG; Wenchen(郑文琛)


    The influence of growth pressure of GaN buffer layer on the properties of MOCVD GaN on α-Al2O3 has been investigated with the aid of a home-made in situ laser reflectometry measurement system. The results obtained with in situ measurements and scanning electron microscope show that with the increase in deposition pressure of buffer layer, the nuclei increase in size, which roughens the surface, and delays the coalescence of GaN nuclei. The optical and crystalline quality of GaN epilayer was improved when buffer layer was deposited at high pressure.

  20. CVD Diamond Sensors In Detectors For High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334150; Trischuk, William

    At the end of the next decade an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is planned which requires the development of new radiation tolerant sensor technology. Diamond is an interesting material for use as a particle detector in high radiation environments. The large band gap ($5.47\\,\\text{eV}$) and the large displacement energy suggest that diamond is a radiation tolerant detector material. In this Thesis the capability of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond as such a sensor technology is investigated. The radiation damage constant for $800\\,\\text{MeV}$ protons is measured using single crystalline CVD (scCVD) and polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamonds irradiated to particle fluences up to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$. In addition the signal response of a pCVD diamond detector after an irradiation to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$ is investigated to determine if such a detector can be operated efficiently in the expected HL-LHC environment. By using electrodes em...

  1. Growth of Strain Free GaN Layers on (0001) Oriented Sapphire by Using Quasi-Porous GaN Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xin-Jian; CHEN Jia-Rong; CAO Xian-Cun; ZHONG Fei; QIU Kai; LIU Gui-Feng; YIN Zhi-Jun; WANG Yu-Qi; LI Xin-Hua; JI Chang-Jian; HAN Qi-Fen


    We report the reduced-strain gallium-nitride (GaN) epitaxial growth on (0001) oriented sapphire by using quasi-porous GaN template. A GaN film in thickness of about 1μm was initially grown on a (0001) sapphire substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Then it was dealt by putting, into 45% NaOH solution at 100°C for Wmin. By this process a quasi-porous GaN Rim was formed. An epitaxial GaN layer was grown on the porous GaN layer at 1050°C in the hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The epitaxial layer grown on the porous GaN is found to have no cracks on the surface. That is much improved from many cracks on the surface of the GaN epitaxial layer grown on the sapphire as the same as on GaN buffer directly.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of GaN Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛成山; 杨莺歌; 马洪磊; 庄惠照; 马瑾


    GaN Nanowires were prepared by the post-nitridation technique. The morphology and structure of GaN nanowires are investigated by transmission-electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A strong blue photoluminescence is observed for room-temperature measurement, which attributes to electron transition from DX centre to valence band.

  3. Silicon—a new substrate for GaN growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Pal; C Jacob


    Generally, GaN-based devices are grown on silicon carbide or sapphire substrates. But these substrates are costly and insulating in nature and also are not available in large diameter. Silicon can meet the requirements for a low cost and conducting substrate and will enable integration of optoelectronic or high power electronic devices with Si based electronics. But the main problem that hinders the rapid development of GaN devices based on silicon is the thermal mismatch of GaN and Si, which generates cracks. In 1998, the first MBE grown GaN based LED on Si was made and now the quality of material grown on silicon is comparable to that on sapphire substrate. It is only a question of time before Si based GaN devices appear on the market. This article is a review of the latest developments in GaN based devices on silicon.

  4. Synthesis of GaN films on porous silicon substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel and simple method was employed to synthesize GaN films on porous silicon (PS) substrates. GaN films were obtained through the reaction between NH3 and Ga2O3 films deposited on the substrates with magnetron sputtering.Since GaN and PS are all good materials for luminescence, it is expected to obtain some new properties from GaN on PS.The samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify crystalline structure. Fourier transmit infrared (FTIR)spectrum was used to analyze the chemical state of the samples. The films were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were found to consist of many big crystal grains. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum was used to illuminate the optical property of the GaN films.

  5. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B. S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Singh, A.; Tyagi, P. K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Tanwar, S. [Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)


    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  6. Nonlinear characterization of GaN HEMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chi; Hao Yue; Yang Ling; Quan Si; Ma Xiaohua; Zhang Jincheng, E-mail: [National Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    DC I-V output, small signal and an extensive large signal characterization (load-pull measurements) of a GaN HEMT on a SiC substrate with different gate widths of 100 {mu}m and 1 mm have been carried out. From the small signal data, it has been found that the cutoff frequencies increase with gate width varying from 100 {mu}m to 1mm, owing to the reduced contribution of the parasitic effect. The devices investigated with different gate widths are enough to work in the C band and X band. The large signal measurements include the load-pull measurements and power sweep measurements at the C band (5.5 GHz) and X band (8 GHz). When biasing the gate voltage in class AB and selecting the source impedance, the optimum load impedances seen from the device for output power and PAE were localized in the load-pull map. The results of a power sweep at an 8 GHz biased various drain voltage demonstrate that a GaN HEMT on a SiC substrate has good thermal conductivity and a high breakdown voltage, and the CW power density of 10.16 W/mm was obtained. From the results of the power sweep measurement at 5.5 GHz with different gate widths, the actual scaling rules and heat effect on the large periphery device were analyzed, although the effects are not serious. The measurement results and analyses prove that a GaN HEMT on a SiC substrate is an ideal candidate for high-power amplifier design.

  7. Synthesis of CVD-graphene on rapidly heated copper foils. (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Hwangbo, Yun; Yoon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Ryu, Jaechul; Lee, Hak-Joo; Cho, Seungmin; Lee, Seung-Mo


    Most chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems used for graphene growth mainly employ convection and radiation heat transfer between the heating source and the metal catalyst in order to reach the activation temperature of the reaction, which in general leads to a long synthesis time and poor energy efficiency. Here, we report a highly time- and energy-efficient CVD setup, in which the metal catalyst (Cu) is designed to be physically contacted with a heating source to give quick heat transfer by conduction. The induced conduction heating enabled the usual effects of the pretreatment and annealing of Cu (i.e., annihilation of surface defects, impurities and contaminants) to be achieved in a significantly shorter time compared to conventional CVD. Notably, the rapid heating was observed to lead to larger grains of Cu with high uniformity as compared to the Cu annealed by conventional CVD, which are believed to be beneficial for the growth of high quality graphene. Through this CVD setup, bundles of high quality (∼252 Ω per square) and large area (over 16 inch) graphenes were able to be readily synthesized in 40 min in a significantly efficient way. When considering ease of scalability, high energy effectiveness and considerable productivity, our method is expected to be welcomed by industrialists.

  8. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.


    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  9. Present limitations of CVD diamond detectors for IMRT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, C. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN, Viale regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Casati, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy); Onori, S. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN, Viale regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell' Universita and INFN, Florence (Italy)


    The aim of the work was to test the suitability of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond detectors for dosimetry in IMRT fields. We used in-house CVD detectors prepared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline diamond films (Element Six Ltd., UK). The parameters considered were time stability, dynamic response, dose-rate dependence and energy dependence. Output factors and TPR were measured in conventional photon fields and dose measurements were performed in IMRT fields using the step-and-shoot technique. Results prove that CVD diamond detectors are suitable for dosimetry in conventional treatments, but they still do not fit the IMRT dosimetry requirements, mainly because of their slow dynamic response. In particular, the slow dynamics affects linearity at low Monitor Units and renders it impossible to follow the sharp transients of IMRT fields. Time stability and dose-rate dependence as well must be improved to reduce their influence on dose assessment.

  10. Investigation on the priming effect of a CVD diamond microdosimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CVD diamond microdosimeter is an ideal substitute of common Si.GaAs detector for extremely strong radiation experimental environment due to its high band gap energy, fast charge collection, low dielectric constant and hardness. In order to improve its character, a CVD diamond microdosimeter was irradiated by a proton dose of 46 Gy, and a lateral micro-ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique was utilized to characterize it in low beam current (~fA). It was clearly shown that charge collection efficiency and energy resolution were greatly improved after proton irradiation of that dose. Moreover, the homogeneities of both its counting performance and collection efficiency were enhanced. Proton irradiation of 46 Gy has been proved to be an effective way to prime a CVD diamond.

  11. Investigation on the priming effect of a CVD diamond microdosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Rong Rong; Jiang Da; Li Xiao Lin; Zhu Jie Qing


    CVD diamond microdosimeter is an ideal substitute of common Si, GaAs detector for extremely strong radiation experimental environmental due to its high band gap energy, fast charge collection, low dielectric constant and hardness. In order to improve its character, a CVD diamond microdosimeter was irradiated by a proton dose of 46 Gy, and a lateral micro-ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique was utilized to characterize it in low beam current (approx fA). It was clearly shown that charge collection efficiency and energy resolution were greatly improved after proton irradiation of that dose. Moreover, the homogeneities of both its counting performance and collection efficiency were enhanced. Proton irradiation of 46 Gy has been proved to be an effective way to prime a CVD diamond

  12. III-nitride grown on freestanding GaN nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongjin; Zhu, Hongbo [Institute of Communication Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, Jiang-Su 210003 (China); Hu, Fangren; Hane, Kazuhiro [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)


    We report here the epitaxial growth of III-nitride on the freestanding GaN nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy growth. Various GaN nanostructures are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN nanostructures is removed from the backside to form the freestanding GaN slab, and the epitaxial growth of III-nitride by MBE is performed on the prepared GaN template. The selective growth takes place with the assistance of GaN nanostructures and generates hexagonal III-nitride pyramids. Thin epitaxial structures, depending on the shape and the size of GaN nanostructure, can produce the promising optical performance. This work opens the way to combine silicon micromachining with the epitaxial growth of III-nitride by MBE on GaN-on-silicon substrate for further integrated optics (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Growth and Microstructure of GaN on (111) Si (United States)

    Follstaedt, D. M.; Han, J.; Provencio, P.; Fleming, J.


    GaN grown on (111) Si by MOCVD was examined by TEM. This structure is of interest for possible integration of short-wavelength optical emission with Si microelectronics. A rotating disc reactor with TMGa, TMAl and ammonia precursors was used to first grow an 30 nm-thick AlN buffer on the Si at 1080^oC, followed by GaN at 1060^oC. The resulting 2 μm layer appeared smooth by in situ reflectance, but developed a high density of cracks when cooled to room temperature due to the difference in thermal expansions of GaN and Si. Between the cracks, cross-section and plan-view TEM identified the orientation as (0001)GaN parallel (111)Si, with [11-20]GaN parallel [1-10]Si. A high density of threading dislocations (4 to 8x10^9/cm^2) was found and determined to be 2/3 pure edge and 1/3 mixed (edge + screw) in character. A low density (10^8/cm^2) of nanotubes was also identified. This defect microstructure is much like that of GaN on sapphire. The thin AlN buffer was continuous and consists of 20 to 40 nm grains, with some exhibiting slight misorientations. A few dislocations threading the GaN layer could be traced to an interface between the AlN grains. The continuous thin layer indicates that the AlN buffer "wets" Si, whereas thin GaN layers are discontinuous on sapphire; 0.4 μm thickness of GaN is needed for a continuous layer.

  14. CVD polymers fabrication of organic surfaces and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Karen K


    The method of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) is a versatile technique to fabricate high-quality thin films and structured surfaces in the nanometer regime from the vapor phase. Already widely used for the deposition of inorganic materials in the semiconductor industry, CVD has become the method of choice in many applications to process polymers as well. This highly scalable technique allows for synthesizing high-purity, defect-free films and for systematically tuning their chemical, mechanical and physical properties. In addition, vapor phase processing is critical for the deposition of insol

  15. Engineered CVD Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications (United States)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.


    Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (fracture toughness can be tuned by controlling the grain size of the coatings from a few microns to a few nanometers. In this review, characteristics and performance of the CVD diamond coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for CVD diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.

  16. UMA/GAN network architecture analysis (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Wensheng; Deng, Chunjian; Lv, Yi


    This paper is to critically analyze the architecture of UMA which is one of Fix Mobile Convergence (FMC) solutions, and also included by the third generation partnership project(3GPP). In UMA/GAN network architecture, UMA Network Controller (UNC) is the key equipment which connects with cellular core network and mobile station (MS). UMA network could be easily integrated into the existing cellular networks without influencing mobile core network, and could provides high-quality mobile services with preferentially priced indoor voice and data usage. This helps to improve subscriber's experience. On the other hand, UMA/GAN architecture helps to integrate other radio technique into cellular network which includes WiFi, Bluetooth, and WiMax and so on. This offers the traditional mobile operators an opportunity to integrate WiMax technique into cellular network. In the end of this article, we also give an analysis of potential influence on the cellular core networks ,which is pulled by UMA network.

  17. Investigation of deep levels in bulk GaN



    The first gallium nitride (GaN) crystal was grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy in 1969 by Maruska and Tietjen and since then, there has been an intensive development of the field, especially after the ground breaking discoveries concerning growth and p-type doping of GaN done by the 2014 year Nobel Laureates in Physics, Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura. GaN and its alloys with In and Al belong to a semiconductor group which is referred as the III-nitrides. It has outstanding ...

  18. Synthesis of Single Crystal GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Fang


    Full Text Available The straight and curved gallium nitride (GaN nanowires were successfully synthesized by controlling the gallium/ nitrogen reactant ratio via a chemical vapour deposition method. The structure and morphology of nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The straight and curved GaN nanowires are composed of wurtzite and a zinc blende structure, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL spectra of zinc blende GaN nanowires showed a strong UV emission band at 400 nm, indicating potential application in optoe‐ lectronic devices.

  19. GaN transistors for efficient power conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lidow, Alex; de Rooij, Michael; Reusch, David


    The first edition of GaN Transistors for Efficient Power Conversion was self-published by EPC in 2012, and is currently the only other book to discuss GaN transistor technology and specific applications for the technology. More than 1,200 copies of the first edition have been sold through Amazon or distributed to selected university professors, students and potential customers, and a simplified Chinese translation is also available. The second edition has expanded emphasis on applications for GaN transistors and design considerations. This textbook provides technical and application-focused i

  20. Surface analysis of CVD diamond exposed to fusion plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porro, S.; De Temmerman, G.; MacLaren, D. A.; Lisgo, S.; Rudakov, D. L.; Westerhout, J.; Wiora, M.; John, P.; Villalpando, I.; Wilson, J. I. B.


    Microcrystalline undoped and heavily boron-doped polycrystalline diamond layers have been deposited on various substrates by hot filament CVD and exposed to hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma reactor (Pilot-PSI, The Netherlands) that simulates the high flux and high density plasma conditions of toka

  1. Atmospheric pressure CVD of SNO2 and ZNO:AL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Kniknie, B.J.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Mannie, G.; Thune, P.; Illiberi, A.


    Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) is a highly cost effective method of depositing transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). In this work, insights in alcohol addition in the widely applied SnO2 process are discussed, including high resolution TEM images. Furthermore, the APCVD process of ZnO:Al was demon

  2. Annealing of ion-implanted GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Burchard, A; Stötzler, A; Weissenborn, R; Deicher, M


    $^{111m}$Cd and $^{112}$Cd ions have been implanted into GaN. With photoluminescence spectroscopy and perturbed $\\gamma-\\gamma$-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) the reduction of implantation damage and the optical activation of the implants have been observed as a function of annealing temperature using different annealing methods. The use of N$_{2}$ or NH$_{3}$ atmosphere during annealing allows temperatures up to 1323k and 1373 K, respectively, but above 1200 K a strong loss of Cd from the GaN has been observed. Annealing GaN together with elementary Al forms a protective layer on the GaN surface allowing annealing temperatures up to 1570 K for 10 min. (11 refs).

  3. Application of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to jet images

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01 We provide a bridge between generative modeling in the Machine Learning community and simulated physical processes in High Energy Particle Physics by applying a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture to the production of jet images -- 2D representations of energy depositions from particles interacting with a calorimeter. We propose a simple architecture, the Location-Aware Generative Adversarial Network, that learns to produce realistic radiation patterns from simulated high energy particle collisions. The pixel intensities of GAN-generated images faithfully span over many orders of magnitude and exhibit the desired low-dimensional physical properties (i.e., jet mass, n-subjettiness, etc.). We shed light on limitations, and provide a novel empirical validation of image quality and validity of GAN-produced simulations of the natural world. This work provides a base for further explorations of GANs for use in faster simulation in High Energy Particle Physics.

  4. Thickness measurement of GaN epilayer using high resolution X-ray diffraction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯淦; 朱建军; 沈晓明; 张宝顺; 赵德刚; 王玉田; 杨辉; 梁骏吾


    In this paper we propose a new method for measuring the thickness of the GaN epilayer, by using the ratio of the integrated intensity of the GaN epilayer X-ray diffraction peaks to that of the sapphire substrate ones. This ratio shows a linear dependence on the GaN epilayer thickness up to 2 μm. The new method is more accurate and convenient than those of using the relationship between the integrated intensity of GaN epilayer diffraction peaks and the GaN thickness. Besides, it can eliminate the absorption effect of the GaN epilayer.

  5. GaN nanorods coated with pure BN (United States)

    Han, Wei-Qiang; Zettl, A.


    We report a method to efficiently synthesize gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods coated with insulating boron nitride (BN) layers. The GaN core is crystalline (with either a cubic zincblende or hexagonal wurtzite structure) and has diameters ranging from 10 to 85 nm and lengths up to 60 μm. The outer encapsulating BN shells with typical thicknesses less than 5 nm extend fully over, and adhere well to, the entire nanorod surface.

  6. Effect of photocatalytic oxidation technology on GaN CMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail:; Wang, Tongqing, E-mail:; Pan, Guoshun, E-mail:; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic oxidation technology was introduced to GaN CMP for the first time and proves to be more efficient than before. • XPS analysis reveals the planarization process by different N-type semiconductor particles. • Analyzing the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation in GaN CMP. • Proposing the photocatalytic oxidation model to reveal the removal mechanism. - Abstract: GaN is so hard and so chemically inert that it is difficult to obtain a high material removal rate (MRR) in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. This paper discusses the application of photocatalytic oxidation technology in GaN planarization. Three N-type semiconductor particles (TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are used as catalysts and added to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2}-based slurry. By optical excitation, highly reactive photoinduced holes are produced on the surface of the particles, which can oxidize OH{sup −} and H{sub 2}O absorbed on the surface of the catalysts; therefore, more OH* will be generated. As a result, GaN MRRs in an H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2}-based polishing system combined with catalysts are improved significantly, especially when using TiO{sub 2}, the MRR of which is 122 nm/h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows the variation trend of chemical composition on the GaN surface after polishing, revealing the planarization process. Besides, the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation combined with TiO{sub 2} is analyzed deeply. Furthermore, the physical model of GaN CMP combined with photocatalytic oxidation technology is proposed to describe the removal mechanism of GaN.

  7. Terahertz response of GaN thin films. (United States)

    Tsai, Tsong-Ru; Chen, Shi-Jie; Chang, Chih-Fu; Hsu, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chi, Cheng-Chung


    The indices of refraction, extinction constants and complex conductivities of the GaN film for frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 THz are obtained using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The results correspond well with the Kohlrausch stretched exponential model. Using the Kohlrausch model fit not only provides the mobility of the free carriers in the GaN film, but also estimates the relaxation time distribution function and average relaxation time.

  8. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C


    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  9. Study of GaN adsorption on the Si surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Chen Junfang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Wang Teng [School of Computer, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China)


    The adsorption energy, the band structures and DOS (density of states) of GaN on surface of Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) are calculated by the first-principle using plane-wave pseudo-potentials method based on the density functional theory in order to know the adsorption between the surface of Si and GaN. The calculation results show that GaN is easier adsorbed on the surface of Si(1 0 0) than the surface of Si(1 1 1) under the same experimental condition. There are strong charge distributions between N and Si atom. The bandgap of GaN on surface of Si(1 0 0) becomes a little narrower than that of pure GaN. On the other hand, GaN film is deposited on the surface of Si(1 0 0) by ECR-MOPECVD (electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) at low temperature. For substrate of Si(1 1 1), no film is obtained under the same experimental condition.

  10. Void shape control in GaN re-grown on hexagonally patterned mask-less GaN (United States)

    Ali, M.; Romanov, A. E.; Suihkonen, S.; Svensk, O.; Törmä, P. T.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.; Odnoblyudov, M. A.; Bougrov, V. E.


    We present the results of GaN re-growth on hexagonally patterned GaN templates. Sapphire was used as the original substrate and the samples were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The re-growth on the patterned templates results in the formation of voids at the GaN/sapphire interface. Our extensive scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based experimental investigations show that the void shape can be controlled from nearly vertical to fully inclined configurations. It was found that the initial hexagon hole diameter plays a key role in determining the final profile of the void sidewalls. X-ray diffraction analysis of the GaN layers indicates that the layers with inclined sidewall voids have an improved crystalline quality. Knowledge of the void configurations in the GaN layers and a possibility to control their shape can help in enhancing light extraction from the light emitting structures.

  11. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth


    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  12. DLTS study of n-type GaN grown by MOCVD on GaN substrates (United States)

    Tokuda, Y.; Matsuoka, Y.; Ueda, H.; Ishiguro, O.; Soejima, N.; Kachi, T.


    Electron traps in n-type GaN layers grown homoepitaxially by MOCVD on free-standing GaN substrates have been characterized using DLTS for vertical Schottky diodes. Two free-standing HVPE GaN substrates (A and B), obtained from two different sources, are used. The Si-doped GaN layers with the thickness of 5 μm are grown on an area of 0.9×0.9 cm 2 of substrate A and on an area of 1×1 cm 2 of substrate B. Two traps labeled B1 (Ec-0.23 eV) and B2 (Ec-0.58 eV) are observed with trap B2 dominant in GaN on both substrates. There exist no dislocation-related traps which have been previously observed in MOCVD GaN on sapphire. This might be correlated to the reduction in dislocation density due to the homoepitaxial growth. However, it is found that there is a large variation, more than an order of magnitude, in trap B2 concentration and that the B2 spatial distributions are different between the two substrates used.

  13. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  14. Argan oil improves surrogate markers of CVD in humans. (United States)

    Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco


    Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation.

  15. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W


    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  16. Catalytic CVD of SWCNTs at Low Temperatures and SWCNT Devices (United States)

    Seidel, Robert; Liebau, Maik; Unger, Eugen; Graham, Andrew P.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Kreupl, Franz; Hoenlein, Wolfgang; Pompe, Wolfgang


    New results on the planar growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperatures will be reported. Optimizing catalyst, catalyst support, and growth parameters yields SWCNTs at temperatures as low as 600 °C. Growth at such low temperatures largely affects the diameter distribution since coalescence of the catalyst is suppressed. A phenomenological growth model will be suggested for CVD growth at low temperatures. The model takes into account surface diffusion and is an alternative to the bulk diffusion based vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes field effect transistors based on substrate grown SWCNTs will be presented. In these devices good contact resistances could be achieved by electroless metal deposition or metal evaporation of the contacts.

  17. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Bruinsma, M; Edwards, A J; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Kirkby, D; Petersen, B A


    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  18. X-ray sensitivity measurements on CVD diamond film detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, F.; Pochet, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire; Gheeraert, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Microwave chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films have been used to fabricate radiation detectors. The polycrystalline diamond films have a resistivity of 10{sup 12} and carrier mobility and lifetime of about 280 cm{sup 2}/V.s and 530 ps. The detector response to laser pulses (355, 532 and 1064 nm), X-ray flux (15-50 keV) and alpha particles ({sup 241}Am, 5.49 MeV) has been investigated. The response speed of the detector is in the 100 ps range. A sensitivity of about 3 x 10{sup -10} A/V.Gy.s was measured under 50 keV X-ray flux. The detector current response to X-ray flux is almost linear. It is also shown that CVD diamond detectors can be used for alpha particle counting. (authors). 9 figs., 25 refs.

  19. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.


    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) OCRWM Loop Error Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Characterization is specifically identified by the Richland Operations Office (RL) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as requiring application of the requirements in the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (RW-0333P DOE 1997a). Those analyses that provide information that is necessary for repository acceptance require application of the QARD. The cold vacuum drying (CVD) project identified the loops that measure, display, and record multi-canister overpack (MCO) vacuum pressure and Tempered Water (TW) temperature data as providing OCRWM data per Application of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements to the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project HNF-SD-SNF-RPT-007. Vacuum pressure transmitters (PT 1*08, 1*10) and TW temperature transmitters (TIT-3*05, 3*12) are used to verify drying and to determine the water content within the MCO after CVD.

  1. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector


    Zain, R.M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.


    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pi...

  2. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films (United States)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, Zl; Gesheva, K.


    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thin TiO 2 film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte.

  3. Electrochromic behavior in CVD grown tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Gesheva, K.; Dimitrova, Z. [Central Laboratory for Solar Energy and New Energy Sources at Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko shossee Blvd., Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline CVD carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thinTiO{sub 2} film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte

  4. THz-conductivity of CVD graphene on different substrates


    Gabriel Cortés, Daniel; Sempere, Bernat; Colominas, Carles; Ferrer Anglada, Núria


    Optoelectronic properties of CVD graphene are charac-terized over a wide frequency range: THz, IR, visible and near-UV. We used Raman spectroscopy to characterize the synthesized graphene films. All graphene layers were deposited on various substrates, some ones transparent or flexible, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), quartz and silicon. Transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) method, in the range from 100 GHz to 3 THz, is used to an...

  5. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim


    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  6. Infrared spectroscopic study of carrier scattering in gated CVD graphene (United States)

    Yu, Kwangnam; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Wonki; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Hwang, E. H.; Choi, E. J.


    We measured Drude absorption of gated CVD graphene using far-infrared transmission spectroscopy and determined the carrier scattering rate (γ ) as a function of the varied carrier density (n ). The n -dependent γ (n ) was obtained for a series of conditions systematically changed as (10 K, vacuum) → (300 K, vacuum) → (300 K, ambient pressure), which reveals that (1) at low-T, charged impurity (=A /√{n } ) and short-range defect (=B √{n } ) are the major scattering sources which constitute the total scattering γ =A /√{n }+B √{n } , (2) among various kinds of phonons populated at room-T , surface polar phonon of the SiO2 substrate is the dominantly scattering source, and (3) in air, the gas molecules adsorbed on graphene play a dual role in carrier scattering as charged impurity center and resonant scattering center. We present the absolute scattering strengths of those individual scattering sources, which provides the complete map of scattering mechanism of CVD graphene. This scattering map allows us to find out practical measures to suppress the individual scatterings, the mobility gains accompanied by them, and finally the ultimate attainable carrier mobility for CVD graphene.

  7. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikharev, A; Gorbachev, A; Kozlov, A; Litvak, A; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M


    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined.

  8. Mass production of CNTs using CVD multi-quartz tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Samy; Mohamed, Alaa [Dept. of Production Engineering and Printing Technology, Akhbar Elyom Academy, Giza (Egypt)


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become the backbone of modern industries, including lightweight and heavy-duty industrial applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as the most common method used to synthesize high yield CNTs. This work aims to develop the traditional CVD for the mass production of more economical CNTs, meeting the growing CNT demands among consumers by increasing the number of three particular reactors. All reactors housing is connected by small channels to provide the heat exchange possibility between the chambers, thereby decreasing synthesis time and reducing heat losses inside the ceramic body of the furnace. The novel design is simple and cheap with a lower reacting time and heat loss compared with the traditional CVD design. Methane, hydrogen, argon, and catalyzed iron nanoparticles were used as a carbon source and catalyst during the synthesis process. In addition, CNTs were produced using only a single quartz tube for comparison. The produced samples were examined using XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results showed that the yield of CNTs increases by 287 % compared with those synthesized with a single quartz tube. Moreover, the total synthesis time of CNTs decreases by 37 % because of decreased heat leakage.

  9. Ultra-high Burst Strength of CVD Graphene Membranes (United States)

    Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael; Kidambi, Piran; Karnik, Rohit; Microfluidics; Nanofluidics Research Lab Team


    Porous graphene membranes have significant potential in gas separation, water desalination and nanofiltration. Understanding the mechanical strength of porous graphene is crucial because membrane separations can involve high pressures. We studied the burst strength of CVD graphene membrane placed on porous support at applied pressures up to 100 bar by monitoring the gas flow rate across the membrane as a function of pressure. Increase of gas flow rate with pressure allowed for extraction of the burst fraction of graphene as it failed under increasing pressure. We also studied the effect of sub-nanometer pores on the ability of graphene to withstand pressure. The results showed that porous graphene membranes can withstand pressures comparable to or even higher than the >50 bar pressures encountered in water desalination, with non-porous CVD graphene exhibiting even higher mechanical strength. Our study shows that porous polycrystalline CVD graphene has ultra-high burst strength under applied pressure, suggesting the possibility for its use in high-pressure membrane separations. Principal Investigator

  10. Approach to diabetes management in patients with CVD. (United States)

    Lathief, Sanam; Inzucchi, Silvio E


    Epidemiologic analyses have established a clear association between diabetes and macrovascular disease. Vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic abnormalities in patients with diabetes is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Patients with diabetes are at two to four fold higher CV risk as compared to non-diabetic individuals, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with this condition. One strategy to reduce CVD burden in patients with diabetes has been to focus on controlling the major metabolic abnormality in this condition, namely hyperglycemia. However, this has not been unequivocally demonstrated to reduced CV events, in contrast to controlling other CVD risk factors linked to hyperglycemia, such as blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and platelet dysfunction. However, In contradistinction, accrued data from a number of large, randomized clinical trials in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past 3 decades have proven that more intensive glycemic control retards the onset and progression of microvascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the key glucose-lowering CV outcomes trials in diabetes, provide an overview of the different drugs and their impact on the CV system, and describe our approach to management of the frequently encountered patient with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF).

  11. The Role of Government in Responding to Foreign CVD Investigations:Shenzhen’s Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The paper probes into a series of meaningful and constructive work accomplished by Shenzhen government on foreign CVD investigations.Specifically, this paper analyzes the characteristics of CVD investigations for Shenzhen and the harmful impact of CVD investigation.It evaluates the major investigated subsidy programs in foreign CVDs against Chinese imports and discusses how to avoid CVD cases effectively and analyzes the principal measures taken by Shenzhen in dealing with CVD investigations concretely.The paper concludes that these works not only promoted the implementation of China’s WTO commitments,but also contributed to boost Shenzhen economic and social development and internationalization.

  12. Thick Homoepitaxial GaN with Low Carrier Concentration for High Blocking Voltage (United States)


    demonstrated that GaN Schottky diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates with simple metal overlap edge termination show reverse recovery time...Prior to ramping up to the growth temperature for MOCVD deposition of GaN, the flows of palladium -diffused high purity hydrogen and ammonia were

  13. Tailoring GaN semiconductor surfaces with biomolecules. (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Larroque, Christian; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Bálint, Zoltán; Gergely, Csilla


    Functionalization of semiconductors constitutes a crucial step in using these materials for various electronic, photonic, biomedical, and sensing applications. Within the various possible approaches, selection of material-binding biomolecules from a random biological library, based on the natural recognition of proteins or peptides toward specific material, offers many advantages, most notably biocompatibility. Here we report on the selective functionalization of GaN, an important semiconductor that has found broad uses in the past decade due to its efficient electroluminescence and pronounced chemical stability. A 12-mer peptide ("GaN_probe") with specific recognition for GaN has evolved. The subtle interplay of mostly nonpolar hydrophobic and some polar amino acidic residues defines the high affinity adhesion properties of the peptide. The interaction forces between the peptide and GaN are quantified, and the hydrophobic domain of the GaN_probe is identified as primordial for the binding specificity. These nanosized binding blocks are further used for controlled placement of biotin-streptavidin complexes on the GaN surface. Thus, the controlled grow of a new, patterned inorganic-organic hybrid material is achieved. Tailoring of GaN by biological molecules can lead to a new class of nanostructured semiconductor-based devices.

  14. Macro-pyramid in GaN Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; YANG Zhi-Jian; XU Shi-Fa; ZHU Xing; ZHANG Guo-Yi


    A thin film of GaN with the thickness of 1.0μm was grown on α-Al2Oa substrate by metal organic chemical vapour disposition and then a thick GaN film with thickness of 12μm was grown in the halide vapour phase epitaxy system. Some macro-pyramids appeared on the surface of the sample. The macro-pyramids made the surfaceof the GaN film rough, which was harmful to the devices made by GaN materials. These defects changed the distribution of carrier concentration and affected the optical properties of GaN. The step height of the pyramids was about 30-40 nm measured by atomic force microscopy. A simple model was proposed to explain the macro- pyramid phenomenon compared with the growth spiral The growth of the macro-pyramid was relative to the physical conditions in the reaction zone. Both increasing growth temperature and low pressure may reduce the pyramid size.

  15. GaN on sapphire mesa technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, Patrick; Men, Yakiv; Kohn, Erhard [Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Roesch, Rudolph [Institute of Optoelectronics, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Carlin, Jean-Francois; Grandjean, Nicolas [Laboratory of Advanced Semiconductors for Photonics and Electronics, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This contribution reports on a GaN on sapphire mesa technology for lattice matched InAlN/GaN HEMTs similar to a silicon on insulator technology. Ultrathin buffer layers between 500 nm and 100 nm have been deep mesa etched down to the substrate to avoid cross talk between devices through the buffer and provide full transparency outside the active device area (of special interest to biochemical sensor applications).The heterostructure characteristics were: N{sub S}> 1.6 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, R{sub sh}< 600 {omega}/{open_square}. 0.25 {mu}m gate length HEMT device characteristics are moderate, but essentially similar down to 200 nm buffer thickness. Devices on 100 nm buffer layer are still difficult to reproduce. I{sub on}/I{sub off} was up to 10{sup 9} and sub-threshold slopes down to 90 mV/dec (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Glomerate GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chengshan


    Full Text Available Abstract Glomerate GaN nanowires were synthesized on Si(111 substrates by annealing sputtered Ga2O3/Co films under flowing ammonia at temperature of 950 °C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectra were used to characterize the morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of the as-synthesized samples. Our results show that the samples are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. For the majority of GaN nanowires, the length is up to tens of microns and the diameter is in the range of 50–200 nm. The growth process of the GaN nanowires is dominated by Co–Ga–N alloy mechanism.

  18. Gallium incorporation kinetics during GSMBE of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.R.; Kaspi, R. [Wright State Univ. Research Center, Dayton, OH (United States); Lei, T.; Evans, K.R. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Solid State Electronics Directorate


    The kinetics of Ga incorporation during gas-source molecular beam epitaxy of GaN are investigated for varying substrate temperature and incident ammonia flux. Incident Ga atoms eventually either: (1) react with NH{sub 3} to form GaN; (2) accumulate on the film surface, or (3) desorb. Low substrate temperatures lead to significant Ga surface accumulation due to the temperature-dependent reactivity of NH{sub 3} towards Ga. High substrate temperatures give rise to significant Ga desorption. Increasing NH{sub 3} flux retards both Ga surface accumulation and Ga desorption. The GaN formation rate variation with substrate temperature peaks near 750 C and increases with NH{sub 3} flux. The observation of two distinct and very low activation energies for Ga desorption suggests a relatively complex surface chemistry and a strong likelihood that hydrogen is playing an important role.

  19. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas


    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  20. Stability of Carbon Incorpoated Semipolar GaN(1101) Surface (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori


    The structural stability of carbon incorporated GaN(1101) surfaces is theoretically investigated by performing first-principles pseudopotential calculations. The calculated surface formation energies taking account of the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy conditions demonstrate that several carbon incorporated surfaces are stabilized depending on the growth conditions. Using surface phase diagrams, which are obtained by comparing the calculated adsorption energy with vapor-phase chemical potentials, we find that the semipolar surface forms NH2 and CH2 below ˜1660 K while the polar GaN(0001) surface with CH3 is stabilized below ˜1550 K. This difference could be one of possible explanations for p-type doping on the semipolar GaN(1101) surface.

  1. Ablation of GaN Using a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟民; 朱荣毅; 钱土雄; 袁述; 张国义


    We study the pulsed laser ablation of wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) films grown on sapphire, using the fem tosecond laser beam at a central wavelength of 800nm as the source for the high-speed ablation of GaN films. By measuring the backscattered Raman spectrum of ablated samples, the dependence of the ablation depth on laser fluence with one pulse was obtained. The threshold laser fluence for the ablation of GaN films was determined to be about 0.25J/cm2. Laser ablation depth increases with the increasing laser fluence until the amount of removed material is not further increased. The ablated surface was investigated by an optical surface interference profile meter.

  2. Studies on electronic structure of GaN(0001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Chang Kun; Xu Fa Qiang; Deng Rui; Liu Feng; Yibulaxin, K


    An electronic structure investigation on GaN(0001) is reported. The authors employ a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) approach to calculate the partial density of state, which is in agreement with previous experimental results. The effects of the Ga3d semi-core levels on the electronic structure of GaN are discussed. The valence-electronic structure of the wurtzite GaN(0001) surface is investigated using synchrotron radiation excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The bulk bands dispersion along GAMMA A direction in the Brillouin zones is measured using normal-emission spectra by changing photon-energy. The band structure derived from authors' experimental data is compared well with the results of authors' FPLAPW calculation. Furthermore, off-normal emission spectra are also measured along the GAMMA K and GAMMA M directions. Two surface states are identified, and their dispersions are characterized

  3. Application of GaN for photoelectrolysis of water (United States)

    Puzyk, M. V.; Usikov, A. S.; Kurin, S. Yu; Puzyk, A. M.; Fomichev, A. D.; Ermakov, I. A.; Kovalev, D. S.; Papchenko, B. P.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu N.


    GaN layers of n-type and p-type conductivity grown by HVPE on sapphire substrates were used as working electrodes for water electrolysis, photoelectrolysis and hydrogen gas generation. Specifically the water splitting process is discussed. Corrosion of the GaN materials is also considered. The hydrogen production rate under 365-nm UV LED irradiation of the GaN and external bias was 0.3 ml/(cm2*h) for an n-GaN photoanode (n∼8×1016 cm-3) in 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte and 1.2 ml/(cm2*h) for an n-GaN photoanode (n∼1×1017 cm-3) in 1M KOH electrolyte.

  4. Magnesium doped GaN grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarneros, C., E-mail: [Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. I.P.N. 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez, V. [Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. I.P.N. 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    We have studied the optical and electrical characteristics of undoped and doped GaN layers. The n- and p-type layers have been prepared by low pressure MOCVD technique. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were carried at low temperature. In the PL spectra of undoped GaN layer, a low intensity band edge emission and a broad yellow emission band were observed. The donor-acceptor pair (DAP) emission and its phonon replicas were observed in Mg lightly doped GaN layer. The dominance of the blue and the yellow emissions increased in the PL spectra as the Mg concentration was increased. The X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structure of the layers. Both the undoped and the doped layers exhibited hexagonal structure. The samples were annealed and significant changes were not observed in Hall Effect and in the PL measurements, so we suggest that there is no need of a thermal annealing for magnesium acceptor activation.

  5. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung


    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  6. Evaluation of a bivalent (CVD 103-HgR/CVD 111) live oral cholera vaccine in adult volunteers from the United States and Peru. (United States)

    Taylor, D N; Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G; Castro, O; Gutierrez, J; Meza, R; Nataro, J P; Kaper, J B; Wasserman, S S; Edelman, R; Levine, M M; Cryz, S J


    To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. In the first study, 23 U.S. adult volunteers received CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(8), 10(7), or 10(6) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or placebo. In the second study, 275 Peruvian adults were randomized to receive CVD 103-HgR at 10(9) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(9) or 10(8) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(9) CFU, CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(9) CFU, or placebo. Three of 15 U.S. volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) or 10(8) CFU developed mild diarrhea, compared to none of 4 who received CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU and 1 of 4 who received placebo. Twelve (63%) of 19 vaccine recipients shed the El Tor vaccine strain. All but one volunteer developed significant Ogawa and Inaba vibriocidal antibody titers. Volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU had geometric mean Ogawa titers four to five times higher than those of volunteers who received the lower dose. In the second study, all dosage regimens were well tolerated in Peruvians. About 20% of volunteers who received CVD 111 at the high dose excreted the El Tor organism, compared to 7% in the low-dose group. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of two placebo recipients, neither of whom had symptoms or seroconverted. In all vaccine groups, 69 to 76% developed fourfold rises in Inaba vibriocidal antibodies. Among those who received the bivalent vaccine, 53 to 75% also developed significant rises in Ogawa vibriocidal antibodies. We conclude that it is feasible to produce a single-dose, oral bivalent vaccine that is safe and immunogenic against both biotypes (El Tor and classical) and both serotypes (Inaba and Ogawa) of cholera for populations in

  7. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates (United States)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.


    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (000_1) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  8. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D' Evelyn, MP


    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ferromagnetism in undoped One-dimensional GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeganathan


    Full Text Available We report an intrinsic ferromagnetism in vertical aligned GaN nanowires (NW fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy without any external catalyst. The magnetization saturates at ∼0.75 × emu/gm with the applied field of 3000 Oe for the NWs grown under the low-Gallium flux of 2.4 × 10−8 mbar. Despite a drop in saturation magnetization, narrow hysteresis loop remains intact regardless of Gallium flux. Magnetization in vertical standing GaN NWs is consistent with the spectral analysis of low-temperature photoluminescence pertaining to Ga-vacancies associated structural defects at the nanoscale.

  10. Chemical mechanical polishing of freestanding GaN substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜怀跃; 修向前; 刘战辉; 张荣; 华雪梅; 谢自力; 韩平; 施毅; 郑有炓


    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used to produce smooth and scratch-free surfaces for GaN. In the aqueous solution of KOH, GaN is subjected to etching. At the same time, all surface irregularities, including etch pyramids, roughness after mechanical polishing and so on will be removed by a polishing pad. The experiments had been performed under the condition of different abrasive particle sizes of the polishing pad. Also the polishing results for different polishing times are analyzed, and chemical mechanical polishing resulted in an average root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of 0.565 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy.

  11. Photoemission of graded-doping GaN photocathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiao-Qian; Chang Ben-Kang; Wang Xiao-Hui; Li Biao; Du Yu-Jie; Zhang Jun-Ju


    We study the photoemission process of graded-doping GaN photocathode and find that the built-in electric fields can increase the escape probability and the effective diffusion length of photo-generated electrons, which results in the enhancement of quantum efficiency. The intervalley scattering mechanism and the lattice scattering mechanism in high electric fields are also investigated. To prevent negative differential mobility from appearing, the surface doping concentration needs to be optimized, and it is calculated to be 3.19×1017 cm-3. The graded-doping GaN photocathode with higher performance can be realized by further optimizing the doping profile.

  12. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny


    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  13. Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and CVD. (United States)

    Duthie, Susan J


    Epigenetic changes are inherited alterations in DNA that affect gene expression and function without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one epigenetic process implicated in human disease that is influenced by diet. DNA methylation involves addition of a 1-C moiety to cytosine groups in DNA. Methylated genes are not transcribed or are transcribed at a reduced rate. Global under-methylation (hypomethylation) and site-specific over-methylation (hypermethylation) are common features of human tumours. DNA hypomethylation, leading to increased expression of specific proto-oncogenes (e.g. genes involved in proliferation or metastasis) can increase the risk of cancer as can hypermethylation and reduced expression of tumour suppressor (TS) genes (e.g. DNA repair genes). DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), together with the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), facilitate DNA methylation. Abnormal DNA methylation is implicated not only in the development of human cancer but also in CVD. Polyphenols, a group of phytochemicals consumed in significant amounts in the human diet, effect risk of cancer. Flavonoids from tea, soft fruits and soya are potent inhibitors of DNMT in vitro, capable of reversing hypermethylation and reactivating TS genes. Folates, a group of water-soluble B vitamins found in high concentration in green leafy vegetables, regulate DNA methylation through their ability to generate SAM. People who habitually consume the lowest level of folate or with the lowest blood folate concentrations have a significantly increased risk of developing several cancers and CVD. This review describes how flavonoids and folates in the human diet alter DNA methylation and may modify the risk of human colon cancer and CVD.

  14. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs (United States)


    went into compressive stress of 1.3 x 10 dynes/cm2. Results NX • thus show that room-temperature stress in CVD films can be reduced to nearly 35 -4 0...fluorescence working curves. X-ray fluorescence radiation measurements were carried out using a Siemens Crystalloflex 4 x-ray generator with a chromium target x...ray tube (2000 W) and a Siemens Vacuum X-Ray Spectrometer Model VRS. Sample area of measurement was usually 0.50 cm2 . 2= Experimental results will be

  15. CVD growth and processing of graphene for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shishir; Rezvani, Ehsan; Nolan, Hugo; Duesberg, Georg S. [School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); McEvoy, Niall; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Kangho; Peltekis, Nikos; Weidlich, Anne; Daly, Ronan [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    The remarkable properties of graphene have potential for numerous applications; however, their exploitation depends on its reliable production. The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth of graphene on metal surfaces has become one of the most promising strategies for the production of high quality graphene in a scaleable manner. Here, we discuss graphene growth on nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) directly from both gaseous hydrocarbons and solid carbon precursors. Further, we discuss in detail the transfer of graphene films to insulating substrates, by direct and polymer supported transfer methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Radiation Hardness and Linearity Studies of CVD Diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Ghodbane, N; Imhof, A


    We report on the behavior of CVD diamonds under intense electromagnetic radiation and on the response of the detector to high density of deposited energy. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 10 MGy of MeV-range photons and the diamond response to energy depositions of up to 250 GeV/cm^3 has been found to be linear to better than 2 %. These observations make diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector proposed for TESLA.

  17. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Washington, DC; Mao, Ho-kwang [Washington, DC; Yan, Chih-shiue [Washington, DC


    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  18. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers (United States)

    Moore, Arthur W.


    An inductively heated CVD furnace of pilot-plant scale, whose hot zone is 150 mm in diameter x 300 mm in length, has been adapted for continuous coating of ceramic yarns. Coatings at very low pressures are possible in this facility due to the fact that the entire apparatus, including yarn feeding and collecting equipment, is under vacuum. SiC yarn has been coated with 0.1-0.2 microns of BN at yarn speeds of 60 cm/min; a 500-m spool; was coated in about 14 hrs. Coating capacity was tripled by adding pulleys to allow three yarn passes through the furnace.

  19. CVD Diamond Sink Application in High Power 3D MCMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kuo-jun; JIANG Chang-shun; LI Cheng-yue


    As electronic packages become more compact, run at faster speeds and dissipate more heat, package designers need more effective thermal management materials. CVD diamond, because of its high thermal conductivity, low dielectric loss and its great mechanical strength, is an excellent material for three dimensional (3D) multichip modules (MCMs) in the next generation compact high speed computers and high power microwave components. In this paper, we have synthesized a large area freestanding diamond films and substrates, and polished diamond substrates, which make MCMs diamond film sink becomes a reality.

  20. CVD of pure copper films from amidinate precursor



    Copper(I) amidinate [Cu(i-Pr-Me-AMD)]2 was investigated to produce copper films in conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using hydrogen as reducing gas-reagent. Copper films were deposited on steel, silicon, and SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range 200–350°C at a total pressure of 1333 Pa. The growth rate on steel follows the surface reaction between atomic hydrogen and the entire precursor molecule up to 240°C. A significant increase of the growth rate at tempera...

  1. CVD diamond resistor as heater and temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.S.; Aslam, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    Heat generation and temperature control, essential for most heater applications, require different components in a conventional system. We achieve the heat generation and temperature measurement simultaneously by using a single diamond resistor. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) p-type diamond resistors with different dimensions were fabricated on polycrystalline diamond or oxidized Si substrates using diamond film technology compatible with integrated circuit (IC) processing. The temperature response of the resistors was characterized in the temperature range of 25 - 500{degrees}C. Power densities in access of 600 watt/in{sup 2} were achieved.

  2. Development of CVD Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, V.K.; Varadarajan, S.


    A process for depositing CVD mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. Process optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.

  3. Chromized Layers Produced on Steel Surface by Means of CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chemical vapour deposition of chromium on the surface of carbon steel has been investigated using a novel CVD method that combines the low cost of pack cementation method with advantages of vacuum technique. The processes have been performed in chromium chlorides atmosphere at a low pressure range from 1 to 800 hPa, the treatment temperature 800 to 950℃. Studies of the layers thickness, the phase composition, Cr, C and Fe depth profiles in diffusion zone have been conducted. The effect of the vacuum level during the process and the process parameters such as time and temperature on layer diffusion growth on the carbon steel surface has been investigated.

  4. CVD diamond sensor for UV-photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Gervino, G; Lamarina, A M; Palmisano, C; Periale, R; Picchi, P


    A new generation of UV photosensors, based on single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamonds to work optically coupled with large volume two-phase liquid-Ar (LAr) or liquid-Xe (LXe) detectors nowadays under design for the next generation of WIMPs experiments, is under development. Preliminary tests and first calibrations show these devices can have better performance than the existing UV sensitive detectors (higher photosensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratio). I-V characteristics, dark current measurements, linearity response to X-ray irradiation, and alpha-particle energy resolution are reported and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epitaxial nucleation of CVD bilayer graphene on copper. (United States)

    Song, Yenan; Zhuang, Jianing; Song, Meng; Yin, Shaoqian; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Xuewei; Wang, Miao; Xiang, Rong; Xia, Yang; Maruyama, Shigeo; Zhao, Pei; Ding, Feng; Wang, Hongtao


    Bilayer graphene (BLG) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation electronic applications, especially when it exists in the Bernal-stacked form, but its large-scale production remains a challenge. Here we present an experimental and first-principles calculation study of the epitaxial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) nucleation process for Bernal-stacked BLG growth on Cu using ethanol as a precursor. Results show that a carefully adjusted flow rate of ethanol can yield a uniform BLG film with a surface coverage of nearly 90% and a Bernal-stacking ratio of nearly 100% on ordinary flat Cu substrates, and its epitaxial nucleation of the second layer is mainly due to the active CH3 radicals with the presence of a monolayer-graphene-covered Cu surface. We believe that this nucleation mechanism will help clarify the formation of BLG by the epitaxial CVD process, and lead to many new strategies for scalable synthesis of graphene with more controllable structures and numbers of layers.

  6. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman


    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  7. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes (United States)

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo


    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  8. PE-CVD fabrication of germanium nanoclusters for memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerkop, T. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail:; Bugiel, E. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Costina, I. [IHP GmbH, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Ott, A.; Peibst, R.; Hofmann, K.R. [Institut fuer Materialien und Bauelemente der Elektronik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 11a, 30167 Hannover (Germany)


    We have investigated Ge nanoclusters (Ge-NC) embedded in silicon dioxide, whose fundamental properties promise improved characteristics in NC flash memory devices as compared to Si nanoclusters. We present a simple new method, based on plasma-enhanced CVD (PE-CVD) deposition of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) onto SiO{sub 2}, to create gate stacks with embedded Ge-NC at vertically well-controlled positions suitable for use in flash memory devices. This process minimizes the exposure of Ge to environmental influences by depositing a-Ge as well as a SiO{sub 2} cap layer in situ within the same deposition chamber. Subsequent high-temperature anneals compatible with the temperature budget of CMOS processing are used for the actual cluster formation. Variation of annealing temperature and duration of this step as well as the thickness of the initial Ge layer controls the average cluster radius and density, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Measurements of electrical properties show the capability of samples with NC to store charge.

  9. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.


    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  10. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez


    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  11. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大焕; 王坤; 王先平; 陈俊凌; 方前锋


    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  12. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material (United States)

    Zhu, Dahuan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Xianping; Chen, Junling; Fang, Qianfeng


    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  13. Photoluminescence of Zn-implanted GaN (United States)

    Pankove, J. I.; Hutchby, J. A.


    The photoluminescence spectrum of Zn-implanted GaN peaks at 2.87 eV at room temperature. The emission efficiency decreases linearly with the logarithm of the Zn concentration in the range from 1 x 10 to the 18th to 20 x 10 to the 18th Zn/cu cm.

  14. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules (United States)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.


    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  15. Simulation of growing GaN in vertical HVPE reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The paper reports the setting up of a model of fluid dynamic for GaN HVPE system and the simulation. It is found that when the direction of gravity is opposite to the direction of GaCl flow inlet,there exits a distance at which the uniformity of the deposition is optimal. Here the good uniformity of the deposition is obtained when the distance between the substrate and GaCl inlet is 5 cm. The parameters of gas flow used in growing GaN are also optimized. In addition, the influence of gravity and buoyancy on the deposition of GaN is discussed, too. It is found that the angle between the direction of gravity and the direction of GaCl flow inlet has a major effect on the deposition rate and the uniformity of the growth. Compared with the situation when the direction of gravity is the same with the direction of GaCl flow inlet, although the deposition rate of GaN has decreased obviously, the uniformity of the deposition has improved largely when the direction of gravity is opposite to the direction of GaCl flow inlet.

  16. Taevo Gans : särama pandud postmodernism / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi


    Viking Window ASi büroo ja ekspositsioonisaal 1979. a. Jüri Okase projekteeritud endises Paide KEKi remontmehaanikatöökoja hoones Mäos. Sisearhitekt Taevo Gans, kelle projekteeritud on ka ettevõtte juhi töölaud. T. Gansi kommentaarid. Ill.: 6 värv. sisevaadet

  17. Role of biomarkers in predicting CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Hsue, Priscilla


    with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported...... will be needed to help determine the utility of specific markers in predicting CVD risk as well as the mechanism underlying increased CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection....

  18. Radiation effects in GaN devices and materials (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Nelson, Ron; Yeamans, Charles


    Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor having excellent radiation properties. GaN crystal is ionic-covalent with significant iconicity resulting in stronger molecular bond strength, which in in turn leads to excellent radiation hardness. Further, GaN has ultrafast carrier relaxation time. GaN transistors are promising for high-frequency applications due to their large bandgap (3.9eV) and higher breakdown field (NIF) high foot, high yield shots. In 2013 LANSCE run cycle, we tested GaN UV LED devices at 3.1E11 neutrons/cm^2. In 2015-2016 LANSCE run cycles, we have been operating three neutron beam lines with fluence level 1.2E11, 1.5E13, and 1E15 neutrons/cm^2. The irradiated samples include GaN UV LEDs, GaN HEMTs, and GaN substrates. In the experiments up to 2015 run cycle, we have characterized electrical and optical performances of GaN device before and after neutron irradiation, including the device IV curve measurements monitored at over the three months neutron irradiation time, and device IV curve measurements before and after NIF high yield shot irradiation. We observed no substantial degradation. These experiments firmly established GaN devices as the radiation hard platform of the next generation fusion plasma diagnostic instruments.

  19. GaN as a radiation hard particle detector (United States)

    Grant, J.; Bates, R.; Cunningham, W.; Blue, A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Vaitkus, J.; Gaubas, E.; O'Shea, V.


    Semiconductor tracking detectors at experiments such as ATLAS and LHCb at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be subjected to intense levels of radiation. The proposed machine upgrade, the Super-LHC (SLHC), to 10 times the initial luminosity of the LHC will require detectors that are ultra-radiation hard. Much of the current research into finding a detector that will meet the requirements of the SLHC has focused on using silicon substrates with enhanced levels of oxygen, for example Czochralski silicon and diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, and into novel detector structures such as 3D devices. Another avenue currently being investigated is the use of wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Both SiC and GaN should be intrinsically more radiation hard than silicon. Pad and guard ring structures were fabricated on three epitaxial GaN wafers. The epitaxial GaN thickness was either 2.5 or 12 μm and the fabricated detectors were irradiated to various fluences with 24 GeV/c protons and 1 MeV neutrons. Detectors were characterised pre- and post-irradiation by performing current-voltage ( I- V) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements. Devices fabricated on 12 μm epitaxial GaN irradiated to fluences of 1016 protons cm-2 and 1016 neutrons cm-2 show maximum CCE values of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to a maximum CCE of 53% of the unirradiated device.

  20. CVD Lu(2)O(3):Eu coatings For Advanced Scintillators. (United States)

    Topping, Stephen G; Sarin, V K


    Currently Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) scintillators can only be fabricated via hot-pressing and pixelization, which is commercially not viable, thus restricting their use. Chemical vapor deposition is being developed as an alternative manufacturing process. Columnar coatings of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) have been achieved using the halide-CO(2)-H(2) system, clearly signifying feasibility of the CVD process. Characterization of the coatings using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used as an aid to optimize process parameters and attain highly oriented and engineered coating structures. These results have clearly demonstrated that this process can be successfully used to tailor sub-micron columnar growth of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+), with the potential of ultra high resolution x-ray imaging.

  1. CVD synthesis of carbon-based metallic photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zakhidov, A A; Baughman, R H; Iqbal, Z


    Three-dimensionally periodic nanostructures on the scale of hundreds of nanometers, known as photonic crystals, are attracting increasing interest because of a number of exciting predicted properties. In particular, interesting behavior should be obtainable for carbon- based structures having a dimensional scale larger than fullerenes and nanotubes, but smaller than graphitic microfibers. We show here how templating of porous opals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows us to obtain novel types of graphitic nanostructures. We describe the synthesis of new cubic forms of carbon having extended covalent connectivity in three dimensions, which provide high electrical conductivity and unit cell dimensions comparable to optical wavelengths. Such materials are metallic photonic crystals that show intense Bragg diffraction. (14 refs).

  2. High-rate diamond deposition by microwave plasma CVD (United States)

    Li, Xianglin

    In this dissertation, the growth of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond thin films is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The goal of this research is to deposit high quality HOD (Highly Oriented Diamond) films with a growth rate greater than 1 mum/hr. For the (100)-oriented HOD films, the growth rate achieved by the traditional process is only 0.3 mum/hr while the theoretical limit is ˜0.45 mum/hr. This research increases the growth rate up to 5.3 mum/hr (with a theoretical limit of ˜7 mum/hr) while preserving the crystal quality. This work builds a connection between the theoretical study of the CVD process and the experimental research. The study is extended from the growth of regular polycrystalline diamond to highly oriented diamond (HOD) films. For the increase of the growth rate of regular polycrystalline diamond thin films, a scaling growth model developed by Goodwin is introduced in details to assist in the understanding of the MPCVD (Microwave Plasma CVD) process. Within the Goodwin's scaling model, there are only four important sub-processes for the growth of diamond: surface modification, adsorption, desorption, and incorporation. The factors determining the diamond growth rate and film quality are discussed following the description of the experimental setup and process parameters. Growth rate and crystal quality models are reviewed to predict and understand the experimental results. It is shown that the growth rate of diamond can be increased with methane input concentration and the amount of atomic hydrogen (by changing the total pressure). It is crucial to provide enough atomic hydrogen to conserve crystal quality of the deposited diamond film. The experimental results demonstrate that for a fixed methane concentration, there is a minimum pressure for growth of good diamond. Similarly, for a fixed total pressure, there is a maximum methane concentration for growth of good diamond, and this maximum methane concentration increases

  3. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship? (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed


    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  4. Q-factors of CVD monolayer graphene and graphite inductors (United States)

    Wang, Zidong; Zhang, Qingping; Peng, Pei; Tian, Zhongzheng; Ren, Liming; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Ru; Wen, Jincai; Fu, Yunyi


    A carbon-based inductor may serve as an important passive component in a carbon-based radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuit (IC). In this work, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesized monolayer graphene and graphite inductors are fabricated and their Q-factors are investigated. We find that the large series resistance of signal path (including coil resistance and contact resistance) in monolayer graphene inductors causes negative Q-factors at the whole frequency range in measurement. Comparatively, some of the graphite inductors have all of their Q-factors above zero, due to their small signal path resistance. We also note that some other graphite inductors have negative Q-factor values at low frequency regions, but positive Q-factor values at high frequency regions. With an equivalent circuit model, we confirm that the negative Q-factors of some graphite inductors at low frequency regions are related to their relatively large contact resistances, and we are able to eliminate these negative Q-factors by improving the graphite-metal contact. Furthermore, the peak Q-factor (Q p) can be enhanced by lowering down the resistance of graphite coil. For an optimized 3/4-turn graphite inductor, the measured maximum Q-factor (Q m) can reach 2.36 and the peak Q-factor is theoretically predicted by the equivalent circuit to be as high as 6.46 at a high resonant frequency, which is beyond the testing frequency range. This research indicates that CVD synthesized graphite thin film is more suitable than graphene for fabricating inductors in carbon-based RF IC in the future.

  5. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.


    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  6. A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--CVD growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride. (United States)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo


    Direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication.

  7. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng


    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ˜1 μm and a length of ˜15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm-2. The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  8. Structures, nanomechanics, and disintegration of single-walled GaN nanotubes: atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)


    We have investigated the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of single-walled GaN nanotubes by using atomistic simulations and a Tersoff-type potential. The Tersoff potential for GaN effectively describes the properties of GaN nanotubes. The nanomechanics of GaN nanotubes under tensile and compressive loadings have also been investigated, and Young's modulus has been calculated. The caloric curves of single-walled GaN nanotubes can be divided into three regions corresponding to nanotubes, the disintegrating range, and vapor. Since the stability or the stiffness of a tube decreases with increasing curving sheet-to-tube strain energy, the disintegration temperatures of GaN nanotubes are closely related to the curving sheet-to-tube strain energy.

  9. Study of radiation detection properties of GaN pn diode (United States)

    Sugiura, Mutsuhito; Kushimoto, Maki; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kohei; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yoku; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru; Nakano, Takayuki


    Recently, GaN, which has remarkable properties as a material for optical devices and high-power electron devices, has also attracted attention as a material for radiation detectors. We previously suggested the use of BGaN as a neutron detector material. However, the radiation detection characteristics of GaN itself are not yet adequately understood. For realizing a BGaN neutron detector, the understanding of the radiation detection characteristics of GaN, which is a base material of the neutron detector, is important. In this study, we evaluated the radiation detection characteristics of GaN. We performed I-V and energy spectrum measurements under alpha ray, gamma ray, and thermal neutron irradiations to characterize the radiation detection characteristics of a GaN diode. The obtained results indicate that GaN is an effective material for our proposed new BGaN-based neutron detector.

  10. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination (United States)


    from evaluating these detectors are summarized as, 1) semi-insulating GaN [1] does not show radiation response due to the high density carrier...Praneeth Kandlakunta, 2012 2) “ Evaluation of GaN as a Radiation Detection Material “, Jinghui Wang, 2012 Journal Articles: 1) P. Kandlakunta... Evaluation of GaN as a Radiation Detection Material. Thesis,The Ohio State University, 2012. 8. Kandlakunta, P., Gamma Rays Rejection in a Gadolinium based

  11. Fully Coupled Thermoelectromechanical Analysis of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor Degradation (United States)


    multi-dimensional continuum model of the thermoelectromechanics of GaN HEMTs is presented and discussed. The governing equations are those of linear...understanding the mechanisms of both electrical and mechanical degradation in GaN HEMTs . Various possible contributors to degradation are discussed...layers in conventional GaN HEMTs , there is another limit, observed following sustained operation at high current/voltage levels, wherein highly

  12. Preparation and properties of GaN films on Si(111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莺歌; 马洪磊; 郝晓涛; 马瑾; 薛成山; 庄惠照


    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) films were prepared on Si(111) substrates by sputtering post-annealing-reaction technique. XRD, XPS, and SEM measurement results indicate that polycrystalline GaN with hexagonal structure was successfully prepared. Intense room- temperature photoluminescence that peaked at 354 nm of the films is observed. The bandgap of these films has a blueshift with respect to bulk GaN.

  13. Thermal Annealing induced relaxation of compressive strain in porous GaN structures

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed


    The effect of annealing on strain relaxation in porous GaN fabricated using electroless chemical etching is presented. The Raman shift of 1 cm-1 in phonon frequency of annealed porous GaN with respect to as-grown GaN corresponds to a relaxation of compressive strain by 0.41 ± 0.04 GPa. The strain relief promises a marked reduction in threading dislocation for subsequent epitaxial growth.

  14. Development of atmospheric pressure CVD processes for highquality transparent conductive oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A. de; Deelen, J. van; Poodt, P.W.G.; Mol, A.M.B. van; Spee, C.I.M.A.; Grob, F.; Kuypers, A.


    For the past decade TNO has been involved in the research and development of atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) and plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) processes for deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO), such as tin oxide and zinc oxide. It is shown that by combining precursor development, fundam

  15. Simulation and experimental study of CVD process for low temperature nanocrystalline silicon carbide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Amit; Prakash, Jyoti, E-mail:; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Chakravartty, Jayanta K.


    Highlights: • Parametric simulation was carried out for specially designed CVD reactor. • Effect of fluid velocity, heat flow and concentration were studied in CVD reactor. • Coating study carried out using low temperature and environmental safe CVD process. • Dense and uniform nanocrystalline SiC film was coated on zircaloy substrate. - Abstract: There is a huge requirement for development of a coating technique in nuclear industry, which is environmentally safe, economical and applicable to large scale components. In this view, simulation of gas-phase behavior in specially designed CVD reactor was carried out using computational tool, COMSOL. There were two important zones in CVD reactor first one is precursor vaporization zone and second one is coating zone. Optimized parameters for coating were derived from the simulation of gas phase dynamics in both zone of CVD reactor. The overall effect of fluid velocity, heat flow and concentration profile showed that Re = 54 is the optimum reaction condition for uniform coating in CVD system. In CVD coating experiments a synthesized halogen free, non-toxic and non-corrosive silicon carbide precursor was used. Uniform coating of SiC was obtained on zircaloy substrate at 900 °C using as synthesized organosilicon precursor. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis show that dense nano crystalline SiC film was deposited on zircaloy substrate.

  16. Vascular calcifications as prognostic markers of CVD events in chest CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.A.


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common diseases affecting people throughout the world and second only to cancer as the most frequent cause of death in the Netherlands. Early detection of asymptomatic individuals at high risk of developing CVD events is an important goal since modific

  17. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E


    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  18. Formation of Amine Groups on the Surface of GaN: A Method for Direct Biofunctionalization (United States)


    the formation of surface sensitive GaN /AlGaN two- dimensional electron gas HEMT devices [5–14]. Furthermore, GaN is robust in aqueous solutions [15...variations are particularly detrimental to GaN HEMT sensors, as they are highly sensitive to the separation between the target and the device surface. Because...locate /apsuscFormation of amine groups on the surface of GaN : A method for direct biofunctionalization R. Stine, B.S. Simpkins, S.P. Mulvaney, L.J

  19. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi


    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  20. Demonstration of flexible thin film transistors with GaN channels (United States)

    Bolat, S.; Sisman, Z.; Okyay, A. K.


    We report on the thin film transistors (TFTs) with Gallium Nitride (GaN) channels directly fabricated on flexible substrates. GaN thin films are grown by hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD) at 200 °C. TFTs exhibit 103 on-to-off current ratios and are shown to exhibit proper transistor saturation behavior in their output characteristics. Gate bias stress tests reveal that flexible GaN TFTs have extremely stable electrical characteristics. Overall fabrication thermal budget is below 200 °C, the lowest reported for the GaN based transistors so far.

  1. Spontaneous nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires: the fundamental role of crystal polarity. (United States)

    Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Kong, Xiang; Gotschke, Tobias; Calarco, Raffaella; Geelhaar, Lutz; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver


    We experimentally investigate whether crystal polarity affects the growth of GaN nanowires in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and whether their formation has to be induced by defects. For this purpose, we prepare smooth and coherently strained AlN layers on 6H-SiC(0001) and SiC(0001̅) substrates to ensure a well-defined polarity and an absence of structural and morphological defects. On N-polar AlN, a homogeneous and dense N-polar GaN nanowire array forms, evidencing that GaN nanowires form spontaneously in the absence of defects. On Al-polar AlN, we do not observe the formation of Ga-polar GaN NWs. Instead, sparse N-polar GaN nanowires grow embedded in a Ga-polar GaN layer. These N-polar GaN nanowires are shown to be accidental in that the necessary polarity inversion is induced by the formation of Si(x)N. The present findings thus demonstrate that spontaneously formed GaN nanowires are irrevocably N-polar. Due to the strong impact of the polarity on the properties of GaN-based devices, these results are not only essential to understand the spontaneous formation of GaN nanowires but also of high technological relevance.

  2. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baaj MK


    Full Text Available Hani Barakat1, Hanniya Barakat1, Mohamad K Baaj21Kalamoon Private University Medical School, Deir Attieh, Syria; 2Aleppo University Medical School, Aleppo, SyriaPurpose: Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally.Methods: PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates.Results: Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years.Conclusion: Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.Keywords: Syria, CVD, obesity, risk

  3. Fabrication of Syringe-Shaped GaN Nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Cheng-Shan; CAO Yu-Ping; WU Yu-Xin; ZHUANG Hui-Zhao; TIAN De-Heng; LIU Yi-An; HE Jian-Ting; AI Yu-Jie; SUN Li-Li; WANG Fu-Xue


    @@ Syringe-shaped GaN nanorods are synthesized on Si(111) substrates by annealing sputtered Ga2O3/BN films under flowing ammonia at temperature of 950° C. Most of the nanorods consist of a main rod and a top needle, looking like a syringe. X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction confirm that the syringe-shaped nanorods are hexagonal wurtzite GaN. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that these nanorods are as long as several micrometres, with diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm. In addition to the BN intermediate layer, the proper annealing temperature has been demonstrated to be a crucial factor for the growth of syringe-shaped nanorods by this method.

  4. ITON Schottky contacts for GaN based UV photodetectors (United States)

    Vanhove, N.; John, J.; Lorenz, A.; Cheng, K.; Borghs, G.; Haverkort, J. E. M.


    Lateral Schottky ultraviolet detectors were fabricated in GaN using indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) as a contact metal. The GaN semiconductor material was grown on 2 in. sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The Schottky contact has been realized using ITON that has been deposited using sputter techniques. I- V characteristics have been measured with and without UV illumination. The device shows photo-to-dark current ratios of 10 3 at -1 V bias. The spectral responsivity of the UV detectors has been determined. The high spectral responsivity of more than 30 A/W at 240 nm is explained by a high internal gain caused by generation-recombination centers at the ITON/GaN interface. Persistent photocurrent effect has been observed in UV light (on-off) switching operation, time constant and electron capture coefficient of the transition has been determined.

  5. Indirect interband transition in hexagonal GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancry, O; Pichonat, E [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (LASIR), UMR CNRS 8516, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, bat C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Farvacque, J-L [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR CNRS 8207, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, bat C6, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Gaquiere, C, E-mail: [Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)


    In this paper, we report on optical investigations with Raman experiment to underline a new ultraviolet (UV) luminescence band in hexagonal gallium nitride (GaN) at 4.56 eV. GaN is a direct band gap semiconductor, the photoluminescence peak corresponding to the energy gap at 3.43 eV dominates the spectrum. Nevertheless, other electronic interband transitions can appear on the spectrum: the electronic indirect interband transitions. We attribute one of them to the observed new photoluminescence band at 4.56 eV. This interpretation is supported by photoluminescence spectra obtained on three different samples at room temperature and at -50 deg. C with UV excitation source: mbd-266 nm solid laser (4.66 eV) and by the study of three criteria: the partly opposite parities of initial and final wave function, the implication of acoustic phonons and temperature control.

  6. Step bunching on the vicinal GaN(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana Murty, M. V.; Fini, P.; Stephenson, G. B.; Thompson, Carol; Eastman, J. A.; Munkholm, A.; Auciello, O.; Jothilingam, R.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.


    Nominally 2{sup o} vicinal GaN(0001) surfaces exhibit monolayer-height steps at 990{sup o}C in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment. Real-time x-ray scattering observations at 715--990{sup o}C indicate that there is a tendency for step bunching during growth. Below 850{sup o}C, step bunches nucleated during growth remain and coarsen after growth, while above 850{sup o}C, the surface reverts to monolayer-height steps after growth. Surfaces vicinal toward the {l_brace}1{bar 1}00{r_brace} and the {l_brace}11{bar 2}0{r_brace} planes exhibit similar behavior. We suggest a simple equilibrium surface orientational phase diagram for vicinal GaN(0001) that is consistent with these observations.

  7. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas


    Full Text Available Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  8. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors. (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas


    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm²/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm²/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  9. Optical properties of Yb ions in GaN epilayer (United States)

    Jadwisienczak, W. M.; Lozykowski, H. J.


    In recent years, an important effort in semiconductor materials research has been devoted to III-nitrides semiconductors doped with rare earth ions due to the high potential of these materials in light-emitting device applications. Ytterbium (Yb 3+) is one of a few lanthanide ions which have not been investigated as an optically active center in these materials yet. In this paper we report the observation of luminescence from GaN films grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and doped by implantation with Yb 3+ ions. The high resolution photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra of GaN:Yb 3+ were studied at different excitation conditions in temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K and revealed weak thermal quenching. The luminescence emission lines are assigned to transitions between the spin-orbit levels 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 of Yb 3+ (4f 13). The analysis of the Yb luminescence spectra allowed us to suggest the energy level diagram of the crystal-field-split 4f 13 levels for the Yb ion center. The most probable lattice location of Yb in GaN is the substitutional Ga site. Furthermore, the luminescence kinetics of internal transitions of Yb 3+ incorporated in GaN was investigated by means of decay and time-resolved luminescence measurements. It was found that the ytterbium decay is non-exponential with dominant exponential term of ˜100 μs with little dependence on the ambient temperature. The results indicate that Yb-doped GaN epilayer may be suitable as a material for near infrared optoelectronic devices.

  10. Temperature Dependence of GaN HEMT Small Signal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Darwish


    Full Text Available This study presents the temperature dependence of small signal parameters of GaN/SiC HEMTs across the 0–150°C range. The changes with temperature for transconductance (m, output impedance (ds and ds, feedback capacitance (dg, input capacitance (gs, and gate resistance (g are measured. The variations with temperature are established for m, ds, ds, dg, gs, and g in the GaN technology. This information is useful for MMIC designs.

  11. Photoluminescence of ion-implanted GaN (United States)

    Pankove, J. I.; Hutchby, J. A.


    Thirty-five elements were implanted in GaN. Their photoluminescence spectra were measured and compared to those of an unimplanted control sample. Most impurities emit a peak at about 2.15 eV. Mg, Zn, Cd, Ca, As, Hg, and Ag have more characteristic emissions. Zn provides the most efficient recombination center. A set of midgap states is generated during the damage-annealing treatment.

  12. Room Temperature Ultralow Threshold GaN Nanowire Polariton Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan


    We report ultralow threshold polariton lasing from a single GaN nanowire strongly coupled to a large-area dielectric microcavity. The threshold carrier density is 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of photon lasing observed in the same device, and 2 orders of magnitude lower than any existing room-temperature polariton devices. Spectral, polarization, and coherence properties of the emission were measured to confirm polariton lasing. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. Model for radiation damage buildup in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A.I. [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Karaseov, P.A., E-mail: [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Kataev, A.Yu. [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Azarov, A.Yu. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, Oslo NO-0316 (Norway); Kucheyev, S.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    We propose a model that explains both saturation and a shift of the maximum of bulk disorder profiles in ion-implanted GaN. Our model is based on two main assumptions that (i) the advancing amorphous/crystalline interface acts as a perfect sink for mobile point defects generated in the crystal bulk and (ii) the diffusion length of mobile defects increases with increasing ion fluence due to saturation of defect sinks in the bulk.

  14. Voltage controlled terahertz transmission through GaN quantum wells


    Laurent, T.; Sharma, R.; Torres, J.; Nouvel, P; Blin, S.; Varani, L.; Cordier, Y.; Chmielowska, M.; Chenot, S.; Faurie, JP; Beaumont, B.; P. Shiktorov; Starikov, E.; Gruzinskis, V.; Korotyevyev, V.


    We report measurements of radiation transmission in the 0.220--0.325 THz frequency domain through GaN quantum wells grown on sapphire substrates at room and low temperatures. A significant enhancement of the transmitted beam intensity with the applied voltage on the devices under test is found. For a deeper understanding of the physical phenomena involved, these results are compared with a phenomenological theory of light transmission under electric bias relating the transmission enhancement ...

  15. Metal contacts on ZnSe and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxstad, K J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science and Mineral Engineering


    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the development of blue light emitting materials and devices. The focus has been on GaN and ZnSe, direct band gap semiconductors with bands gaps of 3.4 and 2.6 eV, respectively. To have efficient, reliable devices it is necessary to have thermally and electrically stable Ohmic contacts. This requires knowledge of the metal-semiconductor reaction behavior. To date few studies have investigated this behavior. Much information has accumulated over the years on the behavior of metals on Si and GaAs. This thesis provides new knowledge for the more ionic wide band gap semiconductors. The initial reaction temperatures, first phases formed, and phase stability of Pt, Pd, and Ni on both semiconductors were investigated. The reactions of these metals on ZnSe and GaN are discussed in detail and correlated with predicted behavior. In addition, comparisons are made between these highly ionic semiconductors and Si and GaAs. The trends observed here should also be applicable to other II-VI and III-Nitride semiconductor systems, while the information on phase formation and stability should be useful in the development of contacts for ZnSe and GaN devices.

  16. Rare earth point defects in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, S.


    In this work we investigate rare earth doped GaN, by means of theoretical simulations. The huge unit cells necessary to model the experimental system, where dilute amount of rare earth ions are used, are handled with the charge self consistent density-functional based-tight binding (SCC-DFTB) calculational scheme. The method has been extended to include LDA+U and simplified self interaction corrected (SIC)-like potentials for the simulation of systems with localised and strongly correlated electrons. A set of tight-binding parameters has been created to model the interaction of GaN with some dopants, including a selection of lanthanide ions interesting due to their optical or magnetic properties (Pr, Eu, Gd, Er and Tm). The f-electrons were treated as valence electrons. A qualitatively correct description of the band gap is crucial for the simulation of rare earth doped GaN, because the luminescence intensity of the implanted samples depends on the size of the host band gap and because the rare earths could introduce charge transition levels near the conduction band. In this work these levels are calculated with the Slater-Janak (SJ) transition state model, which allows an approximate calculation of the charge transition levels by analysing the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the DFT. (orig.)

  17. Annealing of GaN under high pressure of nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Porowski, S; Kolesnikov, D; Lojkowski, W; Jager, V; Jäger, W; Bogdanov, V; Suski, T; Krukowski, S


    Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride are basic materials for blue optoelectronic devices. The essential part of the technology of these devices is annealing at high temperatures. Thermodynamic properties of the Ga-N system and their consequences to application of high nitrogen pressure for the annealing of GaN based materials are summarized. The diffusion of Zn, Mg and Au in high dislocation density heteroepitaxial GaN/Al sub 2 O sub 3 layers will be compared with the diffusion in dislocation-free GaN single crystals and homoepitaxial layers. It will be shown that high dislocation density can drastically change the diffusion rates, which strongly affects the performance of nitride devices. Inter-diffusion of Al, Ga and In in AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures will be also considered. It will be shown that in contrast to stability of metal contacts, which is strongly influenced by dislocations, the inter-diffusion of group III atoms in QW structures is not affected strongly by...

  18. Study of neutron irradiated structures of ammonothermal GaN (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Deveikis, L.; Meskauskaite, D.; Miasojedovas, S.; Mickevicius, J.; Pavlov, J.; Pukas, K.; Vaitkus, J.; Velicka, M.; Zajac, M.; Kucharski, R.


    Study of the radiation damage in GaN-based materials becomes an important aspect for possible application of the GaN detectors in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider and at other particle acceleration facilities. Intentionally doped and semi-insulating bulk ammonothermal GaN materials were studied to reveal the dominant defects introduced by reactor neutron irradiations. These radiation defects have been identified by combining electron spin resonance and transmission spectroscopy techniques. Characteristics of carrier lifetime dependence on neutron irradiation fluence were examined. Variations of the response of the capacitor-type sensors with neutron irradiation fluence have been correlated with the carrier lifetime changes. The measurements of the photoconductivity and photoluminescence transients have been used to study the variation of the parameters of radiative and non-radiative recombination. The examined characteristics indicate that AT GaN as a particle sensing material is radiation hard up to high hadron fluences  ⩾1016 cm‑2.

  19. Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min


    We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

  20. Fabrication of GaN structures with embedded network of voids using pillar patterned GaN templates (United States)

    Svensk, O.; Ali, M.; Riuttanen, L.; Törmä, P. T.; Sintonen, S.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.


    In this paper we report on the MOCVD growth and characterization of GaN structures and InGaN single quantum wells grown on pillar patterned GaN/sapphire templates. During the regrowth a network of voids was intentionally formed at the interface of sapphire substrate and GaN epitaxial layer. The regrowth process was found to decrease the threading dislocation density of the overgrown layer. The quantum well sample grown on patterned template showed significantly higher optical output in photoluminescence measurements compared to the reference sample with identical internal quantum efficiency characteristics. We attribute the increase to enhanced light extraction efficiency caused by strong scattering and redirection of light from the scattering elements.

  1. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond (United States)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.


    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  2. Electrical conduction in polycrystalline CVD diamond: Temperature dependent impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, H.; Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.B. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rudkin, R.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    In this paper, we report the first measurement of impedance on freestanding diamond films from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz up to 300 C. A wide range of CVD materials have been investigated, but here we concentrate on 'black' diamond grown by MWPECVD. The Cole-Cole (Z' via Z{sup ''}) plots are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent resistance and capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 M{omega} at room temperature to 4 k{omega} at 300 C, with an activation energy around 0.51 eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 10{sup 2} pF up to 300 C, suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400 C, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the ac polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Contact resistance study of various metal electrodes with CVD graphene (United States)

    Gahoi, Amit; Wagner, Stefan; Bablich, Andreas; Kataria, Satender; Passi, Vikram; Lemme, Max C.


    In this study, the contact resistance of various metals to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer graphene is investigated. Transfer length method (TLM) structures with varying channel widths and separation between contacts have been fabricated and electrically characterized in ambient air and vacuum condition. Electrical contacts are made with five metals: gold, nickel, nickel/gold, palladium and platinum/gold. The lowest value of 92 Ω μm is observed for the contact resistance between graphene and gold, extracted from back-gated devices at an applied back-gate bias of -40 V. Measurements carried out under vacuum show larger contact resistance values when compared with measurements carried out in ambient conditions. Post processing annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in argon-95%/hydrogen-5% atmosphere results in lowering the contact resistance value which is attributed to the enhancement of the adhesion between metal and graphene. The results presented in this work provide an overview for potential contact engineering for high performance graphene-based electronic devices.

  4. Purification of carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD (United States)

    Porro, S.; Musso, S.; Vinante, M.; Vanzetti, L.; Anderle, M.; Trotta, F.; Tagliaferro, A.


    We show the results of a set of purifications on carbon nanotubes (CNT) by acid and basic treatments. CNTs were obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor at 850 °C in a CVD growth system, by means of a growth process catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene in the precursors mixture. The purification procedures involved HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HSO 3Cl and NaOH for different process temperatures. As-grown CNTs showed a consistent presence of metal catalyst (about 6 wt%), evidenced by TGA. The purification treatments led to a certain amount of opening of the CNT tips, with a consequent loss of metal catalyst encapsulated in tips. This is also confirmed by BET analysis, which showed an increase of the surface area density of CNT after the purification. FT-IR and XPS revealed the presence of carboxylic groups on the CNT surface chemically modified by the harsh environment of the purification process. Among the various treatments that have been tested, the 1:3 solution of nitric and sulphuric acid was the most effective in modifying the CNT surface and inducing the formation of functional groups.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene (United States)

    Sherehiy, Andriy; Jayasinghe, Ruwantha; Stallard, Robert; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sidorov, Anton; Benjamin, Daniel; Jiang, Zhigang; Yu, Qingkai; Wu, Wei; Bao, Jiming; Liu, Zhihong; Pei, Steven; Chen, Yong


    The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP ˜ + 30 μV/K in ambient conditions and saturated at a negative value as low as ˜ -75 μV/K after vacuum-annealing at 500 K in a vacuum of ˜10-7 Torr. The observed p-type behavior under ambient conditions is attributed to the oxygen doping, while the n-type behavior under degassed conditions is due to electron doping from SiO2 surface states. It was observed that the sign of the TEP switched from negative to positive for the degassed graphene when exposed to acceptor gases. Conversely, the TEP of vacuum-annealed graphene exposed to the donor gases became even more negative than the TEP of vacuum-annealed sample.

  6. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚


    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  7. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilj, V., E-mail: [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers’ traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers’ capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  8. Excimer Laser Beam Analyzer Based on CVD Diamond (United States)

    Girolami, Marco; Salvatori, Stefano; Conte, Gennaro


    1-D and 2-D detector arrays have been realized on CVD-diamond. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark allowed the fabrication of photoconductive "sandwich" strip (1D) or pixel (2D) detectors: a semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact was used for detector biasing. Cross-talk between pixels was limited by using intermediate guard contacts connected at the same ground potential of the pixels. Each pixel photocurrent was conditioned by a read-out electronics composed by a high sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ ADC converter. The overall 500 μs conversion time allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS. The measured fast photoresponse of the samples in the ns time regime suggests to use the proposed devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The technology of laser beam profiling is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers applications that span from laser-cutting to VLSI and MEMS technologies. Indeed, to improve emission performances, fine tuning of the laser cavity is required. In such a view, the development of a beam-profiler, able to work in real-time between each laser pulse, is mandatory.

  9. A Fast CVD Diamond Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Pernegger, H


    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors were installed in the collimation area of the CERN LHC to study their feasibility as Fast Beam Loss Monitors in a high-radiation environment. The detectors were configured with a fast, radiation-hard pre-amplifier with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The readout was via an oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 1 GHz and a sampling rate of 5 GSPS. Despite the 250 m cable run from the detectors to the oscilloscope, single MIPs were resolved with a 2 ns rise time, a pulse width of 10 ns and a time resolution of less than 1 ns. Two modes of operation were applied. For the analysis of unexpected beam aborts, the loss profile was recorded in a 1 ms buffer and, for nominal operation, the histogram of the time structure of the losses was recorded in synchronism with the LHC period of 89.2 μs. Measurements during the LHC start-up (February to December 2010) are presented. The Diamond Monitors gave an unprecedented insight into the time structure of the beam losses resolving the 400...

  10. Multi-wavelength emitting InGan/GaN quantum well grown on V-shaped gan(1101) microfacet. (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Sil; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Ahn, Haeng-Keun; Lee, June Key; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Shin, Dong-Chan; Lee, In-Hwan


    InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were successfully grown on the inclined GaN(1101) microfacets. Conventional photolithography and subsequent growth of GaN were employed to generate the V-shaped microfacets along (1120) direction. The well-developed microfacets observed by scanning electron microscopy and the clear transmission electron microscope interfacial images indicated that the MQW was successfully grown on the GaN microfacets. Interestingly, cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra measured on the microfacets showed a continuous change in the luminescence peak positions. The CL peaks were shifted to a longer wavelength from 420 nm to 440 nm as the probing points were changed along upward direction. This could be attributed to the nonuniform distribution of the In composition and/or the wavefunction overlapping between adjacent wells. Present works thus propose a novel route to fabricate a monolithic white light emitting diode without phosphors by growing the InGaN/GaN MQWs on (1101) facet.

  11. Dosimetric characterization of CVD diamonds irradiated with 62 MeV proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail:; Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Mongelli, V. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Catania (Italy); Valastro, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita di Florence (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)


    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as on-line radiation dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have produced material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetry applications. In this work the possibility to use a segmented commercial CVD detector in the dosimetry of proton beams has been investigated. The response as function of dose, dose rate, the priming and the rise time have been investigated thoroughly. This study shows the suitability of CVD diamond for dosimetry of clinical 62 MeV proton beams.

  12. Rare earth-doped alumina thin films deposited by liquid source CVD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanvres, J.L.; Meffre, W.; Joubert, J.C.; Senateur, J.P. [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Phys. de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. des Materiaux et du Genie Phys.; Robaut, F. [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d`Heres (France); Broquin, J.E.; Rimet, R. [Laboratoire d`Electromagnetisme, Microondes et Optoelectronique, CNRS-Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electronique et Radioelectricite de Grenoble, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble, Cedex (France)


    Two types of liquid-source CVD processes are proposed for the growth of rare earth-doped alumina thin films suitable as amplifying media for integrated optic applications. Amorphous, transparent, pure and erbium- or neodymium-doped alumina films were deposited between 573 and 833 K by atmospheric pressure aerosol CVD. The rare earth doping concentration increases by decreasing the deposition temperature. The refractive index of the alumina films increases as a function of the deposition temperature from 1.53 at 573 K to 1.61 at 813 K. Neodymium-doped films were also obtained at low pressure by liquid source injection CVD. (orig.) 7 refs.

  13. Theoretical study of Structural and analytical potential energy functions of GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using Density Function Theory,the present work has optimized the equilibrium geometry of GaN. Murrell-Sorbie analytical potential energy functions of GaN have been derived by using ab initio data and the least-square fitting method,and harmonic frequency,force constant and spectroscopic data also have been calculated.

  14. Luminescence evolution of porous GaN thin films prepared via UV-assisted electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, S.F., E-mail: [Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Lee, S.C. [Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, S.S.; Yam, F.K.; Abu Hassan, H.; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)


    Porous gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different surface morphologies and free carriers properties were fabricated from Si-doped GaN thin films using ultra-violet assisted electrochemical etching approach under various etching voltages. Fluctuation of luminescence signals was observed in the photoluminescence spectra of porous GaN thin films. Taking advantage of the spectral sensitivity of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy on semiconductor materials, roles of free carriers and porous structure in controlling luminescence properties of GaN were investigated thoroughly. The results revealed that enhancement in luminescence signal is not always attained upon porosification. Although porosification is correlated to the luminescence enhancement, however, free carrier is the primary factor to enhance luminescence intensity. Due to unavoidable significant reduction of free carriers from Si-doped GaN in the porosification process, control of etching depth (i.e., thickness of porous layer formed from the Si-doped layer) is critical in fabricating porous GaN thin film with enhanced luminescence response. - Highlights: • Various pore morphologies with free carrier properties are produced by Si-doped GaN. • Free carriers are important to control the luminescence signal of porous GaN. • Enhancement of luminescence signal relies on the pore depth of Si-doped layer.

  15. Transmission measurement of the photonic band gap of GaN photonic crystal slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, J.; Roeling, E.M.; Rong, B.; Nguyen, H.M.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.; Rogge, S.; Karouta, F.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.


    A high-contrast-ratio (30 dB) photonic band gap in the near-infrared transmission of hole-type GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) is reported. These crystals are deeply etched in a 650 nm thick GaN layer grown on sapphire. A comparison of the measured spectrum with finite difference time d

  16. Conduction, reverse conduction and switching characteristics of GaN E-HEMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlie; Lindblad Fogsgaard, Martin; Christiansen, Michael Noe;


    In this paper switching and conduction characterization of the GS66508P-E03 650V enhancement mode gallium nitride (GaN) transistor is described. GaN transistors are leading edge technology and as so, their characteristics are less than well documented. The switching characteristics are found using...

  17. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Braniste


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle–cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  18. High-pressure X-ray diffraction study of bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, J.E.; Jakobsen, J.M.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    Bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN have been studied by high-pressure energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. Pressure-induced structural phase transitions from the wurtzite to the NaCl phase were observed in both materials. The transition pressure was found to be 40 GPa for the bulk-crystalline GaN, while...

  19. Terahertz study of m-plane GaN thin fims (United States)

    Quadir, Shaham; Jang, Der-Jun; Lin, Ching-Liang; Lo, Ikai


    We investigate the optical properties of m-plane GaN thin films using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. The m-plane GaN thin films were grown on γ-LiAlO2 substrates with buffer layers of low temperature grown GaN. The thin films were illuminated with terahertz radiation generated by a LT-GaAs antenna and the transmitted signal was detected by a ZnTe crystal. The polarization of the terahertz wave was chosen to be either parallel or perpendicular to the GaN [0001] direction. We compared the transmitted signals of the m-plane GaN thin films to that of the LAO substrate. The samples as well as the LAO substrate exhibited polarization dependence of absorption in terahertz spectrum. The carrier densities and the mobilities were derived from the transmittance of the THz wave using extended Drude model. We found, in all samples, both the carrier densities and mobilities along the GaN [0001] direction were smaller than those along the GaN [1120] direction due to the stripe formation along the GaN [1120].

  20. Vertical nonpolar growth templates for light emitting diodes formed with GaN nanosheets (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Wei; Lin, Yen-Ting; Ahn, Byungmin; Stewart, Lawrence S.; Daniel Dapkus, P.; Nutt, Steven R.


    We demonstrate that nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be generated on uniform GaN nanosheet arrays grown vertically from the (0001)-GaN bulk material. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on the facets of these nanosheets are demonstrated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Owing to the high aspect ratio of the GaN nanosheet structure, the MQWs predominantly grow on nonpolar GaN planes. The results suggest that GaN nanosheets provide a conduction path for device fabrication and also a growth template to reduce the piezoelectric field inside the active region of InGaN-based light emitting diodes.

  1. Evaluation of subsurface damage in GaN substrate induced by mechanical polishing with diamond abrasives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, Hideo, E-mail: [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan); KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeda, Hidetoshi; Kim, Seong-Woo; Aota, Natsuko; Koyama, Koji [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    The relationship between the depth of the subsurface damage (SSD) and the size of the diamond abrasive used for mechanical polishing (MP) of GaN substrates was investigated in detail. GaN is categorized as a hard, brittle material, and material removal in MP proceeds principally to the fracture of GaN crystals. Atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence imaging revealed that the mechanical processing generated surface scratches and SSD. The SSD depth reduced as the diamond abrasive size reduced. A comparison of the relationship between the SSD depth and the diamond abrasive size used in the MP of GaN with the same relationship for typical brittle materials such as glass substrates suggests that the MP of GaN substrates proceeds via the same mechanism as glass.

  2. Frequency response and design consideration of GaN SAM avalanche photodiodes (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Yang, Guofeng; Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Wang, Guosheng


    In this work, a method is developed for estimating the frequency response characteristics of GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM). The method calculates the total diode current with varying frequency by solving transport equations analytically and uses a commercial device simulator as a supplement for determining the exact electrical field profile within the device. Due to the high carrier saturation velocity of GaN, a high-gain-bandwidth product over THz is found achievable for GaN SAM-APDs. The potential performances of GaN SAM-APDs with different structural designs are further compared through numerical studies. It is found that a close-to-reach-through design is attractive for simultaneously achieving both relatively low operation voltage and high working frequency. In addition, transit-time limit and RC-delay limit for the frequency response of GaN SAM-APDs are also discussed.

  3. Surface decomposition and annealing behavior of GaN implanted with Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Hua Ming; Chen Chang Chun; Wang Sen; Zhu De Zhang; Xu Hong Jie


    Investigations on surface decomposition of GaN implanted with low energy (80 keV) Eu ion to a low dose (1 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2), and its annealing behavior under high temperature (1050 degree C) in N sub 2 are performed. The as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN films are characterized by proton elastic scattering (PES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that Eu ion implantation induces radiation defects and decomposition of GaN. The GaN surface decomposition is more serious during high temperature annealing. The atomic ratio of N in as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN film is 47 at.%, 44 at.% and 40 at.%, respectively. As a result, a rough Ga-rich layer is formed at the surface, though the lattice defects are partly removed after high temperature annealing

  4. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping


    Lattice-symmetry-driven epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods is demonstrated. The nanotripods emerge on the top of hexagonal GaN nanowires, which are selectively grown on pillar-patterned GaN templates using molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that two kinds of lattice-symmetry, wurtzite (wz) and zinc-blende (zb), coexist in the GaN nanotripods. Periodical transformation between wz and zb drives the epitaxy of the hierarchical nanotripods with N-polarity. The zb-GaN is formed by the poor diffusion of adatoms, and it can be suppressed by improving the ability of the Ga adatoms to migrate as the growth temperature increased. This controllable epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods allows quantum dots to be located at the phase junctions of the nanotripods and nanowires, suggesting a new recipe for multichannel quantum devices.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial GaN layer laterally overgrown

    CERN Document Server

    Feng Gan; Wang Yu Tian; Yang Hui; Liang Jun Wu; Zheng Wen Li; Jia Quan Jie


    The GaN layer grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on sapphire (0001) has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results show that ELO GaN stripes bend towards the SiN sub x mask in directions perpendicular to the stripe direction. This lead to the GaN (0001) crystal planes in the 'wings' (overgrown GaN) exhibit crystallographic tilts away from those in the 'window' (seed) regions. The GaN (0002) diffraction was used to determine the grain sizes in the wing region and window region, respectively. It is found that the grain size in the wing region increases about three times comparing to those in window region

  6. Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Rakesh


    The demands for high efficiency dc-dc power converters are increasing day by day in various applications such as telecommunication, data-centers, electric vehicles and various renewable energy systems. Silicon (Si) has been used as the semiconductor material in majority of the power devices...... properties of GaN devices can be utilized in power converters to make them more compact and highly efficient. This thesis entitled “Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN devices” focuses on achieving ultra-high conversion efficiency in an isolated dc-dc converter by the optimal utilization of Ga......N devices. Simple replacement of Si or SiC devices with GaN devices in the converter will not give an expected increase in efficiency or any improvement in the performance of the converter. The use of GaN devices has defined another dimension in the design of power converters, which mainly deals...

  7. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth


    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  8. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  9. GaN: From three- to two-dimensional single-layer crystal and its multilayer van der Waals solids (United States)

    Onen, A.; Kecik, D.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.


    Three-dimensional (3D) GaN is a III-V compound semiconductor with potential optoelectronic applications. In this paper, starting from 3D GaN in wurtzite and zinc-blende structures, we investigated the mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of the 2D single-layer honeycomb structure of GaN (g -GaN ) and its bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer van der Waals solids using density-functional theory. Based on high-temperature ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations, we first showed that g -GaN can remain stable at high temperature. Then we performed a comparative study to reveal how the physical properties vary with dimensionality. While 3D GaN is a direct-band-gap semiconductor, g -GaN in two dimensions has a relatively wider indirect band gap. Moreover, 2D g -GaN displays a higher Poisson ratio and slightly less charge transfer from cation to anion. In two dimensions, the optical-absorption spectra of 3D crystalline phases are modified dramatically, and their absorption onset energy is blueshifted. We also showed that the physical properties predicted for freestanding g -GaN are preserved when g -GaN is grown on metallic as well as semiconducting substrates. In particular, 3D layered blue phosphorus, being nearly lattice-matched to g -GaN , is found to be an excellent substrate for growing g -GaN . Bilayer, trilayer, and van der Waals crystals can be constructed by a special stacking sequence of g -GaN , and they can display electronic and optical properties that can be controlled by the number of g -GaN layers. In particular, their fundamental band gap decreases and changes from indirect to direct with an increasing number of g -GaN layers.

  10. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico;


    Background - The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+) or without (CVD-) medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European...... a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits - rather than a medical history of CVD - account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish...

  11. Preparation of Porous GaN Buffer and Its Influence on the Residual Stress of GaN Epilayers Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The preparation of porous structure on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown mixed-polarity GaN epilayers was reported by using the wet chemical etching method. The effect of this porous structure on the residual stress of subsequent-growth GaN epilayers was studied by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum.Substantial decrease in the biaxial stresse can be achieved by employing the porous buffers in the hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) epilayer growth.

  12. Laser-Directed CVD 3D Printing of Refractory Metal Rocket Propulsion Hardware Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, Ultramet will develop a three-dimensional (3D) laser-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) additive manufacturing system to build free-form...

  13. Dietary Choline and Betaine and Risk of CVD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Meyer


    Full Text Available Studies implicate choline and betaine metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO in cardiovascular disease (CVD. We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis to quantify a summary estimated effect of dietary choline and betaine on hard CVD outcomes (incidence and mortality. Eligible studies were prospective studies in adults with comprehensive diet assessment and follow-up for hard CVD endpoints. We identified six studies that met our criteria, comprising 18,076 incident CVD events, 5343 CVD deaths, and 184,010 total participants. In random effects meta-analysis, incident CVD was not associated with choline (relative risk (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.02 or betaine (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.01 intake. Results did not vary by study outcome (incident coronary heart disease, stroke, total CVD and there was no evidence for heterogeneity among studies. Only two studies provided data on phosphatidylcholine and CVD mortality. Random effects meta-analysis did not support an association between choline and CVD mortality (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.35, but one study supported a positive association and there was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 84%, p-value < 0.001. Our findings do not support an association between dietary choline/betaine with incident CVD, but call for further research into choline and CVD mortality.

  14. Ab initio investigations of the strontium gallium nitride ternaries Sr 3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5: Promising materials for optoelectronic

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya


    Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5 could be promising potential materials for applications in the microelectronics, optoelectronics and coating materials areas of research. We studied in detail their structural, elastic, electronic, optical as well as the vibrational properties, by means of density functional theory framework. Both of these ternaries are semiconductors, where Sr3GaN3 exhibits a small indirect gap whereas Sr6GaN5 has a large direct gap. Indeed, their optical properties are reported for radiation up to 40 eV. Charge densities contours, Hirshfeld and Mulliken populations, are reported to investigate the role of each element in the bonding. From the mechanical properties calculation, it is found that Sr6GaN5 is harder than Sr3GaN3, and the latter is more anisotropic than the former. The phonon dispersion relation, density of phonon states and the vibrational stability are reported from the density functional perturbation theory calculations. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  16. Influence of process pressure on β-SiC growth by CVD (United States)

    Andreev, A. A.; Sultanov, A. O.; Gusev, A. S.; Kargin, N. I.; Pavlova, E. P.


    3C-SiC films grown on Si (100) substrates by CVD method using silane-propane- hydrogen system were analyzed for crystallinity at various process pressures. The deposition experiments were carried out in a shower-head type cold-wall CVD reactor. The influence of growth conditions on a structural modification of experimental samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE).

  17. Untersuchungen zum Fräsen mit CVD-diamantbeschichteten Werkzeugen


    Grams, Jörg


    CVD-diamond coatings on cemented carbide substrates have undergone significant developments in recent years. Former CVD-diamond coated tools failed in metal cutting applications due to severe flaking of the diamond layer. Thus, first industrial applications had been restricted to machining of graphite, fibre reinforced plastics and green compacts made of cemented carbide respectively of ceramics. The field of application is widened nowadays towards machining of non ferrous metallic materials ...

  18. Purification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A procedure for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) grown by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon monooxide has been developed. Based on the result from TGA/DTA of as-prepared sample, the oxidation temperature was determined. The process included sonication, oxidation and acid washing steps. The purity and yield after purification were determined and estimated by TEM. Moreover, for the first time, a loop structure for CVD SWNTs has been observed.





    A numerical study is needed to gain insight into the growth mechanism and improve the reactor design or optimize the deposition condition in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this study, we have performed a numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) from trimethyl gallium (TMG) and arsine in a vertical CVD reactor. The effects of operating parameters, such as the rotation velocity of susceptor, inlet velocity, and inlet TMG fraction, are investigated and presented. The ...

  20. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current-voltage characteristic (United States)

    Kukushkin, V. A.


    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current-voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  1. Recent Results from Beam Tests of 3D and Pad pCVD Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wallny, Rainer


    Results from prototypes of a detector using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond with embedded resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond device are presented. A detector system consisting of 3D devices based on poly-crystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond was connected to a multi-channel readout and successfully tested in a 120 GeV/c proton beam at CERN proving for the first time the feasibility of the 3D detector concept in pCVD for particle tracking applications. We also present beam test results on the dependence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on poly-crystalline CVD diamond. The detectors were tested in a 260 MeV/c pion beam over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2 . The pulse height of the sensors was measured with pad readout electronics at a peaking time of 7 ns. Our data from the 2015 beam tests at PSI indicate that the pulse height of poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensor irradiated to 5×1014 neq/cm2 is independent of particle flux...

  2. Current steering effect of GaN nanoporous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chia-Feng, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wang, Jing-Hao; Cheng, Po-Fu; Tseng, Wang-Po; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Wu, Kaun-Chun; Lee, Wen-Che [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    Current steering effect of InGaN light emitting diode (LED) structure was demonstrated by forming a high resistivity GaN nanoporous structure. Disk-array patterns with current-injection bridge structures were fabricated on InGaN LED devices through a focused ion beam (FIB) system. GaN nanoporous structure was formed around the FIB-drilled holes through a electrochemical (EC) wet-etching process on a n-type GaN:Si layer under the InGaN active layer. High emission intensity and small peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the electroluminescence spectra were observed in the EC-treated region compared with the non-treated region. The branch-like nanoporous structure was formed along the lateral etched direction to steer the injection current in 5 μm-width bridge structures. In the FIB-drilled hole structure, high light emission intensity of the central-disk region was observed by enlarging the bridge width to 10 μm, with a 5 μm EC-treated width, that reduced the current steering effect and increased the light scattering effect on the nanoporous structure. The EC-treated GaN:Si nanoporous structure acted as a high light scattering structure and a current steering structure that has potential on the current confinement for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications. - Highlights: • High resistivity nanoporous-GaN formed in InGaN LED through electrochemical process. • Branch-like nanoporous in 5 μm-width bridge structure can steer the injection current. • Nanoporous GaN acted as s light scattering and current steering structures in InGaN LED.

  3. Devices for medical diagnosis with GaN lasers (United States)

    Kwasny, Miroslaw; Mierczyk, Zygmunt


    This paper presents laser-induced fluroescence method (LIF) employing endogenous ("autofluroescence") and exogenous fluorophores. LIF is applied for clinical diagnosis in dermatology, gynaecology, urology, lung tumors as well as for early dentin caries. We describe the analysers with He-Ne, He-Cd, and SHG Nd:YAG lasers and new generation systems based on blue semiconductor GaN lasers that have been implemented into clinical practice till now. The LIF method, fundamental one for many medical applications, with excitation radiation of wavelength 400 nm could be appl,ied only using tunable dye lasers or titanium lasers adequte for laboratory investigations. Development of GaN laser shows possibility to design portable, compact diagnostic devices as multi-channel analysers of fluorescence spectra and surface imaging devoted to clinical application. The designed systems used for spectra measurement and registration of fluorescence images include lasers of power 5-30 mW and generate wavelengths of 405-407 nm. They are widely used in PDT method for investigation of superficial distribution of accumulation kinetics of all known photosensitizers, their elimination, and degradation as well as for treatment of superficial lesions of mucosa and skin. Excitation of exogenous porphrins in Soret band makes possible to estimate their concentration and a period of healthy skin photosensitivity that occurs after photosensitiser injections. Due to high sensitivity of spectrum analysers, properties of photosensitisers can be investigated in vitro (e.g. their aggregation, purity, chromatographic distributions) when their concentrations are 2-3 times lower in comparison to concentrations investigated with typical spectrofluorescence methods. Dentistry diagnosis is a new field in which GaN laser devices can be applied. After induction with blue light, decreased autofluorescence intensity can be observed when dentin caries occur and strong characteristic bands of endogenous porphyrines

  4. GaN Nanowire Devices: Fabrication and Characterization (United States)

    Scott, Reum

    The development of microelectronics in the last 25 years has been characterized by an exponential increase of the bit density in integrated circuits (ICs) with time. Scaling solid-state devices improves cost, performance, and power; as such, it is of particular interest for companies, who gain a market advantage with the latest technology. As a result, the microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10 μm to ~30 nm during the past 40 years. This trend has persisted for 40 years due to optimization, new processing techniques, device structures, and materials. But when noting processor speeds from the 1970's to 2009 and then again in 2010, the implication would be that the trend has ceased. To address the challenge of shrinking the integrated circuit (IC), current research is centered on identifying new materials and devices that can supplement and/or potentially supplant it. Bottom-up methods tailor nanoscale building blocks---atoms, molecules, quantum dots, and nanowires (NWs)---to be used to overcome these limitations. The Group IIIA nitrides (InN, AlN, and GaN) possess appealing properties such as a direct band gap spanning the whole solar spectrum, high saturation velocity, and high breakdown electric field. As a result nanostructures and nanodevices made from GaN and related nitrides are suitable candidates for efficient nanoscale UV/ visible light emitters, detectors, and gas sensors. To produce devices with such small structures new fabrication methods must be implemented. Devices composed of GaN nanowires were fabricated using photolithography and electron beam lithography. The IV characteristics of these devices were noted under different illuminations and the current tripled from 4.8*10-7 A to 1.59*10 -6 A under UV light which persisted for at least 5hrs.

  5. Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakanishi, Jun; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki


    This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700 nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1 W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1 dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN. The configuration of primary visible fiber lasers promises highly efficient, cost-effective, and simple laser systems and will realize visible lasers with photon beam quality and quantity, such as high-power CW or tunable laser systems, compact ultraviolet lasers, and low-cost ultra-short pulse laser systems. We believe that primary visible fiber lasers, especially those excited by GaN laser diodes, will be effective tools for creating the next generation of research and light sources.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  7. Characterization of GaN Nanorods Fabricated Using Ni Nanomasking and Reactive Ion Etching: A Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Large thermal mismatch between GaN surface and sapphire results in compressive stress in Gallium Nitride (GaN layer which degrades the device performance. Nanostructuring the GaN can reduce this stress leading to reduction in Quantum Confined Stark Effect. Aligned GaN nanorods based nanodevices have potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. This paper describes the fabrication of GaN nanorods using Ni nanomasking and reactive ion etching. The morphology of GaN nanorods was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of GaN nanorods were studied by Cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy. CL results revealed the existence of characteristic band-edge luminescence and yellow band luminescence.

  8. MOCVD growth of GaN on Si through novel substrate modification techniques (United States)

    Gagnon, Jarod C.

    GaN is a semiconductor material with great potential for use in high power electronics and optoelectronics due to the high electron mobility, high breakdown voltage, high thermal stability, and large direct bandgap of GaN. Si is a desirable substrate material for GaN heteroepitaxy due to the low cost of production, large wafer sizes available, and current widespread use in the electronics industry. The growth of GaN/Si devices suffers from the lattice and CTE mismatches between GaN and Si and therefore multiple methods of strain reduction have been employed to counter these effects. In this work we presented two novel methods of substrate modification to promote the growth of device quality GaN on Si. Initial work focused on the implantation of AlN/Si(111) substrates with N+ ions below the AlN/Si(111) interface. A reduction in the initial compressive stress in GaN films as well as the degree of tensile stress generation during growth was observed on implanted samples. Optical microscopy of the GaN surfaces showed reduced channeling crack density on implanted substrates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed a disordered layer in the Si substrate at the implantation depth which consisted of a mixture of polycrystalline and amorphous Si. Evidence was provided to suggest that the disordered layer at the implantation depth was acting as a compliant layer which decoupled the GaN film from the bulk Si substrate and partially accommodated the tensile stress formed during growth and cooling. A reduction in threading dislocation (TD) density on ion implanted substrates was also observed. Additional studies showed that by increasing the lateral size of AlN islands, the tensile growth stress and TD density in GaN films on ion implanted substrates could be further reduced. XRD studies showed an expansion of the AlN lattice on implanted substrates with larger lateral island sizes. The final tensile growth stress of films on implanted substrates was further

  9. Field emission from quantum size GaN structures (United States)

    Yilmazoglu, O.; Pavlidis, D.; Litvin, Yu. M.; Hubbard, S.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Mutamba, K.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Litovchenko, V. G.; Evtukh, A.


    Whisker structures and quantum dots fabricated by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of undoped and doped metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN (2×10 17 or 3×10 18 cm -3) are investigated in relation with their field-emission characteristics. Different surface morphologies, corresponding to different etching time and photocurrent, results in different field-emission characteristics with low turn-on voltage down to 4 V/μm and the appearance of quantum-size effect in the I- V curves.

  10. Field emission from quantum size GaN structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmazoglu, O.; Pavlidis, D.; Litvin, Yu.M.; Hubbard, S.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Mutamba, K.; Hartnagel, H.L.; Litovchenko, V.G.; Evtukh, A


    Whisker structures and quantum dots fabricated by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of undoped and doped metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN (2x10{sup 17} or 3x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated in relation with their field-emission characteristics. Different surface morphologies, corresponding to different etching time and photocurrent, results in different field-emission characteristics with low turn-on voltage down to 4 V/{mu}m and the appearance of quantum-size effect in the I-V curves.

  11. Photoluminescence study on Eu-implanted GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chun-Guang; Bian Liu-Fang; Chen Wei-De


    The photoluminescence (PL) properties of Eu-implanted GaN thin films are studied. The experimental results show that the PL intensity is seriously affected by ion implantation conditions. The PL efficiency increases exponentially with annealing temperature increasing up to a maximum temperature of 1050℃. Moreover, the PL intensity for the sample implanted along the channelling direction is nearly twice more than that observed from the sample implanted along the random direction. The thermal quenching of PL intensity from 10K to 300K for sample annealed at 1050℃ is only 42.%.

  12. Acceptor and donor impurities in GaN nanocrystals


    Echeverría-Arrondo, C.; Pérez-Conde, J.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.


    We investigate acceptor and donor states in GaN nanocrystals doped with a single substitutional impurity. Quantum dots (QD's) of zinc-blende structure and spherical shape are considered with the radius ranging from 4.5 to 67.7 A. The size-dependent energy spectra are calculated within the sp3d5s* tight-binding model, which yields a good agreement with the confinement-induced blue shifts observed in undoped QD's. The computed binding energy is strongly enhanced with respect to the experimental...

  13. Stress related aspects of GaN technology physics (United States)

    Suhir, Ephraim


    Simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical models have been developed for the assessment of the combined effect of the lattice and thermal mismatch on the induced stresses in an elongated bi-material assembly, as well as on the thermal mismatch on the thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly, in which the lattice mismatched stresses are eliminated in one way or another. This could be done, e.g., by using a polished or an etched substrate. The analysis is carried out in application to Gallium Nitride (GaN)-Silicon Carbide (SiC) and GaN-diamond (C) filmsubstrate assemblies. The calculated data are obtained, assuming that no annealing or other stress reduction means is applied. The data agree reasonably well with the reported (available) in-situ measurements. The most important conclusion from the computed data is that even if a reasonably good lattice match takes place (as, e.g., in the case of a GaN film fabricated on a SiC substrate, when the mismatch strain is only about 3%) and, in addition, the temperature change (from the fabrication/growth temperature to the operation temperature) is significant (as high as 1000 °C), the thermal stresses are still considerably lower than the lattice-mismatch stresses. Although there are structural and technological means for further reduction of the lattice-mismatch stresses (e.g., by high temperature annealing or by providing one or more buffering layers, or by using patterned or porous substrates), there is still a strong incentive to eliminate completely the lattice mismatch stresses. This seems to be indeed possible, if polished or otherwise flattened (e.g., chemically etched) substrates and sputter deposited GaN film is employed. In such a case only thermal stresses remain, but even these could be reduced, if necessary, by using compliant buffering layers, including layers of variable compliance, or by introducing variable compliance into the properly engineered substrate. In any event, it is expected

  14. Pressure-induced phase transition in GaN nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Q; Zhang, W; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Cui, T; Xie, Y; Liu, J; Zou, G


    High-pressure in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments on GaN nanocrystals with 50 nm diameter have been carried out using a synchrotron x-ray source and a diamond-anvil cell up to about 79 GPa at room temperature. A pressure-induced first-order structural phase transition from the wurtzite-type structure to the rock-salt-type structure starts at about 48.8 GPa. The rock-salt-type phase persists to the highest pressure in our experimental range.

  15. Modelling of GaN quantum dot terahertz cascade laser (United States)

    Asgari, A.; Khorrami, A. A.


    In this paper GaN based spherical quantum dot cascade lasers has been modelled, where the generation of the terahertz waves are obtained. The Schrödinger, Poisson, and the laser rate equations have been solved self-consistently including all dominant physical effects such as piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization in nitride-based QDs and the effects of the temperature. The exact value of the energy levels, the wavefunctions, the lifetimes of electron levels, and the lasing frequency are calculated. Also the laser parameters such as the optical gain, the output power and the threshold current density have been calculated at different temperatures and applied electric fields.

  16. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.


    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  17. Effect of reactor pressure on the growth rate and structural properties of GaN films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI JinYu; HAO Yue; ZHANG JinCheng; YANG LinAn


    The effect of reactor pressure on the growth rate,surface morphology and crystalline quality of GaN films grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is studied.The results show that as the reactor pressure increases from 2500 to 20000 Pa,the GaN surface becomes rough and the growth rate of GaN films decreases.The rough surface morphology is associated with the initial high temperature GaN islands,which are large with low density due to low adatom surface diffusion under high reactor pressure.These islands prolong the occurrence of 2D growth mode and decrease the growth rate of GaN film.Meanwhile,the large GaN islands with low density lead to the reduction of threading dislocation density during subsequent island growth and coalescence,and consequently decrease the full width at half maximum of X-ray rocking curve of the GaN film.

  18. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua-Chiang


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  19. GaN quantum dot polarity determination by X-ray photoelectron diffraction (United States)

    Romanyuk, O.; Bartoš, I.; Brault, J.; Mierry, P. De; Paskova, T.; Jiříček, P.


    Growth of GaN quantum dots (QDs) on polar and semipolar GaN substrates is a promising technology for efficient nitride-based light emitting diodes (LED). The QDs crystal orientation typically repeats the polarity of the substrate. In case of non-polar or semipolar substrates, the polarity of QDs is not obvious. In this article, the polarity of GaN QDs and of underlying layers was investigated nondestructively by X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N heterostructures were grown on the sapphire substrates with (0001) and (1 1 bar 00) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Polar angle dependence of N 1s core-level photoelectron intensities were measured from GaN QDs and compared with the corresponding experimental curves from free-standing GaN crystals. It is confirmed experimentally, that the crystalline orientation of polar (0001) GaN QDs follows the orientation of the (0001) sapphire substrate. In case of semipolar GaN QDs grown on (1 1 bar 00) sapphire substrate, the (11 2 bar 2) polarity of QDs was determined.

  20. Influence of surface scattering on the thermal properties of spatially confined GaN nanofilm (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Zhu, Lin-Li


    Gallium nitride (GaN), the notable representative of third generation semiconductors, has been widely applied to optoelectronic and microelectronic devices due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we investigate the surface scattering effect on the thermal properties of GaN nanofilms. The contribution of surface scattering to phonon transport is involved in solving a Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The confined phonon properties of GaN nanofilms are calculated based on the elastic model. The theoretical results show that the surface scattering effect can modify the cross-plane phonon thermal conductivity of GaN nanostructures completely, resulting in the significant change of size effect on the conductivity in GaN nanofilm. Compared with the quantum confinement effect, the surface scattering leads to the order-of-magnitude reduction of the cross-plane thermal conductivity in GaN nanofilm. This work could be helpful for controlling the thermal properties of GaN nanostructures in nanoelectronic devices through surface engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11302189 and 11321202) and the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130101120175).

  1. Growth of GaN nanowall network on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. (United States)

    Zhong, Aihua; Hane, Kazuhiro


    GaN nanowall network was epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN nanowalls overlap and interlace with one another, together with large numbers of holes, forming a continuous porous GaN nanowall network. The width of the GaN nanowall can be controlled, ranging from 30 to 200 nm by adjusting the N/Ga ratio. Characterization results of a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction show that the GaN nanowall is well oriented along the C axis. Strong band edge emission centered at 363 nm is observed in the spectrum of room temperature photoluminescence, indicating that the GaN nanowall network is of high quality. The sheet resistance of the Si-doped GaN nanowall network along the lateral direction was 58 Ω/. The conductive porous nanowall network can be useful for integrated gas sensors due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity along the lateral direction by combining with Si micromachining.

  2. One-step graphene coating of heteroepitaxial GaN films. (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Kyung; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Dae; Moon, Daeyoung; Yoon, Duhee; Joo, Kisu; Kwak, Jinsung; Chu, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Park, Kibog; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoon, Euijoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Kwon, Soon-Yong


    Today, state-of-the-art III-Ns technology has been focused on the growth of c-plane nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a conventional two-step growth process. Here we show that the use of graphene as a coating layer allows the one-step growth of heteroepitaxial GaN films on sapphire in a MOCVD reactor, simplifying the GaN growth process. It is found that the graphene coating improves the wetting between GaN and sapphire, and, with as little as ~0.6 nm of graphene coating, the overgrown GaN layer on sapphire becomes continuous and flat. With increasing thickness of the graphene coating, the structural and optical properties of one-step grown GaN films gradually transition towards those of GaN films grown by a conventional two-step growth method. The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on a GaN/graphene/sapphire heterosystem shows a high internal quantum efficiency, allowing the use of one-step grown GaN films as 'pseudo-substrates' in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of graphene as a coating layer provides an atomic playground for metal adatoms and simplifies the III-Ns growth process, making it potentially very useful as a means to grow other heteroepitaxial films on arbitrary substrates with lattice and thermal mismatch.

  3. The influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material (United States)

    Lei, Cui; Haibo, Yin; Lijuan, Jiang; Quan, Wang; Chun, Feng; Hongling, Xiao; Cuimei, Wang; Jiamin, Gong; Bo, Zhang; Baiquan, Li; Xiaoliang, Wang; Zhanguo, Wang


    Fe doping is an effective method to obtain high resistivity GaN epitaxial material. But in some cases, Fe doping could result in serious deterioration of the GaN material surface topography, which will affect the electrical properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT device. In this paper, the influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material is studied. The results of experiments indicate that the surface topography of Fe-doped GaN epitaxial material can be effectively improved and the resistivity could be increased after increasing the growth rate of GaN materials. The GaN material with good surface topography can be manufactured when the Fe doping concentration is 9 × 1019 cm-3. High resistivity GaN epitaxial material which is 1 × 109 Ω·cm is achieved. Project supported by the Knowledge Innovation Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YYY-0701-02), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61204017, 61334002), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China, and the National Science and Technology Major Project.

  4. Photoelectrochemical water splitting on nanoporous GaN thin films for energy conversion under visible light (United States)

    Cao, Dezhong; Xiao, Hongdi; Fang, Jiacheng; Liu, Jianqiang; Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Xiangdong; Ma, Jin


    Nanoporous (NP) GaN thin films, which were fabricated by an electrochemical etching method at different voltages, were used as photoelectrodes during photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in 1 M oxalic acid solution. Upon illumination at a power density of 100 mW cm‑2 (AM 1.5), water splitting is observed in NP GaN thin films, presumably resulting from the valence band edge which is more positive than the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In comparison with NP GaN film fabricated at 8 V, NP GaN obtained at 18 V shows nearly twofold enhancement in photocurrent with the maximum photo-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 1.05% at ~0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This enhancement could be explained with (i) the increase of surface area and surface states, and (ii) the decrease of resistances and carrier concentration in the NP GaN thin films. High stability of the NP GaN thin films during the PEC water splitting further confirms that the NP GaN thin film could be applied to the design of efficient solar cells and solar fuel devices.

  5. Design, fabrication and characterising of 100 W GaN HEMT for Ku-band application (United States)

    Chunjiang, Ren; Shichang, Zhong; Yuchao, Li; Zhonghui, Li; Yuechan, Kong; Tangsheng, Chen


    Ku-band GaN power transistor with output power over 100 W under the pulsed operation mode is presented. A high temperature A1N nucleation together with an Fe doped GaN buffer was introduced for the developed GaN HEMT. The AlGaN/GaN hetero-structure deposited on 3 inch SiC substrate exhibited a 2DEG hall mobility and density of ˜2100 cm2/(V·s) and 1.0 × 1013 cm-2, respectively, at room temperature. Dual field plates were introduced to the designed 0.25 μm GaN HEMT and the source connected field plate was optimized for minimizing the peak field plate near the drain side of the gate, while maintaining excellent power gain performance for Ku-band application. The load-pull measurement at 14 GHz showed a power density of 5.2 W/mm for the fabricated 400 μm gate periphery GaN HEMT operated at a drain bias of 28 V. A Ku-band internally matched GaN power transistor was developed with two 10.8 mm gate periphery GaN HEMT chips combined. The GaN power transistor exhibited an output power of 102 W at 13.3 GHz and 32 V operating voltage under pulsed operation mode with a pulse width of 100 μs and duty cycle of 10%. The associated power gain and power added efficiency were 9.2 dB and 48%, respectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the PAE is the highest for Ku-band GaN power transistor with over 100 W output power.

  6. Modeling of Fuel Film Cooling on Chamber Hot Wall (United States)


    wall-normal Cartesian coordinate y+ = dimensionless y-spacing at wall CEA = Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (computer program) CFD ...Introduction The walls of liquid rocket engine chambers and nozzles must contain large pressures while being exposed to very high temperature gases, and...The physical and chemical phenomena involved in hydrocarbon FFC is notionally represented in Fig. 1. Hydrocarbon fuel at the fuel tank temperature

  7. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike


    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  8. Radiotracer Spectroscopy on Group II Acceptors in GaN

    CERN Multimedia


    The semiconductor GaN is already used for the production of high power light emitting diodes in the blue and UV spectral range. But the $\\rho$-type doping, which is usually obtained by Mg doping, is still inefficient due to compensation and passivation effects caused by defects present in the material. It is theoretically predicted, that Be is a more promising candidate for $\\rho$-doping with a lower ionization energy of 60meV. It is our goal to investigate the electrical and optical properties of Be- and Mg-related defects in GaN to clarify the problem of compensation and passivation. The used methods are standard spectroscopic methods in semiconductor physics which are improved by using radioactive isotopes. The radioactive decay of $^{7}$Be and $^{28}$Mg is used to clearly correlate different signals with Be or Mg related defects. We intend to use the spectroscopic techniques Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy (TAS), photoluminescence (PL) and additionally Hall-effect...

  9. A GaN photonic crystal membrane laser. (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Hung; Wang, Jyh-Yang; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Shen, Kun-Ching; Yeh, Dong-Ming; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C


    The implementation of a series of optically pumped GaN photonic crystal (PhC) membrane lasers is demonstrated at room temperature. The photonic crystal is composed of a scalene-triangular arrangement of circular holes in GaN. Three defect structures are fabricated for comparing their lasing characteristics with those of perfect PhC. It is observed that all the lasing defect modes have lasing wavelengths very close to the band-edge modes in the perfect PhC structure. Although those lasing modes, including band-edge and defect modes, have different optical pump thresholds, different lasing spectral widths, different quality factors (Q factors), and different polarization ratios, all their polarization distributions show maxima in the directions around one of the hole arrangement axes. The similar lasing characteristics between the band-edge and defect modes are attributed to the existence of extremely narrow partial band gaps for forming the defect modes. Also, the oriented polarization properties are due to the scalene-triangle PhC structure. In one of the defect lasing modes, the lasing threshold is as low as 0.82 mJ cm(-2), the cavity Q factor is as large as 1743, and the polarization ratio is as large as 25.4. Such output parameters represent generally superior lasing behaviors when compared with previously reported implementations of similar laser structures.

  10. Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyher, J.L.; Lazar, S.; Macht, L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar,R.J.; Muller, S.; Nowak, G.; Grzegory, I.


    Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN in molten eutectic of KOH + NaOH (E etch) and in hot sulfuric and phosphoric acids (HH etch) is discussed in detail. Three size grades of pits are formed by the preferential E etching at the outcrops of threading dislocations on the Ga-polar surface of GaN. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the calibration tool it is shown that the largest pits are formed on screw, intermediate on mixed and the smallest on edge dislocations. This sequence of size does not follow the sequence of the Burgers values (and thus the magnitude of the elastic energy) of corresponding dislocations. This discrepancy is explained taking into account the effect of decoration of dislocations, the degree of which is expected to be different depending on the lattice deformation around the dislocations, i.e. on the edge component of the Burgers vector. It is argued that the large scatter of optimal etching temperatures required for revealing all three types of dislocations in HVPE-grown samples from different sources also depends upon the energetic status of dislocations. The role of kinetics for reliability of etching in both etches is discussed and the way of optimization of the etching parameters is shown.

  11. Gas source molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaN (United States)

    Brown, Duncan W.


    Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) has long been recognized as a promising radiation hard optoelectronic material. AlGaN has a wide direct band gap and therefore has potential applications in the fabrication of short wave-length devices, e.g., detectors and light-emitting diodes in the visible to ultraviolet region. Additionally, its piezoelectric properties and high acoustic velocities make it attractive for acoustic devices. The technical objective in Phase 1 was to determine if low temperature sources based on covalently bonded Group 3-nitrogen compounds could be used to prepare AlGaN films by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The program required to investigate low temperature AlGaN source materials was separated into two parts: (1) the synthesis, purification, and pyrolysis of gallium-nitrogen adducts and aluminum-nitrogen adducts; and (2) the growth of GaN by chemical beam epitaxy. We clearly demonstrated under CBE conditions GaN(x)C(y) films could be grown using compounds with pre-existing Ga-N bonds whereas no films were formed using trimethylgallium. Dimethylgallium amide was shown to produce dramatically lower carbon content films in the presence of ammonia than did trimethylgallium in the presence of ammonia.

  12. High Quality, Low Cost Ammonothermal Bulk GaN Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrentraut, D; Pakalapati, RT; Kamber, DS; Jiang, WK; Pocius, DW; Downey, BC; McLaurin, M; D' Evelyn, MP


    Ammonothermal GaN growth using a novel apparatus has been performed on c-plane, m-plane, and semipolar seed crystals with diameters between 5 mm and 2 in. to thicknesses of 0.5-3 mm. The highest growth rates are greater than 40 mu m/h and rates in the 10-30 mu m/h range are routinely observed for all orientations. These values are 5-100x larger than those achieved by conventional ammonothermal GaN growth. The crystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), optical spectroscopy, and capacitance-voltage measurements. The crystallinity of the grown crystals is similar to or better than that of the seed crystals, with FWHM values of about 20-100 arcsec and dislocation densities of 1 x 10(5)-5 x 10(6) cm(-2). Dislocation densities below 10(4) cm(-2) are observed in laterally-grown crystals. Epitaxial InGaN quantum well structures have been successfully grown on ammonothermal wafers. (C) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  13. X-ray detection with GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Schmid, Martin; Thalhammer, Stefan [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Howgate, John; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    In recent years precise miniature-dosimeters for real-time detection of X-rays in medicine have been developed with two aspects to monitor radiation in the region of interest and to improve therapeutic methods. Sensors include Germanium or Silicon photoconductive detectors, MOSFETs, and PIN-diodes. While miniaturization of these systems for spatial resolved detection is possible, they suffer from disadvantages. Sensor properties like material degradation, poor measurement stability and a limited detection range circumvent routine clinical applications. Here we show the development and evaluation of radiation detectors based on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films. While previous publications revealed relative low energy absorption of GaN, it is possible to achieve very high signal amplification factors inside the material due to an appropriate sensor configuration, which, in turn, compensates the low energy absorption. Our devices, which have detection volumes smaller than 10{sup (}-6) cm{sup 3}, show a high sensitivity to X-ray intensity and can record the air kerma rate (free-in-air) range of 1 microgray/s to 10 mGy/s with a signal stability of 1% and a linear total dose response over time. The presented results show the potential of GaN-based thin films for dosimetry and imaging applications.

  14. High Frequency Performance of GaN Based IMPATT Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chakrabarti


    Full Text Available IMPATT is a p+n junction diode reversed bias to breakdown and can generate microwave power when properly embedded in a resonant cavity. Till emergence on 1965 day by day it became more powerful solid state source for microwave as well as mm-wave frequency range. To get higher efficiency and power output different structures like SDR, DDR, DAR, lo-high-lo, etc. were proposed and developed by different scientists over the years. Then the IMPATT development started with different semiconductor materials like GaAs, InP, GaN, etc. along with Silicon to achieve higher efficiency, power output and frequency range. In this paper the performance of GaN based SDR IMPATT have thoroughly studied in terms of (i electric field profile[E(x] (iinormalized current density profile [P(x] (iii Susceptance Vs Conductance characteristics (ivRF power output (v negative resistivity profile [R(x] of the diodes through simulation scheme. It is being observed that the efficiency is 17.9% at Ka-band and because of the very high breakdown voltage, power output is as high as1.56W in comparison with other frequency band of operations.

  15. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail:; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison, E-mail: [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  16. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin


    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  17. Design and maskless fabrication of ultrathin suspended membranes of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiginyanu, I.M. [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova); National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova); Popa, V. [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova); Stevens-Kalceff, M.A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Gerthsen, D.; Brenner, P. [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, University of Karlsruhe (Germany); Pavlidis, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Cite Scientifique, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    We report the maskless fabrication of ultrathin suspended GaN membranes designed by focused ion beam treatment of the GaN epilayer surface with subsequent photoelectrochemical etching. This technological approach allows the fabrication of ultrathin membranes, as well as supporting micro/nanocolumns in a controlled fashion. The analysis of the spatial and spectral distribution of microcathodoluminescence demonstrates that the membranes exhibit mainly yellow luminescence. These results pave the way for the fabrication of ultrathin suspended GaN membranes for MEMS/NEMS applications. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Stress and Defect Control in GaN Using Low Temperature Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaki, I.; Amano, H.; Chason, E.; Figiel, J.; Floro, J.A.; Han, J.; Hearne, S.; Iwaya, M.; Kashima, T.; Katsuragcawa, M.


    In organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of Gail on sapphire, the role of the low- temperature-deposited interlayers inserted between high-temperature-grown GaN layers was investigated by in situ stress measurement, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Insertion of a series of low temperature GaN interlayers reduces the density of threading dislocations while simultaneously increasing the tensile stress during growth, ultimately resulting in cracking of the GaN film. Low temperature AIN interlayers were found to be effective in suppressing cracking by reducing tensile stress. The intedayer approach permits tailoring of the film stress to optimize film structure and properties.

  19. Synthesis and Photoluminescence of GaN Nanowires with Nb Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Hui-zhao; LI Bao-li; XUE Cheng-shan; ZHANG Shi-ying; WANG De-xiao; SHEN Jia-bing


    Large-scale GaN nanowires are successfully synthesized by ammoniating Ga2O3 films on Nb layer deposited on Si(111) substrates at 850 ℃. X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), field-emssion transmission electron microscope(FETEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum(FTIR) are used to characterize the structural and morphological properties of the as-synthesized GaN nanowires. The results reveal that the nanowires are pure hexagonal GaN wurtzite structure with a length of about several microns and a diameter between 50 nm and 100 nm. Finally, discussed briefly is the formation mechanism of gallium nitride nanowires.

  20. Characterization of plasma etching damage on p -type GaN using Schottky diodes



    The plasma etching damage in p-type GaN has been characterized. From current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes, it was revealed that inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching causes an increase in series resistance of the Schottky diodes and compensation of acceptors in p-type GaN. We investigated deep levels near the valence band of p-type GaN using current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and no deep level originating from the ICP etching damage was ...

  1. Etching of GaN layers at electrolysis under UV-irradiation (United States)

    Zubenko, T. K.; Puzyk, M. V.; Stozharov, V. M.; Ermakov, I. A.; Kovalev, D. S.; Ivanova, S. A.; Usikov, A. S.; Medvedev, O. S.; Papchenko, B. P.; Kurin, S. Yu; Antipov, A. A.; Chernyakov, A. E.


    Etching of the GaN layers in 1M KOH aqua solution under irradiation was studied by the electro-stimulated photolysis using N2-laser (337 nm, 60 W/m2) as a light source. It was observed that the size and the depth of the failure monotonically depend on the optical power and the irradiation time of the N2 laser and the GaN layer type of conductivity. The GaN layers etching rate was evaluated. A mechanism of the failure in the n-GaN layers is discussed.

  2. Role of Stress Voltage on Structural Degradation of GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors (United States)


    GaN high-electron-mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) under high- voltage electrical stress degradation in the drain and gate current is electric field... GaN HEMTs after long-term DC and RF life tests at high voltage [12–16]. Crystallographic defects such as pits and cracks have been observed at the...created by high-voltage stress in GaN HEMTs . A complementary study of the evolution of these de- fects in the cross section as a function of stress

  3. An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High Power Amplifier (United States)


    versus the modeled small-signal gain and return loss response of the Class J amplifier using a 45-W CREE GaN HEMT . The amplifier has a gain of 13 to...AFFTC-PA-12055 An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High Power Amplifier Kris Skowronski, Steve Nelson, Rajesh Mongia, Howard...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11/11 – 03/12 (etc.) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High

  4. P-Type Doping of GaN by Mg+ Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Shu-De; ZHAO Qiang; ZHOU Sheng-Qiang; YANG Zi-Jian; LU Yi-Hong; SUN Chang-Chun; SUN Chang; ZHANG Guo-Yi; VANTOMME Andre; PIPELEERS Bert


    Mg+ and Mg++P+ were introduced into GaN by ion implantation. The structure and crystalline quality of the GaN samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and channelling spectrometry before (xmin = 1.6%) and after implantation (Xmin = 4.1%). X-ray diffraction reveals the existence of implantation-induced damage in the case of post-implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing. The resistivity, average factor, carrier concentration and carrier mobility were measured by the Hall effect. The transformation from n-type to p-type for GaN was observed.

  5. Growth of Semi-Insulating GaN by Using Two-Step A1N Buffer Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-Tang; QUO Li-Wei; XING Zhi-Gang; DING Guo-Jian; ZHANG Jie; PENG Ming-Zeng; JIA Hai-Qiang; CHEN Hong; ZHOU Jun-Ming


    Semi-insulating GaN is grown by using a two-step A1N buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. The sheet resistance of as-grown semi-insulating GaN is dramatically increased to 1013 Ω/sq by using two-step A1N buffer instead of the traditional low-temperature GaN buffer. The high sheet resistance of as-grown GaN over 10 Ωfi/sq is due to inserting an insulating buffer layer (two-step A1N buffer) between the high-temperature GaN layer and a sapphire substrate which blocks diffusion of oxygen and overcomes the weakness of generating high density carrier near interface of GaN and sapphire when a low-temperature GaN buffer is used. The result suggests that the high conductive feature of unintentionally doped GaN is mainly contributed from the highly conductive channel near interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate, which is indirectly manifested by room-temperature photoluminescence excited by an incident laser beam radiating on growth surface and on the substrate. The functions of the two-step A1N buffer layer in reducing screw dislocation and improving crystal quality of GaN are also discussed.

  6. Metal oxide growth, spin precession measurements and Raman spectroscopy of CVD graphene (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Akitomo

    The focus of this dissertation is to explore the possibility of wafer scale graphene-based spintronics. Graphene is a single atomic layer of sp 2 bonded carbon atoms that has attracted much attention as a new type of electronic material due to its high carrier mobilities, superior mechanical properties and extremely high thermal conductivity. In addition, it has become an attractive material for use in spintronic devices owing to its long electron spin relaxation time at room temperature. This arises in part from its low spin-orbit coupling and negligible nuclear hyperfine interaction. In order to realize wafer scale graphene spintronics, utilization of CVD grown graphene is crytical due to its scalability. In this thesis, a unique fabrication method of the metal oxide layers on CVD graphene is presented. This is motivated by theoretical work showing that an ultra thin metal oxide film used as a tunnel barrier improves the spin injection efficiency. Introducing a titanium seed layer prior to the aluminum oxide growth showed improved surface and film uniformity and resulted in a completely oxidized film. Utilizing this unique metal oxide film growth process, lateral spin valve devices using CVD graphene as a channel are successfully fabricated. Hanle spin precession measurements are demonstrated on these CVD graphene spin devices. A non-local Hanle voltage model based upon the diffusive spin transport in a solid is utilized to find the spin diffusion length and spin relaxation time of CVD graphene. The measured spin relaxation times in CVD graphene were compatible with the values found in the literature. However, they are an order of magnitude shorter than the theoretical values expected in graphene. To investigate possible origins of this order of magnitude shorter spin relaxation time in graphene, crystal and electrical modifications in CVD graphene are studied throughout the entire device fabrication process. Raman spectroscopy is utilized to track CVD graphene

  7. Can surface preparation with CVD diamond tip influence on bonding to dental tissues? (United States)

    Aparecido Kawaguchi, Fernando; Brossi Botta, Sergio; Nilo Vieira, Samuel; Steagall Júnior, Washington; Bona Matos, Adriana


    This study evaluated the influence of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tips surface treatments of enamel and dentin on bonding resistance of two adhesive systems. Thirty embedded samples were divided in 12 groups ( n = 10), according to factors: substrate (enamel and dentin), adhesive system [etch-and-rinse (SB) and self-etch]; and the surface treatments (paper discs, impact CVD tips and tangential CVD tip). When CVD tip was used in the impact mode the tip was applied perpendicular to dental surface, while at tangential mode, the tip worked parallel to dental surface. Specimens were tested in tension after 24 h at 0.5 mm/min of cross-head speed. ANOVA results, in MPa showed that in enamel, only adhesive system factor was statistically significant ( p = 0.015) under tested conditions, with higher bond strength observed for SB groups. However, in dentin the best bonding performance was obtained in SE groups ( p = 0.00). In both tested substrates, results did not show statistically significant difference for factors treatment and its interactions. ConclusionsIt may be concluded that CVD-tip surface treatment, in both tested modes, did not influence on adhesion to enamel and dentin. But, it is important to choose adhesive system according to the tissue available to bonding.

  8. Investigation of multilayer domains in large-scale CVD monolayer graphene by optical imaging (United States)

    Yu, Yuanfang; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Wenhui; Guo, Xitao; Jiang, Jie; Nan, Haiyan; Ni, Zhenhua


    CVD graphene is a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications due to its high quality and high yield. However, multi-layer domains could inevitably form at the nucleation centers during the growth. Here, we propose an optical imaging technique to precisely identify the multilayer domains and also the ratio of their coverage in large-scale CVD monolayer graphene. We have also shown that the stacking disorder in twisted bilayer graphene as well as the impurities on the graphene surface could be distinguished by optical imaging. Finally, we investigated the effects of bilayer domains on the optical and electrical properties of CVD graphene, and found that the carrier mobility of CVD graphene is seriously limited by scattering from bilayer domains. Our results could be useful for guiding future optoelectronic applications of large-scale CVD graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61422503, 61376104), the Open Research Funds of Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education (SEU, China), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  9. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs. (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang


    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  10. Transparent, Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Based on GaN Membrane Using Electrochemical Lift-Off. (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Jeong, Dae Kyung; Ryu, Sang-Wan


    A transparent and flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator (TF PNG) is demonstrated based on a GaN membrane fabricated by electrochemical lift-off. Under shear stress on the TF PNG by finger force (∼182 mN), the GaN membrane effectively undergoes normal stress and generates piezoelectric polarization along the c-axis, resulting in the generation of piezoelectric output from the TF PNG. Although the GaN layer is 315 times thinner than the flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, the low Young's modulus of PET allows the GaN membranes to absorb ∼41% of the applied strain energy, which leads to their large lattice deformation under extremely low applied stress. Maximum output voltage and current values of 4.2 V and 150 nA are obtained, and the time decay of the output voltage is discussed.

  11. Modeling grown-in dislocation multiplication on prismatic slip planes for GaN single crystals (United States)

    Gao, B.; Kakimoto, K.


    To dynamically model the grown-in dislocation multiplication on prismatic slip planes for GaN single crystal growth, the Alexander-Haasen (AH) model, which was originally used to model the plastic deformation of silicon crystals, is extended to GaN single crystals. By fitting the model to the experimental data, we found that it can accurately describe the plastic deformation of GaN caused by prismatic slip. A set of unified parameters for the AH model at different temperatures can be found. This model provides a possible method to minimize grown-in dislocations caused due to prismatic slip by optimizing growing and cooling conditions during GaN single crystal growth.

  12. Role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature GaN layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ZhiYuan; HAO Yue; LI PeiXian; ZHANG JinCheng


    The role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature (HT) GaN epitaxial layer has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Variations of the lateral growth rate of HT GaN in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)can be obtained by changing the Ⅴ/Ⅲ ratio. It is found that under higher lateral growth rate, dislocation is easier to bend into subgrains away from c axis, and the position where bend occurs is closer to the buffer layer, however, dislocation density does not show to monotonically vary with increasing lateral growth rate. A model concerning the GaN growth dynamics and dislocation bending mechanics has been proposed to explain the correlation between lateral growth and the structural properties of GaN.

  13. Formation of helical dislocations in ammonothermal GaN substrate by heat treatment (United States)

    Horibuchi, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kimoto, Yasuji; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kachi, Tetsu


    GaN substrate produced by the basic ammonothermal method and an epitaxial layer on the substrate was evaluated using synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and transmission electron microscopy. We revealed that the threading dislocations present in the GaN substrate are deformed into helical dislocations and the generation of the voids by heat treatment in the substrate for the first observation in the GaN crystal. These phenomena are formed by the interactions between the dislocations and vacancies. The helical dislocation was formed in the substrate region, and not in the epitaxial layer region. Furthermore, the evaluation of the influence of the dislocations on the leakage current of Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on the epitaxial layer is discussed. The dislocations did not affect the leakage current characteristics of the epitaxial layer. Our results suggest that the deformation of dislocations in the GaN substrate does not adversely affect the epitaxial layer.

  14. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Meng; Zhao, Yuning; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Fay, Patrick [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Bader, Samuel [Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)


    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm{sup 2} is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to −20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm{sup 2} is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ∼3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  15. Theoretical study of Ni adsorption on the GaN(0 0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Rafael, E-mail: [Grupo de Fisica de la Materia Condensada - GFMC, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); GEMA - Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Lopez, William [Grupo de Fisica de la Materia Condensada - GFMC, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Ortega, Cesar [Grupo Avanzado de Materiales y Sistemas Complejos - GAMASCO, Universidad de Cordoba, Monteria (Colombia); Moreno-Armenta, Maria Guadalupe [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia de la UNAM, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Arbey Rodriguez, Jairo [GEMA - Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)


    First-principles pseudo-potential calculations within density-functional theory framework are performed in order to study the structural and electronic properties of nickel adsorption and diffusion on a GaN(0 0 0 1)-2x2 surface. The adsorption energies and potential energy surfaces are investigated for a Ni adatom on the Ga-terminated (0 0 0 1) surface of GaN. This surface is also used to study the effect of the nickel surface coverage. The results show that the most stable positions of a Ni adatom on GaN(0 0 0 1) are at the H{sub 3} sites and T{sub 4} sites, for low and high Ni coverage respectively. In addition, confirming previous experimental results, we have found that the growth of Ni monolayers on the GaN(0 0 0 1) surface is possible.

  16. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.


    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  17. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in V-doped GaN thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, M.; El Jani, B. [Unite de Recherche sur les Hetero-Epitaxies et Applications, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Schmerber, G.; Derory, A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR7504 CNRS-UDS, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)


    V-doped GaN thin films were grown on c-sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapour deposition method (MOCVD). We have used vanadium tetrachloride (VCl{sub 4}) to intentionally incorporate vanadium (V) during the crystal growth of GaN. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed no secondary phase in the samples. Magnetic experiments using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showed clear hysteresis loop in magnetization versus applied field (M -H) curves for V-doped GaN films. The ferromagnetic behavior was evidenced at 300 K, implying the Curie temperature to be over 300 K. Strong and broad blue-luminescent band (centered at 2.6 eV) is induced by the V doping in GaN. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Preparation and characterization of GaN films grown on Ga-diffused Si(111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhencui; CAO Wentian; WEI Qinqin; WANG Shuyun; XUE Chengshan; SUN Haibo


    Hexagonal GaN films were prepared by nitriding Ga2O3 films with flowing ammonia. Ga2O3 films were deposited on Ga-diffused Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering. This paper have investigated the change of structural properties of GaN films nitrided in NH3 atmosphere at the temperatures of 850, 900, and 950℃ for 15min and nitrided at the temperature of 900℃ for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the structure, surface morphology and composition of synthesized samples. The results reveal that the as-grown films are polycrystalline GaN with hexagonal wurtzite structure and GaN films with the highest crystal quality can be obtained when nitrided at 900℃ for 15 min.

  19. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of native defect induced electron-phonon coupling in GaN nanowires (United States)

    Parida, Santanu; Patsha, Avinash; Bera, Santanu; Dhara, Sandip


    The integration of advanced optoelectronic properties in nanoscale devices of group III nitride can be realized by understanding the coupling of charge carriers with optical excitations in these nanostructures. The native defect induced electron-phonon coupling in GaN nanowires are reported using various spectroscopic studies. The GaN nanowires having different native defects are grown in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the variation of Ga/N ratios in nanowires having possible native defects, with respect to their growth parameters. The analysis of the characteristic features of electron-phonon coupling in the Raman spectra show the variations in carrier density and mobility, with respect to the native defects in unintentionally doped GaN nanowires. The radiative recombination of donor acceptor pair transitions and the corresponding LO phonon replicas observed in photoluminescence studies further emphasize the role of native defects in electron-phonon coupling.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Semi-Insulating GaN Films Grown by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    High resistivity unintentionally doped GaN films were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The surface morphology of the layer was measured by both atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the films have mirror-like surface morphology with root mean square of 0.3 nm. The full width at half maximum of double crystal X-ray diffraction rocking curve for (0002) GaN is about 5.22 arcmin, indicative of high crystal quality. The resistivity of the GaN epilayers at room temperature and at 250 ℃ was measured to be approximate 109 and 106 Ω·cm respectively, by variable temperature Hall measurement. Deep level traps in the GaN epilayers were investigated by thermally stimulated current and resistivity measurements.

  2. Research on fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN epilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolong; YU Guanghui; WANG Xinzhong; LIN Chaotong; LEI Benliang; QI Ming; NOUET Gérard; RUTERANA Pierre; CHEN Jun


    Gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers with nanopore arrays were fabricated by inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as mask.Nanoporous AAO templates were formed by anodizing the Al films deposited on GaN epilayers.The diameter of the perforations in the AAO masks could be easily controlled by tuning the technique parameters of AAO fabrication process.Cl2/Ar and Cl2/He were employed as etching gas.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that vertical nanoporous arrays with uniform distribution can directly be transferred from AAO masks to GaN films in some proper conditions.Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to assess properties of the nanoporous GaN films with different average pore diameters and interpore distances.

  3. In situ studies of the effect of silicon on GaN growth modes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkholm, A.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Murty, M. V. R.; Thompson, C.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Northern Illinois Univ.; Univ. of California at Santa Barbara


    We present real-time X-ray scattering studies of the influence of silicon on the homoepitaxial growth mode of GaN grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Both annealing of Si-doped GaN and surface dosing of GaN with disilane are shown to change the mode of subsequent growth from step-flow to layer-by-layer. By comparing the growth behavior induced by doped layers which have been annealed to that induced by surface dosing, we extract an approximate diffusion coefficient for Si in GaN of 3.5 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}/s at 810{sup o}C.

  4. Role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature GaN layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature(HT) GaN epitaxial layer has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD).Variations of the lateral growth rate of HT GaN in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) can be obtained by changing the V/Ⅲ ratio.It is found that under higher lateral growth rate,dislocation is easier to bend into subgrains away from c axis,and the position where bend occurs is closer to the buffer layer,however,dislocation density does not show to monotonically vary with increasing lateral growth rate.A model concerning the GaN growth dynamics and dislocation bending mechanics has been proposed to explain the correlation between lateral growth and the structural properties of GaN.

  5. Effects of Al additives on growth of GaN polycrystals by the Na flux method (United States)

    Imabayashi, Hiroki; Murakami, Kosuke; Matsuo, Daisuke; Honjo, Masatomo; Imanishi, Masayuki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke


    In this study, we investigated the growth of GaN polycrystals using the Al-added Na flux method. We studied the effects of Al on accelerating the nucleation and purity of GaN polycrystals. The yields of GaN crystals grown in Al-added Na flux were dramatically increased from those in Al-free Na flux, and the polycrystals grown by the Al-added Na flux method were highly transparent. As observed in secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the Al content of the polycrystals was below the detection limit of 3 × 1016 atoms/cm3. From these results, the Al-added Na flux method is found to be appropriate for fabricating a large amount of GaN polycrystals without deteriorating the crystal quality.

  6. Step-Free GaN Hexagons Grown by Selective-Area Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kasu, Makoto


    Selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN has been investigated using the optimized growth conditions for the layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth and GaN-template substrates with low dislocation density. The surface of a GaN hexagon with 16-µm diameter has a single wide terrace over almost the whole area (step-free surface), when there are no screw-type dislocations in the finite area. Step-free GaN hexagons grew in the two-dimensional nucleus growth mode and had approximately an eight times lower growth rate than that of a GaN film grown in the step-flow mode under the growth conditions used in this study.

  7. N-polar GaN epitaxy and high electron mobility transistors (United States)

    Hoi Wong, Man; Keller, Stacia; Nidhi; Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Denninghoff, Daniel J.; Kolluri, Seshadri; Brown, David F.; Lu, Jing; Fichtenbaum, Nicholas A.; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Singisetti, Uttam; Chini, Alessandro; Rajan, Siddharth; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.


    This paper reviews the progress of N-polar (000\\mathop 1\\limits^\\_) GaN high frequency electronics that aims at addressing the device scaling challenges faced by GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for radio-frequency and mixed-signal applications. Device quality (Al, In, Ga)N materials for N-polar heterostructures are developed using molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The principles of polarization engineering for designing N-polar HEMT structures will be outlined. The performance, scaling behavior and challenges of microwave power devices as well as highly-scaled depletion- and enhancement-mode devices employing advanced technologies including self-aligned processes, n+ (In,Ga)N ohmic contact regrowth and high aspect ratio T-gates will be discussed. Recent research results on integrating N-polar GaN with Si for prospective novel applications will also be summarized.

  8. LEDs on HVPE grown GaN substrates: Influence of macroscopic surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK. S. Rahman


    Full Text Available We demonstrate the strong influence of GaN substrate surface morphology on optical properties and performance of light emitting devices grown on freestanding GaN. As-grown freestanding HVPE GaN substrates show excellent AFM RMS and XRD FWHM values over the whole area, but distinctive features were observed on the surface, such as macro-pits, hillocks and facets extending over several millimeters. Electroluminescence measurements reveal a strong correlation of the performance and peak emission wavelength of LEDs with each of these observed surface features. This results in multiple peaks and non-uniform optical output power for LEDs on as-grown freestanding GaN substrates. Removal of these surface features by chemical mechanical polishing results in highly uniform peak wavelength and improved output power over the whole wafer area.

  9. Ivestigation of an InGaN - GaN nanowire heterstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, Friederich; Gotschke, Tobias; Stoica, Toma; Calarco, Raffaella; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Research Center Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Juelich (Germany); Sutter, Eli; Ciston, Jim [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusco, Ramon; Artus, Luis [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Kremling, Stefan; Hoefling, Sven; Worschech, Lukas [University Wurzburg, Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Research Centre Complex Matter Systems, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    InGaN/GaN nanowire (NW) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied in comparison to their GaN and InGaN counterparts. The InGaN/GaN heterostructure NWs are composed of a GaN NW, a thin InGaN shell, and a multi-faceted InGaN cap wrapping the top part of the GaN NW. Transmission electron microscopy images taken from different parts of a InGaN/GaN nanowire show a wurtzite structure of the GaN core and the epitaxial InGaN shell around it. Photoluminescence spectra of these heterostructure NW ensembles show an emission peak at 2.1 eV. However, {mu}-PL spectra measured on single nanowires reveal much sharper luminescence peaks. A Raman analysis reveals a variation of the In content between 20 % and 30 %, in agreement with PL and TEM investigations.

  10. Development of Epitaxial GaN Films for RF Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop epitaxial GaN films with threading dislocation density less than 10^6 cm^-2. We propose an innovative approach...

  11. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  12. Droplet heteroepitaxy of zinc-blende vs. wurtzite GaN quantum dots (United States)

    Reese, C.; Jeon, S.; Hill, T.; Jones, C.; Shusterman, S.; Yacoby, Y.; Clarke, R.; Deng, H.; Goldman, Rs

    We have developed a GaN droplet heteroepitaxy process based upon plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Using various surface treatments and Ga deposition parameters, we have demonstrated polycrystalline, zinc-blende (ZB), and wurtzite (WZ) GaN quantum dots (QDs) on Si(001), r-Al2O3, Si(111), and c-GaN substrates. For the polar substrates (i.e. Si(111) and c-GaN), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and coherent Bragg rod analysis reveals the formation of coherent WZ GaN QDs with nitridation-temperature-dependent sizes and densities. For the non-polar substrates (i.e. Si(001) and r-Al2O3) , QDs with strong near-band photoluminescence emission are observed and ZB GaN QD growth on Si(001) is demonstrated for the first time.

  13. Surface chemistry and electronic structure of nonpolar and polar GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, T.C. Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Gupta, Govind, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Surface chemistry and electronic structure of polar and nonpolar GaN is reported. • Influence of polarization on electron affinity of p & np GaN films is investigated. • Correlation between surface morphology and polarity has been deduced. - Abstract: Photoemission and microscopic analysis of nonpolar (a-GaN/r-Sapphire) and polar (c-GaN/c-Sapphire) epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films grown via RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy is reported. The effect of polarization on surface properties like surface states, electronic structure, chemical bonding and morphology has been investigated and correlated. It was observed that polarization lead to shifts in core level (CL) as well as valence band (VB) spectra. Angle dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis revealed higher surface oxide in polar GaN film compared to nonpolar GaN film. On varying the take off angle (TOA) from 0° to 60°, the Ga−O/Ga−N ratio varied from 0.11–0.23 for nonpolar and 0.17–0.36 for polar GaN film. The nonpolar film exhibited N-face polarity while Ga-face polarity was perceived in polar GaN film due to the inherent polarization effect. Polarization charge compensated surface states were observed on the polar GaN film and resulted in downward band bending. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements revealed electron affinity and ionization energy of 3.4 ± 0.1 eV and 6.8 ± 0.1 eV for nonpolar GaN film and 3.8 ± 0.1 eV and 7.2 ± 0.1 eV for polar GaN film respectively. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements divulged smooth morphology with pits on polar GaN film. The nonpolar film on the other hand showed pyramidal structures having facets all over the surface.

  14. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun


    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  15. Strain Release Induced Novel Fluorescence Variation in CVD-Grown Monolayer WS2 Crystals. (United States)

    Feng, Shanghuai; Yang, Ruilong; Jia, Zhiyan; Xiang, Jianyong; Wen, Fusheng; Mu, Congpu; Nie, Anmin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tao, Chenggang; Tian, Yongjun; Liu, Zhongyuan


    Tensile strain is intrinsic to monolayer crystals of transition metal disulfides such as Mo(W)S2 grown on oxidized silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) owing to the much larger thermal expansion coefficient of Mo(W)S2 than that of silica. Here we report fascinating fluorescent variation in intensity with aging time in CVD-grown triangular monolayer WS2 crystals on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and formation of interesting concentric triangular fluorescence patterns in monolayer crystals of large size. The novel fluorescence aging behavior is recognized to be induced by the partial release of intrinsic tensile strain after CVD growth and the induced localized variations or gradients of strain in the monolayer crystals. The results demonstrate that strain has a dramatic impact on the fluorescence and photoluminescence of monolayer WS2 crystals and thus could potentially be utilized to tune electronic and optoelectronic properties of monolayer transition metal disulfides.

  16. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon


    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  17. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.


    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  18. Effect of current stress during thermal CVD of multilayer graphene on cobalt catalytic layer (United States)

    Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Uchida, Takaki


    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) by CVD at a low temperature, the effect of current stress during thermal CVD on a cobalt (Co) catalytic layer was investigated. The crystallinity of MLG obtained by CVD with current was higher than that without current at the same temperature. This indicates that current has effects besides the Joule heating effect. The current effects on the Co catalytic layer and the MLG growth reaction were investigated, and it was found that current had small effects on the grain size and crystal structure of the Co catalyst and large effects on the MLG growth reaction such as large grain growth and a low activation energy of 0.49 eV, which is close to the value reported for carbon surface diffusion on Co. It is considered that the enhancement of MLG growth reaction by current leads to the improved crystallinity of MLG at a relatively low temperature.

  19. iCVD Cyclic Polysiloxane and Polysilazane as Nanoscale Thin-Film Electrolyte: Synthesis and Properties. (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Reeja-Jayan, B; Liu, Andong; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Gleason, Karen K


    A group of crosslinked cyclic siloxane (Si-O) and silazane (Si-N) polymers are synthesized via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Notably, this is the first report of cyclic polysilazanes synthesized via the gas-phase iCVD method. The deposited nanoscale thin films are thermally stable and chemically inert. By iCVD, they can uniformly and conformally cover nonplanar surfaces having complex geometry. Although polysiloxanes are traditionally utilized as dielectric materials and insulators, our research shows these cyclic organosilicon polymers can conduct lithium ions (Li(+) ) at room temperature. The conformal coating and the room temperature ionic conductivity make these cyclic organosilicon polymers attractive for use as thin-film electrolytes in solid-state batteries. Also, their synthesis process and properties have been systemically studied and discussed.

  20. Epitaxial thin film GaAs solar cells using OM-CVD techniques. [Organometallics (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.


    A new approach has been initiated at JPL to fabricate thin-film, high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost, single-crystal Si substrates having a thin CVD interlayer of Ge to minimize the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. For initial experiments, n(+)/p GaAs cells were grown by OM-CVD on single-crystal GaAs and Ge wafers. Details of the growths and performance results will be presented. Subsequently, a combined epitaxial structure of OM-CVD GaAs on a strongly adherent Ge interlayer on (100) Si was grown. This is the first report of the successful growth of this composite structure. Low module costs projected by JPL SAMICS methodology calculations and the potential for 400-600W/kg space solar arrays will be discussed.

  1. Response of CVD Diamond Detectors to 14 MeV Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, C; Gagnon-Moisan, F; Kasper, A; Lucke, A; Schuhmacher, H; Weierganz, M; Zimba, A


    A series of measurements was taken at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Braunschweig [1] using the 14 MeV neutron beam at the Van der Graaf accelerator with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detectors, in preparation of an upcoming (n, ) cross-section measurement [2] at the CERN-n TOF experiment [3, 4]. A single-crystal (sCVD) as well as a poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond detector were used for the measurements. The response of both materials to the mono-energetic neutron beam was studied, also with the prospect for future applications in plasma diagnostics for fusion research. The results of the measurements are presented in this report.

  2. Relationship between texture and residual macro-strain in CVD diamond films based on phenomenological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Mao; Hongxi Zhu; Leng Chen; Huiping Feng


    The relationship between texture and elastic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films was analyzed based on the phenomenological theory, which reveals the influence of crystalline orientation and texture on the residual macro-strain and macro-stress. The phenomenological calculations indicated that the difference in Young's modulus could be 15% in single dia- mond crystals and 5% in diamond films with homogeneously distributed strong fiber texture. The experimentally measured residual strains of free-standing CVD diamond films were in good agreement with the correspondingly calculated Young's modulus in con- nection with the multi-fiber textures in the fills, though the difference in Young's modulus induced by texture was only around 1%. It is believed that texture should be one of the important factors influencing the residual stress and strain of CVD diamond films.

  3. High efficiency DC-DC converter using GaN transistors (United States)

    Tómaş, Cosmin-Andrei; Grecu, Cristian; Pantazicǎ, Mihaela; Marghescu, Ion


    The paper presents a new high-efficiency power switching supply using the Gallium Nitride (GaN) technology. There are compared two solutions, the first using standard MOS transistors and the second using the new GaN transistor. The actual green technologies for obtaining the maximum energy and minimum losses have pushed the semiconductor industry into a continuous research regarding high power and high frequency devices, having uses in both digital communications and switching power supplies.

  4. The Effect of Atomic Vacancies and Grain Boundaries on Mechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shi-Feng; CHEN Shang-Da; SOS Ai-Kah


    @@ Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the influences of various defects on mechanical properties of wurtzite GaN nanowires by adopting the empirical Stillinger-Weber potential.Different types of vacancies and grain boundaries are considered and the uniaxial loading condition is implemented along the [001] direction.It is found that surface defects have less impact on Voung's moduli and critical stresses of GaN nanowires compared with random defects.The grain boundary normal to the axial direction of a nanowire would not significantly affect Young's moduli of nanowires.However, the inversion domain grain boundaries with and without wrong bonds would significantly lower Young's moduli of GaN nanowires.In addition, the inversion domain grain boundary affects the critical stress of GaN nanowires more than the grain boundary with interface normal to the axial direction of the nanowire.%Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the influences of various defects on mechanical properties of wurtzite GaN nanowires by adopting the empirical Stillinger-Weber potential. Different types of vacancies and grain boundaries are considered and the uniaxial loading condition is implemented along the [001] direction. It is found that surface defects have less impact on Young's moduli and critical stresses of GaN nanowires compared with random defects. The grain boundary normal to the axial direction of a nanowire would not significantly affect Young's moduli of nanowires. However, the inversion domain grain boundaries with and without wrong bonds would significantly lower Young's moduli of GaN nanowires. In addition, the inversion domain grain boundary affects the critical stress of GaN nanowires more than the grain boundary with interface normal to the axial direction of the nanowire.

  5. A comparative DFT study of the structural and electronic properties of nonpolar GaN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Hernández, Rafael, E-mail: [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); González-García, Alvaro [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Barragán-Yani, Daniel [Fachgebiet Material modellierung, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); López-Pérez, William [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia)


    Highlights: • A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out. • Surface energies are too low for LDA, but lower still for GGA and MGGA functionals, except for PBEsol. • PBEsol exhibits good lattice parameters and surface energies. • Surface intra-gap states reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surfaces. • Slight changes in the dispersion of surface states were observed for the LDA, GGA, and MGGA functionals. - Abstract: A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out using density-functional theory (DFT) with different approximations for the exchange-correlation energy (LDA, PBE, PBEsol, RPBE, TPSS, revTPSS, and HSE). The obtained data show that the GaN(101{sup ¯}0) (m-plane) is more energetically stable than the GaN(112{sup ¯}0) (a-plane) surface. However, these surfaces have similar surface relaxation geometry, with a Ga-N surface bond-length contraction of around 6–7% and a Ga-N surface rotational angle in the range of 6–9°. Our results show that the use of different exchange-correlation functionals does not significantly change the surface energy and surface geometry. In addition, we found the presence of surface intra-gap states that reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surface with respect to the bulk value, in agreement with recent photoelectron and surface optical spectroscopy experiments.

  6. Layer-by-layer growth of GaN induced by silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkholm, A. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Thompson, Carol [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 (United States); Ramana Murty, M. V. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Eastman, J. A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Auciello, O. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stephenson, G. B. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Fini, P. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)


    We present in situ x-ray scattering studies of surface morphology evolution during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of GaN. Dosing the GaN(0001) surface with Si is shown to change the growth mode from step-flow to layer-by-layer over a wide temperature range. Annealing of highly doped layers causes Si to segregate to the surface, which also induces layer-by-layer growth. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Effects of Mg Doping on Photoconductivity of GaN Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deheng ZHANG; Qingpu WANG; Yunyan LIU


    This paper presents the UV photoconductivity properties of GaN films doped with different Mg concentrations deposited by MOCVD. It was observed that for the undoped and weakly doped GaN films the UV photocurrent response was relatively large and the relax time was relatively short. With an increase in doped Mg content, the samples became p-type, the photocurrent response became weak and the relax time became longer.

  8. The dispersion of BED ° in unintentional doped GaN crystals (United States)

    Qingcheng, Bao; Fungleng, Zhang; Ke, Shi; Rensong, Dai; Xurong, Xu


    The polarization and the wavelength of the photoluminescence of BED ° in not intentionaly doped GaN crystal wafers are observed to be dependent on the excitation intensity (I-exc). When I-exc increases from 1 KW/CM 2 to 1000 KW/CM 2, they vary at first quadratically, and then, appear saturated. This phenomenon is resulted from dispersion effect of BED ° in GaN crystal wafers, which is proposed earlier (1).

  9. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of homoepitaxial GaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tong-Ho; Choi, Soojeong; Wu, Pae; Brown, April [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Moto, Akihiro [Innovation Core SEI, Inc., 3235 Kifer Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States)


    The growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN template substrates (GaN on sapphire) is investigated with in-situ multi-channel spectroscopic ellipsometry. Growth is performed under various Ga/N flux ratios at growth temperatures in the range 710-780 C. The thermal roughening of the GaN template caused by decomposition of the surface is investigated through the temporal variation of the GaN pseudodielectric function over the temperature range of 650 C to 850 C. The structural, morphological, and optical properties are also discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Comparison of Electronic and Optical Properties of GaN Monolayer and Bulk Structure: a First Principle Study (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Hussain, Fayyaz; Rashid, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Sattar, Atif; Iqbal, Faisal; Ahmad, Ejaz


    The semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) architectures materials have potential applications in electronics and optics. The design and search of new 2D materials have attracted extensive attention recently. In this study, first principle calculation has been done on 2D gallium nitride (GaN) monolayer with respect to its formation and binding energies. The electronic and optical properties are also investigated. It is found that the single isolated GaN sheet is forming mainly ionic GaN bonds despite a slightly weaker GaN interaction as compared with its bulk counterpart. The dielectric constant value of 2D GaN is smaller as compared to 3D GaN due to less effective electronic screening effect in the layer, which is accompanied by lesser optical adsorption range and suggested to be a promising candidate in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T


    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out.

  12. Evolution of threading dislocations in GaN epitaxial laterally overgrown on GaN templates using self-organized graphene as a nano-mask (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Cao, Bing; He, Shunyu; Qi, Lin; Li, Zongyao; Cai, Demin; Zhang, Yumin; Ren, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Ke


    Growth of high-quality GaN within a limited thickness is still a challenge, which is important both in improving device performance and in reducing the cost. In this work, a self-organized graphene is investigated as a nano-mask for two-step GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth (2S-ELOG) in hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Efficient improvement of crystal quality was revealed by x-ray diffraction. The microstructural properties, especially the evolution of threading dislocations (TDs), were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Stacking faults blocked the propagation of TDs, and fewer new TDs were subsequently generated by the coalescence of different orientational domains and lateral-overgrown GaN. This evolution mechanism of TDs was different from that of traditional ELOG technology or one-step ELOG (1S-ELOG) technology using a two-dimensional (2D) material as a mask.

  13. Improved performance of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors by depositing SiO2 nanoparticles on a GaN surface (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Song, Hang; Chen, Yiren; Miao, Guoqing


    GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet detectors were investigated by depositing different density of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) on the GaN. It was shown that the dark current of the detectors with SNPs was more than one order of magnitude lower than that without SNPs and the peak responsivity was enhanced after deposition of the SNPs. Atomic force microscopy observations indicated that the SNPs usually formed at the termination of screw and mixed dislocations, and further current-voltage measurements showed that the leakage of the Schottky contact for the GaN MSM detector decreased with deposited the SNPs. Moreover, the leakage obeyed the Frenkel-Poole emission model, which meant that the mechanism for improving the performance is the SNPs passivation of the dislocations followed by the reduction in the dark current.

  14. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A


    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  15. Effect of Au/SiO2 substrate on the structural and optical properties of gallium nitride grown by CVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ramos-Carrazco; R Garcia-Gutierrez; M Barboza-Flores; R Rangel; O E Contreras; D Berman-Mendoza


    The improvement of the growth of thick GaN films using a fused silica wafer covered with a thin gold layer by chemical vapour deposition at 800 °C is reported. In order to compare the surface properties, crystalline quality, micromilling performance and luminescence, the characterization of a GaN film grown on a silicon wafer is presented as well. The different morphologies of the surface observed on the GaN films are compared on each substrate and the resulting microstructures are presented in detail. High resolution TEM images of the GaN films show the main crystallographic planes characterizing these structures. The wurtzite structure was determined for each sample using the substrates of Au/SiO2 and Si (100) from the XRD patterns. Also, the re-deposition effect after ion milling of the GaN films is reported. The performance of ionic beam on the surface of the GaN thick films for the geometries patterning of rectangular, circular and annular with two different ion doses was compared. Cathodoluminescence spectra showed that the top surfaces of the samples emit strong UV emissions peaked at 3.35 and 3.32 eV which are related to the Y4 and Y6 transitions.

  16. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In-Jun [Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyung Soo [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sam Nyung, E-mail: [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Han [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  17. Strain-induced step bunching in orientation-controlled GaN on Si (United States)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Iguchi, Hiroko; Horibuchi, Kayo; Otake, Nobuyuki; Hoshi, Shinichi; Tomita, Kazuyoshi


    We report a technique for the fabrication of high-quality GaN-on-silicon (Si) substrates for use in various power applications. GaN epitaxial layers were generated on Si(111) vicinal faces that had been previously covered with a thin coating of Al2O3 to control the orientation of the AlN seed layers. We obtained orientation-controlled GaN layers and found a linear relationship between the GaN c-axis and Si[111] tilt angles. As a result, the threading dislocation density in the AlN seed layer was reduced and high-quality GaN layers were generated. The X-ray rocking curves for these layers exhibited full width at half maximum values of 390‧‧ and 550‧‧ for the (004) and (114) reflections, respectively. Significant step bunching was observed on a GaN(0001) vicinal face produced using this technique, attributed to strain-induced attractive interactions between steps. Thus, by controlling the strain near the surface layer, we achieved the step flow growth of GaN on Si.

  18. Carbon nanotube assisted Lift off of GaN layers on sapphire (United States)

    Long, Hao; Feng, Xiaohui; Wei, Yang; Yu, Tongjun; Fan, Shoushan; Ying, Leiying; Zhang, Baoping


    Laser lift off (LLO) was one of the most essential processes in fabrication of vertical GaN-based LEDs. However, traditional laser lift off of GaN on sapphire substrates needed high laser energy threshold, which deteriorated the GaN crystal. In this paper, it was found that inserting carbon nanotube between GaN and sapphire could effectively reduce the laser energy threshold in GaN LLO, from 1.5 J /cm2 of conventional GaN/sapphire to 1.3 J /cm2 of CNT inserted GaN/sapphire. The temperature distributions at the GaN/sapphire interfaces with and without CNTs were simulated by the finite elements calculation under laser irradiation. It was found that, due to the higher laser absorption coefficient of CNT, the CNT played as a powerful heating wire, sending out the thermal outside to elevate the GaN's temperature, and thus reduce the laser threshold for LLO. Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicated that residual stress of GaN membranes was as small as 0.3 GPa by the carbon nanotube assisted LLO. This work not only opens new application of CNTs, but also demonstrates the potential of high performance blue and green LEDs.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of GaN nanowire doubly clamped resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliakkal, Carina B., E-mail:; Mathew, John P.; Hatui, Nirupam; Rahman, A. Azizur; Deshmukh, Mandar M.; Bhattacharya, Arnab [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) have been intensely researched as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic device applications; however, the mechanical properties of GaN nanostructures have not been explored in detail. The rigidity, thermal stability, and piezoelectric properties of GaN make it an interesting candidate for nano-electromechanical systems. We have fabricated doubly clamped GaN NW electromechanical resonators on sapphire using electron beam lithography and estimated the Young's modulus of GaN from resonance frequency measurements. For wires of triangular cross section with side ∼90 nm, we obtained values for the Young's modulus to be about 218 and 691 GPa, which are of the same order of magnitude as the values reported for bulk GaN. We also discuss the role of residual strain in the nanowire on the resonant frequency and the orientation dependence of the Young's modulus in wurtzite crystals.

  20. From Stable ZnO and GaN Clusters to Novel Double Bubbles and Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Farrow


    Full Text Available A bottom up approach is employed in the design of novel materials: first, gas-phase “double bubble” clusters are constructed from high symmetry, Th, 24 and 96 atom, single bubbles of ZnO and GaN. These are used to construct bulk frameworks. Upon geometry optimization—minimisation of energies and forces computed using density functional theory—the symmetry of the double bubble clusters is reduced to either C1 or C2, and the average bond lengths for the outer bubbles are 1.9 Å, whereas the average bonds for the inner bubble are larger for ZnO than for GaN; 2.0 Å and 1.9 Å, respectively. A careful analysis of the bond distributions reveals that the inter-bubble bonds are bi-modal, and that there is a greater distortion for ZnO. Similar bond distributions are found for the corresponding frameworks. The distortion of the ZnO double bubble is found to be related to the increased flexibility of the outer bubble when composed of ZnO rather than GaN, which is reflected in their bulk moduli. The energetics suggest that (ZnO12@(GaN48 is more stable both in gas phase and bulk frameworks than (ZnO12@(ZnO48 and (GaN12@(GaN48. Formation enthalpies are similar to those found for carbon fullerenes.

  1. Synthesis of GaN Nanorods by a Solid-State Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Bao


    Full Text Available An atom-economical and eco-friendly chemical synthetic route was developed to synthesize wurtzite GaN nanorods by the reaction of NaNH2 and the as-synthesized orthorhombic GaOOH nanorods in a stainless steel autoclave at 600∘C. The lengths of the GaN nanorods are in the range of 400–600 nm and the diameters are about 80–150 nm. The process of orthorhombic GaOOH nanorods transformation into wurtzite GaN nanorods was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, indicating that the GaN product retained essentially the same basic topological morphology in contrast to that of the GaOOH precursor. It was found that rhombohedral Ga2O3 was the intermediate between the starting orthorhombic GaOOH precursor and the final wurtzite GaN product. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that the as-prepared wurtzite GaN nanorods showed strong blue emission.

  2. Enhanced water splitting with silver decorated GaN photoelectrode (United States)

    Hou, Y.; Syed, Z. A.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Yu, X.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.


    By means of a cost-effective approach, we demonstrate a GaN-based photoelectrode decorated with self-organized silver nano-islands employed for solar powered hydrogen generation, demonstrating 4 times increase in photocurrent compared with a reference sample without using any silver. Our photoelectrode exhibits a 60% incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. The enhanced hydrogen generation is attributed to a significantly increased carrier generation rate as a result of strongly localized electric fields induced by surface plasmon coupling effect. The silver coating also contributes to the good chemical stability of our photoelectrode in a strong alkali electrolyte. This work paves the way for the development of GaN and also InGaN based photoelectrodes with ultra-high solar hydrogen conversion efficiency.

  3. 5 Watt GaN HEMT Power Amplifier for LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niotaki


    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a stand-alone linear power amplifier at 2.4 GHz with high output power. A GaN HEMT transistor is selected for the design and implementation of the power amplifier. The device exhibits a gain of 11.7 dB and a drain efficiency of 39% for an output power of 36.7 dBm at 2.4 GHz for an input power of 25dBm. The carrier to intermodulation ratio is better than 25 dB for a two tone input signal of 25 dBm of total power and a spacing of 5 MHz. The fabricated device is also tested with LTE input signals of different bandwidths (5MHz to 20MHz.

  4. GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.


    A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

  5. Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Cherns, David


    Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c-plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed new light on the optical properties of such samples.

  6. The Effects of Exercise Therapy on CVD Risk Factors in Women


    Hur, Sun; Kim, Seon-Rye


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to search for the association of Type D personality and CVD risk factors through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors in women. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and non-Type D+non-exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were co...

  7. High-temperature CVD for crystalline-silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, F.R.; Hurrle, A.


    The fundamentals of thermal CVD for the deposition of silicon at high temperatures are briefly discussed and applied to the conditions in the CVD system that the authors have constructed and characterized. The system fulfills basic requirements to be met for solar cell application; solar cells made from epitaxial layers on various substrates were fabricated. The high-quality cells achieved 17.6% efficiency proving the excellent performance of the system, the cells on economically relevant substrates achieved 8% efficiency which still needs improvement.

  8. Electrical phase change of CVD-grown Ge-Sb-Te thin film device


    Huang, C.C.; B. Gholipour; Ou, J.Y.; Knight, K.J.; Hewak, D. W.


    A prototype Ge-Sb-Te thin film phase-change memory device has been fabricated and reversible threshold and phase change switching demonstrated electrically, with a threshold voltage of 1.5 – 1.7 V. The Ge-Sb-Te thin film was fabricated by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at atmospheric pressure using GeCl4, SbCl5, and Te precursors with reactive gas H2 at reaction temperature 780 °C and substrate temperature 250 °C. The surface morphology and composition of the CVD-grown Ge-Sb-Te thin film ha...

  9. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD


    Le Normand, Francois; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Ersen, Ovidiu; Legagneux, Pierre; Gangloff, Laurent; Fleaca, C.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Dumitrache, Florin; Morjan, Ion


    International audience; Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe2O3 (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes ::;5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO2/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD...

  10. Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices (United States)


    Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices by Marc Litz...MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7082 September 2014 Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN... Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Status of Structural Analysis of Substrates and Film Growth Inputs for GaN Device Development Program (United States)


    from 8 scans per 2” sample to 32. Our team has been developing GaN Schottky diodes and HEMTs with segments of these wafers. 12 Figure 7. Ranking...analysis of variance Asym asymmetric x-ray scan CL cathodoluminescence FOM figure of merit FWHM full width at half maximum GaN gallium nitride HEMT ...Status of Structural Analysis of Substrates and Film Growth Inputs for GaN Device Development Program by Kevin Kirchner ARL-TR-5427

  12. Design of a new two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: Mn-doped GaN monolayer (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Xiong, Zhihua; Luo, Lan; Sun, Zhenhui; Qin, Zhenzhen; Chen, Lanli; Wu, Ning


    To meet the need of low-dimensional spintronic devices, we investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped GaN monolayer using first-principles method. We find the nonmagnetic GaN monolayer exhibits half-metallic ferromagnetism by Mn doping due to double-exchange mechanism. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic coupling in Mn-doped GaN monolayer is enhanced with tensile strain and weakened with compressive strain. What is more, the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transformation occurs under compressive strain of -9.5%. These results provide a feasible approach for fabrication of a new GaN monolayer based diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  13. An investigation of structural properties of GaN films grown on patterned sapphire substrates by MOVPE (United States)

    Törmä, P. T.; Ali, M.; Svensk, O.; Sintonen, S.; Kostamo, P.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.; Odnoblyudov, M. A.; Bougrov, V. E.


    GaN films were fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with either direct or inverse type patterned structures. Both of these two types of PSSs had their own unique GaN growth process which depart from the standard growth on the planar c-plane. GaN films on PSSs showed decreased threading dislocation (TD) density. However, differences between the crystal quality of the GaN films grown on PSSs were observed. It was also found out with one of the pattern type that the TD density varied laterally and followed the periodicity of the pattern on the sapphire surface.

  14. High-resistivity GaN buffer templates and their optimization for GaN-based HFETs (United States)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Zhao, G.; Pavlidis, D.; Sutton, W.; Cho, E.


    High-resistance (HR) GaN templates for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor (HFET) applications were grown using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN sheet resistance was tuned using final nucleation layer (NL) annealing temperature and NL thickness. Using an annealing temperature of 1033 °C and NL thickness of 26 nm, GaN with sheet resistance of 10 10 Ω/sq was achieved, comparable to that of Fe-doped GaN. Material characterization results show that the high-resistance GaN is achieved due to compensating acceptor levels that may be introduced through edge-type threading dislocations. Optimization of annealing temperature and NL thickness provided a means to maximize GaN sheet resistance without significantly degrading material quality. In situ laser reflectance was used to correlate the NL properties to sheet resistance and material quality, providing a figure of merit for expected sheet resistance. AlGaN/GaN HFET layers grown using HR GaN templates with R of 10 10 Ω/sq gave surface and interface roughness of 14 and 7 Å, respectively. The 2DEG Hall mobility and sheet charge of HFETs grown using HR GaN templates was comparable to similar layers grown using unintentionally doped (UID) GaN templates.

  15. Stress Control in GaN Grown on 6H-SiC by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao; JIANG Yang; XU Pei-Qiang; MA Zi-Guang; WANG Xiao-Li; WANG Lu; JIA Hai-Qiang; CHEN Hong


    The strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC substrates with an AIN buffer by metalorganic chemical wpor deposition is investigated.It is found that the insertion of a graded AlGaN layer between the GaN layer and the AIN buffer can change the signs of strain.A compressive strain in an overgrown thick (2 μm) GaN layer is obtained.High-resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements are used to determine the strain state in the GaN layers.The mechanism of stress control by inserting graded AlGaN in subsequent GaN layers is discussed briefly.%@@ The strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 611-SiC substrates with an AIN buffer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated.It is found that the insertion of a graded AlGaN layer between the GaN layer and the AIN buffer can change the signs of strain.A compressive strain in an overgrown thick(2μm)GaN layer is obtained.High-resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements are used to determine the strain state in the GaN layers.The mechanism of stress control by inserting graded AlGaN in subsequent GaN layers is discussed briefly.

  16. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSkimming, Brian M., E-mail:; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Périer, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)


    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  17. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.;


    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm) equi...

  18. Tantalum Coating of Steel, Copper, Aluminum, and Titanium by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Bjerrum, Niels


    Tantalum coatings ranging from 0.5 to 120 mm has been deposited by CVD at 625-1000 C using tantalum pentachloride as precursor. Deposition rates range from 1 to 80mm/h and an activation energy of 103 kJ/mole is calculated. Well adhering deposits has been obtained on stainless steel, carbon steels...

  19. CVD Diamond Detector Stability Issues for Operation at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Izumi, N; Phillips, T W; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C


    Synthetic diamond crystals produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique can serve as fast, radiation hard, neutron sensors for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here we explore the stability issues, such as charge trapping and high-flux saturation, that will be relevant to operation at the NIF.

  20. Field electron emission of diamond films on nanocrystalline diamond coating by CVD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Rangqi; CHEN Guanghua; SONG Xuemei; XING Guangjian; FENG Zhenjian; HE Deyan


    The preparation process, structure feature and field electron emission characteristic of diamond films on nanocyrstalline diamond coating by the CVD method were studied. The field electron emission measurements on the samples showed that the diamond films have lower turn-on voltage and higher field emission current density. A further detailed theory explanation to the results was given.

  1. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes in porous media for ceramic composite preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    A continuum phenomenological model is presented to describe chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of solid product inside porous substrate media for the preparation of reinforced ceramic-matrix composites [by the chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) process] and ceramic membrane composites (by a modified C

  2. PaxVax CVD 103-HgR single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Chen, Wilbur H; Kaper, James B; Lock, Michael; Danzig, Lisa; Gurwith, Marc


    Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine. CVD 103-HgR is well-tolerated and protects against cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 of either serotype (Inaba, Ogawa) and biotype (El Tor, Classical). Since 90% vaccine efficacy is evident 10 days post-ingestion of a single dose, CVD 103-HgR can rapidly protect travelers. Vibriocidal antibody seroconversion correlates with protection; >90% of U.S. adult (including elderly) vaccinees seroconvert. The U.S. Public Health Service's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends CVD 103-HgR for U.S. travelers to areas of ongoing cholera transmission. Expert commentary: Next steps include evaluations in children, post-licensure safety and effectiveness monitoring, diminishing cold chain constraints, optimizing a 'high-dose' formulation for developing countries, and diminishing/eliminating the need for water to administer a dose.

  3. The effect of alkaline doped catalysts on the CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Nemeth, Zoltan; Fejes, Dora;


    The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount o...

  4. The conductivity of high-fluence noble gas ion irradiated CVD polycrystalline diamond (United States)

    Borisov, A. M.; Kazakov, V. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Shemukhin, A. A.; Sigalaev, S. K.


    The conductivity of surface layer of polycrystalline CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond has been studied experimentally after high-fluence 30 keV Ne+, 20 and 30 keV Ar+ ion irradiation at target temperature range from 30 to 400 °C. The hot ion irradiation of CVD diamond may be described as ion-stimulated heat graphitization in which an exponential resistance decrease with increasing of the irradiation temperature is much faster than at the heat treatment. Under ion irradiation of CVD diamond the graphite-like materials resistivity is achieved at temperatures not exceeding 200 °C. The graphite phase in a heterogeneous structure of diamond irradiated layer is in dynamic equilibrium. In the temperature range from RT to 400 °C, the proportion of graphite phase increases so that at temperatures 200 < Tir < 400 °C it is dominant. The Raman spectra of ion-induced conductive layer created on CVD diamond reflect the processes of nanostructural ordering - disordering of sp2-bonded carbon.

  5. Terahertz and M4PP conductivity mapping of large area CVD grown graphene films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    We demonstrate mapping of magnitude and variation of the electrical conductance of large area CVD graphene films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and micro four-point-probe (M4PP). Non-trivial correlations between results obtained with the two techniques are discussed in relation...

  6. The integration of epigenetics and genetics in nutrition research for CVD risk factors (United States)

    There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G x E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supp...

  7. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts (United States)

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan


    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture.The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h

  8. Synthesis of crystalline Ge nanoclusters in PE-CVD-deposited SiO2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.


    The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...

  9. Prevalence of red-green color vision deficiency (cvd among science students: a 10 years' survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Panat , M.Sc. M.Phil.


    Full Text Available Red-green Color vision deficiency (CVD has a high prevalence and is often a handicap in everyday life. The fact that most of the students do not know they have CVD due to non testing of color vision. All Science faculty students of the ASC Rahuri College in the age range of 17-19 were screened for Red-green CVD by using Ishihara test plates from 2001 to 2010. Thus total 654 males and 292 female students were screened during 10 years. The collected data were analyzed for frequency estimation among males and females and then estimating mating types by using the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Frequency of color blindness in males was 0.303 and that in females 0.288. Predicted mating types show a higher contribution of carrier females, and homozygous color blinds than expected. Estimated normal mating type is only 35.35%. Prevalence of Red-green CVD was found considerably high among science students and specifically among females which is unusual. Mating types involving carrier females, colorblind females, and colorblind males together show a very high contribution than normal ones.

  10. Polymer Layers by Initiated CVD for Thin Film Gas Barrier Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, D.A.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.


    In this chapter a thorough description of the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process will be given, concentrating on molecular weight and deposition rate of the deposited polymer, which are essential for largescale application in hybrid gas barriers. Practical applications of coatings by

  11. Control of Reaction Surface in Low Temperature CVD to Enhance Nucleation and Conformal Coverage (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet


    The Holy Grail in CVD community is to find precursors that can afford the following: good nucleation on a desired substrate and conformal deposition in high AR features. Good nucleation is not only necessary for getting ultra-thin films at low thicknesses; it also offers films that are smooth at higher thickness values. On the other hand,…

  12. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie


    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  13. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.


    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ∼50 ml/min (STP) at ∼850

  14. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L;


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of CVD per year older in general population risk...... effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores. RESULTS: A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...

  15. CVD of solid oxides in porous substrates for ceramic membrane modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The deposition of yttria-doped zirconia has been experimented systematically in various types of porous ceramic substrates by a modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process operating in an opposing reactant geometry using water vapor and corresponding metal chloride vapors as reactants. The effe

  16. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires. (United States)

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N


    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  17. Study of relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To determine the relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes: CVD and CVA. Methods: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries from Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) aged 40 and older who had taken health examination and completed the questionnaire inquiring of health habits and past medical history in 1992 or 1993. The number of cohort members was 698,796, and they were followed up from 1st January, 1994 until 31st December, 2000. The primary sources of the data used in this study were the death benefit record and health examination file of KMIC. In the case that the information about the cause of death was unknown in the death benefit record, it was checked from the death registry of National statistical Office and the inpatient data of KMIC. There were 37439 deaths during the follow-up period. Results: A linear relationship between pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, was determined in both genders, the whole population and age groups, in the hypertensive and normotensive ( P< 0. 01). Pulse pressure and mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA increased ( P <0.01). Pulse pressure was significantly associated with a relatively high risk of mortality from all the causes, CVD and CVA in the whole population, both genders, all age groups, the hypertensive and normotensive after adjusted to age, gender, body mass index, blood sugar, serum total cholesterol, AST, ALT, urine protein, urine glucose, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking ( P< 0.01). Conclusion: Pulse pressure shows linear relationship with the mortality from all the causes,CVD and CVA. Pulse pressure appears to be a single measure of blood pressure in predicting mortality from all the causes,CVD and CVA, even in the hypertensive and normotensive.

  18. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods. (United States)

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador


    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O2- and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  19. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.


    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine containing structure

  20. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, George [MIT Lincoln Lab., Lexington, MA (United States)


    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  1. GaN Microwave DC-DC Converters (United States)

    Ramos Franco, Ignacio

    Increasing the operating frequency of switching converters can have a direct impact in the miniaturization and integration of power converters. The size of energy-storage passive components and the difficulty to integrate them with the rest of the circuitry is a major challenge in the development of a fully integrated power supply on a chip. The work presented in this thesis attempts to address some of the difficulties encountered in the design of high-frequency converters by applying concepts and techniques usually used in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers and high-efficiency rectifiers at microwave frequencies. The main focus is in the analysis, design, and characterization of dc-dc converters operating at microwave frequencies in the low gigahertz range. The concept of PA-rectifier duality, where a high-efficiency power amplifier operates as a high-efficiency rectifier is investigated through non-linear simulations and experimentally validated. Additionally, the concept of a self-synchronous rectifier, where a transistor rectifier operates synchronously without the need of a RF source or driver is demonstrated. A theoretical analysis of a class-E self-synchronous rectifier is presented and validated through non-linear simulations and experiments. Two GaN class-E2 dc-dc converters operating at a switching frequency of 1 and 1.2 GHz are demonstrated. The converters achieve 80 % and 75 % dc-dc efficiency respectively and are among the highest-frequency and highest-efficiency reported in the literature. The application of the concepts established in the analysis of a self-synchronous rectifier to a power amplifier culminated in the development of an oscillating, self-synchronous class-E 2 dc-dc converter. Finally, a proof-of-concept fully integrated GaN MMIC class-E 2 dc-dc converter switching at 4.6 GHz is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The 3.8 mm x 2.6 mm chip contains distributed inductors and does not require any

  2. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald


    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs) are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was determined

  3. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald


    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs) are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was determined

  4. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  5. Strain engineering of atomic and electronic structures of few-monolayer-thick GaN (United States)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Saito, Y.; Tominaga, J.; Hyot, B.; André, B.


    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors possess the potential to ultimately minimize the size of devices and concomitantly drastically reduce the corresponding energy consumption. In addition, materials in their atomic-scale limit often possess properties different from their bulk counterparts paving the way to conceptually novel devices. While graphene and 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides remain the most studied materials, significant interest also exists in the fabrication of atomically thin structures from traditionally 3D semiconductors such as GaN. While in the monolayer limit GaN possesses a graphenelike structure and an indirect band gap, it was recently demonstrated that few-layer GaN acquires a Haeckelite structure in the direction of growth with an effectively direct gap. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering of the atomic and electronic structure of few-monolayer-thick GaN structures, which opens new avenues for their practical application in flexible nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. Our simulations further suggest that due to the weak van der Waals-like interaction between a substrate and an overlayer, the use of a MoS2 substrate may be a promising route to fabricate few-monolayer Haeckelite GaN experimentally.

  6. Morphological characterization of selectively overgrown GaN via lateral epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction GaN has attracted a lot of research attention because it has lower Ohmic contact resistance, large electron saturation velocity and a large breakdown field, combined with excellent thermal conductivity and stability, making it an excellent material for high-temperature, high-power and high-brightness optoelectronic devices such as field effect transistors (FET), junction (FET), bipolar transistors and photodiodes[1]. Since threading dislocations resulting from large lattice mismatach and the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of epitaxial GaN and substrate severely degrade the optical and electric qualities of the GaN layer, high quality GaN is indeed required for manufacture of high performance optical device[2]. Characterization of the microstructures of selectively lateral overgrowth of epitaxial GaN using SEM is presented in this work with focus on fully understanding evolution of the morphology and dislocation distribution that occurs in the different growth situations in order for establishment of procession-microstructure-properties interrelations.

  7. The study of electronic structures and optical properties of Al-doped GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Enling; Hou Liping; Liu Mancang; Xi Meng; Wang Xiqiang; Dai Yuanbin [Sciences School, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, China 710054 (China); Li Lisha, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an, China 710068 (China)


    The electronic structures and optical properties of undoped and Al-doped GaN (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, x=0.0625, 0.125, 0.25) have been studied based on generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method of density functional theory (DFT). The differences of the electronic structures and optical properties of undoped and Al-doped GaN have been discussed in detail. The result shows: according to total density of state of undoped and Al-doped GaN, the conduction band becomes width and moves to high energy level with gradual increase concentration of Al impurity. Impurity energy band isn't found in energy band structures of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, the same as energy band structures of undoped GaN, but the band gaps gradually become wide with increase of Al impurity. Absorption spectra of undoped and Al-doped GaN of main absorption peak moves to high energy level with increase of Al impurity.

  8. Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing of GaN (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun


    Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN were deeply investigated in this paper. Working as an ideal homogeneous substrate material in LED industry, GaN ought to be equipped with a smooth and flat surface. Taking the strong chemical stability of GaN into account, photocatalytic oxidation technology was adopted in GaN CMP process to realize efficient removal. It was found that, because of the improved reaction rate of photocatalytic oxidation, GaN material removal rate (MRR) increases by a certain extent with catalyst concentration increasing. Cross single line analysis on the surface after polishing by Phase Shift MicroXAM-3D was carried out to prove the better removal effect with higher catalyst concentration. Ultraviolet intensity field in H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system was established and simulated, revealing the variation trend of ultraviolet intensity around the outlet of the slurry. It could be concluded that, owing to the higher planarization efficiency and lower energy damage, the UV lamp of 125 W is the most appropriate lamp in this system. Based on the analysis, defects removal model of this work was proposed to describe the effects of higher catalyst concentration and higher power of UV lamp.

  9. The finding of natural GaN crystals in sediments from the East Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; SHI Xuefa; ZHANG Haiping; Lü Huahua; FU Zhendong


    The first finding of natural GaN crystals is reported in sediments from the East Pacific. They are identified by multiple micro-beam techniques such as TEM, EDS and EELS. Detailed examinations show that these GaN crystals are euhedral and authigenic, and belong to the hexagonal system (space group P63mc) with cell parameters: a = b = 0.3186 nm, c = 0.5178 nm. Structure data fit closely with those of the synthetic GaN crystals obtained from high-temperature and high-pressure experiments. Moreover, the nearly perfect euhedral form of the sample excludes the possible synthetic origin of the GaN crystals as artifacts with long transport. The sampling localities are located between the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zone in the East Pacific where ongoing hydrothermal activities, deformation, and volcanic eruptions are very intensive. It is suggested that the natural GaN crystals may form at relatively high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in geologic environments that have been affected by intense hydrothermal activities.

  10. The optimal thickness of a transmission-mode GaN photocathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Shi Feng; Guo Hui; Hu Cang-Lu; Cheng Hong-Chang; Chang Ben-Kang; Ren Ling; Du Yu-Jie; Zhang Jun-Ju


    A 150-nm-thick GaN photocathode with a Mg doping concentration of 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 is activated by Cs/O in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber,and a quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the negative electron affinity transmission-mode (t-mode) of the GaN photocathode is obtained.The maximum QE reaches 13.0% at 290 nm.According to the t-mode QE equation solved from the diffusion equation,the QE curve is fitted.From the fitting results,the electron escape probability is 0.32,the back-interface recombination velocity is 5 × 104 cm·s-1,and the electron diffusion length is 116 nm.Based on these parameters,the influence of GaN thickness on t-mode QE is simulated.The simulation shows that the optimal thickness of GaN is 90 nm,which is better than the 150-nm GaN.

  11. Nanotexturing of GaN light-emitting diode material through mask-less dry etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylewicz, Rafal; Khokhar, Ali Z; Rahman, Faiz [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Wasielewski, Radoslaw; Mazur, Piotr, E-mail: [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw, plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)


    We describe a new technique for random surface texturing of a gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode wafer through a mask-less dry etch process. This involves depositing a sub-monolayer film of silica nanospheres (typical diameter of 200 nm) and then subjecting the coated wafer to a dry etch process with enhanced physical bombardment. The silica spheres acting as nanotargets get sputtered and silica fragments are randomly deposited on the GaN epi-layer. Subsequently, the reactive component of the dry etch plasma etches through the exposed GaN surface. Silica fragments act as nanoparticles, locally masking the underlying GaN. The etch rate is much reduced at these sites and consequently a rough topography develops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) inspections show that random topographic features at the scale of a few tens of nanometres are formed. Optical measurements using angle-resolved photoluminescence show that GaN light-emitting diode material thus roughened has the capability to extract more light from within the epilayers.

  12. Nanotexturing of GaN light-emitting diode material through mask-less dry etching (United States)

    Dylewicz, Rafal; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Wasielewski, Radoslaw; Mazur, Piotr; Rahman, Faiz


    We describe a new technique for random surface texturing of a gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode wafer through a mask-less dry etch process. This involves depositing a sub-monolayer film of silica nanospheres (typical diameter of 200 nm) and then subjecting the coated wafer to a dry etch process with enhanced physical bombardment. The silica spheres acting as nanotargets get sputtered and silica fragments are randomly deposited on the GaN epi-layer. Subsequently, the reactive component of the dry etch plasma etches through the exposed GaN surface. Silica fragments act as nanoparticles, locally masking the underlying GaN. The etch rate is much reduced at these sites and consequently a rough topography develops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) inspections show that random topographic features at the scale of a few tens of nanometres are formed. Optical measurements using angle-resolved photoluminescence show that GaN light-emitting diode material thus roughened has the capability to extract more light from within the epilayers.

  13. Design and Analysis of a 34 dBm Ka-Band GaN High Power Amplifier MMIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Vliet, F.E. van; Quay, R.; Raay, F. van; Seelmann-Eggebert, M.


    This paper presents the design and analysis issues related to the use of recent GaN technologies for realizing high power millimeter wave MMICs. Two GaN Ka-band amplifier MMICs have been designed, fabricated and characterized. The small-signal and power measurement results are presented for both amp

  14. Improved crystalline quality of N-polar GaN epitaxial layers grown with reformed flow-rate-modulation technology (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wu, Zili; Dai, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Cui, Yiping


    A reformed flow-rate-modulation technology was developed for the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers. To improve the crystalline quality of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers, a GaN nucleation layer was grown at relatively low temperature with carefully-controlled pulsed supply of Ga source and showed diverse morphology with atomic force microscope (AFM). Furthermore, the electrical and optical properties of the grown N-polar GaN epitaxial layers were investigated extensively by means of Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurements. The characterization results revealed that as compared with the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown over the conventional GaN nucleation layer which was deposited with continuous supply of both N and Ga sources, the electrical and optical properties of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown with optimized supply of Ga source for the GaN nucleation layer were significantly improved.

  15. Ultra-Low Inductance Design for a GaN HEMT Based 3L-ANPC Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Castellazzi, Alberto; Iannuzzo, Francesco;


    In this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell design for a 3L-ANPC based on 650 V GaN HEMT devices is presented. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which are the main contr...

  16. Selective etching and TEM study of inversion domains in Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamler, G.; Borysiuk, J.; Weyher, J.L.; Czernecki, R.; Leszczynski, M.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.


    Two different etching techniques were used for the investigation of polarity inversion in the magnesium-doped MOVPE GaN layers deposited on GaN pressure grown substrates. Etching in KOH solution at 100 degrees C and in molten bases at 450 degrees C allowed us to determine precisely the regions of di

  17. High pressure annealing of Europium implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenz, K.


    GaN epilayers were implanted with Eu to fluences of 1×10^13 Eu/cm2 and 1×10^15 Eu/cm2. Post-implant thermal annealing was performed in ultra-high nitrogen pressures at temperatures up to 1450 ºC. For the lower fluence effective structural recovery of the crystal was observed for annealing at 1000 ºC while optical activation could be further improved at higher annealing temperatures. The higher fluence samples also reveal good optical activation; however, some residual implantation damage remains even for annealing at 1450 ºC which leads to a reduced incorporation of Eu on substitutional sites, a broadening of the Eu luminescence lines and to a strongly reduced fraction of optically active Eu ions. Possibilities for further optimization of implantation and annealing conditions are discussed.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. Optical Properties of GaN and ZnO (United States)

    Song, J.-H.

    A brief review on the optical properties of wurtzite ZnO and GaN is presented in this chapter with an emphasis on comparison between the materials. The properties of free excitons and impurity-bound excitons, such as their energetic positions and binding energies, are summarized. The localization energy and the ionization energy of the dominant impurities obtained by emission spectroscopy are also presented. Typical aspects of emissions from donor—acceptor pairs, free-to-bound transition, and deep level recombination are discussed. Several experimental characteristics of the relevant heterostructures, InGaN/GaN and MgZnO/ZnO, are also given below. Basic optical methods characterizing the effects of internal electric fields and carrier-localization are summarized. The unique properties of polarization sensitive emissions from nonpolar films are presented. Based on the valence band structures, the polarization selection rules can be obtained in simpler forms. Some recent reports will also be introduced stating that the anisotropic strain in nonpolar films plays an important role in deciding the polarization selectivity. The results of Raman spectroscopy are summarized in the end, with the emphasis on deciding the residual strain and the carrier concentration.

  19. Photoluminescence of localized excitons in InGan quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, S. O., E-mail:; Tsatsul' nikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Ledentsov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)


    Photoluminescence spectra of samples with ultrathin InGaN layers embedded in AlGaN and GaN matrices are studied experimentally in the temperature range of 80 to 300 K. It is shown that the temperature dependences can be understood in the context of Eliseev's model and that, in the active region of the structures under study, the dispersion {sigma} of the exciton-localization energy depends on the average In content in InGaN-alloy layers. Furthermore, the Urbach energy E{sub U}, which characterizes the localization energy of excitons in the tails of the density of states, was determined from an analysis of the shape of the low-energy slope of the spectrum. It is shown that {sigma} and E{sub U}, quantities representing the scale of the exciton-localization effects, vary linearly with the photoluminescence-peak wavelength in the range from the ultraviolet to the green region of the spectrum.

  20. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oue, Mariko [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), in January 2012 a disdrometer observation took place with the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (SACR), the Texas A&M SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual wavelength S- and Ka-bands polarimetric (SPolKa) radar on Gan Island, Maldives. In order to measure raindrop size distributions, a disdrometer of Nagoya University, Japan, was set up close to the ARM Two-Dimensional (2D) Video Disdrometer (2DVD). The SMART-R and SPolKa radars performed range-height-indicator scanning in the direction of the disdrometer site. Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be calibrated. Furthermore, the analysis of the raindrop size distribution and radar data will be expected to clarify the microphysics in tropical convective clouds.

  1. High pressure luminescence studies of europium doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Wisniewski; W.Jadwisie(n)czak; T.Thomas; M.Spencer


    We reported on the high pressure luminescence spectra of polycrystalline Eu-doped GaN material synthesized in the reaction tween alloys of gallium,bismuth and europium in ammonia atmosphere.The integrated luminescence intensity of the dominant Eu3+ ion transition (5D0→7F2) at 622 nm increased approximately one order of magnitude whereas its spectral position and line width did not change significantly between ambient and 6.8 GPa pressure,respectively.Moreover,material was characterized with photo- and cathodo-luminescence,and photoluminescence excitation spectra at different temperatures.It was found that the Eu3+ ions occupying substitutional Ga site created different centers which could be effectively excited with above band gap excitation and from excitons resonantly photoexcited at the I2 bound exciton energy.Furthermore,the less efficient Eu3+ ions excitation path existed through intrinsic impurities and defects generating shallow energy levels in the forbidden gap.It was proposed that reduction of the thermal quenching and consequent enhancement of Eu3+ ion emission intensity resulted from stronger localization of bound exciton on RESI trap induced by applied pressure.

  2. Simulations of electron transport in GaN devices

    CERN Document Server

    Arabshahi, H


    model of a device with traps to investigate this suggestion. The model includes the simulation of the capture and release of electrons by traps whose charge has a direct effect on the current flowing through the transistor terminals. The influence of temperature and light on the occupancy of the traps and the I-V characteristics are considered. It is concluded that traps are likely to play a substantial role in the behaviour of GaN field effect transistors. Further simulations were performed to model electron transport in AIGaN/GaN heterojunction FETs. So called HFET structures with a 78 nm Al sub 0 sub . sub 2 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 N pseudomorphically strained layer have been simulated, with the inclusion of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects in the strained layer. The polarization effects are shown to not only increase the current density, but also improve the electron transport by inducing a higher electron density close to the positive charge sheet that occurs in the channel. This thesis de...

  3. Synthesis of GaN nanorods on Si substrates with assistance of the volatilization of ZnO middle layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Huizhao; GAO Haiyong; XUE Chengshan; WANG Shuyun; DONG Zhihua; HE Jianting


    GaN nanorods have successfully been synthesized on Si(111) substrates via ammoniating ZnO/Ga2O3 films at 950℃. Ga2O3 thin films and ZnO middle layers were deposited in turn on Si(111) substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering system. ZnO volatilized at 950℃ in the ammonia ambience and Ga2O3 reacted to NH3 to fabricate GaN nanorods in the later ammoniating process. The volatilization of ZnO layers played an important role in the fabrication. The structure and composition of the GaN nanorods were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The morphology of GaN nanorods was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM). The analyses of measured results revealed that GaN nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure were prepared by this method.

  4. Growth and Characterization of N-Polar GaN Films on Si(111) by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Nidhi; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.


    Smooth N-polar GaN films were epitaxially grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on on-axis p-Si(111). The structural quality of the as-grown GaN films was further improved by insertion of AlGaN/GaN superlattice structures, resulting in reduced threading dislocation density and also efficient stress management in the GaN film to mitigate crack formation. The structural quality of these films was comparable to N-polar GaN grown on C-SiC by MBE. Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) imaging and KOH etch studies were performed to confirm the N-polarity of the sample. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements revealed strong GaN band-edge emission.

  5. Preparation of Freestanding GaN Wafers by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy with Void-Assisted Separation (United States)

    Oshima, Yuichi; Eri, Takeshi; Shibata, Masatomo; Sunakawa, Haruo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Ichihashi, Toshinari; Usui, Akira


    We have developed a novel technique for preparing large-scale freestanding GaN wafers. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of thick GaN layer was performed on a GaN template with a thin TiN film on the top. After the cooling process of the HVPE growth, the thick GaN layer was easily separated from the template by the assistance of many voids generated around the TiN film. As a result, a freestanding GaN wafer was obtained. The wafer obtained had a diameter of 45 mm, and a mirror-like surface. The-full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of (0002) and (10\\bar{1}0) peaks in the X-ray rocking curve profile were 60 and 92 arcsec, respectively. The dislocation density was evaluated at 5× 106 cm-3 by etch pit density measurement.

  6. Correlation of doping, structure, and carrier dynamics in a single GaN nanorod (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Ming-Yen; Lu, Yu-Jung; Gwo, Shangjr; Gradečak, Silvija


    We report the nanoscale optical investigation of a single GaN p-n junction nanorod by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning transmission electron microscope. CL emission characteristic of dopant-related transitions was correlated to doping and structural defect in the nanorod, and used to determine p-n junction position and minority carrier diffusion lengths of 650 nm and 165 nm for electrons and holes, respectively. Temperature-dependent CL study reveals an activation energy of 19 meV for non-radiative recombination in Mg-doped GaN nanorods. These results directly correlate doping, structure, carrier dynamics, and optical properties of GaN nanostructure, and provide insights for device design and fabrication.

  7. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed


    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  8. Effects of Dislocation on High Temperature Transport Characteristics of Unintentionally Doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-Jun; SHEN Bo; XU Fu-Jun; WANG Yan; XU Jian; HUANG Sen; YANG Zhi-Jian; QIN Zhi-Xin; ZHANG Guo-Yi


    High temperature transport characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN have been investigated by means of high temperature Hall measurements from room temperature to 50CPC. The increment of electron concentration from room temperature to 500°C is found to vary largely for different samples. The dispersion of temperature dependence of electron concentration is found to be directly proportional to the density of dislocations in GaN layers calculated by fitting the FWHM of the rocking curves in x-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). The buildup levels in persistent photoconductivity (PPC) are also shown to be directly proportional to the density of dislocations. The correlation of XRD, Hall and PPC results indicate that the high temperature dependence of electron density in unintentional doped GaN is directly dislocation related.

  9. Measurement of the electrostatic edge effect in wurtzite GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Alex; Rosenwaks, Yossi [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Klein, Benjamin [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bertness, Kris A.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Sanford, Norman A. [NIST, Physical Measurement Laboratory, Division 686, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)


    The electrostatic effect of the hexagonal corner on the electronic structure in wurtzite GaN nanowires (NWs) was directly measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating electrostatic simulations with the measured potential difference between the nanowire face and the hexagonal vertices, the surface state concentration and band bending of GaN NWs were estimated. The surface band bending is important for an efficient design of high electron mobility transistors and for opto-electronic devices based on GaN NWs. This methodology provides a way to extract NW parameters without making assumptions concerning the electron affinity. We are taking advantage of electrostatic modeling and the high precision that KPFM offers to circumvent a major source of uncertainty in determining the surface band bending.

  10. Formation of aligned CrN nanoclusters in Cr-delta-doped GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y K; Kimura, S; Emura, S; Hasegawa, S; Asahi, H [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Cr-delta-doped GaN layers were grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on GaN template substrates. Cr flux was supplied without nitrogen flow during Cr-delta-doping. Cr incorporation into a narrow thin layer region was confirmed with the depth profile measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Structural properties and Cr atom alignments were studied with transmission electron microscopy. It was found that Cr-delta-doped GaN layers were coherently grown with Cr or CrGa nanoclusters in the delta-doped region for low temperature growth (350, 500 deg. C). It was also found that aligned CrN nanoclusters (approximately 5 nm vertical thickness) with NaCl-type structure were formed in the delta-doped region for the growth at 700 deg. C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi


    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  12. Study of electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Mozharov, A. M.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Moiseev, E. I.; Mukhin, M. S.; Cirlin, G. E.; Mukhin, I. S.


    Electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy with N-plasma source were studied. Ohmic contacts connected to single n-type GaN wires were produced by the combination of electron beam lithography, metal vacuum evaporation and rapid thermal annealing technique. The optimal annealing temperature to produce ohmic contacts implemented in the form of Ti/Al/Ti/Au stack has been determined. By means of 2-terminal measurement wiring diagram the conductivity of single NW has been obtained for NWs with different growth parameters. The method of MESFET measurement circuit layout of single GaN nanowires (NWs) has been developed. In accordance with performed numerical calculation, free carriers' concentration and mobility of single NWs could be independently estimated using MESFET structure.

  13. Ammonothermal synthesis of GaN using Ba(NH2)2 as mineralizer (United States)

    Hertrampf, J.; Alt, N. S. A.; Schlücker, E.; Knetzger, M.; Meissner, E.; Niewa, R.


    It is demonstrated that hexagonal GaN can be obtained under ammonothermal conditions (125 MPa and 723 K) using Ba(NH2)2 as mineralizer. The hexagonal wurtzite-type GaN crystallites are several μm in diameter, as examined by scanning electron microscopy. This is to our knowledge the first successful ammonothermal GaN synthesis using an alkaline-earth metal as mineralizer. Ba[Ga(NH2)4]2 was identified as intermediate species in the ammonothermal synthesis process. The formation of h-GaN using Sr(NH2)2 as mineralizer was indicated only at higher temperatures above 1000 K.

  14. Semipolar AlN and GaN on Si(100): HVPE technology and layer properties (United States)

    Bessolov, V.; Kalmykov, A.; Konenkova, E.; Kukushkin, S.; Myasoedov, A.; Poletaev, N.; Rodin, S.


    Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of semipolar AlN and GaN layers on planar Si(100) substrates with SiC nanolayer is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the solid-phase epitaxial formation of a specially oriented SiC nucleation layer followed by epitaxy of AlN layer by HVPE at low rates enables growth of aluminum and gallium nitrides in the semipolar direction. For the best GaN(20-23) layers obtained, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for the x-ray diffraction rocking curve is 24 arcmin. The photoluminescence spectrum of the semipolar GaN measured at 4 K exhibits bands related to basal-plane and prismatic stacking faults (BSF and PSF).

  15. The pyroelectric coefficient of free standing GaN grown by HVPE (United States)

    Jachalke, Sven; Hofmann, Patrick; Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank S.; Mehner, Erik; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.; Mikolajick, Thomas


    The present study reports on the temperature dependent pyroelectric coefficient of free-standing and strain-free gallium nitride (GaN) grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The Sharp-Garn method is applied to extract the pyroelectric coefficient from the electrical current response of the crystals subjected to a sinusoidal temperature excitation in a range of 0 °C to 160 °C. To avoid compensation of the pyroelectric response by an internal conductivity, insulating GaN crystals were used by applying C, Mn, and Fe doping during HVPE growth. The different pyroelectric coefficients observed at room temperature due to the doping correlate well with the change of the lattice parameter c. The obtained data are compared to previously published theoretical and experimental values of thin film GaN and discussed in terms of a strained lattice.

  16. A high efficiency C-band internally-matched harmonic tuning GaN power amplifier (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, B. C.; Zheng, J. X.; Zhang, H. S.; Zheng, X. F.; Ma, X. H.; Hao, Y.; Ma, P. J.


    In this paper, a high efficiency C-band gallium nitride (GaN) internally-matched power amplifier (PA) is presented. This amplifier consists of 2-chips of self-developed GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 16 mm total gate width on SiC substrate. New harmonic manipulation circuits are induced both in the input and output matching networks for high efficiency matching at fundamental and 2nd-harmonic frequency, respectively. The developed amplifier has achieved 72.1% power added efficiency (PAE) with 107.4 W output power at 5 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this amplifier exhibits the highest PAE in C-band GaN HEMT amplifiers with over 100 W output power. Additionally, 1000 hours' aging test reveals high reliability for practical applications.

  17. Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Ryu, Kevin K; Schuck, Carsten; Fong, King Y; Palacios, Tomas; Tang, Hong X


    We demonstrate second order optical nonlinearity in a silicon architecture through heterogeneous integration of single-crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) on silicon (100) substrates. By engineering GaN microrings for dual resonance around 1560 nm and 780 nm, we achieve efficient, tunable second harmonic generation at 780 nm. The \\{chi}(2) nonlinear susceptibility is measured to be as high as 16 plus minus 7 pm/V. Because GaN has a wideband transparency window covering ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths, our platform provides a viable route for the on-chip generation of optical wavelengths in both the far infrared and near-UV through a combination of \\{chi}(2) enabled sum-/difference-frequency processes.

  18. Self-induced growth of vertical GaN nanowires on silica (United States)

    Kumaresan, V.; Largeau, L.; Oehler, F.; Zhang, H.; Mauguin, O.; Glas, F.; Gogneau, N.; Tchernycheva, M.; Harmand, J.-C.


    We study the self-induced growth of GaN nanowires on silica. Although the amorphous structure of this substrate offers no possibility of an epitaxial relationship, the nanowires are remarkably aligned with the substrate normal whereas, as expected, their in-plane orientation is random. Their structural and optical characteristics are compared to those of GaN nanowires grown on standard crystalline Si (111) substrates. The polarity inversion domains are much less frequent, if not totally absent, in the nanowires grown on silica, which we find to be N-polar. This work demonstrates that high-quality vertical GaN nanowires can be elaborated without resorting to bulk crystalline substrates.

  19. Investigation of HCl-based surface treatment for GaN devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Shinohara, Masatohi; Kondo, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Yamane, Keisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)


    Surface treatments of GaN in HCl-based solutions are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical characterization of fabricated GaN surfaces. A dilute-HCl treatment (HCl:H{sub 2}O=1:1) at room temperature and a boiled-HCl treatment (undiluted HCl) at 108°C are made on high-temperature annealed n-GaN. From the XPS study, removal of surface oxide by the dilute-HCl treatment was found, and more thoroughly oxide-removal was confirmed in the boiled-HCl treatment. Effect of the surface treatment on electrical characteristics on AlGaN/GaN transistor is also studied by applying treatment processes prior to the surface SiN deposition. Increase of drain current is found in boiled-HCl treated samples. The results suggest that the boiled-HCl treatment is effective for GaN device fabrication.

  20. Analysis and modelling of GaN Schottky-based circuits at millimeter wavelengths (United States)

    Pardo, D.; Grajal, J.


    This work presents an analysis of the capabilities of GaN Schottky diodes for frequency multipliers and mixers at millimeter wavelengths. By using a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the diode coupled to a harmonic balance technique, the electrical and noise performances of these circuits are investigated. Despite the lower electron mobility of GaN compared to GaAs, multipliers based on GaN Schottky diodes can be competitive in the first stages of multiplier chains, due to the excellent power handling capabilities of this material. The performance of these circuits can be improved by taking advantage of the lateral Schottky diode structures based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology.

  1. Nonresonant tunneling phonon depopulated GaN based terahertz quantum cascade structures (United States)

    Freeman, Will; Karunasiri, Gamani


    GaN based terahertz quantum cascade structures are theoretically studied. Since the Fröhlich interaction is ˜15 times higher in GaN than in GaAs, level broadening makes obtaining appreciable optical gain difficult even with a large population inversion. A density matrix Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the broadening of the optical gain spectra as a function of lattice temperature. We find by using a proposed method of nonresonant tunneling and electron-longitudinal-optical phonon scattering for depopulation of the lower lasing state, that it is possible to sufficiently isolate the upper lasing state and control the lower lasing state lifetime to obtain high optical gain in GaN. The results predict lasing out to 300 K which is significantly higher than for GaAs based structures.

  2. Visualization of GaN surface potential using terahertz emission enhanced by local defects (United States)

    Sakai, Yuji; Kawayama, Iwao; Nakanishi, Hidetoshi; Tonouchi, Masayoshi


    Wide-gap semiconductors have received significant attention for their advantages over existing semiconductors in energy-efficient power devices. To realize stable and reliable wide-gap semiconductor devices, the basic physical properties, such as the electric properties on the surface and at the interface, should be revealed. Here, we report visualization of terahertz (THz) emission from the surface of GaN, which is excited by ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses. We found that the THz emission is enhanced by defects related to yellow luminescence, and this phenomenon is explained through the modification of band structures in the surface depletion layer owing to trapped electrons at defect sites. Our results demonstrate that the surface potential in a GaN surface could be detected by laser-induced THz emission. Moreover, this method enables feasible evaluation of the distribution of non-radiative defects, which are undetectable with photoluminescence, and it contributes to the realization normally-off GaN devices.

  3. Botulinum toxin detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Ramage, J.; Hooten, D.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Ren, F.


    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect botulinum toxin. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when the target toxin in a buffer was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. We could detect a range of concentrations from 1to10ng/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for botulinum toxin detection.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Xu; R. Zhang; Y.P. Wang; X.Q. Xiu; S.L. Gu; B. Shen; Y. Shi; Z.G. Liu; Y.D. Zheng


    Gallium Nitride film was successfully separated from sapphire substrate by laser radi-ation. The absorption of the 248nm radiation by the GaN at the interface results inrapid thermal decomposition of the interfacial layer, yielding metallic Ga and N2 gas.The substrate can be easily removed by heating above the Ga melting point (29℃).X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Photoluminescence of GaN before andafter lift-off process have been performed, which demonstrated that the separation andtransfer process do not alter the structural quality of the GaN films. And further dis-cussions on the threshold energy and crack-free strategies of laser lift-off process havealso been presented.

  5. High-pressure X-ray diffraction study of bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, J.E.; Jakobsen, J.M.; Jiang, Jianzhong;


    Bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN have been studied by high-pressure energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. Pressure-induced structural phase transitions from the wurtzite to the NaCl phase were observed in both materials. The transition pressure was found to be 40 GPa for the bulk-crystalline GaN, while...... the wurtzite phase was retained up to 60 GPa in the case of nanocrystalline GaN. The bulk moduli for the wurtzite phases were determined to be 187 ( 7) and 319 ( 10) GPa for the bulk- and nanocrystalline phases, respectively, while the respective NaCl phases were found to have very similar bulk moduli [ 208...

  6. A low cost, green method to synthesize GaN nanowires (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Li, Yong-He; Su, Chao-Hua; Song, Xue-Mei; Yan, Hui; Wang, Ru-Zhi


    The synthesis of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are successfully demonstrated in this work. The simple and green synthesis route is to introduce gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and nitrogen (N2) for the growth of nanowires. The prepared GaN nanowires have a single crystalline wurtzite structure, which the length of some nanowires is up to 20 μm, with a maximum diameter about 140 nm. The morphology and quantity of the nanowires can be modulated by the growth substrate and process parameters. In addition, the photoluminescence and field emission properties of the prepared GaN nanowires have been investigated, which were found to be largely affected by their structures. This work renders an environmentally benign strategy and a facile approach for controllable structures on nanodevice.

  7. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy


    Wang Yongjin; Hu Fangren; Hane Kazuhiro


    Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place wit...

  8. Controlling the morphology of GaN layers grown on AlN in Ga self-surfactant conditions: from quantum wells to quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, C.; Daudin, B.; Monroy, E.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Rouviere, J.L.; Hori, Y.; Brault, J.; Gogneau, N. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054-Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fanget, S.; Bru-Chevallier, C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere - CNRS (UMR5511), INSA de Lyon, Batiment Blaise Pascal, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)


    We show that the growth mode of GaN deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on AlN can be controlled by tuning Ga/N ratio. This enables to grow either quantum dots (Ga/N<1) or quantum wells (Ga/N>>1). The inhibition of 2D/3D transition results from a decrease in effective mismatch induced by the presence of a continuous Ga film on growing GaN surface in Ga-rich conditions. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Recubrimientos depositados por CVD-FBR para protección a alta temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luddey Marulanda-Arevalo


    Full Text Available La deposición química de vapor por lecho fluidizado (CVD-FBR es una variante de la técnica de deposición química de vapor; que combina las ventajas de la activación térmica por calentamiento y el lecho fluidizado. Los recubrimientos mediante CVD-FBR son ampliamente investigados y usados debido a la necesidad de proteger superficialmente los componentes que operan a altas temperaturas, el cual ha aumentado perceptiblemente. Además, tiene la ventaja de ser una técnica de bajo costo, puede controlar con relativa facilidad la composición del material depositado, permitiendo realizar recubrimientos con una orientación preferente que permite la obtención de intercaras con propiedades anisotrópicas; estos son depositados a bajas temperaturas y a la presión atmosférica.

  10. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO{sub 2} phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.m [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Romero-Serrano, J.A. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico)


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac){sub 4} has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp{sup o}, DELTAH{sup o} and S{sup o} for Zr(acac){sub 4} have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO{sub 2} can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and graphite carbon.

  11. Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films by DBD-CVD Under Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-wen; GUO Yu; HAN Gao-rong


    Titanium dioxide films were firstly deposited on glass substrate by DBD-CVD (dielectric barrier discharge enhanced chemical vapor deposition) technique.The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM).TiO2 films deposited under atmosphere pressure show preferred orientation,and exhibit columnar-like structure,while TiO2 films deposited under low gas pressure show no preferred orientation.The columnar-like structure with preferred orientation exhibits higher photocatalytic efficiency,since the columnar structure has larger surface area.However,it contributes little to the improvement of hydrophilicity. DBD-CVD is an alternative method to prepare photocatalytic TiO2 for its well-controllable property.

  12. Pulse-shape analysis for gamma background rejection in thermal neutron radiation using CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavrigin, P., E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Finocchiaro, P., E-mail: [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Griesmayer, E., E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Jericha, E., E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Pappalardo, A., E-mail: [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Weiss, C., E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)


    A novel technique for the rejection of gamma background from charged-particle spectra was demonstrated using a CVD diamond detector with a {sup 6}Li neutron converter installed at a thermal neutron beamline of the TRIGA research reactor at the Atominstitut (Vienna University of Technology). Spectra of the alpha particles and tritons of {sup 6}Li(n,T){sup 4}He thermal neutron capture reaction were separated from the gamma background by a new algorithm based on pulse-shape analysis. The thermal neutron capture in {sup 6}Li is already used for neutron flux monitoring, but the ability to remove gamma background allows using a CVD diamond detector for thermal neutron counting. The pulse-shape analysis can equally be applied to all cases where the charged products of an interaction are absorbed in the diamond and to other background particles that fully traverse the detector.

  13. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties of CVD-Grown Graphene with Ascorbic Acid Treatment (United States)

    Tang, Chunmiao; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Yanhui; Sui, Yanping; Yu, Guanghui; Cao, Yijiang


    Ascorbic acid was used to modify to chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films transferred onto SiO2 substrate. Residual polymer (polymethyl methacrylate), Fe3+, Cl-, H2O, and O2 affected the electrical and thermal properties on graphene during the transfer or device fabrication processes. Exposure of transferred graphene to ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced electrical properties with increased charge carrier mobility. All devices exhibited more than 30% improvement in room temperature carrier mobility in air. The carrier mobility of the treated graphene did not significantly decrease in 21 days. This result can be attributed to electron donation to graphene through the -OH functional group in ascorbic acid that is absorbed in graphene. This work provides a method to enhance the electrical properties of CVD-grown graphene.

  14. A Review of the Properties and CVD Synthesis of Coiled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Fejes


    Full Text Available The CVD route for carbon nanotube production has become a popular method to make large amounts of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The structure, morphology and size of carbon materials depend critically on the catalyst preparation and deposition conditions. According to current knowledge, CVD method is the only process which can produce carbon nanocoils. These nanocoils are perfect candidates for nanotechnology applications. One might indeed hope that these coils would have the extraordinary stiffness displayed by straight nanotubes. Based on theoretical studies, regular coiled nanotubes exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties due to the combination of their peculiar helical morphology and the fascinating properties of nanotubes. In spite of its technological interest, relatively low attention has been paid to this special field. In this paper we attempt to summarize results obtained until now.

  15. A Study on Fretting Wear Property of CVD SiC and Sintered SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Ki-Nam; An, Ji-Hyeong; Kim, Kyu-Tae [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)


    Silicon Carbide is broadly used as high temperature structure material because of its high temperature tolerance and superior mechanical properties. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, SiC proposed as one of the alternative materials for LWR fuel cladding to provide enhanced safety margin. Grid-to-rod fretting wear-induced fuel failure is known to occur due to flow-induced vibration of the reactor core and grid to- rod gap. In this paper, wear tests for CVD SiC plate and sintered SiC tube were performed with two types of spacer grids. Wear test of corroded and non-corroded CVD SiC plates indicate that wear resistance of corroded specimen is lower than one of non-corroded specimen in contrast with zirconium alloy cladding tube. It may be affected by rough surface of corroded specimen caused by grain boundary attack.

  16. Scalable ZnO nanotube arrays grown on CVD-graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Park


    Full Text Available We report the growth of wafer-scale arrays of individually position-controlled and vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays on graphene deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD-graphene. Introducing two-dimensional layered materials such as graphene as a growth buffer has recently been suggested for growing nanomaterials on traditionally incompatible substrates. However, their growth has been restricted to small areas or had limited controllability. Here, we study the distinct growth behavior of ZnO on CVD-graphene that makes the selective area growth of individual nanostructures on its surface difficult, and propose a set of methods to overcome this. The resulting nanotube arrays, as examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, exhibited uniform morphologies and high structural quality over a large area and could be prepared on a broad variety of substrates, including amorphous, metallic, or flexible substrates.

  17. Systematic study of pre-irradiation effects in high efficiency CVD diamond nuclear particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Paoletti, A; Pillon, M; Tucciarone, A; Verona-Rinati, G


    Many outstanding properties of diamond can, in principle, lead to the development of radiation detectors with interesting capabilities. In particular, diamond-based nuclear particle detectors are good candidates to replace silicon-based detectors in several fields, e.g. in high-flux applications such as next generation particle-accelerator experiments or beam monitoring. However, the high concentration of defects (grain boundaries, impurities) in synthetic diamond films can strongly limit the detector's performance. A significant increase in the efficiency of CVD diamond detectors is achieved by means of pre-irradiation (pumping) with beta particles. We report here on a systematic study of the effects of pumping in high-quality microwave CVD diamond films. The efficiency (eta) and charge collection distance (CCD) of nuclear particle detectors based on these films depend on the methane content in the growth gas mixture and on the film thickness. Both efficiency and CCD behave in a markedly different way in the...

  18. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Weight Loss and CVD Risk Management (United States)

    Fulwiler, Carl; Brewer, Judson A.; Sinnott, Sinead; Loucks, Eric B.


    Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions, and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research.

  19. Gas electron multiplier based on laser-perforated CVD diamond film: First tests

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S; Bolshakov, A; Ashkinazi, E; Kalkan, Y; Popovich, A; Komlenok, M; Sosnovtsev, V; Ralchenko, V


    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) is widely used in modern gas detectors of ionizing radiation in experiments on high-energy physics at accelerators and in other fields of science. Typically the GEM devices are based on a dielectric foil with holes and electrodes on both sides. GEMs made by radiation-hard dielectrics or wide band-gap semiconductors are desirable for some applications. The results of the first tests of the gas electron multiplier made of radiation-hard materials, such as polycrystalline CVD diamond with a thickness of 100 microns is described. Here we report on fabrication of GEM based on free-standing polycrystalline CVD diamond film and its first test.

  20. Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene Using DC PE-CVD (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun


    Few layer graphene (FLG) had been successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni films or foils on a large scale using DC Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (DC PE-CVD) as a result of the Raman spectra drawn out of the sample. The size of graphene films is dependent on the area of the Ni film as well as the DC PE-CVD chamber size. Synthesis time has an effect on the quality of graphene produced. However, further analysis and experiments must be pursued to further identify the optimum settings and conditions of producing better quality graphene. Applied plasma voltage on the other hand, had an influence on the minimization of defects in the graphene grown. It has also presented a method of producing a free standing PMMA/graphene membrane on a FeCl3(aq) solution which could then be transferred to a desired substrate.

  1. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD (United States)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.


    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  2. Electronic properties and strain sensitivity of CVD-grown graphene with acetylene (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Sasaki, Shinichirou; Ohnishi, Masato; Suzuki, Ken; Miura, Hideo


    Although many studies have shown that large-area monolayer graphene can be formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using methane gas, the growth of monolayer graphene using highly reactive acetylene gas remains a big challenge. In this study, we synthesized a uniform monolayer graphene film by low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) with acetylene gas. On the base of Raman spectroscopy measurements, it was found that up to 95% of the as-grown graphene is monolayer. The electronic properties and strain sensitivity of the LPCVD-grown graphene with acetylene were also evaluated by testing the fabricated field-effect transistors (FETs) and strain sensors. The derived carrier mobility and gauge factor are 862-1150 cm2/(V·s) and 3.4, respectively, revealing the potential for high-speed FETs and strain sensor applications. We also investigated the relationship between the electronic properties and the graphene domain size.

  3. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Normand, F. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Cojocaru, C.S.; Ersen, O. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Legagneux, P.; Gangloff, L. [THALES R and T, Departementale 128, 91747 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Fleaca, C. [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Bat 70, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, P.O. Box MG-36, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, P.O. Box MG-36, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania)


    Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes {<=}5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO{sub 2}/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD process (PE-HF-CCVD). Vertically oriented and thin carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown with few differences between the two samples, except the diameter in relation to the initial size of the iron particles, and the density. The electron field emission of these samples exhibit quite interesting behavior with a low turn-on voltage at around 1 V/{mu}m.

  4. Aligned carbon nanotubes catalytically grown on iron-based nanoparticles obtained by laser-induced CVD (United States)

    Le Normand, F.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Ersen, O.; Legagneux, P.; Gangloff, L.; Fleaca, C.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.


    Iron-based nanoparticles are prepared by a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. They are characterized as body-centered Fe and Fe 2O 3 (maghemite/magnetite) particles with sizes ≤5 and 10 nm, respectively. The Fe particles are embedded in a protective carbon matrix. Both kind of particles are dispersed by spin-coating on SiO 2/Si(1 0 0) flat substrates. They are used as catalyst to grow carbon nanotubes by a plasma- and filaments-assisted catalytic CVD process (PE-HF-CCVD). Vertically oriented and thin carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown with few differences between the two samples, except the diameter in relation to the initial size of the iron particles, and the density. The electron field emission of these samples exhibit quite interesting behavior with a low turn-on voltage at around 1 V/μm.

  5. CVD diamond wafers as large-area thermoluminescence detectors for measuring the spatial distribution of dose (United States)

    Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Olko, P.; Nesládek, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Rbisz, M.; Waligórski, M. P. R.


    The applicability of large-area CVD diamond wafers (diameter about 5 cm, thickness about 0.1 mm), read out as thermoluminescence (TL) detectors, for assessing two-dimensional (2-D) dose distribution over their area, was investigated. To obtain 2-D TL images, a special TL reader equipped with large-area planchet and a CCD camera instead of the usual PM tube was developed. Several 2-D TL images: of an alpha source (Am-241), a Ra-226 needle source and a Ru-106 ophthalmic applicator, were measured and high-resolution digital images obtained. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential capability of large-area CVD diamond wafers, read out as TL detectors, in 2-D dosimetry for medical applications. (

  6. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixi Wang; Si Chen; Hongyong Xie


    The growth of titania nanoparticles in a flame CVD process has been simulated by computational fluid dynamics, based on the change rate of particle number density due to their collisions calculated from an integral collision kernel. The assumptions made on constant particle volume density nv (nd3), constant density of particle surface area ns (nd2), and constant entity nd2.5 in coagulation process have been examined. Comparisons have been made on particle size distribution between measurement results and predictions from present model of particle growth and Kruis model of particle dynamics for titania nanoparticles synthesized by the flame CVD process. Effects of operational parameters such as O2 mole fraction and particle number density on mean particle size and size distribution have been discussed.

  8. Abnormal Crystallization of Silicon Thin Films Deposited by ICP-CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Shuai; YIN Min; WANG Jin-Xiao; HE De-Yan


    @@ Silicon thin films are deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) at a low temperature of 350℃ using a mixture of SiH4 and H2. The structures of the films are characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we observe that the crystallinity of Si films becomes more excellent and the preferred orientation changes from (111) to (220) with the decreasing dilution of SiH4 in H2. Such an abnormal crystallization is tentatively interpreted in term of the high density,low electron temperature and spatial confinement of the plasma in the process of ICP-CVD.

  9. A survey on GaN- based devices for terahertz photonics (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi


    With fast growing of the photonics and power electronic systems, the need for high power- high frequency semiconductor devices is sensed tremendously. GaN provides the highest electron saturation velocity, breakdown voltage and operation temperature, and thus combined frequency-power performance among commonly used semiconductors. With achieving the first THz image in just two decades ago, generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation is one of the most emerging photonic areas. The industrial needs for compact, economical, high resolution and high power THz imaging and spectroscopy systems are fueling the utilization of GaN for the realizing of the next generation of THz systems. As it is reviewed in this paper, the mentioned characteristics of GaN together with its capabilities of providing high 2-dimentional election densities and large longitudinal-optical phonon of 90 meV, make it one of the most promising semiconductor materials for the future of the THz generation, detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication. GaN- based devices have shown capabilities of operating in the upper THz frequency band of 5- 12 THz with relatively high photon densities and in room temperature. As a result, THz imaging and spectroscopy systems with high resolutions and depths of penetrations can be realized via utilizing GaN- based devices. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the history and state of the art of the GaN- based electronic devices, including plasma HFETs, NDRs, HDSDs, IMPATTs, QCLs, HEMTs, Gunn diodes and TeraFETs together with their impact on the future of THz imaging and spectroscopy systems is provided.

  10. Nanocrystalline sp 2 and sp 3 carbons: CVD synthesis and applications (United States)

    Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Tamburri, E.


    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp 2- and sp 3-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  11. Fabricating Large-Area Sheets of Single-Layer Graphene by CVD (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michael; Manohara, Harish


    This innovation consists of a set of methodologies for preparing large area (greater than 1 cm(exp 2)) domains of single-atomic-layer graphite, also called graphene, in single (two-dimensional) crystal form. To fabricate a single graphene layer using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the process begins with an atomically flat surface of an appropriate substrate and an appropriate precursor molecule containing carbon atoms attached to substituent atoms or groups. These molecules will be brought into contact with the substrate surface by being flowed over, or sprayed onto, the substrate, under CVD conditions of low pressure and elevated temperature. Upon contact with the surface, the precursor molecules will decompose. The substituent groups detach from the carbon atoms and form gas-phase species, leaving the unfunctionalized carbon atoms attached to the substrate surface. These carbon atoms will diffuse upon this surface and encounter and bond to other carbon atoms. If conditions are chosen carefully, the surface carbon atoms will arrange to form the lowest energy single-layer structure available, which is the graphene lattice that is sought. Another method for creating the graphene lattice includes metal-catalyzed CVD, in which the decomposition of the precursor molecules is initiated by the catalytic action of a catalytic metal upon the substrate surface. Another type of metal-catalyzed CVD has the entire substrate composed of catalytic metal, or other material, either as a bulk crystal or as a think layer of catalyst deposited upon another surface. In this case, the precursor molecules decompose directly upon contact with the substrate, releasing their atoms and forming the graphene sheet. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can also be used. In this method, a substrate surface at low temperature is covered with exactly one monolayer of precursor molecules (which may be of more than one type). This is heated up so that the precursor molecules decompose and form one

  12. Microfabrication of Tungsten, Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbide Rods by Laser-Assisted CVD


    Björklund, Kajsa


    Thin films of refractory metals and carbides have been studied extensively over many years because of their wide range of application. The two major techniques used are Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). These can result in the deposition of two-dimensional blanket or patterned thin films. Laser-assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (LCVD) can provide a maskless alternative for localised deposition in two and three dimensions. This thesis describes LCVD of mi...

  13. Tribological Testing of Some Potential PVD and CVD Coatings for Steel Wire Drawing Dies


    Nilsson, Maria; Olsson, Mikael


    Cemented carbide is today the most frequently used drawing die material in steel wire drawing applications. This is mainly due to the possibility to obtain a broad combination of hardness and toughness thus meeting the requirements concerning strength, crack resistance and wear resistance set by the wire drawing process. However, the increasing cost of cemented carbide in combination with the possibility to increase the wear resistance of steel through the deposition of wear resistant CVD and...

  14. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer


    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  15. Analysis of thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome (United States)

    Zhang, Daijun; Luo, Haibo; Zhou, Peipei; Hou, Xinglin


    Since the dome experiences the convective heat loading, thermal stress will be generated in the thickness direction. Thus, estimation of the thermal shock and analysis of the thermal shock resistance of the dome are the key to the design of the dome. In this paper, thermal shock resistance of CVD ZnS dome is analysed based on the flight condition of 6000m altitude and 3.0 Mach. We obtained the critical Reynolds number through a rockets pry experiment, which deduced that there exists a transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow at somewhere over the dome. We calculated the heat transfer coefficient over dome through heat transfer coefficient engineering formula of high-speed sphere with turbulent boundary layer near the stagnation point. The largest heat transfer coefficient is 2590W/(m2.K). Then, we calculated the transient thermal stress of dome by using the finite element method. Then we obtained the temperature and thermal stress distribution of different time through the direction of thickness. In order to obtain the mechanical properties of CVD ZnS at high temperatures, the 3-point bending method was used to test the flexure strength of CVD ZnS at different temperature. When compared the maximum thermal stress with flexure strength at different temperature, we find that the safety factors were not less than 1.75. The result implied that the dome has good safety margin under the proposed application condition. Through the above test and analysis, we can get the conclusion that the thermal shock resistance of the CVD ZnS dome satisfied the requirements of flight conditions.

  16. Untersuchungen zur Hot-wire CVD auf kristallinem Silizium und deren Anwendung in Solarzellen


    Seitz, Holger


    In den letzten Jahren konnte ein beachtlicher Fortschritt bei der Entwicklung kostengünstiger, hoch effektiver Si-Solarzellen mit kristalliner Basis und einem Emitter aus amorphem Silizium (a-Si:H) beobachtet werden. Für die Herstellung dieser Emitter wird zur Zeit ausschliesslich die plasmaunterstützte chemische Gasphasenabscheidung (PECVD)verwendet, die jedoch aufgrund ihrer Hochfrequenztechnik sehr aufwendig ist. Die Hot-wire CVD, das heisst die Abscheidung durch Zersetzung eines Gases an ...

  17. Photochemical CVD of Ru on functionalized self-assembled monolayers from organometallic precursors (United States)

    Johnson, Kelsea R.; Arevalo Rodriguez, Paul; Brewer, Christopher R.; Brannaka, Joseph A.; Shi, Zhiwei; Yang, Jing; Salazar, Bryan; McElwee-White, Lisa; Walker, Amy V.


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an attractive technique for the metallization of organic thin films because it is selective and the thickness of the deposited film can easily be controlled. However, thermal CVD processes often require high temperatures which are generally incompatible with organic films. In this paper, we perform proof-of-concept studies of photochemical CVD to metallize organic thin films. In this method, a precursor undergoes photolytic decomposition to generate thermally labile intermediates prior to adsorption on the sample. Three readily available Ru precursors, CpRu(CO)2Me, (η3-allyl)Ru(CO)3Br, and (COT)Ru(CO)3, were employed to investigate the role of precursor quantum yield, ligand chemistry, and the Ru oxidation state on the deposition. To investigate the role of the substrate chemistry on deposition, carboxylic acid-, hydroxyl-, and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers were used. The data indicate that moderate quantum yields for ligand loss (φ ≥ 0.4) are required for ruthenium deposition, and the deposition is wavelength dependent. Second, anionic polyhapto ligands such as cyclopentadienyl and allyl are more difficult to remove than carbonyls, halides, and alkyls. Third, in contrast to the atomic layer deposition, acid-base reactions between the precursor and the substrate are more effective for deposition than nucleophilic reactions. Finally, the data suggest that selective deposition can be achieved on organic thin films by judicious choice of precursor and functional groups present on the substrate. These studies thus provide guidelines for the rational design of new precursors specifically for selective photochemical CVD on organic substrates.

  18. Comparison of Straight and Helical Nanotube Production in a Swirled Fluid CVD Reactor


    Bathgate, Graham; Iyuke, Sunny; Kavishe, Frank


    Research into Carbon Nanotubes and their applications is fast becoming an extremely popular topic, and any means to greatly improve the synthesis process has a huge marketability. While investigating the feasibility of continuous production of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a vertical Swirled Fluid Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) reactor, it was discovered that helical nanotubes were lifted from the reactor by the gas current while straight tubes remained behind. Investigation into the me...

  19. Correlation of experimental performance data for a CVD tungsten-niobium, planar thermionic converter (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.


    Approximate expressions are presented which correlate experimental performance data from a CVD tungsten-niobium, planar thermionic converter. The current voltage characteristics are given as functions of emitter and collector temperatures and cesium pressure for currents below the knee in the ignited mode. The correlation covers the temperature ranges of 1700 to 1950 K for the emitter, 900 to 1050 K for the collector, and 580 to 645 K for the cesium reservoir.

  20. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions


    Guláš, Michal; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Farhat, Samir; Veis, Pavel; Le Normand, Francois


    International audience; To support experimental investigations, a model based on ChemkinTM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase ...

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanbotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions (United States)

    Guláš, M.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C. T.; Farhat, S.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.


    To support experimental investigations, a model based on Chemkin^TM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase activation sources and pressure is performed.

  2. Structural features in GaN grown on a Ge(111) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; McAleese, C.; Xiu, H.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lieten, R.R.; Degroote, S.; Borghs, G. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Leuven (Belgium)


    Using electron microscopy, structural characterisation has been carried out on a GaN epilayer grown directly on a Ge(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) without any intermediate buffer layers. It was determined that a defect with a triangular shape, initially observed with optical microscopy, is essentially a faceted void in the Ge extending from the interface into the substrate. Both hexagonal and cubic phase GaN were observed in the epilayer which may be due to temperature variation during growth. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Luminescence of GaN nanocolumns obtained by photon-assisted anodic etching (United States)

    Tiginyanu, I. M.; Ursaki, V. V.; Zalamai, V. V.; Langa, S.; Hubbard, S.; Pavlidis, D.; Föll, H.


    GaN nanocolumns with transverse dimensions of about 50 nm were obtained by illumination-assisted anodic etching of epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates. The photoluminescence spectroscopy characterization shows that the as-grown bulk GaN layers suffer from compressive biaxial strain of 0.5 GPa. The majority of nanocolumns are fully relaxed from strain, and the room-temperature luminescence is free excitonic. The high quality of the columnar nanostructures evidenced by the enhanced intensity of the exciton luminescence and by the decrease of the yellow luminescence is explained by the peculiarities of the anodic etching processing.

  4. Determination of satellite valley position in GaN emitter from photoexcited field emission investigations (United States)

    Semenenko, M.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.


    Argon plasma etched GaN field-emitter rods with nanometer-scale diameter were fabricated on GaN grown on an n+-GaN substrate. Their electron field emission properties were investigated both without and under illumination by using light sources with various wavelengths. The Fowler-Nordheim current-voltage characteristics of the cathodes show a change in slope for illuminated cathodes. The electron affinity difference ΔE between the different valleys in the conduction band has been ascertained and is in the range from 1.18 up to 1.21 eV.

  5. Optical anisotropy and light extraction efficiency of MBE grown GaN nanowires epilayers. (United States)

    Henneghien, Anne-Line; Tourbot, Gabriel; Daudin, Bruno; Lartigue, Olivier; Désières, Yohan; Gérard, Jean-Michel


    The use of nanowires as active medium seems very promising for the development of high brightness LEDs. With a lower effective refractive index than bulk, semiconductor nanowire layers may lead to a high light extraction efficiency. We hereafter discuss the anisotropic properties of dense arrays of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires and the consequences on the optical design of nanowire based LEDs. In particular we show numerically that light extraction efficiency as high as 72% can be expected for GaN nanowires layer grown on a low cost Si substrate.

  6. Extraction of absorption coefficients from GaN nanowires grown on opaque substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaprakash, Rahul; Germanis, Savvas; Androulidaki, Maria; Tsagaraki, Katerina; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Pelekanos, Nikos T


    We demonstrate a new method to measure absorption coefficients in any family of nanowires, provided they are grown on a substrate having considerable difference in permittivity with the nanowire-air matrix. In the case of high crystal quality, strain-free GaN nanowires, grown on Si (111) substrates with a density of ~1010 cm-2, the extracted absorption coefficients do not exhibit any enhancement compared to bulk GaN values, unlike relevant claims in the literature. This may be attributed to the relatively small diameters, short heights, and high densities of our nanowire arrays.

  7. A forgotten Ottoman composer: Ali Şîrûganî Dede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin Soydaş


    Full Text Available Although being one of the major composers of religious music in the Ottoman era, Ali Şîrûganî Dede, who was famous throughout his life as well as afterwards, is not known nowadays much well as he deserves. In this article Ali Şîrûganî Dede is introduced and information is given on his musicianship and his works, while his situation in the history of Ottoman music is pointed out and especially his importance with regard to religious music is emphasized. Some new information about the subject is also presented within this work.

  8. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode (United States)


    The Mg-implanted p-i-n diode exhibits rectification and low leakage currents. The realization of an Mg-implanted GaN device is a key step for...future power electronic devices. Keywords: GaN, p-i-n diode, ion implantation Introduction III-nitride materials have attracted a continuous interest...implantation to a concentration of 2x1019 cm-3 following a box profile to a depth of 500nm. A photoresist mask was used for the implantation, aligned to

  9. GaN ultraviolet detector based demonstrator board for UV-index monitoring (United States)

    Song, Man; Xie, Feng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tanglin; Guo, Jin


    Currently, various types of III nitride-based materials have been successfully used for short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. The GaN ultraviolet detector has been wildly used for UV-Index(UVI) monitoring, UV curing and water disinfection. The global solar UVI describes the levels of solar UV radiation at the Earth's surface. The higher the UVI value, the greater the potential damage to the skin and eyes. The UVI monitoring demonstrator board with GaN detector is briefly introduced in this paper.

  10. Nucleation and Growth of GaN on GaAs (001) Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Hafich, Michael J.; Heller, Edwin J.; Lee, Stephen R.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Ruvimov, Sergei; Sullivan, John P.


    The nucleation of GaN thin films on GaAs is investigated for growth at 620 "C. An rf plasma cell is used to generate chemically active nitrogen from N2. An arsenic flux is used in the first eight monolayer of nitride growth to enhance nucleation of the cubic phase. Subsequent growth does not require an As flux to preserve the cubic phase. The nucleation of smooth interfaces and GaN films with low stacking fault densities is dependent upon relative concentrations of active nitrogen species in the plasma and on the nitrogen to gallium flux ratio.

  11. Investigation of structural and optical properties of GaN on flat and porous silicon (United States)

    Abud, Saleh H.; Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.


    In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) layers were successfully grown on Flat-Si and porous silicon (PSi) using a radio frequency-magnetron sputtering system. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images showed that the grown film on Flat-Si had smoother surface, even though there were some cracks on it. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the peak intensity of all the grown layers on PSi was higher than that of the grown layer on Flat-Si. Our detailed observation showed that PSi is a promising substrate to obtain GaN films.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of defect formation in GaN cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Nord, J D; Keinonen, J; Albe, K


    Simulations of irradiation effects in compound semiconductors require interatomic potentials which describe not only the compound phases, but also the pure constituents and defects. We discuss a systematic approach based on the analytic bond-order scheme for constructing such potentials and give an example for GaN. Finally, this potential is employed for simulations of defect formation in GaN by ion irradiation for recoils in the 200 eV to 10 keV energy range. Results on the total damage production are presented and compared with other semiconductors and experiments.

  13. The use of doping spikes in GaN Gunn diodes (United States)

    Macpherson, R. F.; Dunn, G. M.


    The possibility of circumventing the difficulties of fine doping control in GaN Gunn diode devices by the substitution of a fully depleted p-type doping spike for the doping notch used to promote domain formation is explored using a Monte Carlo model. The p-type doping spike is a commonly used structure, but its potential use in GaN has not been previously evaluated. The results for a functional doping spike are compared, favorably, to those for a physically reasonable doping notch.

  14. Estimation of Hot Electron Relaxation Time in GaN Using Hot Electron Transistors (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Lu, Jing; Nidhi; Raman, Ajay; Hurni, Christophe; Gupta, Geetak; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.


    In this paper, we report for the first time an estimation of hot electron relaxation time in GaN using electrical measurements. Hot electron transistors (HETs) with GaN as the base layer and different base-emitter barrier-height configurations and base thicknesses were fabricated. Common-base measurements were performed to extract the differential transfer ratio, and an exponential decay of the transfer ratio with increasing base thickness was observed. A hot electron mean free path was extracted from the corresponding exponential fitting and a relaxation time was computed, which, for low energy injection, matched well with theoretically predicted relaxation times based on longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering.

  15. Simulation of optimum parameters for GaN MSM UV photodetector (United States)

    Alhelfi, Mohanad A.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Rawi, Ali Amer; Hassan, Z.


    In this study the optimum parameters of GaN M-S-M photodetector are discussed. The evaluation of the photodetector depends on many parameters, the most of the important parameters the quality of the GaN film and others depend on the geometry of the interdigited electrode. In this simulation work using MATLAB software with consideration of the reflection and absorption on the metal contacts, a detailed study involving various electrode spacings (S) and widths (W) reveals conclusive results in device design. The optimum interelectrode design for interdigitated MSM-PD has been specified and evaluated by effect on quantum efficiency and responsivity.

  16. Structural properties of undoped and doped cubic GaN grown on SiC(001)


    Martínez-Guerrero, Esteban; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Martinet, L.; Feuillet, G.; Daudin, B.


    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements reveal the presence of stacking faults ~SFs! in undoped cubic GaN thin layers. We demonstrate the importance of the defects in the interfacial region of the films by showing that the SFs act as nucleation sites for precipitates of residual impurities such as C and Si present in the GaN layers grown on SiC~001! substrates. We used the imaging secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique to locate these impurities. The systemat...

  17. Study of CVD diamond layers with amorphous carbon admixture by Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a most often used standard technique for characterization of different carbon materials. In this work we present the Raman spectra of polycrystalline diamond layers of different quality, synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition method (HF CVD. We show how to use Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of the Raman bands to determine the structure of diamond films as well as the structure of amorphous carbon admixture. Raman spectroscopy has become an important technique for the analysis of CVD diamond films. The first-order diamond Raman peak at ca. 1332 cm−1 is an unambiguous evidence for the presence of diamond phase in the deposited layer. However, the existence of non-diamond carbon components in a CVD diamond layer produces several overlapping peaks in the same wavenumber region as the first order diamond peak. The intensities, wavenumber, full width at half maximum (FWHM of these bands are dependent on quality of diamond layer which is dependent on the deposition conditions. The aim of the present work is to relate the features of diamond Raman spectra to the features of Raman spectra of non-diamond phase admixture and occurrence of other carbon structures in the obtained diamond thin films.

  18. Electronic properties of embedded graphene: doped amorphous silicon/CVD graphene heterostructures (United States)

    Arezki, Hakim; Boutchich, Mohamed; Alamarguy, David; Madouri, Ali; Alvarez, José; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Yao, Fei; Lee, Young Hee


    Large-area graphene film is of great interest for a wide spectrum of electronic applications, such as field effect devices, displays, and solar cells, among many others. Here, we fabricated heterostructures composed of graphene (Gr) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper substrate and transferred to SiO2/Si substrates, capped by n- or p-type doped amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Using Raman scattering we show that despite the mechanical strain induced by the a-Si:H deposition, the structural integrity of the graphene is preserved. Moreover, Hall effect measurements directly on the embedded graphene show that the electronic properties of CVD graphene can be modulated according to the doping type of the a-Si:H as well as its phase i.e. amorphous or nanocrystalline. The sheet resistance varies from 360 Ω sq-1 to 1260 Ω sq-1 for the (p)-a-Si:H/Gr (n)-a-Si:H/Gr, respectively. We observed a temperature independent hole mobility of up to 1400 cm2 V-1 s-1 indicating that charge impurity is the principal mechanism limiting the transport in this heterostructure. We have demonstrated that embedding CVD graphene under a-Si:H is a viable route for large scale graphene based solar cells or display applications.

  19. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time? (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel


    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun


    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.