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Sample records for hot work die

  1. Precipitation Behavior of Carbides in H13 Hot Work Die Steel and Its Strengthening during Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angang Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of carbides, such as morphology, size, and type, in H13 hot work die steel were studied with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis; their size distribution and quantity after tempering, at different positions within the ingot, were analyzed using Image-Pro Plus software. Thermodynamic calculations were also performed for these carbides. The microstructures near the ingot surface were homogeneous and had slender martensite laths. Two kinds of carbide precipitates have been detected in H13: (1 MC and M6C, generally smaller than 200 nm; and (2 M23C6, usually larger than 200 nm. MC and M6C play the key role in precipitation hardening. These are the most frequent carbides precipitating at the halfway point from the center of the ingot, and the least frequent at the surface. From the center of the ingot to its surface, the size and volume fraction of the carbides decrease, and the toughness improves, while the contribution of the carbides to the yield strength increases.

  2. SUSCEPTOBILITY TO THERMAL FATIGUE OF CLOSED DIE HOT FORGING DIES

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    Frederico de Castro Magalhães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot forging dies providing high productive performance reduce production costs. The lifetime of the dies is expressed by the number of forgings (production cycle produced before being rejected by the presence of a failure mechanism, associated with unacceptable dimensions and or geometry of the end product or even breakage of the dies. One of the failure mechanisms of hot forging dies is thermal fatigue, caused by cyclic heating and cooling. A subroutine, based on the work of Maim and Norstrom [1], was developed for the DEFORM 2D numerical software, using the finite element method, in order to predict die regions susceptible to thermal fatigue. The use of adequate coefficients for the description of the heat transfer phenomena allowed the validation of the proposed subroutine.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nitrogen-Alloyed High-Mn Austenitic Hot Work Die Steel

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    Yi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the requirements for mechanical properties and service life above 650 °C, a high-Mn austenitic hot work die steel, instead of traditional martensitic hot work die steel such as H13, was developed in the present study. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the newly developed work die steel was studied. The results show that the microstructure of the high-Mn as-cast electroslag remelting (ESR ingot is composed of γ-Fe, V(C,N, and Mo2C. V(C,N is an irregular multilateral strip or slice shape with severe angles. Most eutectic Mo2C carbides are lamellar fish-skeleton-like, except for a few that are rod-shaped. With increasing solid solution time and temperature, the increased hardness caused by solid solution strengthening exceeds the effect of decreased hardness caused by grain size growth, but this trend is reversed later. As a result, the hardness of specimens after various solid solution heat treatments increases first and then decreases. The optimal combination of hardness and austenitic grain size can be obtained by soaking for 2 h at 1170 °C. The maximum Rockwell hardness (HRC is 47.24 HRC, and the corresponding austenite average grain size is 58.4 μm. When the solid solution time is 3 h at 1230 °C, bimodality presented in the histogram of the austenite grain size as a result of further progress in secondary recrystallization. Compared with the single-stage aging, the maximum impact energy of the specimen after two-stage aging heat treatment was reached at 16.2 J and increased by 29.6%, while the hardness decreased by 1–2 HRC. After two-stage aging heat treatment, the hardness of steel reached the requirements of superior grade H13, and the maximum impact energy was 19.6% higher than that of superior grade H13, as specified in NADCA#207-2003.

  4. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

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    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  5. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brucher, H.G. [Doehler-Jarvis, Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.14 - Hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot work. 1915.14 Section 1915.14 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.14 Hot work. (a) Hot work requiring testing by a Marine Chemist or Coast Guard authorized person. (1) The employer shall ensure that hot work is not performed in...

  7. Effects of initial hardness on heat crack formation of die steel for hot working; Netsukan kakoyo kanagatako no heat crack keisei ni oyobosu shoki katasa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, N.; Tanaka, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    An investigation was made on the effects of initial hardness on heat crack formation in die steel during a diecasting process. Reduction in the life of a diecast die is caused by heat crack at more than 70% attributable to thermal fatigue as a result of the quick heating and cooling cycles. Conventional simplified testing methods do not make necessarily clear their relation with actual operations. Modeling on the diecasting process, a test piece with a notch is immersed directly into Al alloy melt and quenched in water as a thermal fatigue test to discuss the relationship between heat cracks in the die steel SKD61 and the initial hardness. High-temperature tensile strength of the SKD61 largely affects crack formation. The tensile strength increases linearly at 573 K or lower as the hardness increases. However, at 673 K or higher, the tensile strength shows a nearly proportional relationship up to HRC50 with increasing hardness, but decreases at higher hardness with HRC50 as a maximum value. Raising the initial hardness up to near HRC50 presents effect in suppressing generation and propagation of heat cracks. However, raising it further will result in an inverse effect. 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Simulation and Analysis of the Closed Die Hot Forging Process by A Computer Simulation Method

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    Dipakkumar Gohil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the variation of various parameters such as stress, strain, temperature, force, etc. during the closed die hot forging process. A computer simulation modeling approach has been adopted to transform the theoretical aspects in to a computer algorithm which would be used to simulate and analyze the closed die hot forging process. For the purpose of process study, the entire deformation process has been divided in to finite number of steps appropriately and then the output values have been computed at each deformation step. The results of simulation have been graphically represented and suitable corrective measures are also recommended, if the simulation results do not agree with the theoretical values. This computer simulation approach would significantly improve the productivity and reduce the energy consumption of the overall process for the components which are manufactured by the closed die forging process and contribute towards the efforts in reducing the global warming.

  9. An overview of high thermal conductive hot press forming die material development

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    A.R. Zulhishamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the automotive industries are using high strength steel components, which are produced via hot press forming process. This process requires die material with high thermal conductivity that increases cooling rate during simultaneous quenching and forming stage. Due to the benefit of high quenching rate, thermal conductive die materials were produced by adding carbide former elements. This paper presents an overview of the modification of alloying elements in tool steel for high thermal conductivity properties by transition metal elements addition. Different types of manufacturing processes involved in producing high thermal conductive materials were discussed. Methods reported were powder metallurgy hot press, direct metal deposition, selective laser melting, direct metal laser sintering and spray forming. Elements likes manganese, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and chromium were proven to increase thermal conductivity properties. Thermal conductivity properties resulted from carbide network presence in the steel microstructure. To develop feasible and low cost hot press forming die material, casting of Fe-based alloy with carbide former composition can be an option. Current thermal conductivity properties of hot press forming die material range between 25 and 66 W/m.K. The wide range of thermal conductivity varies the mechanical properties of the resulting components and lifetime of HPF dies.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor... Employment § 1915.503 Precautions for hot work. (a) General requirements—(1) Designated Areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops, and...

  11. Hot Embossing of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Micropart Using Stacked Silicon Dies

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    Zhijing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated hot embossing of Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 bulk metallic glass micropart using stacked silicon dies. Finite element simulation was carried out, suggesting that it could reduce the stress below 400 MPa in the silicon dies and enhance the durability of the brittle silicon dies when using varying load mode (100 N for 60 s and then 400 N for 60 s compared with using constant load mode (200 N for 120 s. A micropart with good appearance was fabricated under the varying load, and no silicon die failure was observed, in agreement with the simulation. The amorphous state of the micropart was confirmed by differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction, and the nanohardness and Young’s modulus were validated close to those of the as-cast BMG rods by nanoindentation tests. The results proved that it was feasible to adopt the varying load mode to fabricate three-dimensional Zr-based bulk metallic glass microparts by hot embossing process.

  12. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  13. A new tribological system test for integrated hot forming and die quenching of aluminium alloy sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snilsberg, Knut Erik; Welo, Torgeir; Moen, Knut Erling; Holmedal, Bjørn; Jensrud, Ola; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The automotive industry is searching for alternative powertrain and lightweight solutions to meet steadily stricter emission standards and regulations. To leverage the use of high-strength age-hardening aluminium alloys, new processes such as hot forming and in-die quenching are under development in a number of different groups. 0ne of the challenges with in-die quenching is controlling the friction regime stability due to rapidly changing temperatures at both the tool and the blank surfaces under complex deformation modes. In this paper, a cup-based test method is developed and tested for combinations of draw ring materials and lubricants on AA6070 aluminium sheets. Qualitative investigations of formed cups indicate reduced adhesion of aluminium at the tool surface can be obtained by choosing the right combination of tool and lubrication parameters. A correlation between maximum punch force, formed cup height and average Coulomb friction coefficient is observed in both physical experiments and forming simulation.

  14. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2017-03-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  15. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2018-02-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  16. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Tind; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-01-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A disco......International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade....... A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites – 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) ‘the work...... of the professional caregivers – a complex low-status work’; (2) ‘the education of the professionals – the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications’ and (3) ‘the vulnerable professionals’. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within...

  17. Tempering stability of Fe-Cr-Mo-W-V hot forging die steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-ji; Wu, Xiao-chun; Li, Jun-wan; Min, Na

    2017-10-01

    The tempering stability of three Fe-Cr-Mo-W-V hot forging die steels (DM, H21, and H13) was investigated through hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Both dilatometer tests and TEM observations revealed that DM steel has a higher tempering stability than H21 and H13 steels because of its substantial amount of M2C (M represents metallic element) carbide precipitations. The activation energies of the M2C carbide precipitation processes in DM, H21, and H13 steels are 236.4, 212.0, and 228.9 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that vanadium atoms both increase the activation energy and affect the evolution of M2C carbides, resulting in gradual dissolution rather than over-aging during tempering.

  18. TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINING BIMETALLIC SHAPING PARTS OF DIE TOOLING USING METHOD OF HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION

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    I. V. Kachanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of high-speed shaping changes and especially high-speed hot extrusion create efficient conditions for treatment of weakly plastic and poorly deformable materials which are widely used in tool making facilities. Due to the fact that high-speed stamping provides accurate billets with increased mechanical properties, it can be used as a technological process for manufacturing shaping parts of die tooling parts operating which are subjected to increased loads and wear.The purpose of the paper is to carry out experimental investigations on the possibility to obtain a bimetallic tool where structural steel is considered as a basis of the tool and a working cavity is made of high-alloyed tool steel with its saving up to 90 %. A scheme of loading and geometry of conjugated surfaces of the composite billet have been developed in the paper. Technology for obtaining bimetallic shaping parts of die tooling with deformation at speed of vR = 40-50 m/s and composite billet temperature of T = 1150 °C has been experimentally tested with formation of a compound due to plastic flow of two billet parts on contact surface with removal of surface oxide films.Microstructures of the bimetallic compounds obtained with the help of high-speed hot extrusion method for compositions of structural and high-alloy steels have been investigated and their high quality has been proved during the investigations. Dependences of micro-hardness distribution have been established outbound two- steel contact plane in the zone of connection that are characterized by a minimum micro-hardness value in the connection joint. Availability of more plastic zone in the contact plane contributes to reduction of residual stresses due to their relaxation in this zone and higher joint strength.

  19. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

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    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  20. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte

    2002-01-01

    is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time......Despite the fact that millions DKK each year are spent on improving roadsafety in Denmark, funds for traffic safety are limited. It is therefore vital to spend the resources as effectively as possible. This thesis is concerned with the area of traffic safety denoted "hot spot safety work", which...

  1. Working in a hot environment; perspiration loss; a drink for persons working under hot conditions, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Losses of various nutrients through sweat of persons working under hot conditions were considered. On the basis of these considerations a supplemental drink was formulated consisting of 1 liter of water per hour containing salt, potassium chloride, iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid.

  2. The Hot-gas screw-type engine - Simulation as a basis for construction. Pt. 3; Die Heissgasschraubenmaschine - simulationsgestuetzte Auslegung. T. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Unwerth, T. von [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen

    1998-12-31

    In this paper new results of the research regarding the design of the first experimental plant for a hot-gas screw-type machine are reported. Target of the development is the verification of operating behaviour as well as the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the screw-type motor parts. The selection and dimensioning of the plant components is described with a main focus on the construction of the thermally high-loaded hot-gas screw-type engine. Its manufacturing tolerances are based on simulations, with which the mechanical deformations of the rotors and the casing respective the resulting clearance-heights can be calculated. With inclusion of an efficient cooling method for the motor parts, for the, in the article documented, projected nominal working condition with a material-depending limit for the entrance temperature at {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, a pressure ratio {pi}=6 and a male rotor peripheral speed u{sub HR}=120 ms{sup -1}, each rotor should be decreased by 0.07 mm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber neue Forschungsergebnisse im Hinblick auf die konstruktive Realisierung der ersten Versuchsanlage einer Heissgasschraubenmaschine berichtet. Ziel der daran durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen ist die Verifikation des Betriebsverhaltens sowie des thermischen und mechanischen Bauteilverhaltens des Heissgasschraubenmotors. Nachzulesen ist die Auswahl und Dimensionierung der Anlagenkomponenten, wobei ein Hauptaugenmerk auf der Auslegung des thermisch hoch belasteten Schraubenmotors liegt. Dessen Dimensionierung liegen Simulationsrechnungen zugrunde, mit deren Hilfe die mechanischen Verformungen der Rotoren und des Gehaeuses respektive der daraus resultierenden Spalthoehen a priori angegeben werden koennen. Fuer den hier dokumentierten, angestrebten Nennbetriebszustand mit einer werkstoffbedingt begrenzten Motoreintrittstemperatur von {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, einem Druckverhaeltnis von {pi}=6 und einer Hauptrotorumfangsgeschwindigkeit von u{sub HR}=120 ms

  3. Effect of post weld heat treatment on wear resistance of hot forging cast steel die coated with surfacing layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wujiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance capability of die surfacing layer under different Post Weld Heat Treatments (PWHT was analysed by Finite Element Method (FEM simulation and experiments. Taking the hot forging process of crankshaft as example, a wear model of hot forging die coated with surfacing layer was established by the software DEFORM-3D. The simulation results indicate that the wear resistance capability of the die surfacing layer is optimal when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively. To verify the wear calculation result, 16 groups of different PWHT orthogonal wear tests were performed under atmospheric condition at 400 ∘C. The wear test result shows a good agreement with the FEM simulation result. SEM observation of the wear debris shows that oxidative wear plays a dominant role in 400 ∘C among 16 specimens. Furthermore, when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively, the alloy carbide dispersively distributes in the metallographic structure, which can improve the wear resistance of the surfacing.

  4. Solution of boundary heat transfer coefficients between hot stamping die and cooling water based on FEM and optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Cui, Hongzhi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal physical parameters have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields, and the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water is one of the most important thermal physical parameters in the hot stamping. In order to attain the boundary heat transfer coefficient, the testing devices and test procedures are designed according to the characteristic of heat transfer in the hot stamping die. A method of estimating the temperature-dependent boundary heat transfer coefficient is presented, and an inverse heat conduction software is developed based on finite element method, advance-retreat method and golden section method. The software is used to calculate the boundary heat transfer coefficient according to the temperatures measured by NiCr-NiSi thermocouples in the experiment. The research results show that, the convergence of the method given in the paper is well, the surface temperature of sample has a significant effect on the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water. The boundary heat transfer coefficient increases as the surface temperature of sample reduces, and the variation is nonlinear.

  5. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  6. Breaking Cycles of Violence. A Work Group of the International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement (IWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death Studies, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Violence begets violence and it is important to understand how cycles of violence are perpetuated if we are to find solutions to the global problems they present. A multi-disciplinary group of The International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement has developed a model of the cyclical events that perpetuate violence at all levels including…

  7. Durchquerungen – die Arbeit der Subjektivität Transitions—The Work of Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wagels

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Arbeit des Sexuellen und das Sexuelle der Arbeit – mit diesem Fokus adressiert der Band sexuell arbeiten auf eindrucksvolle Weise die Zusammenhänge von Sexualität, Geschlecht und Lohnarbeit. Ob anhand von Fotografien und Tagebüchern der Hausangestellten Hannah Cullwick zu Zeiten des viktorianischen Englands, anhand der Analyse einer neuen Hotelform im heutigen Berlin oder anhand von Interviews mit Computer-Spezialist_innen1 bulgarischer Herkunft in München und in Sofia: Die Arbeit der Subjektivität wird als eine neue Machttechnologie gezeichnet, die zugleich unterwirft wie auch Umarbeitungen gesellschaftlich vorgesehener Plätze anreizt. Ergänzt werden die präzisen Beobachtungen und auf hohem theoretischen Niveau geführten Untersuchungen von Gesprächen mit Forscher_innen zu weiteren Arbeitsfeldern. Gemeinsam ist allen Ansätzen der Blick auf singuläre Praxen, in denen sich eine Prekarisierung von Denkformen und Diskursen vollzieht und vorangetrieben wird: Sexuelle Arbeit.Sexual work and the sexual in work—This is the focus of the volume working sexually (sexuell arbeiten, which impressively addresses the connections between sexuality, gender, and wage labor. The volume sketches the work on subjectivity as a new technology of power that both submits to and incites the reconfiguration of socially designated places. It does so by using, for example, the photographs and diaries of the Victorian-era domestic servant Hannah Cullwick, an analysis of a new type of hotel in today’s Berlin, or interviews with Bulgarian-born female computer specialists in Munich and Sofia. The precise observations and the highly theoretically conducted studies are complemented by conversations with researchers about other areas of work. Each approach shares a focus on those singular practices in which a precariousness of forms of thoughts and discourses takes place and is perpetuated: Sexual work.

  8. Model development of work roll wear in hot strip mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziying; Guan, Yingping; Wang, Fengqin

    2017-06-01

    This paper, based on the analysis of the main factors(specific roll force, mean roll surface temperature, irregular edge wear and contact arc length) affecting roll wear, designed a new work roll wear model, the test data shows that the model can more accurately reflect the work roll wear, can be on-line prediction of work roll wear. The roll wear curve, including constant wear and irregular edge wear, presents a box shape, and the reasons also are showed in this paper. The top roll wear and bottom roll wear in the same mill are inconsistent, and the reasons are also analysed in this paper. Results show that the construction of the work roll mathematical model accords with the general law of work roll wear and tear; it can more accurately forecast roll wear online.

  9. Professional tears: developing emotional intelligence around death and dying in emergency work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cara; Murphy, Roger; Porock, Davina

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores how emergency nurses manage the emotional impact of death and dying in emergency work and presents a model for developing expertise in end-of-life care delivery. Care of the dying, the deceased and the bereaved is largely conducted by nurses and nowhere is this more demanding than at the front door of the hospital, the Emergency Department. Whilst some nurses find end-of-life care a rewarding aspect of their role, others avoid opportunities to develop a relationship with the dying and bereaved because of the intense and exhausting nature of the associated emotional labour. Qualitative study using unstructured observations of practice and semistructured interviews. Observation was conducted in a large Emergency Department over 12 months. We also conducted 28 in-depth interviews with emergency staff, patients with terminal illnesses and their relatives. Emergency nurses develop expertise in end-of-life care giving by progressing through three stages of development: (1) investment of the self in the nurse-patient relationship, (2) management of emotional labour and (3) development of emotional intelligence. Barriers that prevent the transition to expertise contribute to occupational stress and can lead to burnout and withdrawal from practice. Despite the emotional impact of emergency deaths, nurses who invest their therapeutic self into the nurse-patient relationship are able to manage the emotional labour of caring for the dying and their relatives through the development of emotional intelligence. They find reward in end-of-life care that ultimately creates a more positive experience for patients and their relatives. The emergency nurse caring for the dying patient is placed in a unique and privileged position to make a considerable impact on the care of the patient and the experience for their family. This model can build awareness in managing the emotive aspects involved in care delivery and develop fundamental skills of nursing patients near

  10. Hot flashes, fatigue, treatment exposures and work productivity in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E; Griggs, Jennifer J; Tu, Xin M; Lerner, Debra J

    2008-12-01

    While fatigue has been associated with work limitations the combined influence of specific diagnosis and treatment exposures based on medical records on work limitations in breast cancer survivors is currently unknown. Since symptom burden and perceived health can interfere with work, the present study investigated the relationship among these variables and work outcomes. Medical chart abstraction, demographic measures, SF 36, the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and measures of symptom burden, including hot flushes were obtained in 83 breast cancer survivors a mean of three years post treatment. OLS and poisson regression were used to determine the relationship of these factors to work productivity and work absences. Breast cancer survivors reported a mean reduction in productivity of 3.1% below the healthy worker norm. This amounts to a loss of 2.48 hours of work over two weeks of full time employment. Stages 1 and 2 were related to work limitations. After controlling for stage, fatigue and hot flashes were each associated with work performance losses of 1.6% (p = 0.05) and 2.2% (p work productivity in breast cancer survivors even at three years post treatment. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS: Therapy for hot flashes should be given serious consideration in breast cancer survivors who are experiencing work limitations.

  11. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spigarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.

  12. Identification of dynamically precipitated phases in hot-working Inconel 718 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nowotnik; J. Sieniawski; G. Mrówka-Nowotnik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze how localized flow/structural inhomogeneties that may develop during hot deformation can affect a precipitated phases and to determine what kind of particles are present in the microstructure of hot-worked Inconel 718 superalloy.Design/methodology/approach: Compression tests were carried out on precipitations hardenable nickel based superalloy of Inconel 718 at constant true strain rates of 10-4 and 4x10-4s-1 at temperature of 720 and 850...

  13. Study of Low Work Function Materials for Hot Cavity Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B; Mattolat, C; Menna, Mariano; Österdahl, F; Raeder, S; Schwellnus, F; Stora, T; Wendt, K; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization on the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high-temperature, low-work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE / CERN, Geneva and RISIKO / University of Mainz.

  14. Study of low work function materials for hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Schwellnus, F; Crepieux, B; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Mattolat, Ch; Menna, M; Österdahl, F K; Raeder, S; Stora, T; Wendta, K

    2009-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization of the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high temperature, low work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva and RISIKO/University of Mainz.

  15. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Spigarelli; Chiara Paoletti

    2017-01-01

    The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh) equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense l...

  16. Semi-Supervised Transductive Hot Spot Predictor Working on Multiple Assumptions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-05-23

    Protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues (“hot spots”) at the interfaces. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the binding free energy and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there exists a need for accurate and reliable computational hot spot prediction methods. Compared to the supervised hot spot prediction algorithms, the semi-supervised prediction methods can take into consideration both the labeled and unlabeled residues in the dataset during the prediction procedure. The transductive support vector machine has been utilized for this task and demonstrated a better prediction performance. To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the transductive semi-supervised algorithms takes all the three semisupervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster and manifold assumptions, together into account during learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hot spot residue prediction, by considering all the three semisupervised assumptions using nonlinear models. Our algorithm, IterPropMCS, works in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the algorithm first propagates the labels of the labeled residues to the unlabeled ones, along the shortest path between them on a graph, assuming that they lie on a nonlinear manifold. Then it selects the most confident residues as the labeled ones for the next iteration, according to the cluster and smoothness criteria, which is implemented by a nonlinear density estimator. Experiments on a benchmark dataset, using protein structure-based features, demonstrate that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and compares favorably to other available methods. The results also show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art transductive learning methods.

  17. Sharing living and dying: A balancing act between vulnerability and a sense of security. Enrolled nurses' experiences of working in the sitting service for dying patients at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Benzein, Eva; Andershed, Birgitta

    2011-09-01

    To describe enrolled nurses' (ENs') experiences of working in a sitting service for dying patients at home (SSH). The ENs who participated in this study had permanent jobs in community care/ primary care, but were also employed part time in a special home-sitting service organization in a municipality in the south of Sweden. Data were collected by four focus group interviews with 17 enrolled nurses. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Care-giving in SSH was a balancing act between a sense of security and a feeling of vulnerability. Feeling secure and valued and that one is developing both professionally and personally, stemmed from working in partnership, whereas a feeling of vulnerability was associated with managing closeness and distance, being a mediator, having responsibility and feeling guilty, feeling hindered from doing good, facing loneliness, and affecting private lives. SSH makes it possible for people who are terminally ill to remain at home until they die. If the SSH organization were not an option for dying patients and their families, the pressure on the healthcare would be dramatically increased.

  18. Heat Treatment Optimization and Properties Correlation for H11-Type Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, B.; Puš, G.; Žužek, B.; Leskovšek, V.; Godec, M.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of vacuum-heat-treatment process parameters on the material properties and their correlations for low-Si-content AISI H11-type hot-work tool steel using a single Circumferentially Notched and fatigue Pre-cracked Tensile Bar (CNPTB) test specimen. The work was also focused on the potential of the proposed approach for designing advanced tempering diagrams and optimizing the vacuum heat treatment and design of forming tools. The results show that the CNPTB specimen allows a simultaneous determination and correlation of multiple properties for hot-work tool steels, with the compression and bending strength both increasing with hardness, and the strain-hardening exponent and bending strain increasing with the fracture toughness. On the other hand, the best machinability and surface quality of the hardened hot-work tool steel are obtained for hardness values between 46 and 50 HRC and a fracture toughness below 60 MPa√m.

  19. Uncovering the decision-making work of transferring dying patients home from critical care units: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanxia; Myall, Michelle; Jarrett, Nikki

    2017-12-01

    To understand how decisions are made to transfer dying patients home from critical care units. Many people prefer a home death, but a high proportion die in critical care units. Transferring dying patients home is recognized to be complex but transfer decision-making itself remains unclear. Integrative review. Seven bibliographic databases (origin-2015), grey literature and reference lists were searched. An integrative review method was used to synthesize data from diverse sources. Papers were selected through title and abstract screening and full-text reviewing, using inclusion and exclusion criteria derived from review questions. Following quality appraisal, data were extracted and synthesized using normalization process theory as a framework. The number of patients transferred home ranged from 1-346, with most papers reporting on the transfer of one or two patients. Four themes regarding transfer decision-making work were generated: divergent views and practice, multiple stakeholders' involvement in decision-making, collective work and limited understanding of individuals' experiences. The practice of transferring patients home to die and its decision-making varies internationally and is usually influenced by the care system, culture or religion. It is less common to transfer patients home to die from critical care units in western societies. A better understanding of the decision-making work was obtained but mainly from the perspective of hospital-based healthcare professionals. Further research is needed to develop decision-making practice guidance to facilitate patients' wishes to die at home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Low-flow-storage solar system for domestic hot water; Low-flow Speicherkonzept fuer die solare Trinkwassererwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfried, U. [CONSOLAR Energiespeicher- und Regelungssysteme GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Solar domestic hot water treatment relies on effective and insulated reservoirs to maximize solar efficiency. The article describes a newly developed low flow stratification tank. Key feature of this system is the spiral flow of the coolant in countermovement to the drinking water being heated. (orig.) [German] Bei der Solaren Trinkwassererwaermung ist der Einsatz effektiver Speichersysteme notwendig, um den solaren Ertrag zu maximieren. Im Bericht wird ein low-flow Speicherkonzept vorgestellt. Bei diesem System stroemt der vom Solarkollektor kommende Waermetraeger spiralfoermig von oben nach unten im Gegenstrom zu sich erwaermenden Trinkwasser. (orig.)

  1. The Influence of Laser Surface Alloying on the Thermal Fatigue Resistance of Hot Work Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonda E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the effect of laser surface remelting and alloying by carbides powders of NbC, TaC, TiC, VC and WC on the structure and thermal fatigue resistance of the surface layer of hot work tool steels X40CrMoV5-1 and 32CrMoV12-28. The laser surface alloying and remelting treatments was performed using a high power diode laser (HPDL ROFIN SINAR DL 020. In order to investigate the effect of applied laser treatments and used alloying powders on the microstructure and thermal fatigue resistance of processed surface layer of hot work tool steels, the microstructure evaluation by light microscopy, hardness test, and dedicated thermal fatigue resistance test were performed. The best results regarding fatigue cracks inhibition was obtained when the surface of hot work tool steels was alloyed with TiC and VC carbides at the laser beam power of 2.0 and 2.3 kW. The grain refinement effect of laser remelting has a lower impact on the thermal crack inhibition, than a strong strengthening effect of matrix saturation in alloying elements and precipitation of fine carbides in the steel matrix.

  2. Development of permeable fracture zones for exploitation of geothermal energy from hot dry rock systems; Erschliessung permeabler Risszonen fuer die Gewinnung geothermischer Energie aus heissen Tiefengesteinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Baumgaertner, J. [SOCOMINE, Soultz-sous-Forets (France); Rummel, F. [Bochum Univ. (Germany); Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The article describes the main results of the European Hot-Dry-Rock Project Soultz of the last 2 years. After a series of successful stimulation experiments and single-well hydraulic tests in the first deep well GPK1 (3590 m) in the previous project period the second deep well GPK2 (3876 m) was drilled during the winter 1994/95 in order to complete the doublet-system. Through the second well successfully penetrated the southern wing of the fracture system created in GPK1 the hydraulic connection was poor and a massive stimulation test had to be performed in GPK2 too. During this test a fracture system of about 1 km{sup 2} in size was stimulated in the depth range below 3200 m. This fracture system overlaps and penetrates the fracture system of borehole GPK1. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Artikel beschreibt die wesentlichen Ergebnisse des Hot-Dry-Rock Projekts Soultz der letzten beiden Jahre. Nach den erfolgreichen Einbohrloch-Tests in der Bohrung GPK1 in der vorangehenden Projektphase, bei denen ein ca. 1,5 km{sup 2} grosses kuenstliches Risssystem geschaffen wurde, aus dem infolge eines hydraulischen Anschlusses an grossraeumige permeable Stoerungszonen beachtliche Produktionsraten erzielt werden konnten, wurde im Winter 1994/95 die zweite Tiefbohrung GPK2 abgeteuft, um das Dublettensystem zu komplettieren. Trotz des erfolgreichen Abteufens der zweiten Bohrung in den Suedfluegel des bestehenden Risssystems, erwies sich der hydraulische Anschluss zunaechst als unzureichend, so dass ein massiver Stimulationstest in der neuen Bohrung angesetzt werden musste. Bei diesem Test wurden im Teufenbereich unterhalb 3200 m ein ca. 1 km{sup 2} grosses Risssystem erzeugt, das das Risssystem der Bohrung GPK1 ueberlappt und teilweise durchdringt. (orig./AKF)

  3. Communicating about Death and Dying: Developing Training for Staff Working in Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Rose, Tracey; Grant, Robert; Wijne, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many people with intellectual disabilities are affected by death, yet conversations about death are often avoided by staff working with them. This study aimed to assess staff training needs and to develop, trial and evaluate a training course on communicating about death and dying. Method:(i) Semi-structured interviews with 20 staff in…

  4. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  5. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  6. 29 CFR 1917.152 - Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) 12 (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) 12 (See also Â..., cutting and heating (hot work) 12 (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance... riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation. (b) Hot work in confined...

  7. Gestalt Therapy with the Dying Patient: Integrative Work Using Clay, Poetry Therapy, and Creative Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Hilarion G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the use of death therapy with a cancer patient. Gestalt therapy and creative media were used to facilitate an integration of life and a sense of balance with life. Suggests that counseling the dying means walking along a stretch of the path together. (Author)

  8. Hot deformation characteristics of AZ80 magnesium alloy: Work hardening effect and processing parameter sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Wan, L.; Guo, Z. H.; Sun, C. Y.; Yang, D. J.; Zhang, Q. D.; Li, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Isothermal compression experiment of AZ80 magnesium alloy was conducted by Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator in order to quantitatively investigate the work hardening (WH), strain rate sensitivity (SRS) and temperature sensitivity (TS) during hot processing of magnesium alloys. The WH, SRS and TS were described by Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) coupling of deformation parameters. The relationships between WH rate and true strain as well as true stress were derived from Kocks-Mecking dislocation model and validated by our measurement data. The slope defined through the linear relationship of WH rate and true stress was only related to the annihilation coefficient Ω. Obvious WH behavior could be exhibited at a higher Z condition. Furthermore, we have identified the correlation between the microstructural evolution including β-Mg17Al12 precipitation and the SRS and TS variations. Intensive dynamic recrystallization and homogeneous distribution of β-Mg17Al12 precipitates resulted in greater SRS coefficient at higher temperature. The deformation heat effect and β-Mg17Al12 precipitate content can be regarded as the major factors determining the TS behavior. At low Z condition, the SRS becomes stronger, in contrast to the variation of TS. The optimum hot processing window was validated based on the established SRS and TS values distribution maps for AZ80 magnesium alloy.

  9. Does living and working in a hot environment induce clinically relevant changes in immune function and voluntary force production capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p≤0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4 °C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p≤0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p≤0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p≤0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range.

  10. Contribution to the determination of priority constructive influences on the hot crack initiation of welded components; Beitrag zur Ermittlung vorrangig konstruktiver Einflussgroessen auf die Heissrissinitiierung an geschweissten Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollnow, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The previous research results do not allow a general hot crack characterisation although a variety of experimental and numerical knowledge is available. The reason for this is mainly the large number of influencing factors that complicate a complete description of the hot cracking phenomenon and especially solidification cracking. The hot crack formation and thus the solidification crack initiation can be described by the interaction of process, metallurgy and design. However, the literature examination shows that in the solidifaction crack characterisation the influence of the design aspect is often underestimated. The pre-stresses of the structural components is up to now not considered as an essential cause for the formation of solidification cracks. The evaluation of the influence of the various parameters is presented partly inconsistent. In addition, the targeted presentation of the design influence with respect to the solidification cracks in the weld is because the limited transferability of the various component-specific stresses on a laboratory scale and thus to the respective hot cracking tests restricted. Hence, the difficulty to transfer the results between laboratory specimen and component as well as the general hot crack characterisation is given. In this work the different types of stresses from the component welding in the laboratory and to quantify experimentally the solidification crack critical values, displacements and displacement rates were detected. In this regard external loaded hot cracking tests were carried out by using the advantages of contactless measurement techniques close to the weld and to analyse the welding process with respect to various local and global design-specific factors influencing the formation of solidification cracks in high alloyed steel. These investigations were performed on austenitic (1.4828) and ferritic (1.4509) materials with different mechanical and technological properties. To reflect the praxis relevant

  11. Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

  12. EBSD study of purity effects during hot working in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Wahabi, M. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France) and Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)]. E-mail: elwahabi@emse.fr; Gavard, L. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Prado, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Montheillet, F. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-25

    The technique of electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) is considered as a powerful instrument for the study of the microstructural changes during hot forming processes and gives the possibility to present the information in different ways (OIM, misorientation diagram and pole figures). The present work is focused on the observation by EBSD of the microstructure evolution during deformation at high temperature of three austenitic stainless steels: AISI-304H, AISI-304L and a high purity steel HP. The difference between the three steels is the content carbon and the presence of residual elements. To this aim compression tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 0.001 s{sup -1} and different temperatures. The study showed an increase of twin boundary fractions and a diminution of substructure (low angle densities boundaries) at increasing temperatures. On the other hand, increasing carbon content promotes lower twin boundary fractions and larger amounts of low angle boundaries. This effect can be explained by the reduction of grain boundary mobility caused by increasing carbon contents, which in turn reduces the migration rate and consequently the probability of twin boundary generation. Moreover, the increment of low angle boundaries with carbon content accelerates the twin character loss. It was also found that the dynamically recrystallized grain size decreased at increasing carbon content due to a typical drag effect. No important features on textures were found during DDRX.

  13. Evaluation of Three Hydration Strategies in Detection Dogs Working in a Hot Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M. Otto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity in hot environments can increase the risk of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. Heat tolerance is influenced by acclimatization to the environment, physical fitness, and hydration state. Three common strategies to promote hydration in working dogs are free access to water (W, oral electrolyte solutions (OESs, and administration of subcutaneous fluids (SQs. None of these methods have been compared for safety or efficacy in a working environment. In a cross-over design, seven vehicle-screening canines were randomly assigned to each of the three hydration strategies during working shifts at the Sarita, TX checkpoint. Physical, behavioral, and biochemical parameters were collected before, during, and after a work shift (mean 5.7 ± 0.8 h. Dogs were given 10 mL/kg oral W, 10 mL/kg chicken flavored OES, or 15 mL/kg of SQs initially followed by controlled access to W or OES. The dogs drank 15.61 ± 4.47 mL/kg/h of W and OES when in the OES group, compared to 7.04 ± 3.42 and 5.56 ± 4.40 mL of W, for the W and SQ groups, respectively. The median environmental temperature was 84.8°F (29.3°C. The median humidity was 70%. Based on mixed effects linear modeling, dogs in the OES and SQ groups had significantly higher total CO2, and lower packed cell volume and total plasma protein at the end of the day. Creatinine increased a small but significant amount in the SQ group and decreased in the OES group. Searching behaviors were independent of hydration strategy but highly related to the dog specific factors of sex, breed, and activity level. Under conditions of controlled activity in moderate heat and humidity, dogs accustomed to the work and the environment were more likely to increase fluid consumption and hydration when provided a flavored OES. Potential benefits of OES and SQ were indirect and no adverse effects were documented for any of the hydration strategies tested.

  14. The impact of sustained hot weather on risk of acute work-related injury in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Smith, Peter

    2018-02-01

    It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.

  15. The impact of sustained hot weather on risk of acute work-related injury in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Smith, Peter

    2017-09-01

    It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.

  16. A Proposal of a Constitutive Description for Aluminium Alloys in Both Cold and Hot Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier León

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important difficulties when the behaviour of a part that is subjected to external mechanical forces is simulated deal with the determination of both the material thermo-mechanical properties and its boundary conditions. The accuracy of the results obtained from the simulation is directly related to the knowledge of the flow stress curve. Therefore, the determination of a material flow rule which is valid for both a wide temperature range and different initial deformation conditions in the starting material presents a great deal of interest when simulation results close to the experimental values are required to be obtained. In this present study, a novel flow stress curve is proposed that is able to accurately predict the behaviour of both materials with no previous accumulated strain and materials that have been previously subjected to severe plastic deformation processes. Moreover, it is possible to use it both for hot and cold working. The results are analysed in a wide test temperature range, which varies from room temperature to 300 °C, and from material previously processed by angular channel extrusion or with no previous strain accumulated. It is shown that the flow rule proposed is effective to model the material behaviour in a wide temperature range and it makes it possible to take the recrystallization phenomena that appear in previously deformed materials into account. In addition, the results obtained are compared with those predicted by other flow rules that exist in the prior literature. Furthermore, the study is complemented with finite element simulations and with a comparison between simulation and experimental results.

  17. ENTRA - or the chances of interdisciplinary work; ENTRIA - oder die Chancen des Interdisziplinaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Since 2013 about 60 scientists work together in the research platform ENTRA (disposal options for radioactive residuals: interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation criteria). The scientists group includes physicists, mathematicians, engineers, jurists, experts from ethics, social and political sciences. The common question is the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The contribution describes the concept of interdisciplinary work, using the example of the definition of terms like risk by different scientists, projects for specific disposal options, the problem of public distrust, the problem of limiting values and the optimization of final repository systems.

  18. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  19. The work of Leslie Valiant: alle die Strassen führen nach Strassen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Andrés Montoya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available . This year Leslie VALIANT becomes sixty five years old; we celebrate his fest with this work in which we analyze some of his major achievements. We focus our attention on those of his works for which a strong influence of Volker Strassen can be easily detected. Strassen’s work has had a strong and lasting influence on Valiant. It does not means, as the title could suggest, that the manyfaced, relevant and complex work of Leslie Valiant can be understood as a corollary to Strassen. Resumen. Este año Leslie VALIANT cumple 65 años y nosotros queremos celebrar este importante aniversario con este trabajo en el que se analiza su obra. Centramos nuestra atención en aquellos de sus trabajos en los que una clara influencia de Volker STRASSEN puede ser detectada. Es patente la influencia de Strassen en la obra de Valiant, pero esto no quiere decir que el trabajo de Valiant, complejo y multifacético, sea un simple corolario a la obra del primero.

  20. Die instelling van die doop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Venter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Die eerste plek in die evangeliebeskrywings waar daar van die doop as ’n opdrag van Jesus Christus gepraat word en waar die betekenis die duidelikste uitkristalliseer, staan in Matteus 28 : 16 - 20. Heilshistories gesien, is dit die begin van kerklike inlywing van die wat gehoor het hoedat Jesus sy koninkryk proklameer, die evangelie aanvaar en tot bekering kom. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word hierdie gedeelte ondersoek om te sien hoe die instelling geskied het, wat die plek en betekenis van die Christelike doop is.

  1. Hot Water Dipping in Northern Germany- on farm results after four years of scientific work

    OpenAIRE

    Maxin, Peter (Versuchs- und Beratungszentrum Jork); Fieger-Metag, Nicole; Benduhn, Bastian; Kruse, Petra; Heyne, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In general, organic grown apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) are not treated with chemical fungicides to pre-vent storage decay and these fruits may suffer up to 30% decay during storage. Preliminary experiments had shown that hot water dipping of apples may be an alternative. To inhibit Gloeosporium rot (Pezicula alba, P. malicortis) water temperature may be of about 50°C and dipping time from 60 sec up to 240 sec. The objec-tive was to determinate the suitable hot water treatment that preven...

  2. [Physiologic and hygienic characteristics of the work of road-building machine operators in hot climate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnev, V M; Rykova, I V

    1996-01-01

    Constructing automobile roads in hot climate area, operators of road construction machines face high neuropsychic loads, heating microclimate, intensive noise and vibration, workplace pollution with dust, carbon and nitrogen oxides, bacteria and fungi. Those factors induce marked stress of central nervous functions, thermoregulatory processes and cardiovascular system of the operators.

  3. Die eenheid van die universiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Coetzee

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit lyk na ’n teenstrydigheid otn te besin oor die eenheid van ’n universiteit. Die naam „universiteit” is tog afgelei van die Latynse woord „universitas”, wat in die amptelike stukke van die meeste Europese lande vandag nog gebruik word. Hierdie woord beteken „die geheel” en dit veronderstel natuurlik dadelik eenheid.

  4. The Decreasing of Die Cracking for HDPC Technology by Changing Parameters of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In earlier works were described trends in the production of tools for die casting (hot work. Almost the entire set of issues dealt with may seem insignificant when incompletely assembled acceptance of the material and the associated risks of processing a material with an inappropriate structure, leading to a very early defect of the die. Therefore, further work will focus particularly on identifying the causes of thermal cracks and preventing a suitable choice of acceptance criteria conditions and heat treatment.

  5. Die kerkregtelike posisie van die ouderling en diaken in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) en die Diakonale Dienskomitees (DDK). Die ADR en die RDR moet slegs as komplimentêr gesien word ten opsigte van die gemeentelike barmhartigheid, omdat die swaartepunt van die barmhartigheid steeds in die gemeente, waar die kerk ...

  6. Reduction of low return temperature and hot water flow rate. Storage systems for warm up of drinking water; Reduzierung von Ruecklauftemperatur und Heizwassermenge. Speichersysteme fuer die Trinkwassererwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, B.; Cousin, R. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    2008-07-15

    Numeric simulation systems are indispensable for the optimal planning of storage systems for domestic hot water. For example, there is no other way to calculate thermal losses from heating water or the degree of decontamination of different systems and circuits under operating conditions. The authors present the results of simulations of different storage configurations.

  7. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  8. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel.schwaighofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Lindemann, Janny [Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); GfE Fremat GmbH, Lessingstr. 41, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayer, Svea [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-09-22

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s{sup −1} up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicides and h-type carbides Ti{sub 2}AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during

  9. Algorithmic Hotness: Young Women’s “Promotion” and “Reconnaissance” Work via Social Media Body Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Carah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the circulation of images on mobile and algorithmic social media platforms is gendered. We draw on data from a research project that examines the interplay between promotion, drinking culture, and social media. In this project, informants documented flows of images between their social media accounts and a nightlife precinct. We show how the human capacity to use bodies to affect other bodies, and to make critical judgments about bodies, is vital to algorithmic media platforms that aim to profit from calculative judgements about the affective dimensions of human life. We propose an expanded register of “body heat” on social media as both the symbolic labor of producing, maintaining, and digitally mediating a body that conforms to heterosexy visual codes and the affective labor of using a hot body to affect other bodies through movement, touch, and excessive consumption. The escalating capacity of social media platforms to calibrate flows of attention depends on the “hot” bodies of users and user’s work in curating “hot” body images to upload. Hot female bodies are critical to nightlife promotion via social media, in attracting viewer attention. Hot female bodies are also key to moments of nightlife reconnaissance: they are registered in the databases and sorted by the algorithms of social media platforms, enabling viewers to make judgments about the desirability of locations in the nightlife precinct.

  10. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  11. Effect of unit size on thermal fatigue behavior of hot work steel repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Dalong; Li, Zhongsheng; He, Qingbing; Chen, Dajun; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong

    2018-01-01

    AISI H13 hot work steel with fatigue cracks was repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting (BLR) process in the form of lattice units with different sizes. Detailed microstructural studies and microhardness tests were carried out on the units. Studies revealed a mixed microstructure containing martensite, retained austenite and carbide particles with ultrafine grain size in units. BLR samples with defect-free units exhibited superior thermal fatigue resistance due to microstructure strengthening, and mechanisms of crack tip blunting and blocking. In addition, effects of unit size on thermal fatigue resistance of BLR samples were discussed.

  12. DIE KLOOF TUSSEN ROME EN DIE PROTESTANTISME Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ryke leër van die belyders noem U die tempel van die heiligste Drie vuldigheid. Die hele hemelse hof eer U as Koningin. U is die Konin gin van die engele, die poort van die paradys. Leer tot die glorie van die hemel, troon van God, ark van versoening en genade. Kanaal van genade, Bruid en Moeder van die ewige Koning.

  13. A metamaterial-coupled hot-electron-bolometer working at THz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Castellano, M. G.; Chiarello, F.; Gaggero, A.; Giovine, E.; Scalari, G.; Torrioli, G.; Leoni, R.

    2017-02-01

    We will report our recent results using ultrathin NbN films (4-5 nm) for developing both conventional antenna-coupled hot-electron-bolometers (AC-HEBs) and of a novel type of phonon cooled HEB electrically-coupled to a metamaterial acting as a resonant absorber at THz frequencies (MM-HEB), optically-coupled through arrays of split ring resonators (metadevices). In a phonon-cooled HEB, being the active layer an ultrathin film of superconducting NbN, we have an ultrafast thermal direct detector that is also frequency selective thanks to the integration with the resonant metamaterial. We characterized both the AC-HEB and the MM-HEB by electro optical measurements using as a sources both the black body emission and terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) and we compared their performances.

  14. die rol van die unieverdedigingsmag in die onderdrukking van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIE ROL VAN DIE UNIEVERDEDIGINGSMAG. IN DIE ONDERDRUKKING VAN DIE. NYWERHEIDSONLUSTE. VAN JANUARIE. 1914. Maj C.J. Jacobs. During the Railways and Mineworkers strike which commenced on the 18th of January 1914, the. Union Defence Force, enlarged by the Active Citizen Force and assisted ...

  15. COMPUTER MODELING IN DEFORM-3D FOR ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC FLOW IN HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION OF BIMETALLIC FORMATIVE PARTS OF DIE TOOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of industrial production is closely connected with the use of science-based and high technologies to ensure competitiveness of the manufactured products on the world market. There is also much tension around an energy- and resource saving problem which can be solved while introducing new technological processes and  creation of new materials that provide productivity increase through automation and improvement of tool life. Development and implementation of such technologies are rather often considered as time-consuming processes  which are connected with complex calculations and experimental investigations. Implementation of a simulation modelling for materials processing using modern software products serves an alternative to experimental and theoretical methods of research.The aim of this paper is to compare experimental results while obtaining bimetallic samples of a forming tool through the method of speed hot extrusion and the results obtained with the help of computer simulation using DEFORM-3D package and a finite element method. Comparative analysis of plastic flow of real and model samples has shown that the obtained models provide high-quality and reliable picture of plastic flow during high-speed hot extrusion. Modeling in DEFORM-3D make it possible to eliminate complex calculations and significantly reduce a number of experimental studies while developing new technological processes.

  16. The Influence of EDM Parameters in Finishing Stage on Surface Quality of Hot Work Steel Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, S.; Atefi, R.; Solhjoei, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of different EDM parameters (pulse current, pulse voltage, pulse on-time , pulse off-time) in finishing stage on the surface quality (Ra) as a result of application copper electrode to a work piece( hot work steel DIN1.2344) has been investigated. Design of the experiment was chosen full factorial. Statistical analysis has been done and artificial neural network has been used to choose proper machining parameters and to reach certain surface roughness. Finally a hybrid model has been designed to reduce the artificial neural network errors. The experiment results indicated a good performance of proposed method in optimization of such a complex and non-linear problems.

  17. Berufskrankheiten, die Schaffung am Subjekt und politische Arbeit im Talkshow-Format Occupational Hazards, Work on the Subject and Politics in Talk Show Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Marc Hackler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer Analyse der Sprecherpositionen, die subalternen Frauen in Indien zugestanden wird, formuliert Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak eine Kritik am fehlenden Verantwortungsbewusstsein westlicher Intellektueller. Zugleich entwickelt sie eine anspruchsvolle Vorgabe für die Untersuchung kolonialer Herrschaftspraktiken. Während die Forderung nach Verantwortung allerdings hinter dem eigenen Anspruch zurückbleibt, die institutionellen und historischen Bedingungen akademischer Arbeit zu berücksichtigen, birgt ihre Theorie des unterworfenen Subjektes ein großes Analysepotential. Das Gespräch zwischen Spivak und Judith Butler enttäuscht hingegen die Erwartungen an eine informierte politische Öffentlichkeit.In her analysis of those speaker-positions given to subaltern women in India, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak formulates a critique of the missing sense of responsibility found in western intellectuals. At the same time she develops an ambitious standard for the examination of colonial practices of dominance. While although her call for responsibility lags behind the individual necessity to take into account the institutional and historical requirements of academic work, her theory on the subordinate subject carries great analytical potential. Conversely, the conversation between Spivak and Judith Butler is disappointing and does not live up to the expectations of a politically informed public.

  18. A cooling vest for working comfortably in a moderately hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Tanabe, Shin-ichi; Hayama, Hirofumi; Komatsu, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    To alleviate worker's thermal discomfort in a moderately hot environment, a new cooling vest was designed and proposed in this paper. To investigate the effect of the cooling vest and to collect the knowledge for the design of comfortable cooling vest, subjective experiments were conducted. Two kinds of cooling vests, the new one and the commercially available one, were used for comparison. The new cooling vest had more insulation and its surface temperature was higher than the commercially available one. Experiments were performed in the climatic chamber where operative temperature was controlled at 30.2 degrees C and relative humidity was at 37% under still air. In addition, experiment without cooling vest was carried out as a control condition. The results obtained in these experiments were as follow: 1) By wearing both types of cooling vest, the whole body thermal sensation was closer to the neutral conditions than those without cooling vest. This effect was estimated to be equal to the 5.7 degrees C decrement of operative temperature. The subjects felt more comfortable with the cooling vest than without it. They felt more thermally acceptable than that without cooling vest. Wearing the cooling vest was useful to decrease the sweating sensation. 2) The local discomfort was observed when the local thermal sensation was "cool" approximately "cold" with the cooling vest. 3) The new cooling vest kept the skin temperature at chest at about 32.6 degrees C. On the other hand, by wearing the commercially available one, it lowered to about 31.1 degrees C. By wearing the new cooling vest, there was a tendency that local thermal sensation vote was higher and local comfort sensation vote was more comfortable than those of the condition wearing the commercially available one. It is important for the design of a comfortable cooling garment to prevent over-cool down from the body.

  19. [The perception of death and dying of professionals working in a long-term care institution for the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; Amaral, Juliana Gimenez; Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra

    2013-09-01

    Population aging and a shortage of caregivers result in a growing demand for institutionalization, and finitude is one the reflections that permeates aging. Living with death is part of the daily routine of health professionals resulting in emotional overload. This study sought to ascertain the experiences of the process of dying and death of health care professionals in a long-stay institution for the elderly. Methodological and theoretical Grounded Data Theory and Symbolic Interaction were used, respectively. Twenty health professionals from varied backgrounds were interviewed. The core topic of the results was: reconstructing ways to deal with the circumstances of dying and death. This led to the following categories: seeing death as part of human existence; seeking to acquire knowledge to handle cases of death and dying; reflecting on one's own death. Without fertile ground for the systematic examination of the topic, the interaction among workers about the exchange of experiences on death and dying remain restricted to the subjective level. In the conclusion, the importance of a metamorphosis in the institutional context and in health education, with more specific focus on thanatology, is emphasized.

  20. Mexican Educational Ethnography and the Work of the DIE: Crossing the Border and Finding the Historical Everyday [book review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical insight and ethnographic rigor of this collection of essays from participants at Departamento de Investigaciones Educativas (DIE) of the National Polytechnic Institute about the role of the public school in Mexican social and political life promote understanding of educational processes in different contexts, including rural and…

  1. Memorandum op die beswaarskrif oor die diakenamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Die probleem in die beswaarskrif voor die Sinode 1973 spits hom toe op die vraag: wat is die objek van die diakonale diens? Is dit die hele gemeente of alleen ’n gedeelte van die gemeente nl. die armes? In verband hiermee moet ook gevra word: welke spesifieke opdrag is inherent aan die diakenamp?

  2. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... the die-casting industry. As an example, the model is applied to several cases of high pressure die casting (HPDC) where A380 alloy parts are cast in the H13 steel die. The predicted locations of the higher strength of soldering appear in the "hot spot" areas of the die surface in agreement...

  3. Effect of internal heating during hot compression testing on the stress-strain behavior and hot working characteristics of Alloy 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mataya, M.C.; Sackschewsky, V.E.

    1993-05-01

    Temperature change from conversion of deformation to internal heat, and its effect on stress-strain behavior of alloy 304L was investigated by initially isothermal (temperature of specimen, compression dies, environment equilibrated at initiation of test) uniaxial compression. Strain rate was varied 0.01 s{sup {minus}1} to 1 s{sup {minus}1} (thermal state of specimen varied from nearly isothermal to nearly adiabatic). Specimens were deformed at 750 to 1150 to a strain of 1. Change in temperature with strain was calculated via finite element analysis from measured stress-strain data and predictions were confirmed with thermocouples to verify the model. Temperature increased nearly linearly at the highest strain rate, consistent with temperature rise being a linear function of strain (adiabatic). As strain rate was lowered, heat transfer from superheated specimen to cooler dies caused sample temperature to increase and then decrease with strain as the sample thinned and specimen-die contact area increased. As-measured stress was corrected. Resulting isothermal flow curves were compared to predictions of a simplified method suggested by Thomas and Shrinivasan and differences are discussed. Strain rate sensitivity, activation energy for deformation, and flow curve peak associated with onset of dynamic recrystallization were determined from both as-measured and isothermal stress-strain data and found to vary widely. The impact of utilizing as-measured stress-strain data, not corrected for internal heating, on results of a number of published investigations is discussed.

  4. Failures of dies for die-casting of aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Die-casting dies for casting of aluminum alloys fail because of a great number of different and simultaneously operating factors. Material selection, die design, and thermal stress fatigue generated by the cyclic working process (heat checking, as well as to low and inhomogeneous initial die temperature contribute to the failures and cracks formation on/in dies for die-casting of aluminium alloys. In the frame of the presented investigation work the intensity and homogeneity of the temperature fields on the working surface of the testing die were checked through thermographic measurements, and failures and cracks on the working surface of the die were analysed with non-destructive metallographic examination methods.

  5. Die woord vra kontak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for general recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of modem lexico- graphical work and for a genuine will to cooperate.''! Vir sover hierdie same- werking implikasiesinhou vir die leksikografiese bedryf, moet dit aanbod kom in die AFRILEX-reeks. R.R.K. Hartmann, daardie produktiewe en goed ingeligte skrywer en.

  6. Improving the technology of surfacing heterogeneous working layer on hot rolling bulky rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ways to increase efficiency of rolls by enhancing resistance to the formation and development of cracks due to the anisotropy of the working layer properties were explored. The destruction mechanisms of such materials were considered. The possibility of cracks deceleration, due to the layer ruptures or abrupt change of its properties has been marked. It has been shown that the optimum combination of the means braking dislocations provides for a rational metal alloying. The analysis of the rolls of rolling mills service conditions as well as the analysis of types of wear and destruction of products made it possible to formulate requirements on the surface layer of the rolls properties. However increase in strength decreases ductility and toughness of the steel. The solution of the problem of the strength and plasticity increase necessitates either methods of metal deep cleaning of contaminants development or significant grain refinement. The part played by structural formations, such as non-metallic inclusions, carbide particles, grain boundaries, etc.in the kinetics of crack propagation has been studied. Since sharp contrast of the properties at the grain boundaries is inconsistent with the requirements of welding technology, the determining factor for making up the working layer is the service conditions. The durability of the roll is determined by allowable wear out of the layer between resharpenings. The correct choice of optimum parameters for the twq adjacent layers - operating and the layer to be maintained is the reserve to improve performance of the roll. The paper has proposed welding-up compositions making it possible to extend the durability due to the optimum ratio of the mechanical and thermal properties of adjacent layers. This approach can improve the durability of the deposited products both at the stage of nucleation and at the stage of thermal fatigue cracks growth

  7. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  8. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diktaat van die regte rede' is en John Locke (1632-1704), wie se rasionalisering van die samelewing die beste daarin slaag om uitdrukking te gee aan die wese van die opkomende Britse liberalisme van die sewentiende eeu. 2^ 'n Samelewing waarin die ekonomie die bepalende posisie inneem. Die samelewing wat ...

  9. die verwerkliking van die geloof in die kerklike kategese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verbondskind 'n blye en aktiewe instemming met en aanvaarding van die beloftes en die eise van die genadeverbond. Verbondskinders moet daartoe kom om dit wat objektief in die verbond belowe is, persoonlik deelagtig te word; dit is die daad van heilstoe-eiening. Die verbond is die verseëling van die belofte van God.

  10. Size Effects in Residual Stress Formation during Quenching of Cylinders Made of Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schemmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the residual stress formation and the evolution of phase fractions during the quenching process of cylindrical specimens of different sizes. The cylinders are made of hot-work tool steel grade X36CrMoV5-1. A phase transformation kinetic model in combination with a thermomechanical model is used to describe the quenching process. Two phase transformations are considered for developing a modelling scheme: the austenite-to-martensite transformation and the austenite-to-bainite transformation. The focus lies on the complex austenite-to-bainite transformation which can be observed at low cooling rates. For an appropriate description of the phase transformation behaviour nucleation and growth of bainite are taken into account. The thermomechanical model contains thermophysical data and flow curves for each phase. Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP is modelled by considering phase dependent Greenwood-Johnson parameters for martensite and bainite, respectively. The influence of component size on residual stress formation is investigated by the finite element package Abaqus. Finally, for one cylinder size the simulation results are validated by X-ray stress measurements.

  11. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  12. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  13. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-12-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. SEGREGATION OF SOLUTE ELEMENTS IN CRUCIBLE DURING DIE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Yong Sohn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the segregation of solute elements in magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B in a crucible during hot-chamber die casting process has been investigated. The sampling of molten metal for chemical composition analysis was carried out at three positions within a crucible of 600 mm in depth. The picked molten metal was poured into a steel mold to cast into a rod 40mm diameter and 120mm length.

  15. Die Kumulantenmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird eine neue Methode zur Reduktion der Boltzmann-Gleichung auf ein System partieller Differentialgleichungen diskutiert. Nach einer kurzen Einführung in die kinetische Theorie einer Mischung inerter Gase wird ein Überblick in die aus der Literatur bekannten Momentenmethoden gegeben. Der anschließend vorgestellten Kumulantenmethode liegt die Annahme zugrunde, daß durch Stoßprozesse in einem Gas Korrelationen höherer Ordnung schneller abgebaut we...

  16. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  17. DIE PERSOON VAN VREDE IN DIE SENDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. KOMMUNIKASIE VAN DIE EVANGELIE EN. SENTRALE FIGURE IN DIE GEMEENSKAP. Die kommunikasie van die evangelie in gemeenskappe word dikwels bevorder of bemoeilik deur die persoon van die sendeling en die persone tot wie hy/sy hom rig. Dit is inderdaad so dat mense 'n belangrike rol kan speel in die ...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  19. Oor die Bybel in die Afrikaanse digkuns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 'Lotos-land' dryf hy die spot met die Kanaánitiese siening van Suid-Afrika, met die sogenaamde Land van Belofte, Suid-Afrika, met die verdoping van Suid-Afri- kaanse plekke met Bybelse name en die siening van die Kaapkolonie as Egipte, ensovoorts. Die (Suid-)Afrikaanse Kanaán is in hierdie gedig 'n Luilekkerland - ...

  20. Die betekenis van die sesde gebod vir die mediese etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smedes vra die vraag of 'n mens dan wederregtelik mag doodmaak? Smedes meen dat wederregtelikheid nie die toets van hierdie gebod is nie. Vir Hitler was dit nie wederregtelik om die Jode dood te maak nie, wel vir 'n Duitse burger om Hitler dood te maak. Die bedoeling van die gebod vind hy eerder in die reg om voor ...

  1. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rede was vir die opdrag van die koning aan Zacharias Ursinus en Caspar. Oliveanus vir die skryf van 'n kategismus. Die doel van die kategismus was om nie net beter vir die jeug te sorg nie, maar om aan evangeliedienaars en skoolmeesters 'n vaste leidraad te gee sodat hulle nie willekeurig nuwe dinge leer wat met Gods ...

  2. Die Reformasie en Skrifinterpretasie: Die nuwe wat die Reformasie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    onbevangenheid sal ons, soos in die geval van baie ander stemme uit die verlede, nooit werklik klaar wees met die stem van die Reformasie nie, dit is wanneer ons die Reformasie nie in ons eie pakkie van vooropgestelde idees toevou en neutraliseer nie. Die Reformasie se stem sal aanhou gehoor word, en in aansluiting ...

  3. Control system for hot water preparing on flow rate principle. Force PT C pressure- and thermostat control system; Regler fuer die Warmwasserbereitung nach dem Durchflussprinzip. Force PT C Druck- und Thermostatregler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Redan A/S, Risskov (Denmark)

    2003-08-01

    Water heating is getting more important as the heat demand of buildings decreases while customers demand higher comfort. The heating method employed influences the cooling of district heating water, energy consumption and the energy efficiency of the district heating system in general, especially in district heating systems with low temperature and pressure ratios. [German] Aufgrund des immer geringer werdenden Heizwaermebedarfs von Gebaeuden und der gestiegenen Komfortanprueche der Kunden gewinnt die Warmwasserbereitung immer mehr an Bedeutung. Das eingesetzte Verfahren fuer die Erzeugung von Warmwasser hat dabei grossen Einfluss auf die Abkuehlung des Fernwaermewassers, den Energieverbrauch und die Energieeffizienz im gesamten Fernwaermesystem. Dies gilt sowohl fuer Nahwaermesystems mit geringeren Temperatur- und Druckverhaeltnissen. (orig.)

  4. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  5. Die rol van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering binne die e-leksikografie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André H. du Plessis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In die ontwikkeling van die teoretiese leksikografie was die primêre fokus van metaleksikograwe vroeër meestal op modelle vir die daarstelling van gedrukte woordeboeke. Soos die tegnologie vooruitgang maak, verskuif daardie fokus nou na elektroniese woordeboeke. Die ontwikkeling van woordeboeke as elektroniese produkte vestig tans die aandag op ’n leemte in die metaleksikografie. Hierdie leemte het gevolge vir die bestaande teoretiese modelle waarvolgens woordeboeke ontwerp word, asook die praktiese ontwikkeling van volwaardige leksikografiese naslaanbronne vir die toekoms. Elektroniese data- of inligtingsdraers soos woordeboeke is nie beperk tot die leksikografie nie, maar vind ook neerslag in ander velde soos inligtingstegnologie en taaltegnologie. Vir die bestaande leksikografieteorieë om suksesvol aan te pas by die elektroniese sfeer, moet daar aandag gegee word aan die fisiese en tegnologiese eienskappe van verskillende e-instrumente. Hierdie eienskappe moet aan sekere internasionale vereistes voldoen wat nie noodwendig altyd deur leksikograwe in ag geneem word nie. Deur gebruik te maak van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering en ander bruikbaarheidsteorieë kan die bestaande leksikografiese beginsels makliker en beter aangepas en toegepas word binne die elektroniese ruimte. Hierdie studie beoog daarom om die belangrikheid van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering vir (en die oorvleueling met die e-leksikografie bloot te lê en om te bewys hoe elektroniese woordeboeke nie sonder ander interdissiplinêre beginsels vanuit die tegnologiese sfeer ontwikkel behoort te word nie.

  6. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  7. Method to determine full work of fracture from disk shaped compact tension tests on hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an important mode of failure in hot-mix asphalt (HMA). As part of the revision of the South African pavement design method (SAPDM) a need was identified to assess the fracture toughness of HMA in terms of fracture energy...

  8. Die sin en sintaksis in die Bantoetale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Breed

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Waar ek my ten doel stel om in hierdie rede die soek- lig op die sin en sintaksis te laat val, wil ek dit voorop stel dat die studie uit die aard van die saak alleen daarop gerig kan wees om die riglyne vir ’n sintaktiese beskrywing vir die Bantoetale te trek, en nie om ’n volledige beskrywing van die tale se sinsbou te gee nie. Die Departement Bantoetale het ’n tweeledige taak, nl. ’n praktiese en ’n akademiese; om die rede is die onderhawige probleem ’n dringende.

  9. DIE PROGESTEROONKONSENTRASIE IN DIE BLOEDPLASMA VAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plaasvind en alreeds binne 48 tot 72 vur voltooi is. Edgar & Ronaldson (1958) vind dat die periode vanaf die degenerasie van die corpus luteum totdat die eerste tekens van estrus waargeneem word by die ooi ongeveer. 2 dae is. Die seisoenseffek op progesteroonsekresie. Uit Fig. I is daar. 'n duidelike seisoenseffek ten ...

  10. Die volwassenheid van die bourekenaar se kontraktuele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die beginsels wat die bourekenaar ondersteun om kontraktueel effektief te kommunikeer, te identifiseer en te meet om die standaard van die volwassenheid van die bourekenaar se bourekenkundige kontraktuele kommunikasie te bepaal. Hierdie artikel vorm deel van 'n volledige studie oor ...

  11. Die Heimkunft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Romer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  12. Die funksie van die belydenis in die struktuur van die kerk en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n\\ente nie almal in dieselfde sin van die woord belangrik is nie en dat sommiges hiervan 'n prioriteit oor ander toekom. Dit is verder ook waar dat daar 'n gedurige wisselwerking tussen hierdie verskillende elemente is. Hulle vul mekaar wedersyds aan en het mekaar nodig met die gevolg dat die struktuur van die kerk nie ...

  13. Riglyne uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cronj�

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer daar dan oor "riglyne" uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die "toekoms" gehandel word, is dit �n riskante onderneming. Te meer nog as gevolg van skrywer se noue kontak met die buitelandse sending van die Ned. Geref. Kerk, wat sy objektiwiteit mag be�nvloed. Te midde van die risiko's daaraan verbonde en met vermyding van bogenoemde slaggate so ver moontlik, wil ons tog probeer om sekere riglyne te trek wat moontlik ook rigtinggewend vir die uitgebreide sendingwerk van die Kerk in die toekoms kan wees.

  14. Die ouderling en die regeervergaderings in die Nederduitsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van ecn gee. Die oomblik egtcr as daar een of meer vakatures vir ouderlinge ontstaan, is die balans versteur. Die wanbalans kan natuurlik selb ook vergroot word indien soos soms gebeur, die kassier en die skriba diakens sonder wyke sou wees. 'n Groter wanbalans, wat egter waarskynlik nooit eens opgemerk word nie, ...

  15. Die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf Britz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel diep die geskiedenis van die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans uit die primêre bronne op. Die Belydenisskrifte (insluitende die Kategismus is gedurende die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu in Afrikaans oorgesit tydens ’n vertalingsprojek waaraan die drie Hollands-Afrikaanse Kerke van gereformeerde belydenis saamgewerk het. In hierdie geskiedenis kan drie fases onderskei word. Die aanvanklike fase (1913–1927 eindig in die gemeenskaplike oortuiging dat die werk aan die Bybelvertalers oorgelaat moet word. Daarmee is beslag gegee aan ’n tweede fase (1927–1936. In 1936 is die vertaling voltooi en in ’n Formulierboek vir die ‘drie Hollandse Kerke’ gepubliseer. Die derde fase (1936–1950 behels die ontvangs van die Formulierboek. Slegs die Gereformeerde Kerk in Suid-Afrika (GKSA het die vertaling amptelik aanvaar, omdat dit op die Nederlandse teksuitgawe berus het wat F.L. Rutgers in samewerking met Herman Bavinck en Abraham Kuyper in 1897 vir die Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland besorg het. Die ander twee Kerke het aansluiting gevind by hulle eie negentiende-eeuse tekstradisie. In 1945 het die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHK ’n eie vertaling asBelydenisskrifte, gebede en formuliere die lig laat sien. Hierdie vertaling is gebaseer op die (Nederlandse krities bewerkte teksuitgawe wat Van Toornenbergen in sy boek, De symbolische schriften (1895, opgeneem het. Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK het in 1950 sy vertaling van die Belydenisskrifte en Formuliere voltooi. Dit is hoofsaaklik geanker in die (Nederlandse tekste van die Formulierboek der N.G. Kerk in Z. Afrika (1907, wat op sy beurt ook in ooreenstemming was met die tekstradisie waarmee Van Toornenbergen gewerk het. This article traces the history of the first Afrikaans translations of the Heidelberg Catechism from primary sources. In a mutual project the three Dutch-Afrikaans and reformed churches translated their

  16. Die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Contents include: Indian diecasting industry, its problems and prospects; push-button locks; 9th International Diecasting conference and 8th exhibition; seminar on gating of diecasting dies and diecasting technology; and the 6th student industrial design competition--Uk. New publications and abstracts are presented.

  17. . , , die Boesmans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "made captive in early boyhood, with other children of a Bushman. Kraal, in one of the frequent incursions or commandos" (Pereira &. Chapman, 1989:157). Dit eindig met Pangóla wat sterf in 'n soortgelyke ongelyke geveg tussen berede boere en omsingelde Boesmans - gewere teen pyl-en-boë: "I die in arms against the ...

  18. Calvyn en die Calvinisme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    krasie soos by Rome afv^rys, maar daardeur het hy ons insiens dié eg-Calvynse teokrasie waarby die kerk direk betrokke is, prysgegee. Ek glo dat hier ook die wortels lê van sy afwysing van die 'volkskerk'- gedagte; nie die volkskerk in die sin dat die toebehorentheid aan die volk tegelyk toebehorentheid tot die kerk ...

  19. die helikopter as troepedraer in konvensionele lugoperasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tiese scenario World War 3 word 'n geringe rol aan die transporthelikopter toegeken; hiervolgens sal helikopters in die Lynx-reeks gebruik work vir klein vegspanne se taktiese aanwending.27. Hierdie beskouing stem feitlik ooreen met die van sir John Hackett wat die helikopter hoofsaaklik as lugmobiele geskut tipeer.28.

  20. In-vitro corrosion resistance study of hot worked Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy in a isotonic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the results of linear polarization of hot upset Ti-6Al-7Nb bar samples. Current-potential curves recorded in Hank's solution were analyzed by correlating characteristics of passivation and microstructures obtained after processing. Results have shown that it is important to select temperature process and deformation rate as parameters when more noble potential values are required. Low deformation rate facilitates the formation of beta phase that is retained in the structure at room temperature shifting the corrosion potential to more positive values. However, samples hot compressed from 750°C to 1030 °C showed passive layer stability over a wide range of potentials extending from -0.15 V to 1.75 V vs SCE . Furthermore, passive films grown onto the Ti-6Al-7Nb samples surfaces have shown no sign of rupture for the processing conditions selected for this study.

  1. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the ... the country die each year as a direct result of being left alone in a hot vehicle. “ ...

  2. Die universiteit en die goeie lewensorde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    op Hippocrates, Galenus en Avicenna, lettere op Aristoteles, en ná die. Reformasie sou Luther, Melanchton en Calvyn vir Petrus Lombardus aan dié universiteite vervang wat vir die Reformasie gekies het, maar sou die ander fakulteite in hoofsaak onaangeraak bly. Die universiteit het sy tradisie binne die voile stroom van ...

  3. Exsodus van die Boerevolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. van der Walt

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Groot Trek het in sekere sin begin toe in die begin van die 18e eeu die eerste veeboer-pionier sy gesin, sy huisraad en sy plaasgereedskap op sy kakebeenwaens gelaai het en na sy veepos, voortaan sy leningsplaas, verhuis het. Want alhoewel die Groot Trek nóg logies nóg histories ’n voortsetting van die 18e eeuse trekbeweging is nie, is die eerste sonder die laaste tog ondenkbaar. Die 18e eeuse verspreiding het die geharde Afrikaanse baanbreker gevorm, ’n mens met weinig behoeftes, en met die selfstandigheid en die handigheid om in daardie behoeftes self grotendeels te voorsien uit die betreklik skrale materiaal wat die bodem hom gebied het. Dit het die Afrikaanse binnelandbewoner fisies en psigologies mobiel gemaak en in hierdie mobielmaking lê die noodwendige voorwaarde vir die moontlikheid van die latere groot volksbeweging.

  4. Ensiklopedisiteit in die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Opsomming: Die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (voortaan WAT) het vanaf die negende deel wegbeweeg van 'n meer ensiklopediese aanbod van inligting. Hiervoor het die woordeboek heelwat lof van teoretici ontvang. Die mening is egter ook uitgespreek dat die WAT wat leksiko- grafiese funksie betref meer op die ...

  5. die effek van speenouderdom op die produksievermoe van die sog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lonsequcntty the early weaned sows produced significantly more piglets per annum (22,5 vs 20,1). OPSOMIIiING: Die effek van speenouderdom, toegepas vir die eerste vyf agtereenvolgende laktasieperiodes van die sog, op die produksievermod van ...

  6. DIE GEESTESSTRUKTUUR VAN DIE ONGELOOF In die studie van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    KARL MARX (1818-1883) en FRtEDRiCH ENGELS (1820-1895) aan vaar hierdie standpunt van FEUERBACH ten opsigte van die godsdiens as onomstootlik. FEUERBACH gaan egter nie ver genoeg nie; hy moes ook gevra het: waarom überhaupt projekteer die mens sy wese in die gestalte van 'n God? Die godsdiens is ...

  7. die sinodale verband van die nederduitse gereformeerde kerk in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    die OVS 1865-1912:10:05:1865 e.v.d.; Pro Memoria of voorwoord; Oberholzer. s.a.:73). Hoewel die eerste sinode as 'n vergadering van die verband eers van 10 tot 13 Mei 1865 in Bloemfontein gehou is, is die verband self by hierdie vergadering in Smithfield gevorm. 1. In aansluiting by Gerdener praat Oberholster van ...

  8. Die funksie van die skeppingstradisie in die boek Jeremia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dition of creation in Jeremiah' and, secondly, to discuss the relevance of the conclusions ... niskomplekse wat handel oor die groot dade van Jahwe in die geskiedenis van sy volk. • A1 hierdie gedeeites kan .... In vier hoofstukke (nl 4, 5, 27 & 31) word verwysings na die skeppingstradi sie gekombineer met verwysings na die ...

  9. DIE ROL VAN DIE TAALWETENSKAP IN DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tod'orov en Barthes ond~rsoek byvoorbeeld' verhaalstrukture in die algemeen, of hulle:nou binne.die.letterkunde voorkom of daarbuite. In sy boek, Structuralist Poetic!>, vestig Jonathan Culler weer die aandag op dit wat eie aan die letterkund'e is: literere konvensies. Dat d'aar sulke uniek-literere konvensies bestaan, kan ...

  10. Die 'verleentheid' van die teoloog voor die teodiseeprobleem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KRISIS VIR GOD SE GEREGTIGHEID? Die raaisel dat 'goeie' mense moet ly, bly steeds een van die brandenste vraagstukke onder gelowiges. Een rede is dat talle mense glo dat die. 'daad-gevolg-samehang', soos dit in die wysheidsliteratuur bekend geword het (vgl oa Schmid 1974: 64-90; Kutsch 1973: 197-214; Kaiser.

  11. Die gesigte van die neo-marxisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Boshoff

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons weet nie sondermeer wat die voorsetsel ‘NEO’ beteken nie. Het Marx in ons tyd herleef of ’n ombuiging, hersiening, aanvulling of selfs ’n korrektief op die oorspronklike visie van Marx gekom? Wat hou die naam, doelstellings en gees van Karl Marx lewendig en dreig om die Westerse lewenswyse en die Christelike godsdiens te vernietig met ’n leefwyse wat die Christelike geloof op sy kardinale punte aanval?

  12. Die gesigte van die neo-marxisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Boshoff

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons weet nie sondermeer wat die voorsetsel ‘NEO’ beteken nie. Het Marx in ons tyd herleef of ’n ombuiging, hersiening, aanvulling of selfs ’n korrektief op die oorspronklike visie van Marx gekom? Wat hou die naam, doelstellings en gees van Karl Marx lewendig en dreig om die Westerse lewenswyse en die Christelike godsdiens te vernietig met ’n leefwyse wat die Christelike geloof op sy kardinale punte aanval?

  13. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  14. 'Something normal in a very, very abnormal environment'--Nursing work to honour the life of dying infants and children in neonatal and paediatric intensive care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Copnell, Beverley; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    The majority of deaths of children and infants occur in paediatric and neonatal intensive care settings. For nurses, managing an infant/child's deterioration and death can be very challenging. Nurses play a vital role in how the death occurs, how families are supported leading up to and after the infant/child's death. This paper describes the nurses' endeavours to create normality amidst the sadness and grief of the death of a child in paediatric and neonatal ICU. Focus groups and individual interviews with registered nurses from NICU and PICU settings gathered data on how neonatal and paediatric intensive care nurses care for families when a child dies and how they perceived their ability and preparedness to provide family care. Four themes emerged from thematic analysis: (1) respecting the child as a person; (2) creating opportunities for family involvement/connection; (3) collecting mementos; and (4) planning for death. Many of the activities described in this study empowered parents to participate in the care of their child as death approached. Further work is required to ensure these principles are translated into practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  16. DIE EINDE VAN SENDING Fases in die Sendingbedryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questions are focused on the situation in the mission work of the Dutch ..... opmerkings gemaak wat relevant is vir ons argument. ... onafhanklik sou funksioneer (“self support”), en self met die verdere sending ... (“the euthanasia of mission”).

  17. Effect of variation of impression material combinations, dual arch tray types, and sequence of pour on the accuracy of working dies: "An in vitro study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagam Raja Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: From the results obtained, dies poured from combination of heavy body and light body impressions using plastic or metal dual arch trays showed least variation in bucco-lingual dimension from master model.

  18. Die Afrikaanse Verklarende Musiekwoordeboek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    betroubaarheid. Ook die Duitstalige "regterhand" van die musikoloog, die. Riemann Musiklexikon (Sachteil, 1967, en twee Personenteile, asook twee Supple- mente tot 19.), is "verklarend", met literatuuropgawes. Die gewenstheid van die A VM ten spyt, is dit egter moeilik om ongekwa- lifiseerde geesdrif vir die boek te he.

  19. Die Nagmaal en broodgebrek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Word byvoorbeeld honger in die. Nagmaal, as element van die liturgie, gereflekteer en ook gekonfronteer? Moet die hartverskeurende situasie van honger gesinne nie ter sprake kom wanneer die gemeente die “maaltyd van die Here” (cdh*o mnm jtqh`jn.m) (1. Kor 11:20) eet en drink nie? Christus het immers in Matteus 25 ...

  20. DIE SLAG VAN BLOEDRIVIER~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die betekenis watdie Slag van Bloedriviervir die Suid-Afrikaansemilitere geskiedenis inhou, is Bloedrivier een van die slagvelde in die land wat die volledigste gerekonstrueer is. Voetnote. 1. J. J. Oberholster: Die Historiese Monumente van Suid-Afrika, p. 279. 2. H. J. Hofstede: Geschiedenis van den Oranje-Vrijstaat,.

  1. Die opkoms en die betekenis van die Ooste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Scholtz

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vraag ontstaan onmiddellik: wat word bedoel met die Ooste? Wanneer die saak ontleed word, blyk dit dat dit nie ’n vaste begrip is nie. Wanneer daar van die Ooste gepraat word, stel iemand hom op Europese standpunt. Alles wat ten ooste van Europa geleë is, is die Ooste. Dit beteken derhalwe dat die Ooste, Asië is. Waar begin Asië egter en waar eindig dit? Hierdie vraag is van sowel aardrykskundige as geskiedkundige belang.

  2. Hot-spots in tapwaterleidingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolferen, J. van; Sluis, S.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    ln opdracht van de VNI is een aantal berekeningen uitgevoerd voor het vaststellen van aanvullende richtlijnen in verband met hot-spots in tapwaterleidingen. Hierbij is deels voortgebouwd op berekeningen die reeds eerder in opdracht van Novem zijn uitgevoerd t.b.v. ISSO publicatie 55.1, Handleiding

  3. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  4. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  5. DIE DIALEKTIEK IN DIE WAARDES VAN DIE 1996 GRONDWET 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Steytler A Charter for Social Justice: a Contribution to the South African Bill of Rights Debate (1992). 17-18. 5 Dit geld ... As die norma nie. 'n hoek van negentig grade maak nie, is dit hoogs onwaarskynlik dat die mure van die spreekwoordelike bouwerk van 'n nuwe grondwetlike bedeling reghoekig opgetrek sal word.

  6. die rol van die eerste suid- afrikaanse infanteriedivisie tydens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rug. Hier het sy magte hulle vasgeloop in voorafbeplande gekonsentreerde vuurkrag von die Britse ortillerie en tenkvuur vanuit romponderstellings wat die Britse pantser in stoat gestel het om sy tenks in die ope aan te durf terwyl hulle agter dekking was.16. Rommel het presies opgetree soos wat Montgomery beplan het.

  7. Wat is die reg en die vryheid van die eksegeet?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voorgestaan terwyl die Antiocheense skool (Joh Chrysostemos en. Theodorus van Mopsuesta) weer as eksegese gesien het 'n meer letterlike verklaring van die Bybel. Augustinus en Hieronimus het probeer om die twee metodes te kombineer, terwyl Petrus. Lombardus, Alexander van Hailes en Thomas Aquinas 'n vier-.

  8. Effect of variation of impression material combinations, dual arch tray types, and sequence of pour on the accuracy of working dies: “An in vitro study”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nagam Raja; Reddy, Jakranpally Sathya; Padmaja, Bramha Josyula Indira; Reddy, Budigi Madan Mohan; Sunil, Motupalli; Reddy, Bommireddy Tejeswar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of dies made from dual arch impressions using different sectional dual arch trays, combinations of elastomeric impression materials, and the sequence of pour of dies. Subjects and Methods: The dual arch impression materials were grouped into three groups depending on the combination of impression materials used and each group is subdivided into four subgroups. A sample size of 8 in each subgroup yielding a total 96 impressions will be made into three groups of 32 each (Group I, II, and III). Group I constitute impressions made using monophase (M) impression material, Group II constitute impressions made using combination of heavy body and light body (HL), and Group III constitute impressions made using combination of putty and light body (PL). Dies obtained were evaluated with a travelling microscope to measure the buccolingual width of the tooth at the margin by using the sharp corners of the notches as reference points. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis namely mean and standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance test. Results: The results obtained in this study indicate that though not statistically significant, the metal dual arch trays performed better when compared to the plastic trays in reproducing die dimensions. Conclusions: From the results obtained, dies poured from combination of heavy body and light body impressions using plastic or metal dual arch trays showed least variation in bucco-lingual dimension from master model. PMID:27141172

  9. Rembrandt en die Bybel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Onlangs het ek in ’n Nederlandse weekblad iets gelees wat tot diepnadenke stem. Dit was die uitspraak van ’n ontwikkelde Oosterling wat sy groot bewondering vir die Westerse kultuur betuig het en sy besef van wat dit nog vir die Ooste sal beteken. Maar, het hy besluit,wat die Weste tot daardie hoogte laat styg het, is die Christendom, en die Christelike geloof is nie ineer die bronaar van sy geestelike lewe nie.

  10. Effects of quenching and tempering temperature on microstructure and hardness of P/M tool steel for hot working; P/M ho de sakuseishita SKD6 netsukan koguko no soshiki to katasa ni oyobosu yakiire oyobi yakimodoshi ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, D.; Tsuji, N.; Fukaura, K.; Sunada, H. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan); Abe, G. [Sanyo Special Steel Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1995-04-15

    The SKD6 is a 5% Cr-Mo-V based hot-working tool steel specified in JIS standard, and used as a hot-working press die material. However, the rolled materials made by using the conventional melt manufacturing process (abbreviated to I/M process) have non-uniformity caused from banded structure in the rolling direction, which affects adversely the strength characteristics. This paper describes comparisons and discussions on effects of quenching and tempering temperature on microstructure and hardness by using extruded materials made by the powder metallurgy process with very little demixing (abbreviated to P/M process). The result obtained may be summarized as follows: the SKD6 made by the P/M process had a homogenous structure with carbides distributed uniformly; the temperature that starts the old austenite crystalline particles to grow coarser as a result of rising quenching temperature was found higher by more than 50K in the P/M materials, with the particle growth more suppressed than in the I/M materials; both materials had the hardness increased with rising quenching temperature, having reached a constant value at temperatures higher than 1350K; and the quenching and tempering hardness was slightly lower in the P/M materials. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  12. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  13. Temas uit die kerkgeskiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit is natuurlik 'n onbegonne taak om enigsins 'n poging aan te wend om 'n volle beeld van twee milleniums kerkgeskiedenis voor te hou. Wat die kerkgeskiedenis van Afrika betref, leef ons tans in die periode van die derde vestiging van die kerk in Afrika. Die eerste periode was aan die begin van ons Christelike jaartelling in Noord-Afrika en het groot name soos Tertullianus (+220, Cyprianus (+258 en Augustinus (+430 opgelewer. Die tweede periode was gedurende die vyftiende en sestiende eeu in Wes- en Oos-Afrika. In albei gevalle het die Christendom feitlik tot niet gegaan - iets waarna ons later weer sal verwys.

  14. Die Verschränkung von Arbeitskultur, beruflichem Erfolg und Geschlecht in technik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Berufen The Entanglement of Work Culture, Career Success, and Gender in Technical and Natural Scientific Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Lind

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Band geht die Autorin Dr. Yvonne Haffner, Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Darmstadt, den strukturellen Barrieren für eine gleichberechtigte Karriere von Frauen und Männern im Beruf nach. Dabei werden vor allem gängige Leistungskriterien in den Blick genommen und die verbreitete Vorstellung von der auf individuellen Leistungen beruhenden Karriere hinterfragt. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass karriererelevante Anforderungen nur in relativ geringem Maße an objektivierbare Leistungskriterien gebunden sind und impliziten, wenig objektivierbaren Kriterien eine besondere Bedeutung für den Karriereverlauf zukommt. Diese impliziten Kriterien beziehen sich auf die moderne Arbeitskultur mit ihrem hohen Verfügbarkeitsanspruch, der sich wiederum geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich auswirkt.This author of this book, Dr. Yvonne Haffner, research assistant at the Institute for Sociology at the University of Darmstadt, inspects the structural barriers for equal career opportunities for women and men in the work force. She examines the general criteria for achievement as well as the widespread idea that careers are dependant on individual performance. The results merely underscore the fact that demands relevant to the career are rarely bound to objective performance criteria. Conversely, implied criteria, which are rarely objective, have taken on important meaning for career paths. These implied criteria are often related to modern working cultures with high demands in terms of availability. This has a varied gender-specific effect.

  15. Die skeppingsordeninge en homoseksualiteit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steun op Aristoteles of Descartes wat betref die Godsleer, predestina- sieleer, die natuurlike teologie en die leer van die skepping en voor- sienigheid. Barth noem dit 'n dubbele boekhouding wat die natuur en genade, skepping en verbond, skeppingsopenbaring en heilsopenba- ring van mekaar losmaak. Sy kritiek is veral ...

  16. Variation of microstructures and mechanical properties of hot heading process of super heat resisting alloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Ko, Dae Chul; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Metal forming is the process changing shapes and mechanical properties of the workpiece without initial material reduction through plastic deformation. Above all, because of hot working carried out above recrystallization temperature can be generated large deformation with one blow, it can produce with forging complicated parts or heat resisting super alloy such as Inconel 718 has the worst forgeability. In this paper, we established optimal variation of hot heading process of the Inconel 718 used in heat resisting component and evaluated mechanical properties hot worked product. Die material is SKD61 and initial temperature is 300 .deg. C. Initial billet temperature and punch velocity changed, relatively. Friction coefficient is 0.3 as lubricated condition of hot working. CAE is carried out using DEFORM software before marking the tryout part, and it is manufactured 150 ton screw press with optimal condition. It is know that forming load was decreased according to decreasing punch velocity.

  17. Working aids for planners and executing manufacturers: Formula collection for ventilation and air conditioning engineering; Arbeitshilfe fuer Planer und ausfuehrende Firmen: Formelsammlung fuer die Lueftungs- und Klimatechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexis, J. [Ingenieurbuero, Beratung und Planung, Luft- und Klimatechnik, Energietechnik - Entwicklung, Komfort- und Industrieanlagen, Feucht (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Formulas, necessary again and again for ventilation- and air conditioning engineers, not always to be drawn up from specialist books are to find here shortly and tersely on 11 pages.(GL) [German] Formeln, die immer wieder von Lueftungs- und Klimaingenieuren gebraucht werden, und nicht immer muehsam aus Fachbuechern herausgezogen werden muessen finden sich kurz und praegnant erklaert auf 11 Seiten zusammengestellt.(GL)

  18. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the Black worker can not be studied in isolation since the White worker still holds many executive positions and therefore has an influence on the Black workers' motivation. The role of the White worker in motivating the Black worker in a specific organisation and the attitude and leadership approach of the White worker on the existence/nonexistence and relative satisfaction of the needs of Black workers are discussed.Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  19. ,,Die kleur-krisis en die Weste"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Coetzee

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Wie vandag onbevange en met ’n opregte begeerte na die volle waarheid oor die sogenaamde „kleurvraagstuk” in Suid-Afrika wil skryf, moet voorwaard bid dat hom die deel van Esegiël te beurt mag val: „Jou voorhoof maak ek hard soos ’n diamant, harder as ’n rots . . . ."

  20. Die funksie van ruimte in die narratologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venter (1985: 20 vv) is van mening dat hierdie negatiewe beoorde- ling van ruimte as blote 'vulling' (Venter 1985: 20) die beginsel was waarvolgens Plato in die ouer literêre paradigma byvoorbeeld die Ilias van Homerus so beskryf het dat alle ruimtelike gegewens sover moont- lik weggelaat is. Hiervolgens kon ruimte te ...

  1. KERKWEES IN DIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KERKWEES IN DIE BRANDING: DIE NEDERDUITSE GEREFORMEERDE. KERK IN ALGEMENE SINODALE VERBAND. 1994-2011. ACTA THEOLOGICA. Supplementum 18. 2013. INHOUD. HOOFSTUK 1 Verantwoording. 1. HOOFSTUK 2 Die Sinode van versoening? 4. HOOFSTUK 3 Bestendiging in 'n nuwe bedeling.

  2. Die Institusie van Calvyn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Ek wil hier geen verhandeling oor Calvyn se onderwysing in die Christelike godsdiens skrywe nie maar net die aandag vestig op die feit dat hierdie werk van Calvyn nou ook in Afrikaans verkrygbaar is.

  3. e .Kuraioriufn. DIE W ETENSKAPLIKE BETEKENIS VAN DIE W ERK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Voorts wys hy op die talryke name wat saamgestel is met die naam van die koningsfiguur, ditsy n aardse koning of n godheid. Die a!gemeen oosterse vergoddeliking van die koning het sy invloed ook laat geld op die naamgewing in die ou Babel en Assur. Geheel die proefskrif getuig van die deeglikheid en noukeurigheid.

  4. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  5. High-performance ceramic filters for energy engineering. Final report; Filter aus Hochleistungskeramik fuer die Energietechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerheide, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Adler, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Buhl, H. [ESK-SIC GmbH, Frechen-Grefrath (Germany); Fister, D. [H.C. Starck GmbH, Laufenburg (Germany); Krein, J. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Energietechnik GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Voelker, W. [Annawerk GmbH, Roedental (Germany); Walch, A. [eds.] [USF Schumacher Umwelt- und Trenntechnik GmbH, Crailsheim (Germany)

    1999-09-30

    The hot gas particulate removal of many advanced coal fired power generation technologies works at temperatures above 800 C. The filter elements for these applications are often based on ceramic materials, e.g. silicon carbide. However, the mostly clay bonded silicon carbide is subject to creep and oxidation due to probable changes of the binder phase. In this work the development of new ceramic filter materials based on silicon carbide and alumina is described. The goal of the development was to increase the potential application temperature. To obtain the goal, the work was performed together with ceramic powder manufacturers, developers of ceramic materials and components as well as with companies who operate test facilities. Different routes were chosen to increase the high temperature resistance in consideration of corrosion resistance, fracture strength and pressure loss of the filter materials. One of these routes was the optimization of the binder phase of the silicon carbide materials. Other routes were concentrated on the base material and the investigation of other possibilities for the silicon carbide bonding, i.e. a recrystallization process of SiC (RSiC) or a self bonding of granulated small grained silicon carbide powder. Additionally filter materials based on alumina were developed. The report covers these material development oriented topics as well as the additional work in materials reliability, coating development and modeling of microstructure. (orig.) [German] In der Kombikraftwerkstechnik wird insbesondere bei Kohlefeuerung die Heissgasreinigung oft bei Temperaturen ueber 800 C eingesetzt. Die Filterelemente fuer diese Anwendungen bestehen oft aus keramischen Materialien. Das haeufig eingesetzte tongebundene Siliciumcarbid unterliegt jedoch besonders aufgrund der Beschaffenheit der Bindephase Kriech- und Oxidationsschaedigungen. In diesem Bericht wird die Entwicklung von neuen keramischen Filtermaterialien, die auf Siliciumcarbid oder

  6. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  7. Die sosioniologifpolemiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A.J. Ryke

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Socloblology is defined as the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behaviour. E.O. Wilson's major work, Sociotiiolugy: The new synthesis (1975 attracted hostile attention as well as high praise. For some the word socloblology imply the study of social behaviour In animals, for others. It Is an ideological construction calculated to justify racial inequality and the oppresion of women. Much of the confusion has come from a simple misunderstanding of the content of this new discipline.

  8. Die Subjektiewe en Objektiewe doelwitte van Arbeid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Veldsman

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the subjective and objective goals of work. Firstly their place and function are shown within a proposed integrated model of motivation. Next the relationship between the two goals is highlighted, followed by a discussion of the nature of the objective goal. In conclusion, the impact of modern work on these goals is indicated. OpsommingDie artikel gee aandag aan die subjektiewe en objektiewe doelwitte van arbeid. Hul plek en funksie binne 'n voorgestelde geïntegreerde motiveringsmodel word eerstens aangedui. Vervolgens word die verwantskap tussen die twee doelwitte uitgelig, gevolg deur 'n bespreking van die aard van die objektiewe doel. Laastens word die invloed van moderne arbeid op hierdie doelwitte uitgestippel.

  9. Die Rouproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrika de Villiers

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available The mourning process is a normal and universal reaction to loss. Awareness of the loss, confrontation and adaption are the main phases of the mourning process, although each mourner’s reactions are highly individulised. Mourning can be regarded as essential “work” — which can never be escaped. The bond with the deceased must be untied, the mourner must adapt to the new environment without the loved one and then form new relationships. In offering support to mourners one should be there, allow them to express their emotions in their own way and to talk about the deceased and their feelings of guilt. One should also lead them to understand that their reaction is normal and that the work of mourning must be completed. After considerable time sensitive attempts may be made to direct the mourner to the future.

  10. Die vrede van Münster / Westfale en die betekenis daarvan vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedenis egter is die Vrede van Münster as epogmakende gebeure tot dusver nie net in die algemeen verwaarloos nie, maar boonop is die direkte verband tussen hierdie sentrale historiese baken aan die een kant en aan die ander kant die vestiging van die VOC se verversingspos aan die ...

  11. DIE KERKLIKE TUG * Die tug en die handhawing daarvan is n saak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Die tug en die handhawing daarvan is n saak van wesenlike belang vir die Kerk van die Here nie alleen nie, maar ook vir elke volk. Dit bepaal tot op sekere hoogte die geestelike peil van die Kerk en die sedelike peil van n volk. Van so groot belang word die tug beskou, dat die Nederlandse. Geloofsbelydenis in Art. 29 as ...

  12. Die Nuwe Testament en mitologie: Die probleem van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29 Mei 2015 ... as verwysingsraamwerk verkondig kan word. Indien wel, moet teologie die Christusverkondiging ontmitologiseer. (Bultmann [1941] 1967:16). Wat mites tot uitdrukking bring. Mites verklaar die kragte wat op mense inwerk en hulle lewens begrens, as bonatuurlik. 'n Mitiese kosmologie of wêreldbeskouing.

  13. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    merking deurdat die benodigdhede aangegee word vir lam- mers van varierende massa wat teen verskillende tempos groei. Omdat daar egter 'n nouer interverwantskap tussen proteien· en energiebenodigdhede bestaan beveel Crampton. (1964) aan dat die proteien benodigdhede uitgedruk word in terme van VRP/mkal ...

  14. Die Diepte-ondersoek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21 Aug 1971 ... Daarbenewens is die algemene lewensduurte ook verantwoordelik vir 'n stygende kostepatroon in die geneeskunde. 'n. Dekade of twee, drie gelede kon ons nog redelik verwag dat iedere pasient sy eie potjie moes krap, met die uitsondering van die werklik armes wat vry mediese dienste moes ontvang.

  15. Kinders in die erediens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roux neem in hierdie verband sterk standpunt in teen Jean Piaget en Ronald Goldman se teorieë oor kinderontwikkeling. Piaget oordeel dat kenmer- kende aspekte wat die kind se denke op 'n bepaalde stadium vertoon, die norm moet wees vir die bantering van die kind. Hy kategoriseer kinders volgens hulle intellektuele ...

  16. Die Hermeneutiek van Calvyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer ons Calvyn bestudeer dan is dit nie alleen belangrik om te luister na wat Calvyn sê nie, ons moet ook daarop let hoe hy die dinge sê. By die vak hermeneutiek is ons geneig om te spreek van ’n hermeneutiese metode. Daar word selfs gepraat van die tegniek van die eksegese.

  17. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  18. DIE KONINGSBEDE AS ELEMENT IN DIE KRONINGSRITUEEL. By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    die besonder dink ons hier aan die bekende beskrywing van Salomo se bede. Nadat die offer gebring is, lê die koning homself te slape in die heiligdom, vgl. Gen. 28:11, kennelik met die bedoeling om n droomorakel te ontvang. Dit gebeur dan ook, altans volgens die teks in Kon.; volgens die Kronis gebeur meer: God self ...

  19. Demistifikasie van die metafoor “die kerk as bruid”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    5 Sep 2007 ... Stadelmann (1993:231) is hierdie onderdanigheid van die vrou aan haar man gegrond in die gedagte dat die man van God self die opdrag en verant- woordelikheid ontvang het om die hoof van die huwelik en die gesin te wees. Dit hou in dat die man deur God tot verantwoording geroep word oor wat in en.

  20. het die reformasie die leer gered en aanbidding verloor?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die reforma- tore het die voortgaande offer verwerp. Vir Rome aktualiseer die liturgie egter ook die nuwe verbond tussen God en mens (wat die reformatore aan- vaar het). Die liturgie is in die eerste plek werk van God aan ons mense voordat mense liturgies kan antwoord (Brienen 1978:17 e.v.). Die liturgie van Rome slaag ...

  1. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    - and p-type emitters have been fabricated. After a very short development time conversion efficiencies have been obtained ({eta}{sub max} = 15.2%) which are reported for PECVD emitters. (orig.) [German] Zwei neue Anlagen zur vollstaendigen bzw. grossflaechigen Abscheidung von a-Si:H basierenden Solarzellen mit der sog. 'Hot-Wire (HW)' CVD wurden aufgebaut. Die Abscheidebedingungen fuer geeignete n- und p-dotierte a-Si:H- bzw. {mu}c-Si:H-Schichten wurden ermittelt. Weltweit wurde erstmals eine a-Si:H-pin-Zelle vollstaendig mit der HWCVD-Methode hergestellt, ein Anfangswirkungsgrad von {eta}{sub initial} = 8,9% wurde erreicht. Nach Entwicklung eines p/n-Tunnel- bzw. Rekombinationsueberganges ist es weltweit ebenfalls erstmals gelungen, pin-pin-Tandemstrukturen mit a-Si:H-Absorbern vollstaendig mit der HWCVD-Methode abzuscheiden. Nach Teilalterung wurden noch Wirkungsgrade von {eta}{approx}7% ermittelt. Generell ist die Stabilitaet der all-HWCVD-Zellen noch unbedriedigend, was auf strukturell instabile p-Schichten zurueckgefuehrt werden konnte. Erste nip-Solarzellen auf Edelstahlsubstraten wurden ebenfalls vollstaendig mit der HWCVD praepariert ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). Der Einbau von {mu}c-Si:H-Absorberschichten die mit HWCVD bzw. ECWR-PECVD hergestellt wurden, in pin-Solarzellen war bisher wenig erfolgreich. In einer Anlage zur grossflaechigen HWCVD-Abscheidung wurden a-Si:H-Schichten mit guter Qualitaet und einer Schichtdickenuniformitaet von {delta}d = {+-}2,5% hergestellt. Fuer sog. 'Huepfzellen', nur die i-Schicht wurde in der Anlage abgeschieden, wurden auch sehr uniforme Anfangswirkungsgrade {eta}{sub initial}=6,1{+-}0,2% fuer kleinflaechige Zellen auf einer Flaeche von 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} erreicht. Diese Ergebnisse koennen als 'proof of concept' fuer die grossflaechige HWCVD-Abscheidung fuer a-Si:H-basierende Solarzellen betrachtet werden. Erstmals wurde die HWCVD zur Abscheidung von Emitter-Schichten fuer Hetero-Solarzellen auf c

  2. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  3. Editorial/Van die Redaksie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deelnemende demokrasie', is dit belangrik om die oe oop te hou vir die wyse waarop dit die tradisionele patemalisme van geneeskundige praktyk" raak, veral as die behoeftes onderling grootliks verskil, en die prioriteite streeksverskille ...

  4. Die relevansie van die boek Prediker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook in die dogmatiek te bespeur is nie. 'n Vinnige oorsig oor die teksverwysings van. 'n paar wydgelese dogmatiekhandboeke kan dit bevestig. In Karl Barth se omvang- ryke Kirchliche Dogmatik word Prediker slegs vyf en dertig maal aangehaal en slegs sewe maal word teksgedeeltes bespreek. Emil Brunner haal Prediker ...

  5. DIE OUTESTAMENTIESE LEER AANGAANDE DIE MENS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    verdwyn s o o s rook". Meer voorbeetde gee die genoemde grammatikas. ') Hierdie opvatting van be vind ons bv. in die Leidsche Vertaling 1899, by JoH. H EH N , Zum TermiïiMS ,,BiM Qottes" in Festschrift Sachau, 1915, BÖ H L in TeÍMt en Uitieg,.

  6. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  7. Die toepassing van die K3-model op die televisieteks Colour TV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die uitsaaier het ook geen klagtes van kykers ontvang oor die gebruik van die woord chlora nie. Inteendeel, op die sosiale netwerke Facebook en Twitter het kykers die gebruik van die woord verwelkom. Op Facebook skryf ʼn kyker (Howard 2011) die dag ná die eerste episode uitgesaai is: “Lol. Wow! Its amazing 2c how all ...

  8. Splitting the difference? Principled compromise and assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Compromise on moral matters attracts ambivalent reactions, since it seems at once laudable and deplorable. When a hotly-contested phenomenon like assisted dying is debated, all-or-nothing positions tend to be advanced, with little thought given to the desirability of, or prospects for, compromise. In response to recent articles by Søren Holm and Alex Mullock, in this article I argue that principled compromise can be encouraged even in relation to this phenomenon, provided that certain conditions are present (which I suggest they are). In order to qualify as appropriately principled, the ensuing negotiations require disputants to observe three constraints: they should be suitably reflective, reliable and respectful in their dealings with one another. The product that will result from such a process will also need to split the difference between the warring parties. In assisted dying, I argue that a reduced offence of 'compassionate killing' can achieve this. I acknowledge, however, that splitting the difference can induce splitting headaches, as there remain certain questions to be answered. Hopefully, however, sufficient work is done here to defend attempts to occupy the middle ground, whether these relate to assisted dying specifically or to other disputed moral matters. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Paradigmas en progressie in die teologie: *n Perspektief op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Met die ontdekking van kerne, atome, molekules en dies meer en die ontwik- keling van 'n mikro-fisika het die Newton-wette in die agtergrond geskuif. Daarmee saam het ook die sekuriteit wat dit gebring het, naamlik dat daar onder die oënskynlike chaos altyd 'n ordelike en konsekwente netwerk van wette en beginsels.

  10. P. J. N. Smal, Die Universalisme in die Psalms. Academisch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    dat die historiese element in Israel se Godsopenbaring en daarmee die insig in sy betekenis te kort gedoen word. Die betekenis van die studie vir die historia revelationis is daardeur gering; as duidelike „tydlose” sistematisering van Outestamentiese gegewens oor die betrokke onder- werpe, soos die laaste hoofstuk, bl.

  11. DIE APOSTOLAAT VAN DIE KERK IN HIERDIE TYD TEN OPSIGTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Hierdie verkondiging het net een doel en net een inhoud. Die doel ... is die vlees- geworde Woord, Christus. Die apostalaat is nie een funksie van die kerk tussen ander nie. Die kerk is apostel in alles wat hy is en doen. Die doel van die. 239 ... skawing, nie vir uitbreiding van politieke magssfere nie, ens. Selfs ten koste van ...

  12. Die bepaling van die 'sentrum van hoofbelange' by oorgrens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As die filiaal se geregistreerde kantoor en die opvatting van derde partye op die selfde plek dui (sodat die vermoede in werking tree), moet die houermaatskappy meer, beter en swaarder getuienis aanvoer om die vermoede te weerlê. Die vermoede sal egter nie sonder meer weerlê word nie. 'n Essensiële en delikate ...

  13. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    (a). In die behandeling van bostaande onderwerp, bevind ons ons op die gebied van die Praktiese Teologie. Die Praktiese Teologie het 'n merkwaardige tweeledige bestaan. Dit bestaan aan-die-een-kant sinvol as wetenskaplike besinning en spreke oor die „erediens”; dit bestaan aan-die-ander-kant óók sinvol.

  14. Die geskiedenis van die saw gedenkteken te Fort Klapperkop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die SAW Gedenkteken se lotgevalle is nou verbonde aan die van die. Militere Museum Fort Klapperkop aangesien die Gedenkteken op die terrein van Fort Klapperkop opgerig is. Weens rasionalisasie is die voortbestaan van Fort Klapperkop Museum onseker. Dit plaas ongetwyfeld dan ook 'n vraagteken agter die ...

  15. Die huwelik as identiteitsmerker in die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    formulier klem gelê op Genesis 2:22 se woorde dat God die vrou na die mens gebring het. Hieruit word net soos in die ..... die hoek van antropologiese teorie oor bloedverwantskap bestudeer. Sy rekonstrueer eers die sosiale ...... begrip wat vreemd is aan die pre-moderne denke rondom verwantskap. Tweedens is die.

  16. DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE HUIDIGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE. HUIDIGE SITUASIE. Sending is 'n deel van die vervulling van die apostoliese opdrag van die kerk. Dit geskied op grond van en in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods. \\C'oord. Teologiese besinning is daarom die eerste en grondliggende vereiste by die ontwerp van 'n ...

  17. Oor die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalverdeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. J. Roux

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalverdeling wat ryk aan parameters is, word voorgestel en na ’n meervariate verdeling uitgebrei. Teoretiese eienskappe en ’n toepassing van die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalmodel word gegee.

  18. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  19. Die wonder van Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Venter

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available In die Januarie-Februarie-uitgawe van Koers het die hoofredakteur daarop gewys dat 1959 ’n gedenkjaar is, en onde randere ook vermeld dat dit die jaar is van die goue jubileum van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (gestig op 2 Julie 1909. Daarby moet ons nie vergeet dat die P.A.K. (gestig19 Desember 1929 in hierdie jaar sy dertigste bestaansjaar voltooi nie. Dit is dan ook heeltemal gepas dat ons in hierdie gedenkjaar, op versoek van hierdie twee liggame wat so ontsaglik baie gedoen het vir die handhaaf en bou van ons taal, ons aandag sal saamtrek rondom die wonder van Afrikaans.

  20. Die Koalitionsvereinbarungen zur Energiewende

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... Die zunachst so erfolgreich gestartete Energiewende ist ins Stolpern geraten. Das europaische Zertifikatesystem, das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und die Energiewende mussen nun vor allem kosteneffizient neu justiert werden...

  1. Soziale Arbeit in guter Gesellschaft? Gesellschaftliche Modernisierung und die "Normalisierung" der Sozialpadagogik (Social Work in Good Company? Social Modernization and the "Normalization" of Social Pedagogics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschuch, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Confronts the thesis that Germany is witnessing a process of "normalization" of social work, substantiated by the expansion of the fields of action of social work, with findings of a sociocultural "division of society." Inquires into the consequences of these findings for clients and objectives of social work. (DSK)

  2. Die Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar, Natascha

    2002-01-01

    'Der Benutzer soll zukünftig in der Lage sein, sich mit seinem Informationswunsch an eine fachliche Organisationseinheit - die Virtuelle Fachbibliothek - wenden zu können, in der die Nachweisfunktion, die Zuordnung und die Vermittlung fachlicher Informationen in gedruckter und elektronischer Form organisatorisch vorbereitet und in der Durchführung kooperativ sichergestellt sind. (Rutz, Reinhard: SSG-Programm, Virtuelle Fachbibliotheken und das Förderkonzept der DFG. Bonn, 1997). Um diesem Sze...

  3. Die Tempelrolle und die Struktureigenschaften des Kollagens

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Die „Schriftrollen vom Toten Meer“ stoßen seit ihrer Entdeckung Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts bei den Religionshistorikern und in der breiten Öffentlichkeit auf großes Interesse. Sie stammen aus der Zeit der Zweiten Tempelperiode - der Wiege des Christentums und dem Vorabend der Zerstörung des Tempels von Jerusalem durch die Römer. Diese Ereignisse haben den weiteren Verlauf der Menschheitsgeschichte entscheidend mitgeprägt. Dem Text der Rollen hat die Forschung sehr viel Aufmerksamkeit ...

  4. Verslikking in die Richardsbaainatuurreservaat, Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cooks

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available ’n Ondersoek na die redes en tempo van verslikking in die Richardsbaaise Natuurreservaat dui daarop dat versnelde verslikking in die reservaat die gevolg is van ’n versteuring van die natuurlike ekwilibrium deur menslike aktiwiteite tydens die ontwikkeling van die hawe. Die belangrikste redes is waarskynlik die konstruksie van ’n dyk wat die estuarium verdeel, die oopmaak van ’n nuwe monding en boerderywanpraktyke in die opvanggebied. Die tempo van verslikking het in so ’n mate toegeneem dat ongeveer 36,14 persent van die natuurreservaat reeds gedurende die eerste 11 jaar toegeslik het. ’n Projeksie van hierdie verslikkingstempo dui daarop dat die reservaat binne die bestek van ongeveer 29 jaar heeltemal sal toeslik. ’n Dramatiese toename in die plantaanwas toon dieselfde neiging.

  5. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  6. DIE OPTIMUM INSLUITINGSPEIL VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aan elkeen is een van die 35 diete ewekansig toegese. Elke vark het ad lib toegang gehad tot die dieet vanaf 8 weke ouderdom tot op 'n lewende massa van ongeveer 50 kg. Die varke is afsonderlik in hokkies van ongeveer 1,5 m X 1 m, toegerus met selfvoerders en drinktepels, aangehou. Voerinname en lewende massa.

  7. Die humanistiese mensbeeld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liberalisme-kapitalisme vanuit die denke van Adam Smith (1723-. 1790), demokratiese-sosialisme vanuit die denke van Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-. 1778), en Marxisme-kommunisme vanuit die denke van Karl Marx (1818-1883). In elkeen van hierdie ideologiese strominge bestaan 'n mensbeeld soos dit bepaal.

  8. Die Plattform Medienbiografie

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nosko

    2013-01-01

    Wenn die eigene Medienbiografie Nutzungsmuster und Einstellungen gegenüber Medien in hohem Maß beeinflusst, dann stellt die Beschäftigung damit in der Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung von LehrerInnen ein unumgängliches Element dar. Christian Nosko präsentiert die Plattform "Medienbiografie".

  9. Die Gattungen der Myriangiales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arx, von J.A.

    1963-01-01

    Die Myriangiales sind ascoloculäre Ascomyceten mit bitunicaten Asci und lassen sich durch Zwischenformen mit den Dothiorales verbinden. Bei ihnen entstehen die Asci im Innern von Fruchtkörpern einzeln zerstreut und sind kugelig oder breit keulig. Die 21 anerkannten Gattungen werden schlüsselförmig

  10. DIE GELOFTEKERK. Woorc/ ^oora/.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    die gelofte kerk sou gereserveer het, aan die kerkraad van die Ned. Geref. Gemeente aldaar te ... Ms. ]2: John Bird: The Annats of Nata], Vo!. I, pr. 445. ... Zn. P.M.. Burg 1865. f yierdie vandag baie seldsame brosjure is in 1865 deur ds. P. Huet.

  11. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  12. Wo sind sie geblieben? – Eine Diskussion über die Positionierung von Medizinerinnen zwischen Karriere, Beruf und Familie [Where have they gone? – A discussion on the balancing act of female doctors between work and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Goals: The increasing number of vacant positions for doctors increasingly puts the issue of reconciling work and family into the spotlight in companies, hospitals and universities, as increased expectations of a better work-life balance are seen as one of the reasons for these vacancies. Highly qualified professionals are trained, but not available to the labour market. The aim is to summarise what difficulties doctors who want to have a family and their potential employers must face.Methods: The following articles show the current state of research and potential starting points for an optimisation of the medical profession from a family-friendly perspective and intend to stimulate debate.Results: Some basic steps towards better work-life balance have already been taken, such as the provision of childcare places and the increasing availability of more flexible working patterns. But it seems that these measures, since they have been implemented neither sufficiently nor universally, do not suffice to secure the next generation of staff. Especially women in leadership positions are still rare to find.Conclusions: Both male and female doctors want better quality of life by achieving a better work-life balance. The expansion of family-friendly services is seen as a necessary step to allow female doctors to successfully combine work and family.[german] Zielsetzung: Die zunehmende Zahl unbesetzter Arztstellen lässt die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie zunehmend in den Fokus von Unternehmen, Kliniken und Universitäten rücken, da die gestiegenen Erwartungen an Work-Life-Balance als einer der Gründe hierfür anzusehen sind. Hochqualifizierte Fachkräfte werden ausgebildet, stehen dem Arbeitsmarkt aber nicht zur Verfügung. Welchen Schwierigkeiten sich Ärztinnen und Ärzte mit Familienwunsch einerseits und potentielle Arbeitgeber andererseits sich stellen müssen, soll hier zusammengefasst werden.Methodik: Der folgende Artikel ist als

  13. Die onstuitbare gang van die wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten einde nie in té vae algemeenhede te verval nie, sal skrywervan hierdie standpunt hom beperk tot die natuurwetenskap, endan slegs tot enkele terreine binne hierdie bepaalde gebied.

  14. Die Onderwys en Opvoeding van die Afrikaner in die Twintigste Eeu (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Die twintigste eeu het vir die Afrikaner waar hy ook in Suid-Afrika woonagtig was, baie donker aangebreek: In die loop van 1900 is die twee Boere-Republieke beset en al het die worstelstryd van die Boeremagte nog tot in 1902 voortgeduur, was die einde vanaf 1900 reeds beslis.

  15. Jointly working on research for the energies of the future. Objectives of research; Gemeinsam forschen fuer die Energie der Zukunft. Forschungsziele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, G.; Szczepanski, P. (comps.)

    2006-07-01

    The booklet consists of chapters and various articles: Doing research work with joint efforts; R and D - political objectives of FVS; fields of research and development; electrical system techniques; network management and separated power plants; heat and coolness from renewable energies; solar construction works: building covers and system techniques; generating and utilizing chemical energy sources from renewable energies; estimating consequences of techniques.

  16. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  17. Die graad van werkbetrokkenheid: 'n Bipolere kontinuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree of work involvement: a bipolar continuum? In a motivational approach towards the degree of work involvement work alienation and work involvement were conceptualized as extreme poles of a continuum. Some theorists even suggested that the continuum should be extended towards extreme work involvement. This study empirically investigated the possibility to conceptualize the degree of work involvement as a bipolar continuum. Results of this study show that low work involvement is an indicator of work alienation and that high work involvement is an indicator of workaholism and type A behaviour. Further proof of a bipolar continuum resulted from a confirmatory factor analysis on the work involvement questionnaire, because some items loaded negatively and others positively on the same factor. Opsomming In 'n motiveringsbenadering tot die graad van werkbetrokkenheid is werkvervreemding en -betrokkenheid as uiterste pole van 'n kontinuum gekonsepsualiseer. Sommige teoretici het selfs gesuggereer dat die kontinuum in die rigting van ekstreme werkbetrokkenheid uitgebrei moet word. Hierdie studie het die moontlikheid om die graad van werkbetrokkenheid as 'n bipolere kontinuum te konsepsualiseer, empirics ondersoek. Resultate van hierdie studie dui daarop dat lae werkbetrokkenheid 'n aanduider van werkvervreemding is en dat hoe werkbetrokkenheid 'n aanduider van werkbeheptheid en tipe A-gedrag is. Verdere stawing vir 'n bipolere kontinuum word deur 'n bevestigende faktorontleding op die werkbetrokkenheidvraelys verskaf, omdat sommige items negatief en ander positief op dieselfde faktor laai.

  18. The Numerical Analysis of the Phenomena of Superficial Hardening of the Hot-Work Tool Steel Elements / Analiza Numeryczna Zjawisk Przypowierzchniowego Hartowania Elementów Ze Stali Narzędziowej Do Pracy Na Gorąco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokota A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the complex model of hardening of the hot-work tool steel is presented. Model of estimation of phase fractions and their kinetics is based on the continuous heating diagram (CHT and cooling diagram (CCT. Phase fractions which occur during the continuous heating and cooling (austenite, pearlite or bainite are described by Johnson-Mehl (JM formula. To determine of the formed martensite the modified Koistinen-Marburger (KM equation is used. Model takes into account the thermal, structural, plastic strains and transformation plasticity. To calculate the plastic strains the Huber-Mises plasticity condition with isotopic hardening is used. Whereas to determine transformations induced plasticity the Leblond model is applied. The numerical analysis of phase compositions and residual stresses in the hot-work steel (W360 element is considered.

  19. New phenomenological and differential model for hot working of metallic polycrystalline materials; Un nuevo modelo fenomenologico y diferencial para predecir la respuesta mecanica de materiales metalicos policristalinos sometidos a deformacion en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, J.; Munoz, J.; Gutierrez, V.; Rieiro, I.; Ruano, O. A.; Carsi, M.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations) to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 degree centigrade a 1200 degree centigrade) and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1) in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Die Voortrekker-ideale in die moderne wêreld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. du Plessis

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Terwyl ons nou die Groot Trek op die eeu-tyd weer belewe, is dit seker gepas om die vraag te stel in hoever daar in die moderne wêreld en ons hedendaagse Suid-Afrika nog plek is vir en lewenskrag is in die Voortrekker-ideale: naamlik om op die Afrikaanse hoogland die Christelike beskawing te vestig volgens suiwer Afrikaanse styl in ’n eie republikeinse staatsverband met voogdy oor die gekleurde bevolking sonder gelykstelling.

  1. DIE ONSTERFLIKHEID VAN DIE MENSLIKE SIEL') Daar is geen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    harde stemme : „Heil aan onse God wat op die troon sit, en aan die Lam." Hulle het uit die groot verdrukking gekom, en hulle leef voor Gods troon en het dus nie met die dood van die liggame ook gesterf nie. Ons kan dan ook nie anders sê nie as dat iedereen wat die onsterf likheid van die siel loën, met die Heilige Skrif en ...

  2. Die hervertolking van die paradigma in verband met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akade- mie Drukker. Rutgers, F L 1882. Hel kerkverband der Nederlandsch Gereformeerde Kerken. Am sterdam. Schlaich, K 1969. Kollegialtlieorie: Kirche, Recht und Stoat in der Aufklaning. Jus ec- clesiasticum, Bd 8. Miinchen. Scholtz, G D sj. Geskiedenis van die Nederduitse Hervormde of Gereformeerde Kerk. Pretoria.

  3. 'n Begronde bedieningsmodel vir die diakonia van die gemeente

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Feb 2012 ... 'n model (Pastoral Family Model) (2008:235–237). Hy gee ook belangrike aspekte van die toepassing van die model weer (2008:244–247), maar .... geleenthede is gereël waar lidmate die sinodebesluite kon bespreek, asook die rigting waarin die kerkraad dink met die oog op 'n nuwe bedieningsmodel.

  4. PS Dreyer: Bakens op die pad van die wetenskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historia 3/1. 15. Die grondslae van die Westerse leefwyse, in Cronjé, G (red) 1963,. Die Westerse kultuur in Suid-Afrika. Pretoria: Van Schaik. 16. Van mite tot wetenskap, in Cronjé, G (red) 1966, Kultuurbeïnvloe- ding in die oudheid. Pretoria: Van Schaik. (Fakulteitslesings). 17. Die wysgerige Antropologie en die Teologie, ...

  5. oor die teologiese inhoud van die belydenis van belhar1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 2011 ... Die sigbare eenheid sluit 'n ryke en wonderbare verskeidenheid in, nie uit nie – dis die eerste punt. Om dié oortuiging te verwoord word 'n lang lys van assosiasies gebruik, vanuit die Bybel en die belydenisskrifte, om gelowiges te herinner aan hoe ryk en kompleks die geleefde eenheid, die onderlinge ...

  6. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kan word is waardevol vir die ontwikkeling en voortbestaan van die rnens. :1et die verworwe kenni s van die mens kan hy vaardighede aanleer (fisiese en psigiese). Die mens moet hom dus '' ... in die w~reld orii:!nteer •.. " volgens Harmse (1979, b1.26). Hierdie orientasie kan noodwendig nie doeltreffend plaasvind indien 'n ...

  7. Die mens as sondaar - Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satan en die Antichris gebring is. Daar was egter ook enkeles wat daarin 'n welkome nuwe geluid gehoor het met klanke wat herinner het aan die reformatoriese godgeleerdiieid. So is die nuwe gedagtes verder gedra en het dit geleidelik ver en wyd in die kerklike wêreld weerklank gevind. In die voorwoord tot die eerste ...

  8. Author: T Bekker DIE MOONTLIKE REGSHERVORMING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    written contract.17. Die gemelde bedoeling van die partye word vasgestel vanuit die dokument self, maar ook vanuit die woorde en gedrag van die partye en die ..... common intention or oral agreement, and it was that mistake in their written ... evidence rule, but in principle there seems no difference between a common.

  9. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Duitse taal (vergelyk Deutsche Sprache 1983:382 en later), terminologie soos gebruiklik in die Duitse ..... met die bylae Sprachpraxis, asook 'n handboek met die titel Deutsch - eln Lehrbuch Eur Auslander (Duits ... en die los- en vasskryE van woorde (Duden-Grammatik ^1984:67). Die strewe na 'n ooreenkoms oor ...

  10. Die meganies-fisiese eienskappe van die trabekulêre (kanselleuse been van die femurnek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. van Papendorp

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Die drukspanning wat nodig is om die trabekulere been van die femurnek, by pasiente met femurnekfrakture, te laat swig, is 60% minder as die wat nodig is om dieselfde resultaat by pasiente met heuposteoartrose te verkry. Die kompressiesterkte van die trabekulere been toon ’n redelike korrelasie (r = 0,58 met die relatiewe digtheid van die been, ’n Analise van die helling van die spanning-vervormingkurwes en ’n bepaling van die elastisiteitsmodulus van die trabekulere been toon dat pasiente met femurnekfrakture se been 30 - 60% meer elasties is as die van pasiente met heuposteoartrose. Sowel die sterkte as die elastisiteit van die trabekulere been kan dus ’n rol in die evolusie van fermurnekfrakture speel.

  11. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Postma

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  12. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  13. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  14. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available temperature alloy, in the runner area. The die design was of a modular approach which makes provision for replaceable inserts in the runner and biscuit area. These inserts were manufactured from standard hot work steels and special heat resistant materials... temperature was raised to above 400°C, which was required to minimize the mean temperature difference (∆T) between the aluminium melt and the surface of the inserts containing the biscuit and runner. Processing aluminium with tungsten inserts should be kept...

  15. Tool Steels in Die-Casting Utilization and Increased Mold Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepanta Naimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In die-casting molds, heat-checking is the typical failure mechanism. Optimizing the parameters that decrease this failure venture should be considered when designing and heat treating steels. The quality of die steels and their treatment continue to improve. This research investigated properties of the traditional materials 1.2343 and 1.2344 and the new steels (Dievar and TOOLOX 44 when applied to the die-casting mold specimens, after different experimental cycles. Also microstructures of the mentioned materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM test. Chrome-molybdenum-silicon-vanadium steels have good hardening ability in oil and in air. Therefore, the hot-work steels have considerable toughness and plastic attributes through both regular and higher temperatures. So, it is a good traditional die-casting material. However, another special die steel, such as Dievar, is a particularly developed steel grade; its exclusivity profile is exceptional due to its chemical composition and the use of the latest production techniques. Dievar has good heat-checking and gross-cracking resistance as a result of both high toughness and good hot strength. An additional material, a new prehardened tool steel known as TOOLOX 44, exhibits control of the failure described above by optimizing the parameters of impact toughness that could reduce the heat-checking failures. A variety of heat treatment parameters exist for various reasons because the heat treatment operation is performed by a variety of companies. This issue of the diversity in heat treatments is resolved by TOOLOX 44; this steel is quenched and tempered in delivered state.

  16. Die ontwikkeling van 'n meetinstrument van werkstres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Van Zyl

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument for work stress. The aim of the investigation was to develop a valid and reliable job stress measuring instrument. As part of the technical analysis of the "Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire" (WLQ, it is pointed out that reliability coefficients vary between 0,62 and 0,92, and that the questionnaire proves to have content as well as construct validity. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie ondersoek was om 'n geldige en betroubare werkstresmeetinstrument te ontwikkel. As deel van die tegniese ontleding van die "Ervaring van Werk- en Lewensomstandighedevraelys" (WLV, is onder meer uitgewys dat die betroubaarheidskoeffisiente daarvan tussen 0,62 en 0,92 wissel en dat die vraelys oor inhouds en konstrukgeldigheid beskik.

  17. Die historiese Jesus as wondenverker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vierde en vyfde eeu dateer. Die Christelike magie-papiri in die versameling kom hoofsaaklik uit die vyfde en sesde eeu. In die nie-Christelike magie-papiri hang die effektiwiteit af van die veelvuldige goddelike name wat aangeroep word: Adonai, lao. Psyche, Eros, Osiris, Isis, Anubis, Re, Hermes, Zeus, Helios, Selene, Kore ...

  18. Role of spiral CT in the diagnostic work-up of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism; Wo steht die Spiral-CT in der Stufendiagnostik der akuten und chronischen Lungenembolie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Ries, B.G.; Heussel, C.P.; Roberts, H.C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie

    1998-03-01

    With the more widespread availability of spiral CT scanners during the last five years spiral CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries has been etablished as an accurate test for acute and chronic pulmonary embolism. It is reliable in the direct visualization of thrombotic material down to the segmental level. In several studies, sensitivity and specificity of 80 to 100% as compared with pulmonary angiography were reported. Compared with scintigraphy and echocardiography, spiral CT more often provides a definite and certain diagnosis. In addition to the direct visualization of the emboli spiral CT shows vessel wall thickening as a sign of older emboli, infarction, pneumonia, pleural effusion. Differential diagnoses are depicted significantly more frequent compared with scintigraphy. In chronic thromboembolic disease spiral CT detects vessel wall alterations even more often than angiography. Additionally, spiral CT demonstrates typical changes due to pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Depending on the experience of the investigator and the local conditions, spiral CT is equally well suited for further work-up of indeterminate scintigraphic findings or as a primary screening tool for patients in whom pulmonary embolism is suspected. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Mit zunehmender Verbreitung von Spiral-CT Geraeten hat sich die Spiral-CT-Angiographie der Pulmonalarterien in den letzten fuenf Jahren als eine verlaessliche Methode zur Diagnostik der aktuen und chronischen Lungenembolie etabliert. Sie erlaubt zuverlaessig den direkten Nachweis des thrombotischen Materials bis auf Segmentebene. In verschiedenen Studien werden Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet im Vergleich zur Pulmonalisangiographie mit 80 bis 100% angegeben. Im Vergleich zu Szintigraphie und Echokardiographie ist oefter eine eindeutige und sichere Diagnose moeglich. Zusaetzlich zum direkten Thrombusnachweis zeigt die Spiral-CT Wandverdickungen als Zeichen aelterer Thrombembolien, Infarktpneumonien und

  19. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  20. DIE GELOFTEKERK. Woorc/ ^oora/.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    mus Smit dit in haar dagboek noem, en wat deur Landdros J. P.. Zietsman in n brief aan die Volksraad op 31 ... Daarom het landdros J. P. Zietsman op 28 Maart 1840 aan die Volksraad as volg geskryf^):. W elEdele .... The Diary of Dr. Andrew Smith 1834-1836 (V.R.S. 20). bis. 149, waar die skrywer verhaal hoe hy op 30 ...

  1. Die Problematik des Pauschalurteils

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Klaus P.

    2009-01-01

    Klaus P. Hansen betont in seinem Beitrag über die "Problematik des Pauschalurteils", dass sich Verallgemeinerungen über ein Kollektiv nur auf die partiellen Gemeinsamkeiten dieser Gruppe, nicht aber auf Individuen beziehen dürfen. Der Kulturtheoretiker erinnert an die menschliche Multikollektivität, plädiert für eine dichte Zuschreibung beobachteter Merkmale zu einzelnen Gruppenmitgliedschaften und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlicher Kollektivformen. Nationen konzipiert er als Dachkolle...

  2. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  3. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  4. Hot workability of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwembela, Aaron Absalom

    For the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9.OAl-0.7Zn-0.13Mn) die cast specimens were subjected to torsion testing at 150, 180, 240, 300, 420 and 450°C at 0.05 0.5 and 5.0 s--1 The as-cast specimens exhibited hot shortness at 360°C and above; however in that domain, after prior thermomechanical processing (TMP) at 300°C, they showed much improved properties (which were reported along with as-cast properties at 300°C and below). For AZ31-Mn (Mg-3.2Al-1-1Zn-0.34Mn), AZ31 (Mg-2-8Al-0-88Zn-0.01Mn), AZ63 (Mg-5-5Al-2.7Zn-0.34Mn) and ZK60 (Mg-5.7Zn-0.65Zr-O-O1A]), the specimens were subjected to hot torsion testing in the range 180 to 450°C and 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 s--1. In the temperature range below 300°C flow curves rise to a peak with failure occurring immediately thereafter. Above 300°C the flow curves exhibited a peak and a gradual decline towards steady state. The temperature and strain rate dependence of the strength is described by a sinh-Arrhenius equation with QHW between 125 and 144 kJ/mol; this indicates control by climb in comparison with creep in the range 200--400°C. The alloy strength and activation energy declined in the order AZ63, AZ31-Mn AZ91, AZ31 and ZK60, while ductility increased with decreasing strength. In working of Mg alloys from 150 to 450°C, the flow curves harden to a peak and work soften to a steady state regime above 300°C. At temperatures below 300°C, twinning is observed initially to bring grains into more suitable slip orientations. At high T a substructure develops due to basal and prismatic slip, Forming cells of augmented misorientation first near the grain boundaries and later towards the grain cores. Near the peak, new grains appear along the old boundaries (mantle) as a result of dynamic recrystallization DRX but not in the core of the initial grains. As T rises, the new grains are larger and the mantle broader, enhanced DRX results in higher ductility. At intermediate T, shear bands form through alignment of mantle zones resulting in

  5. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  6. Die Afrikaanse volkskultuur en die nuwe wêreld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Coetzee

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opskrif dwing die referent om te opereer met twee begrippe wat deur hulle kompleksiteit en onbelyndheid uiters moeilik bepaalbaar en hanteerbaar is. Alhoewel sommige strominge in die moderne Volkekunde die reg van hierdie wetenskap erken om alle volkskulture, ook dié van die moderne volke te bestudeer, het weinig skrywers hulle energie en vaardigheid in hierdie rigting gewaag. Dit is trouens juis die begrensdheid, homogeniteit en betreklike eenvoud van die primitiewe volkskulture wat die beoefenaars van die vak in die praktyk gedwing en verlei het om hulle aandag feitlik uitsluitend op sodanige kultuurstudies toe te spits. Die studie van die grotere en moderne volke is links gelaat aangesien die getalsterkte, interne verskeidenheid en snelle veranderinge byna onoorkoomlike eise aan die navorser stel.

  7. A proposed case-control framework to probabilistically classify individual deaths as expected or excess during extreme hot weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Gauld, Jillian S; Rauch, Stephen A; McLean, Kathleen E; Krstic, Nikolas; Hondula, David M; Kosatsky, Tom

    2016-11-15

    Most excess deaths that occur during extreme hot weather events do not have natural heat recorded as an underlying or contributing cause. This study aims to identify the specific individuals who died because of hot weather using only secondary data. A novel approach was developed in which the expected number of deaths was repeatedly sampled from all deaths that occurred during a hot weather event, and compared with deaths during a control period. The deaths were compared with respect to five factors known to be associated with hot weather mortality. Individuals were ranked by their presence in significant models over 100 trials of 10,000 repetitions. Those with the highest rankings were identified as probable excess deaths. Sensitivity analyses were performed on a range of model combinations. These methods were applied to a 2009 hot weather event in greater Vancouver, Canada. The excess deaths identified were sensitive to differences in model combinations, particularly between univariate and multivariate approaches. One multivariate and one univariate combination were chosen as the best models for further analyses. The individuals identified by multiple combinations suggest that marginalized populations in greater Vancouver are at higher risk of death during hot weather. This study proposes novel methods for classifying specific deaths as expected or excess during a hot weather event. Further work is needed to evaluate performance of the methods in simulation studies and against clinically identified cases. If confirmed, these methods could be applied to a wide range of populations and events of interest.

  8. Optimalisering van die omskakeling van matrieksimbole vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    die gevolglike matrieksimboolpunttotaal (MST) aangetref. Die geldig- heid van matriekprestasie as voorspeller van universiteitsprestasie word dan gewoonlik ondersoek deur die MST met die gemiddelde van die persentasiepunte oor die gekose universiteitsvakke in die eerste akademiese semester of jaar te korreleer.

  9. Die rol van die US se Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Opsomming: Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na die rol van die Universiteit Stellenbosch se. Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands in die ontwikkeling van die Afrikaanse leksikografie deur hulle betrokkenheid by twee verklarende standaardwoordeboeke, te wete die Verklarende Hand- woordeboek van die Afrikaanse ...

  10. die pers as bron oor die geskiedenis van die eerste vrydeidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hy was in die kamp by kaptein Roberts toe van die soldate wat teruggeval het, by die kamp aangekom het. Kaptein Roberts het die soldate nog ammunisie aangebied wat die soldate van die hand gewys het daar hulle nag genoeg rondtes gehad het. ... De Express, De Vriend van de Souwereiniteit en. Bloemfonteinsche.

  11. A. Selms DIE TEOLOGIE VAN DIE WOORD EN DIE FIGUUR VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    deur Thomas Aquinas. Onder invloed van Augustinus vind ons by. Thomas eweeens 'n sterk beklemtoning van die genade, en sien hy die verhouding tussen God en mens van God af bepaal, maar die terminologie waarmee hy uitdrukking gee aan sy opvatting is die van die Axistoteliese metafisika, en met die terminologie ...

  12. Die invloed van liggaamsparameters op die reproduksieprestasie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body size (wither height, wither to ischium length, chest width, depth and circumference) was determined at the commencement of the .... Ooie in die drie groepe is in groepe gevoer teen verskillende voedingspeile oor 'n ..... ovulation rate and wool growth responses of light and heavy ewes to differential feeding. N. Z. J.

  13. DIE PROBLEMATIEK IN DIE NAVORSING VAN KONTEMPORERE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 Okt 1992 ... lematic. The writer suggeststhat a general amnesty for soldiers, increased flexibility with regard to security and the closer .... van sekere tipes bronne. PROBLEMA TIEK. BEKOMBAARHEID. VAN DOKUMENTE. Aile dokumente wat deur die staats- diens gebruik word isargiewe. Volgens wet word dokumente.

  14. Die Amphibien und Reptilien

    OpenAIRE

    Braumann, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Obgleich die Zeiten, "... in denen der einsame Wanderer von Adter (Otter) Geziesche erschreckte ... " seit Riedel nunmehr 200 Jahre zurückliegen, weist der Drömling heute mit 13 Amphibien- und 4 Reptilienarten noch eine relativ reiche Herpetofauna auf. Besonders die individuenreichen Populationen der Rote Liste-Arten Kreuzkröte, Laubfrosch und Ringelnatter besitzen dabei landesweite Bedeutung.

  15. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seellant et imprimans les promesses de salut en noz cueurs.5. 4 Bedienaar: Ontvang ons geloof uit onsself, of ontvang ons dit van God? Kind: Die. Skrif leer dat dit 'n besondere gawe van God is, en ervaring bevestig dit (CO 6,45). 5 Bedienaar: Wat bedoel jy daarmee? Kind: Ons begrip is te verdorwe om die geeste-.

  16. Die Bilder zum Text

    OpenAIRE

    Loesch, Perk

    2007-01-01

    Die ebenso glückliche, wie schöne und wertvolle Erwerbung einer Handschrift von Wilhelm Dilich (1571/72-1650) für die Handschriftensammlung der SLUB gibt Veranlassung, nicht allein diese Handschrift vorzustellen, sondern auch an ihren Verfasser zu erinnern, dessen Wirken gleichermaßen mit Hessen und Sachsen verbunden ist.

  17. GODSBEELDE IN DIE LITURGIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Mei 2010 ... 283−301, JCB Mohr,. Tübingen. Strydom, W.M.L., 1994, Liturgie en lied: 'Sing Nuwe Sange,. Nuutgebore', NG Sendingpers, Bloemfontein. Van Heerden, E., 1987, Amulet teen die vuur, Tafelberg, Kaapstad. Vos, C.J.A., 1995, Die blye tyding, RGN Uitgewers, Pretoria. Vos, C.J.A., 2005, Theopoetry of the ...

  18. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  19. Latyn en die eenheid en verskeidenheid van die romaanse tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.H. du Plessis

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Met die afsterwe van die biskop van Avignon in 561 het die koning van die Franke, Clotharius die eerste, die vakante pos aan ’n Paryse priester aangebied. Laasgenoemde het die aanbod egter vriendelik maar ferm van die hand gewys. As rede het hy sy onkunde en veral sy gebrekkige kennis van korrekte Latyn aangevoer, waar hy in Avignon verplig sou wees om onder geleerdes te beweeg wat ’n suiwerder vorm van Latyn sou praat. Hierdie anekdote wat vir ons vertel word deur Gregorius van Tours in sy Geskiedenis van die Franke dui reeds op die duidelik waarneembare verskil in die kultuur en taal in die Suidelike en Noordelike dele van die sesde eeuse Gallië (Gregorius Turonensis, 1951:6.9.

  20. Die pastorale begeleiding van predikante van die Nederduitse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21 Jan 2013 ... Die tughandeling en pastorale begeleiding. 16. Hoe belangrik dink u is die volgende vereistes ten opsigte van die pastoraat tydens die tughandeling. Gebruik die volgende skaal: 1 = Onbelangrik; 2 =Redelik belangrik;. 3 = Nie baie belangrik, maar ook nie onbelangrik nie; 4 = Belangrik; 5 = Uiters belangrik.

  1. Die teologiese debat: Die waarde of betekenis daarvan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n gemeenskaplike waarheid te kom, nogal betreklik. In 'n poging om 'n paar groot lyne te trek oor hierdie saak, kan die volgende by wyse van oorsig en inleiding na vore gebring word. 2. lETSOORDffiAARDVANDIETEOLOGIE. Voordat iets oor die debat in die teologie gesê word, is dit tog nodig om die aard van die teologie ...

  2. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    sewentiende / agtiende eeuse Engelse skrywer van die befaamde verhaal Robinson Crusoe. Hy was ook die skrywer van 'n aanvanklik anonieme pamflet The Shortest Way with the. Dissenters. In die werk vra hy skynbaar vir 'n genadelose hantering en uitwissing van die opponente (dissenters) van die Anglikaanse kerk, ...

  3. die ouderling in twee kerkordes in die dordtse tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n koning en 'n nederige pion. Die teendeel is waar. Noordmans wys op die ironie dat die “eenvoudige” ouderling die “magtige” pous – in Roomse terme – kon skaakmat sit. Dit was by Calvyn moontlik omdat dit in 'n kerk nie om feilbare menslike mag of status gaan nie, maar die outoriteit en status van Christus deur Sy ...

  4. Enkele aspekte van kerklike dissipline uit die Kerkorde van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    1989:431). Die appèlartikel staan in die Kerkorde van die Sinode van. Dordrecht 1578 as Artikel 19 en word in die Kerkorde van Middelburg 1581 en daarna, gekombineer met Artikel 23 wat by Dordrecht 1578 nog 'n afsonderlike plek inneem. Laasgenoemde Artikel handel daaroor dat die meerderheid stemme bindend sal ...

  5. Alternatiewe vir die huwelik in die huidige permissiewe maatskappy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Barnard

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Die wereld het op elke terrein onherkenbaar verander Die mens se kennis en vermoe op elke terrein van die lewe, het onvoorstelbaar toegeneem. Hy kom in 'n posisie dat hy meen hy weet alles, kan alles deurvors en alles doen. Daarmee het die magtige mens in die sentrum van alles te staan gekom.

  6. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    Dis maar die gewone rys, vleis, aartappels, pampoen en boontjies. As sy hoender berei het, sal ek 'n sousie maak.” Die feit dat 'n huiswerker die voorafbereiding van die maaltyd behartig, verklaar moontlik waarom hierdie deelnemers geredelik vars produkte aankoop vir hoof- maaltye gedurende die week, maar ook ...

  7. Vertellersperspektief en die 'temporele' funksie van die Ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1969b) het in twee afsonderlike artikels, respektiewelik oor die kruisiging en die opstanding, oortuigend aange- toon dat die 'Wende der Zeit' op hierdie punt in die Matteus-evangelie plaasvind (vgl ook Meier 1975: 207). Hy skryf in die eerste artikel: 'Dieser Text (27, 51 ff.) ist hochst bemerkenswert. Der Tod Jesu bewirkt.

  8. Die funksie van die ^danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    word die leser vir sy goeie daad bedank. Wanneer die 'danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense ontleed word, word dit duidelik dat dit nie aan hierdie reëls vir 'n danksegging voldoen nie. Alhoewel die drie. 'dankseggingsgedeeltes' 'n taalhandeling is waarin die geenkodeerde outeur sy dank uitspreek, kan die betrokke ...

  9. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  10. Characterizing the Constitutive Properties of AA7075 for Hot Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, K.; Kim, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.

    2017-09-01

    The work presented herein investigates the constitutive properties of AA7075 as it undergoes a hot stamping/die quenching process. Tensile specimens were solutionized inside a heated furnace set to 470°C. Once solutionized, the samples were quenched to an intermediate temperature using a vortex air chiller at a minimum rate of 52°C/s. Tensile tests were conducted at steady state temperatures of 470, 400, 300, 200, 115 and 25°C. This solutionizing and subsequent quenching process replicated the temperature cycle and quench rates representative of a die quenching operation. The results of the tensile test were analyzed with digital imaging correlation using an area reduction approach. The area reduction approach approximated the cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen as it necked. The approach allowed for the true stress-strain response to be calculated well past the initial necking point. The resulting true stress-strain curves showed that the AA7075 samples experienced almost no hardening at 470°C. As steady state temperature decreased, the rate of hardening as well as overall material strength increased. The true stress strain curves were fit to a modified version of the extended Voce constitutive model. The resulting fits can be used in a finite element model to predict the behaviour of an AA7075 blank during a die quenching operation.

  11. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. du Toit

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  12. Despite Warnings, Kids Are Still Dying in Hot Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These tragedies most often occur due to miscommunication, absent-mindedness or an overloaded schedule, said Lorrie Walker, ... More Health News on Child Safety Heat Illness Parenting Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child ...

  13. Die loopbaanpatrone van Suid-Afrikaanse bestuurders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Schreuder

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Career paths of South African Managers. The changing nature of work results in upward mobility within organisations becoming increasingly limited. This requires individuals to rethink their careers. An important prerequisite for this is adequate self-knowledge. Preferred career paths are often related to the "career culture" of an organisation, which is often not aligned with individual motives and needs. The aim of this study was to determine the match between career preferences and career motives. The results on the whole indicate a poor match between these constructs. Recommendations are made on the basis of these findings. Opsomming Die veranderende aard van werk veroorsaak dat opwaartse mobiliteit in organisasies meer beperk raak. Dit verg dat individue opnuut oor hulle loopbane sal moet besin. 'n Belangrike voorvereiste hiervoor is voldoende selfkennis. Die loopbaanpad wat individue verkies hou dikwels verband met die loopbaankultuur van 'n organisasie en is nie altyd in ooreenstemming met hulle eie motiewe en behoeftes nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal in waiter mate daar 'n passing is tussen die respondente se loopbaanvoorkeure en hulle loopbaanmotiewe. Die resultate dui oor die algemeen op 'n swak passing. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  14. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  15. -Die leksikografiese hantering van woordgroepstamme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    buite die behandelingsterrein van die heersende leksikografiese praktyk val. Ondanks hierdie implikasies hoef die ~~ntering van woordgroepstamme nie vir die leksikograaf problema ties te wees nie. Die Afrikaanse leksikon bevat 'n relatief klein aantal woordgroepstamme. Hulle sal nie 'n beduidende deel van. R ep rod u.

  16. Die bevordering van geesteswetenskaplike studie*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie tema sou op ’n verskeidenheid van wyses aangepak kon word: Eerstens is dit moontlik om planne te bedink op grond waarvan die studentegetalle in die geesteswetenskappe verhoog sou kon word. Tweedens is dit moontlik om ’n soort wetenskaplike rasionalisasie te verskaf vir die feit dat die oënskynlik anachronis- tiese geesteswetenskappe nog steeds aangebied word in ’n tyd waarin die hele samelewing in die teken van die wetenskap en die tegniek staan. Dit sou natuurlik ook moontlik wees om die tema aan te pak vanuit ’n statistiese ontleding van die stand van die geesteswetenskappe en daardeur op tendense en ontwikkelingsrig- tinge te dui. Natuurlik sou daar voldoende grond wees om ook die hele kwessie van die gebrekkige finansiering van die geesteswetenskappe aan die orde te stel en ’n pleidooi te lewer vir beter salariëring van geesteswetenskaplik-geskooldes, beter beurse vir studente in die geesteswetenskappe en beslis meer geleenthede vir na- vorsing in die geesteswetenskappe. Voorts sou die uiteindelike werksituasie van die geesteswetenskaplik-geskoolde in oënskou geneem kon word. Indien daar ’n oor- skot van geesteswetenskaplik-geskooldes bestaan, sou dit geremedieer moes word en indien daar ’n tekort aan dergelike geskooldes sou bestaan, sou planne beraam moes word vir die aanmoediging van studie in hierdie rigting.

  17. Aanbid die godsdienste dieselfde God?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquinas se verstaan van die implisiete geloof. Erasmus se poging om die Chris- telike dogma tot 'n absolute minimum te reduseer en Servet se verwerping van die. Triniteitsleer, het dieselfde intensie (Galling 1961:1062). Die poging van Helena Petrofna Blavatsky se Teosofiese Vereniging wat in. 1875 in die VSA gestig is, ...

  18. Die BINGO-hulpverleningsprogram vir die begaafde seun wat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    hulpverleningprogram is empiries ondersoek nadat dit ontwerp is en die resultate word later bespreek. Probleemstelling. Dit is 'n probleem dat soveel begaafdes akademies onderpresteer en nie hul volle potensiaal bereik nie. (Kyk die bespreking van die ...

  19. Statues Also Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  20. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  1. Die Wunderkritik Immanuel Kants

    OpenAIRE

    Peddicord, Clark

    2001-01-01

    Die Problematik übernatürlicher Eingriffe in den gesetzesartigen Ablauf der Natur hat nicht nur Theologen sondern auch Naturphilosophen und Erkenntnistheoretiker immer wieder beschäftigt. Diese Frage ist nicht erst in der heutigen Diskussion entstanden. Sie hat tiefe Wurzeln, die bis in die Antike zurückreichen. Aber ihre moderne Gestalt stammt aus der Anfangszeit der modernen Naturphilosophie im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Als der prägende Philosoph der deutschen Aufklärung hat sich Im...

  2. Gadamer en die estetiese rekonstruksie van die antiaanse projek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gadamer en die estetiese rekonstruksie van die antiaanse projek: Vir 'n kontekstuele kosmopolitanisme. (Gadamer and the aesthetical reconstruction of the Kantian project. For a contextual cosmopolitanism).

  3. Die christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing en die toets van die 20e eeu.*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heyns

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available Dat die Christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing met die 20e eeu (bedoel word die geestesstrominge van ons tyd nie bloot deur ’n kopulatiewe,,en” maar deur die woord „toets” met mekaar verbind word, dui op die heel besondere verhouding wat daar tussen beide bestaan. Ons bedoeling is dan ook nie om ’n indringende analise van die een of van die ander te gee nie, maar om die aandag te vestig op die fundamentele antitese tussen beide.

  4. Die vestiging van die Kerk in Natal, die Vrystaat en Transvaal na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doop bedien, geleentheid is gegee vir die aflegging van geloofsbelyde- nis terwyl Lindley ook 'n lidmaatregister aangelê het. Lindley sou die Transvaal weer 'n keer in Mei en Junie 1844 besoek. Tydens die geleentheid sou hy so ver gaan as die Magaliesberge en moontlik ook die oostelike buitev^ryke van Marico besoek.

  5. Die inhoud en die doel van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sie (Barth 1967:667). Sekularisasie bedreig die kerk telkens wanneer hy uit die oog verloor dat hy dienskneg van Christus is. Dit is dan wanneer die kerk nie ... Daarmee bedoel Barth nie 'n wesensidentifikasie nie, maar dat Christus ..... kan die ampte op geen ander wyse doen nie as deur die Woord te bedien, in sy ap-.

  6. Die Bibliothek des Bezirksmuseums Josefstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ettl

    2016-02-01

    Josefstadt in Wien werden die Herkunft der Bibliotheksbestände und die beengte Raumsituation beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Erfassung der Medien mittels der Bibliothekssoftware „Biblioweb“ eingegangen.

  7. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  8. The day Madiba died

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... geweld (“Utopia” [129–41]—Christina van Deventer), die seksuele misbruik van kinders (“Een, twee, drie, blok myself”. [98–103]—Ilisna Nel), posttraumatiese stres (“Ontspoor” [117–22]—Tanya van. Buuren) en geestestoornisse (“Lettie se verlies” [150–5]—Elani Venter) word ondersoek. In die satiriese ...

  9. Die bewerking van idiome in tweetalige woordeboeke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Potgieter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Opsomming: Woordeboeke is belangrike en noodsaaklike hulpmiddels vir vertalers, maar tog het baie vertalers gemengde gevoelens oor veral tweetalige woordeboeke. Terwyl hulle aan die een kant nie werklik sonder hulle kan werk nie, bied tweetalige woordeboeke aan die ander kant dikwels vir die vertaler min of geen leiding. Dit blyk ook dat tweetalige woordeboeke nie voldoende hulpmiddels vir professionele vertalers is by die vertaling van idiome nie. Teorie? betreffende en benaderings tot vertaling word in die bespreking betrek. Die vertaling van idiome behels meer as net die vertaling van enkelwoorde. In hierdie artikel word aandag gegee aan die huidige bewerking van idiome in tweetalige woordeboeke sowel as die probleme waarmee vertalers gekonfronteer word by die vertaling van idiome. Sleutelwoorde: IDIOOM, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VERTAALEKWIVALWENT, ABSOLUTE EKWIVALENSIE, GEDEELTELIKE EKWIVALENSIE, DIVERGENSIE, ZERO-EKWIVALENSIE, SURROGAATEKWIVALENSIE, REGISTERVERSKILLE, ONVASTHEDE, TAALBOUSELS Abstract: The Treatment of Idioms in Bilingual Dictionaries. Dictionaries are important and necessary aids for translators, but still many translators have mixed feelings especially regarding bilingual dictionaries. While on the one hand they cannot really work without them, on the other hand bilingual dictionaries often give the translator little or no guidance. It also appears that bilingual dictionaries are not sufficient aids for professional translators in the translation of idioms. Theories regarding and approaches to translation are broached in the discussion. The translation of idioms entails more than just the translation of single words. In this article, attention is given to the present treatment of idioms in bilingual dictionaries, as well as problems with which translators are confronted in the translation of idioms. Keywords: IDIOM, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENT, ABSOLUTE EQUIVALENCE, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE, DIVERGENCE, ZERO

  10. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  11. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  12. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  13. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  14. Die opleiding van bedryfsielkundiges aan die universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Langenhoven

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Departement Bedryfsielkunde is in 1968 as 'n volwaardige departement in die Fakulteit van Ekonomiese en Administratiewe Wetenskappe aan die Vrystaatse Universiteit ingestel. Voorheen is die vak vir etlike jare deur die Departement Sielkunde aangebied. Bedryfsielkunde kan vir die B.Com., B.Admin., B.Soc.Sc. en B.P.L. (Baccalaureus in Personeelleiding graadrigtings geneem word. Die opleidingspersoneel bestaan tans uit 'n Professor, 2 Senior Lektore en 2 Lektore. Daar is ook 'n Senior Lektor/Navorser en Senior Vakkundige Beampte in die Afdeling Personeelnavorsing, wat onder leiding van die hoof van die departement funksioneer. Verder beskik die departement oor die dienste van twee dames wat albei halfdag werk, naamlik 'n Akademiese Assistent en 'n Tikster.

  15. Die effek van regstellende aksie op die streservaring van 'n groep swart werknemers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Van Zyl

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of affirmative action on the experience of stress among a group of black employees. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature of stress-symptoms among a group of black employees who were subjected to affirmative action as well as among a group of black employees not involved in affirmative action. The Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire was applied to 30 black employees who were subjected to affirmative action (research group and to 40 black employees who were not subjected to affirmative action. The results have shown that the research group showed a significant higher score on dissatisfaction than the criterion group and that the group which was not subjected to affirmative action scored significantly higher on aggression. In the light of this, a few recommendations have been made. Opsomming Die doel met die studie was om die tipiese simptome van stres onder 'n groep swart werknemers betrokke by regstellende optrede, sowel as die wat nie aan regstellende aksies blootgestel is nie, te identifiseer. Die Ervaring van Werk en Lewensomstandighede-vraelys is op 30 swart werknemers wat aan regstellende aksic blootgestel is (ondersoekgroep en 40 swart werknemers wat nie aan regstellende aksie blootgcstel is nie, toegepas. Resultate toon dat die ondersoekgroep beduidend meer ontcvredenheid as die vergelykbare groep ervaar het, terwyl die groep wat nie aan regstellende aksies blootgestel is nie, 'n beduidend hoër telling op aggressie behaal het. In die lig hiervan is enkele aanbevelings gemaak.

  16. Werner Heisenberg. The language of the atoms. Life and work - a scientific biography - the ''joyous science'' (youth until Nobel price); Werner Heisenberg. Die Sprache der Atome. Leben und Wirken - Eine wissenschaftliche Biographie - Die ''froehliche Wissenschaft'' (Jugend bis Nobelpreis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechenberg, Helmut [MPI fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2010-07-01

    With his discovery that measuring values of complementary fundamental quantities in the microscopic world cannot by arbitrarily precisely determined cutted Werner Heisenberg the Gordian knot for the finishing of quantum theory developed by Planck, Einstein, and others and opened by this a new ''golden era'' in the physics of the 20th century. On the base of the documents from his life and work, i. e. deeds, letters and reports of contemporaries, as well as the published and unpublished essays, books, and articles of Heisenberg - also the later on found, publications or manuscripts mainly coming from the inheritance - resulted this systematic biography of Heisenberg. The author, the last doctoral candidate of Heisenberg relied furthermore on factual and personal knowledges, mainly own remembrances on his doctoral father and his teachers, colleagues, and students. Because of the interest of an authentical biography of the theoretical physicist Heisenberg the presentation of the mathematical approaches and the corresponding derivations could not completely be abandoned. This biography appeals by this both to a scientifically cultivated as a wider in science interested audience and covers the first phase of Heisenberg's life until his Nobel price 1933. [German] Mit seiner Entdeckung, dass sich Messwerte komplementaerer Groessen in der mikroskopischen Welt nicht beliebig genau bestimmen lassen, durchschnitt Werner Heisenberg den Gordischen Knoten zur Vollendung der von Planck, Einstein und anderen entwickelten Quantentheorie und eroeffnete damit ein neues ''goldenes Zeitalter'' in der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Auf der Grundlage der Dokumente aus seinem Leben und Wirken, d.h. der Urkunden, Briefe und Berichte von Zeitzeugen sowie der publizierten und unpublizierten Abhandlungen, Buecher und Artikel Heisenbergs - auch der spaeter aufgefundenen, ueberwiegend aus dem Nachlass Heisenbergs stammenden Veroeffentlichungen oder

  17. Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En dis 'n klein treetjie van klagte na aanklag en na protes teen die gode, die heersers wat die mens vernietig deur hom oor sy ware lewe te bedrieg. Die ideologie eis dan ook dienooreenkomstig die bevryding en emansipasie van die mens van die gode en van God (1983: 118—119). Volgens die Jahwis is dit die slang wat, ...

  18. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE JEUG IN VOORTREKKERTYDPERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was dit 'n groot avontuur en in hulle verbeelding het hulle die aantreklikste visioene geskilder. Die groter kinders, wat gehard was deur die gevare wat gedurig die grensboere bedreig het, sou 'n beter besef van die ems van die Groot Trek gehad het.3. Die ouers, veral die moeders, het die kinders nie toegelaat om wild en ...

  19. Die benutting van vraelyste met die oog op meer effektiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    dat individue nie altyd eenders dink en doen ten opsigte van sekere sake nie, ontstaan daar soms misverstande wat kan lei tot konflik. Konflikhantering is dus 'n uiters ... “extended family issues” onder die mees problematiese sake in die vroeë jare van die huwelik. Pretorius (1996:200) bespreek die saak van emosionele.

  20. Besinning oor die apostolaat in die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dink onder andere aan sy artikels oor die Bybelse argeologie, artikels en publikasies op die terrein van die etiek soos byvoorbeeld oor selfmoord, eutanasie, sterwensbegeleiding, aborsie, padverkeer en so meer. Professioneel is hy formeel dogmatikus. Nogtans het hy, behalwe 'n besondere aanvoeling vir die pas-.

  1. voorveronderstellings in die hantering van die verhouding tussen ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is en sy hele siening van die Ou-Testamentiese hermeneutiek kleur. So beoog hierdie artikel om na aanleiding van Baumgärtel 'n aantal voorveronderstellings op die tafel te plaas wat bepalend is vir die wyse waarop die verhouding tussen Ou en Nuwe Testament beskryf kan word. Dus, na aanleiding van Baumgärtel word ...

  2. DIE EINDE VAN SENDING Fases in die Sendingbedryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ontwikkeling vir die verskeie rasse woonagtig in Suid-Afrika, beter bekend as die beleid van apartheid. (Inderdaad was hierdie gewraakte gedagtes nogal 'n integrale deel van die Kerk se Sendingbeleid soos wat dit in die vroeë 20ste eeu ontwikkel is.) Maar terwyl hierdie kritiek in feitlik alle opsigte toegegee kan word, is dit ...

  3. Die 'postmoderne' stempel in die Nuwe-Testamentiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27; vgl De Beer 1986:436). Betekenis bestaan nie suiwer in die idee en ook nie in die verwysing tussen teken en idee nie. In die dekonstruksie verval die metafisiese, se- manties-referensiele verhouding tussen betekenaar en betekende (Van ...

  4. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlogsekonomie gedurende die Tweede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is daar on- middellik stappe gedoen om die staalfabriek te. Pretoria uit te brei met die doel om die produksie .... artikels soos seep, kerse, aptekersgoedere, verf, poli- toer, ens ingesluit. 'n Groot persentasie hiervan sowel as veeartsenykundige middels en insekte- middels vir die bestryding is plaaslike vervaar- dig.37. Hout.

  5. die doeltreffendheid van die afrikaanse woordelys en spelreels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit is die doel van hierdie artikel. eireels. Volgens die AWS word die Afrikaanse spelreels op .... beperkte getal eenvoudige 'reels saamgevat kan word nie. Dit geld van alle terreine van taalgebruik: Anglisisraes en ander -ismes, woordgebruike, sinsbou, die gebruik van hoofletters, koppel- tekens, spelling, ens.'" Alhoewel ...

  6. Die inkortingsneller moet en die woordeboek | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die AfrikaanSe hulpwerkwoord mod kan binne sekere kontekste as inkortingsneller ten opsigte van 'n saamgestelde hoofwerkwoord 'optree, waardeur laasgenoemde ingekort word sander dat die semantiese inhoud van die sin verander ('n voorwaarde, trouens, van alle inkorting). Die omstandighede waaronder dit ...

  7. besonderhede aangaande in aantal geboue op die terrein van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 'n Militere Kamp. Op 4 Mei 1877 het die eerste gereelde Britse troepe op Pretoria aangekom. 'n Kamp is opgeslaan ten suide van die dorp en op 'n kaart van Pretoria wat van. 14 November ... korps van de Zuid-Afrikaa115che. Republiek, ... Hierdie eenheid is op die terrein van die v00rmalige Britse militere kamp en aan-.

  8. die aard, studieveld en funksie van die krygsgeskiedenis1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hede dit geskied het en wat die resul- toot daarvan was, sal minder gene~ wees om die foute van die verlede te herhaal of hulpeloos in die donker rond te tas wanneer hulle met 'n pro- bleem gekonfronteer word.29 Historiese. 20. M. Howard. 'The Useand Abuse of Military History'. 4 - 5: T.EGriess. 'A Perspective on Military ...

  9. Die funksie van die ^danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vanwee die problema- tiek rondom die genre word die genre van 1 Tessalonisense dus nie in hierdie artikel as vertrekpunt geneem nie. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word 'retoriese situasie' soos volg verstaan: '[A] complex of persons, events, objects and relations presenting an actual or potential. ISSN 0259 9422 = HTS ...

  10. Stuttgart, 1952. DIE HUIDIGE STAND VAN DIE ONDERSOEK TEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    hy hom rig teen sekere gnostici (die Valentiniane?) wat II Tim. 2:2 uitlê as verwysing na 'n esoteriese evangelie wat slegs aan ingewydes oorgelewer moet word. Op grond van hierdie skrale berigte het die gissings oor wat die Evangelie van die Waarheid was en wat dit bevat het, begin. Ene J ohannes K reyenbuhl het ...

  11. die waarde van die ou testament volgens hf kohlbrugge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - skrif met die grootste bekwaamheid. Juis in die tyd waarin hy met die doktorale studie besig was, was hy lank siek. Hierdie beproewing sou egter ryk vrugte dra. In die geestelike krisis wat daarmee gepaard gegaan het, is Kohlbrugge — so ...

  12. Die uniform van die Transvaalse staatsartillerie | Bouch | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die Transvaalse Staatsartillerie (TSA), as 'n gereelde en voltydse militêre eenheid van die ou Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek, het gespog met sy eie kenmerkende uniform. Keywords: Die Transvaalse Staatsartillerie (TSA); militêre eenheid van die ou Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek; velddiens- of someruniform; parade- of ...

  13. Die mens as sondaar - Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is no longer situated in the heart of human being, but in social, economical and political structures. In this ...... openbaring van die eintlikheid van die mens: jy is die man. Aan hierdie verwyt kan 'n mens jou nog .... juis net SÓ gered lean word, is kenbaar in eie persoon 'n verlore mens. Só ken die mens-van-sonde homself.

  14. Wie kommt mehr "Familie" in die "Work-Life-Balance"? – Familienorientierung in der medizinischen Aus-, Weiterbildung und Berufstätigkeit [How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies.But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success?The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (redesign the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation.[german] Hochschulen stehen mehr denn je im Wettbewerb um kluge Köpfe. Die Themen „Vereinbarkeit von Beruf/Studium und Familie“ und „Work-Life-Balance“ haben daher in der jüngsten hochschulpolitischen Entwicklung an Dynamik und Triebkraft gewonnen: Hochschulen im

  15. Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die-casting dies are exposed to high thermal and mechanical loads. Thermal fatigue cracking of dies due to thermal cycling may importantly shorten the life-time of the die. Cracks degrade the surface quality of dies and consequently the surface of castings. In this study, thermal fatigue cracking of dies was analyzed during the process of die casting aluminium alloys. During the process cracks were observed and measured and their location and size were determined. Thermal and mechanical loads cause high local stresses and consequently surface cracks. First cracks occur as early as after 2000 cycles and propagate progressively with cycles.

  16. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  17. Mechanism of Dynamic Recrystallization and Evolution of Texture in the Hot Working Domains of the Processing Map for Mg-4Al-2Ba-2Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidass Suresh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX and its effect on the evolution of texture during uniaxial compression of a creep-resistant cast Mg-4Al-2Ba-2Ca alloy in the temperature range of 260–500 °C and strain rate range of 0.0003–10 s−1 has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques with a view to understand its mechanism. For this purpose, a processing map has been developed for this alloy, which revealed two domains of DRX in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1 300–390 °C/0.0003–0.001 s−1 and (2 400–500 °C/0.0003–0.5 s−1. In Domain 1, DRX occurs by basal slip and recovery by dislocation climb, as indicated by the presence of planar slip bands and high dislocation density leading to tilt boundary formation and a low-intensity basal texture. On the other hand, DRX in Domain 2 occurs by second order pyramidal slip and recovery by cross-slip since the microstructure revealed tangled dislocation structure with twist boundaries and randomized texture. The high volume content of intermetallic phases Mg21Al3Ba2 and (Al,Mg2Ca eutectic phase is considered to be responsible for the observed hot deformation behavior.

  18. DIE BETREKKING TUSSEN JESUS EN JOHANNES DIE DOPER Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    353 die Septuagint-lesing van. I Kon. 19:20 inderdaad ook herstel. Nou is dit opvallend dat die. Septuagint, waar dit gaan om die navolging van God, by voorkeur pebruik maak van die uitdrukking, aÁro/ouíAem opisö byvoorbeeld in. Josua 14:9 maar van poreuesiAa: opisö waar uitdrukking gegee wil word aan die naloop ...

  19. Forming of an axially tailored automotive channel section through hot stamping of tailor-welded blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peister, C.; George, R.; Omer, K.; Worswick, M. J.; Malcolm, S.; Dykeman, J.; Yau, C.; Soldaat, R.; Bernert, W.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, top-hat cross-section axial crush rail specimens with tailored properties along their length were investigated. These top-hat channels were hot stamped in a fully cooled die set from tailor-welded blanks (TWBs). The blanks were laser-welded and comprised Usibor® 1500-AS joined to Ductibor® 500-AS in 1.2 mm and 1.6 mm thicknesses. Micro-hardness measurements were taken along the length of the formed specimens to map the hardness profile along their length. The effect of gauge thickness on hardness was evaluated. The hardness profile of these TWB parts was compared to that of parts formed using tailored in-die heating (IDH).

  20. AFRIKAANS EN DIE EERSTE VRYHEIDSOORLOt ..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    en 'n paar van die opgevoede. Afrikaners praat nag suiwer. Nederlands. b. Die Afrikaners het almal by deftige geleent- hede soas in die gebed, op politieke vergaderings en in gemeensame briefwissel- ing 'n geleentheids-Nederlands gebruik, wat egter reeds 'n stylvorm van Afrikaans was. In die gewone omgang het hulle, ...

  1. Voedingsnavorsing met die weidende dier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van veral beeste (Bisschop, 1964; Niemann, Lombard & Van. Schalkwyk, 1963). In teenstelling met die relatiewe groot hoeveelheid inligting oor die chemiese samestelling van natuurlike weidings, is daar betreklik min bekend oor die verteerbaarheid en vrywillige in- name daarvan deur herkouers. 'n Skerp daling in die ...

  2. PRETORIA GEDURENDE DIE EERSTE VRYDEIDSOORLOG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teen die einde van 1880 het hierdie oplewing onder die. Transvalers 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe tydens die vergadering by Paardekraal op 8 Desember 1880 besluit is om tot die ... hulle in Transvaal en veral in Pretoria gevestig sodat daar teen Maart ..... admiration, for they have the additional anxiety to bear in knowing that ...

  3. Aanbid die godsdienste dieselfde God?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Derhalwe is. Christus dan die voile Selfmeedeling van God. In Hom is die bonatuurlike eksisten- siaal finaal en onherroeplik meegedeel. Hieruit kan Rahner nou vier stellings stcl: * die Christendom verstaan homself as die eintlike godsdiens;. * ander godsdienste het nietemin bonatuurlike waarheidselemente en is daarom.

  4. Die Bantoe indie gevorderde arbeidsvorme*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Coetzee

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die inhoud van hierdie voordrag is in hoofsaak ’n verwerking van ’n lesing oor The Bantu as a White Collar Worker wat ek vroeër vanjaar voor ’n byeenkoms van die Johannesburgse afdeling van die National Development Foundation gehou het. Derhalwe wil ek ook my erkentlikheid teenoor die liggaam betuig vir die verlof om dieselfde stof te gebruik ten bate (hopelik van die Afrika-Seminaar en terselfdertyd ook vir nuwe insigte waartoe die bespreking op genoemde byeenkoms my gelei het.

  5. Die inszenierte Autorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Mae

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available chs wird in seinem Aufbau durch die drei Phasen des Selbstfindungsprozesses, genauer der Selbsterfindung der ‚Schriftstellerin Yū Miri‘ in ihren Werken und ihren medialen Selbstinszenierungen strukturiert. Es gelingt Iwata-Weickgenannt sehr überzeugend, das Sichtbarmachen der performativen Konstruiertheit von Identität im Werk und Leben Yūs herauszuarbeiten. Sie zeigt dabei auch, dass das Konzept der Performativität ein sehr geeigneter Bezugsrahmen für die Analyse von Identitätsbildungsprozessen ist.

  6. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  7. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  8. Die implikasies van artikel 2 (1 (a van die wet op die nasionale onderwysbeleid, 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bekker

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Op 31 Maart 1967 is die veelbesproke Wet op die Nasionale Onderwysbeleid, 1967 gepromulgeer. Daar is ’n raamwerk van tien beginsels neergelê wat onder meer handel oor sake soos Christelike karakter, nasionale karakter, moedertaalonderwys, die plek van die ouergemeenskap, vry onderwys, koordinasie op nasionale grondslag van leerplanne en kursusse, ens.

  9. Die uitbouing van die Bybelse kanon in antieke Judaïsme en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... Vergelyk Eusebius, 'n anti-Marcionitiese skrywer wat in 192/3 n.C. werk; Historia. Ecclesiasfica V 17, 2. verder gestimuleer is. Talle nuwe geskrifte het die lig gesien waaroor die kerk besluite moes neem en waarteen die kerk afgrensings moes doen. Vroeë omlyning van die versameling van boeke.

  10. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we, konferensies vir terugrapportering ens. ens. Op die oog of kan dit voor- kom asof die akademikus met soveel bronne te doen het dot hy eerder 'n oorvloed as te min inligting goon verkry. Hierdie aanname is egter van aile ... Feitlik aile dokumente in die SAWword opgestel met die uitsluitlike doel om vir weermagoptrede.

  11. liturgiese afleidings uit die kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Nagmaal, om telkens liturgiese afleidings daaruit te probeer maak. 2. DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN DIE PASGA VAN DIE. EKSODUS TOT DIE TyD VAN ChRISTUS. Die Pasga is waarskynlik die een Ou-Testamentiese fees wat van belang is vir die navorsing oor die Nagmaal, juis omdat Jesus die Pasga doelbewus gekies.

  12. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  13. DIE OPENBARINGSLEER VAN SCHILDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23 Volgens Schilder: ...maar God wil geen openbaring geven, die den mensch als't ware onder hypnose brengt en hem in dien zin overweldig (Om Woord en kerk III 1951:11). 24 Volgens Schilder: Maar de onuitputtelijkheid van het teeken komt u herinneren, dat heden Gods zelfopenbaring haar voltooiing begint; dat ge nu ...

  14. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  15. Deutschland und die Araber

    OpenAIRE

    Maguid Saad Salamah

    2014-01-01

    Die traditionellen Freundschaftsbande zwischen Deutschen und Arabern haben sich in den letzten Jahren fester geschlossen, bis sie eine aktive Teilnahme seitens Deutschlands bei der Industrialiserung der arabischen Länder und der Gewährung jeder gewünschten technischen oder kulturellen Hilfe wurden. 

  16. When Somebody Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who we are. No one really knows what happens to a person's soul after death. There are many different beliefs about that, and it's best to talk with your family to find out what they believe happens after our bodies die. Then you can decide ...

  17. Tegnologie en die mens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hellriegel en Slocum vat egter verskeie teoriee saam wanneer hulle se daar 'n indiwiduele en organisasie weerstandsproses is en dat organi- satoriese verandering slegs teweeg gebring kan word indien bestuur hierdie prosesse kan her- ken en verstaan. Die indiwiduele weerstands- proses word gekenmerk deur kragte ...

  18. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  19. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  20. Dying at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanda, Brigitte Gagnon; Dechêne, Geneviève; Marchand, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To demonstrate that it is possible for a team of palliative care nurses in an urban centre to care for more than 50% of their terminally ill patients at home until they die, and that medical care delivered in the home is a determining factor in death at home versus death in a hospital. Design Analysis of place of death of terminally ill patients who died in 2012 and 2013 (N = 212) and who had been cared for by palliative care nurses, by type of medical care. Setting The centre local de services communautaires (CLSC) in Verdun, Que, an urban neighbourhood in southwest Montreal. Participants A total of 212 terminally ill patients. Main outcome measures Rate of deaths at home. Results Of the 212 patients cared for at home by palliative care nurses, 56.6% died at home; 62.6% received medical home care from CLSC physicians, compared with 5.0% who did not receive medical home care from any physician. Conclusion Combined with a straightforward restructuring of the nursing care delivered by CLSCs, development of medical services delivered in the home would enable the more than 50% of terminally ill patients in Quebec who are cared for by CLSCs to die at home—something that most of them wish for. PMID:25873716

  1. Wat wil die apologetiek?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Buys

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Oor die Apologetiek bestaan daar veel verwarring. “Men krijgt het gevoel, alsof men de hand gestoken heeft in een wespennest. Geen enkel vak der godgeleerdheid toont zulk een beeld van volslagen wanorde als dit” (Hepp, 1922, p. 16.

  2. Die skeppingsmites as simbole van psigiese prosesse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dig aangedui met 'n tekening van die Uroboros, die slang wat sy eie stert eet. Die antieke kaart word verder versier met tekeninge van diere, monsters en demoniese figure. Vier koppe met monde wat die wind uit die vier windrigtings blaas, word in die hoeke van die kaart geteken. Die Uroboros, diere, monsters en demone ...

  3. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE KAPELAANSDIENS (SAKD) EN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    het. Die strategiese oorname van die Kaap deur Brittanje in 1806 het hierdie band bekragtig. Die Kerk van Engeland (Anglikaanse Kerk) het in 1534 as staatskerk van die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk afgeskei ná 'n twis tussen die Britse koning en die pous. Die Britse monarg is as konstitusionele hoof van die Anglikaanse Kerk ...

  4. Modelle in die onderrig van fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. Smit

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Die rol van modelle in die onderrig van fisika is sedert die vroeë tagtigerjare erken. In die onderrig word die absent op die kwantitaiewe aspekte van die vak geplaas, terwyl die kwatitatiewe aspekte min aandag kry.

  5. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. De Jager

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  6. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  7. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  8. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  9. Die besondere betekenis van die Psalms in die Christelike Kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Barnard

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The exceptional value of the Psalms in the Christian churchThe Psalms have a special place in the Bible as God's great prayer and hymn book. It is the work of various people, under the most representative situations, but it is also the work of the Holy Spirit. The Psalms express the lives, struggles, joy and praise of people before God with great clarity and true compassion. Their experiences of life, seen in the light of the living God, are vivid and real. The Christian Church took over the Psalms as their own, after the example of Jesus, whose life and work was seen as pictured in them. It became their prayer and hymn book - their life guide. The message of the Psalms is of such exceptional spiritual depth, expressing in great clarity every human need and emotion before God, that the Christian Church could find and understand itself in those situations and could associate itself with it.

  10. Hot Topics in Noninvasive Ventilation : Report of a Working Group at the International Symposium on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Leuven, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, Bart; Chatwin, Michelle; Contal, Oliver; Derom, Eric; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Kampelmacher, Mike J.; Muir, Jean-Francois; Pinto, Susana; Rabec, Claudio; Ramsay, Michelle; Randerath, Winfried J.; Storre, Jan H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; Windisch, Wolfram; Testelmans, Dries

    During the last few decades, attention has increasingly focused on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the treatment of chronic respiratory failure. The University of Leuven and the University Hospitals Leuven therefore chose this topic for a 2-day working group session during their International

  11. Die betrokkenheid van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bybelse geskiedenis - Ou Testament, Bybelvertaling, Skrifverklaring (metodo- logie, Ou en Nuwe Testament), Teologie (Ou en Nuwe Testament). • Bybelkunde 310. Bybelse geskiedenis - Ou Testament, kultuurhistories agtergrond van die Bybel, literatuursoorte en inleiding, hermeneutiek, Skrifverklaring en Teologie van die.

  12. Die wonder van Afrikaans: Totius en die bybelvertalers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available In die kort tydjie tot my beskikking kan ek slegs probeer om oor hierdie heel belangrike onderwerp, eintlik die sentrale onderwerp, van ons taalfees, enkele essensiële aspekte kortliks aan te raak.

  13. Dying Is Unexpectedly Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Amelia; Ritter, Ryan S; Waytz, Adam; Norton, Michael I; Gray, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    In people's imagination, dying seems dreadful; however, these perceptions may not reflect reality. In two studies, we compared the affective experience of people facing imminent death with that of people imagining imminent death. Study 1 revealed that blog posts of near-death patients with cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more positive and less negative than the simulated blog posts of nonpatients-and also that the patients' blog posts became more positive as death neared. Study 2 revealed that the last words of death-row inmates were more positive and less negative than the simulated last words of noninmates-and also that these last words were less negative than poetry written by death-row inmates. Together, these results suggest that the experience of dying-even because of terminal illness or execution-may be more pleasant than one imagines.

  14. Die waarde en uitdagings van diensleer vir tolkopleiding: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studente behoort op so ʼn wyse na te dink oor die diensleeraktiwiteit dat hulle verdere begrip van en groter waardering vir die dissipline kry, sowel as ʼn verhoogde bewustheid van persoonlike eiewaarde en verantwoordelikheid teenoor die burgerlike samelewing ontwikkel (Bringle en Hatcher 1995:12). Teen hierdie ...

  15. op die veranderinge wat in die onderrig van Afrikaans plaasgevind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... gaan dink; “E toep”, wat toon hoe die rekenaar prakties in die klaskamer ge bruik kan word en “Toep”, wat praktiese toepassings van kernkonsepte in die klaskamer illustreer. Voorts word in elke hoofstuk vetgedrukte kernkonsepte; interessante en bruikbare tekste en uit gebreide oefeninge verskaf.

  16. Die kairos van die New Age: 'n Kultuurhistoriese skets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prophetic dreams, etc., are merely manifestations of the activity of those finer sen ses. Unreliable at first, like the infant's vision, they can be developed and trained, until the subtler worlds stand as an open book before the man.' Die ontvouing van die mens se kragte geskied volgens die teosowe stadig en geleidelik. Daarom ...

  17. 'n Verkenning van die soorte vennootskappe in die Amerikaanse reg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Amerikaanse literatuur word talle verwysings gevind na die vennootskap in mynbou ("mining partnership"), familievennootskap ("family partnership", vennootskap in vaste eiendom ("partnership in real estate") en vennootskap vir boerdery ("farming partnership"). Hierdie onderskeiding is primer gebaseer op die tipe ...

  18. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  19. voorveronderstellings in die hantering van die verhouding tussen ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986. Teologie as kritiese geloofsverantwoording. Teorievorming in die sistematiese teologie. Pretoria: RGN. VAN ZYL A H. 1970. Die verhouding van die Ou en Nuwe Testament. In: W.D. Jonker, J.H.. Roberts & A.H. van Zyl (reds.), Hermeneutica. Erebundel aangebied aan Prof. E.P.. Groenewald by geleentheid van sy 65e ...

  20. 'n Vergelyking tussen die teologie van die Nederlandse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Denken wij niet te weinig aan de engelen?' Miskien moet ons ook vra: Denken wij niet te weinig aan de hemelvaart?' veral ^ 'n mens sien watter ryke en troosryke betekenis die Heidelbergse Kategismus daaraan gee. Kort en kragtig stel die. Heidelbergse Kategismus die feit van Jesus Christus sc hemelvaart, maar voeg.

  1. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    so^hoi) was nie dog sterrewiggelaars. EDGAR J. GooDPSEBD stel inderdaad ook voor om magoi in die engels te vertaal met "astro logers"^). Om die bekende wyses uit die Ooste nou te vervang met,. „sterre-wiggelaars" of selfs „astroloë" skyn ...

  2. n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... duidelike beskrywing van die opponente nie (kyk Schmid. 2002; Van der Merwe 2007 vir volledige besprekings). In 'n poging om die opponente te identifiseer, word die direkte opmerkings wat wél oor hulle gemaak word met sekere indirekte opmerkings gekombineer ten einde 'n volledige prentjie te skets.

  3. Kweekskool teenoor teologiese fakulteit: Die ervaring van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    office, who have enjoyed the benefits of a liberal education' (Bullock 1955:18). Die predikant moet 'an educated man' wees (Bullock 1955:67). Aan die ...... Crafford, D 1982. Aan God die dank. Pretoria: NG Kerk Uitgewers. De Graaf, W 1955. Een monument der afscheiding. Kampen: Kok. 90. HTS SO/I A 2 (1994) ...

  4. Die gebruik van Afrikaans vir die notulering van hofverrigtinge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daar word tans nog van beide Afrikaans en Engels vir die notulering van verrigtinge in Suid-Afrikaanse howe gebruik gemaak. Sowel regeringswoordvoerders as die Minister van Justisie het egter te kenne gegee dat 'n eentalige Engelse bedeling ingevoer mag word. Hierdie artikel ontleed die saak vir en teen so 'n ...

  5. die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van die kwartiermeester-generaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Okt 1976 ... (insluitende teg- niese voorrade, voertuie en ammunisie) be- hartig. Dit het die organisasie en werking van krygsbehoeftedepots ingesluit. Daar was geen tegniese voorraad depots nie. (ii) Die SA Intendans onder KMG se beheer het die kommissariaat en transportfunksies ver- rig, insluitende brandstof en ...

  6. duele verse sowel as die somtotaal die leser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... byt word aan manuskripte van ingesetenes in hierdie genre nie. Maar nog verblydender is die gehalte van die verse waarmee Gil- bert Gibson met Boomplaats sy formele in- trede tot die Afrikaanse poësie maak (hoe- wel hy reeds in Nuwe Stemme 2 – Tafelberg,. 2001 – gepubliseer het), want vir 'n debu-.

  7. Die aanspraak op Goddelike steun in 'n konfliksituasie volgens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit geld veral met betrekking tot goddelike 'eienskappe', waarvan ons hipoteties moet afsien, want die tekste self noem dit in concreto net binne konkrete relasies tussen God en mense. Verder sal ons die hermeneutiese benadering, wat ons die analogie-model genoem het, nie sonder baie goeie redes kan veronderstel nie ...

  8. Die ontwikkeling van menslike potensiaal in die Republiek van Suid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    :93). Die “Poverty Index Report” van die huidige rege- ring dui aan dat nagenoeg 50% van alle Suid-Afrikaners in armoede leef. Meer as 70% van alle armes word in die plattelandse gebiede aangetref en 61% van alle swartes is armes (Paton ...

  9. Die verhoudíng 'kerk en volk' in die jare 1835-1900 in die Oorvaalse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daaruit voongevloei het, het die verhouding van die kerk en die volk verander, óók omdat die inhoude van dié begrippe verander het. As op die veranderinge gelet word, is dit nogal opvallend dat in die situasie self nie altyd skerp onderskei is tussen kerk en volk nie en dat die onderskeidings dikwels nogal naief hanteer is.

  10. Studie van die letterkunde: Waarom?

    OpenAIRE

    D. H. Steenberg

    1981-01-01

    Sy woorde laat super-novae uitbars, blink, blink en straal deur ringe en lig-ure. Maar die blink die word deur ons gesien: anders nooit en nooit as blink geweet nie. (NP van Wyk Louw: Groot Ode, Tristia)

  11. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. de Wet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale tipering van die verhouding tussen die teks, hoorders en prediker waarin al drie faktore ’n regmatige plek het; die maniere waarop die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die spanningsveld tussen teks, hoorders en prediker kan skeeftrek; en pneumatologiese verankering van die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die kragveld van die verbondsruimte, waarin Jesus Christus versoenend (integrerend teenwoordig is. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die prediker in die kragveld van die verbond in staat gestel word om getrou te bly aan die teks (waarin God aan die Woord kom, aan die hoorders (as mededeelgenote in die genade van God sowel as – in missionêre konteks – mense wat geroep word om deelgenote in hierdie genade te word en aan hom- of haarself (as nuwe mens in Christus sonder dat die verbintenis aan een element in die  kommunikatiewe driehoek die verbintenis aan die ander versteur of laat disintegreer.Reckoning with the force field of the covenant in aligning the communicative triangle between text, listener and preacher. In this article the communicative triangular relationship between the Biblical text, the listeners and the preacher is reflected upon from a homiletic point of view. The problem statement deals with potential distortions in this triangular relationship when the listeners and preacher (in their human finitude are brought into contact with the eternal Word of God as it proceeds from the Biblical text. In the course of the article the

  12. "Einfach anders als die anderen"

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Stefanie Müller erfasst in ihrem Text die Biographie von Anna, einer jungen Frau, die von ihrer Zeit vor, während und nach dem Verlassen der Gemeinschaft der Zeugen Jehovas berichtet. Der Essay ist halbfiktional und entstand aus verschiedenen Interviews mit ehemaligen Zeugen Jehovas. Die Autorin fasst gemeinsame Aussagen der Akteure zusammen und kreiert eine fiktionale Person dessen Leben vor und nach den Zeugen Jehovas geschildert wird. Die Fragestellung ist diskursiv in den Text integriert ...

  13. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  14. Investigation of Usibor 1500 Formability in a Hot Forming Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Hande

    2013-01-01

    The hot forming process included heating metals to a temperature in the austenite range, transferring the austenitized sheet from the furnace to a press, forming and simultaneously quenched. In this work, Usibor 1500 steel was hot stamped using water-cooled prototype mould. Micro structural analyses as well as tensile tests and hardness measurements of hot stamped samples were performed. The results showed that most of austenite microstructure was changed into martensite by the hot forming. T...

  15. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  16. Die ganzen zahlen hat Gott gemacht

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A quote attributed to the famous mathematician L Kro- necker is 'Die Ganzen Zahlen hat Gatt gemacht, alles andere ist M enschenwerk.' A translation might be 'God gave us integers and all else is man's work.' An of us are familiar already from middle school with the similarities between the set of integers and the set of all ...

  17. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles. Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone. This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged, even as the planet

  18. Narratiwiteit en die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kosmologie wat die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe ten grondslag lê, van mitologiese samelewings verskil. Die belangrikste verskil is daarin gelee dat daar in die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe met 'n lineêre geskiedsiening en monoteisme in kontras met ...

  19. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which enjoy significant support in the workforce of the manufacturing and oil industries. Inleiding. The comparison of force is not only ... suide, Afganistan en Pakistan in die ooste be}:lrens. Iran vorm tans 'n buffertussen die ..... sive, militant on oil prices and conservationist in production policy. Ten einde Iran se'posisle in die ...

  20. DIE AANWENDING VAN VOEDSELHULPBRONNE VIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (b) Grane en proteibne moet verkieslik aangewend word in die rantsoene van spesies wat dit meer doeltreffend kan benut te wete melkkoeie en enkelmaagdiere. Namate die hoender en vark meer direk met die mens vir hierdie voedsels gaan begin nreeding, sal hulle outomaties begin terugtree, in orde van belangrikheid.

  1. DIE PROBLEMATIEK VAN MILITERE OPLEIDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bevolkingsgroepe, bestaan daar ook verskeie subkulture binne die SAW. So vorm elke weer- magsdeel 'n eie unieke subkultuur wat opgebou is deur kollektiewe ervaring en bestaan uit ele- mente van onderlinge verhoudinge en eensge- sindheid (Hoof van die SAW: KINGSROW-ver- slag 1987: F-5). Die weermagsdele.

  2. DIE LEWE VAN JOAO ALBASINI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    noord van Lourenco Marques, waar hy as jagter en ivoorhandelaar 'n bestaan gemaak het. In sy hoedanigheid as handelaar en jagter was hy oak in die posisie am latere jare die Voortrekkers van lewensmiddele te voorsien. In 1840 besluit hy am verder die binneland in te trek op soek na nuwe jagvelde. Gedurende sy.

  3. Die Vorritzungen der Etruskischen Grabmalerei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegende Untersuchung will dem Problem der etruskischen Grabmaleri im ganzen dienen. Es scheint mir, als ob die Vernachlässigung der Grabgemälde in Etrurien, die zu einem bedeutenden Teil noch immer sehr gut erhalten sind, einen bestimmten nachweisbaren Grund hat. Obwohl wir hier eine

  4. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... Aktiewe Burgermag en 'n Kadetorganisasie, Die totstandkoming van die mediese diens is aan It- kol M,C, Roland (onder-sekretaris van Verdedi- ging) opgedra,. Die stigting van die SAGO is vergemaklik van- wee die feit dat daar reeds 3 mediese korpse (in. Transvaal, Natal en die Kaap) in die Unie was,.

  5. Dat die klip kan heers: Pieter Fourie se Die koggelaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Coetser

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Die koggelaar (The teaser, by playwright Pieter Fourie, is generally regarded as exceptional among his recent works. The purpose of this article is to discuss the title and drought as recurring themes in the drama. The teaser is Boet Cronje, but he is of the opinion that everyone teases him. In an ironic twist of events he finally believes that God teases him by not providing the rain he so desperately needs. An investigation of the text reveals the utilization of psychoanalytical theory, i.e. the theory of the collective and the personal unconscious as formulated by Jung. In this case physical drought initiates events which lead to the development of a fully-fledged psychosis in Boet. As a consequence of the interconnection of the personal and the collective unconscious the physical drought surrounding Boet additionally becomes a dramatic metaphor for the figurative drought in the community of which he is part.

  6. Considerations and measures for determining the boundary values of a heat exchanger hot section; Ueberlegungen und Massnahmen zur Bestimmung der Randwerte eines Heissteilwaermeuebertragers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Graus, H.; Remmel, R. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Sulzbach (Germany). Werkstaetten Saar/Technische Dienste

    2000-07-01

    Adaptation of a heat exchanger hot section and its associated burner installation of a hot gas engine to be newly developed to the utilisation of regenerative energy sources. The task definition of the Deutsche Steinkohle AG was to adapt a heat exchanger hot section of a Stirling-engine with the associated burner installation to the use of alternative energy carriers. In order to do this, it was necessary to produce a suitable basic engine. The engine was to work initially on the basis of 20 kW electrical power. The various influences to which the Stirling engine is subjected in industrial use were also to be examined and described. Calculation methods are presented as a result of the work, which make it possible to design the highly stressed components (heat exchanger, crank mechanism, and housing) and to assess these in terms of safety. Also shown are a large number of problems in the machine environment and solutions are addressed. It appears that with the presented burner installation, it is also possible to process the most varying regenerative fuel gases for further utilisation on the Stirling-engine. This was verified by the commissioning of an industrial plant for utilisation of low-methane-containing marsh gas. (orig.) [German] Die Deutsche Steinkohle AG sollte einen Heissteilwaermetauscher eines Stirling-Motors mit der dazugehoerigen Brenneranlage and die Verwendung alternativer Energietraeger anpassen. Hierzu war es notwendig, einen geeigneten Grundmotor zu erstellen. Der Grundmotor sollte zunaechst auf einer Basis von 20 kW elektrischer Leistung arbeiten. Des weiteren sollten die verschiedenen Einfluesse denen der Stirling-Motor im industriellen Einsatz unterliegt, untersucht und beschrieben werden. Als ein Ergebnis der Arbeiten werden Berechnungsverfahren vorgestellt, die es ermoeglichen, die hochbelasteten Komponenten (Waermetauscher, Kurbeltrieb, Gehaeuse) konstruktiv auszulegen und sicherheitstechnisch zu bewerten. Des weiteren werden zahlreiche

  7. Die onkunde van die Jode en hulle verwerping van die evangelie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kontras uitgewys tussen die misdaad van die Jode en die doel van God wat in vers 18 uitgedruk word (Metzger ... ens (1978: 28) dat ons ons nie kan vrypleit deur ons te beroep op die verborge raad van God nie - ons ... volk mislei het deur hulle vir hulle eie doel teen Jesus te gebruik. SÓ gesien, kom Lukas 24: 20 tot sy reg, ...

  8. Development of technology for hot-drape forming of large torus sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Compound-contoured sheet metal structure development is aided by hot-drape forming, a method combining hot-stretch forming, die quenching, and age forming. It permits in-process control of material gage thin-out through a flexible process of heat zone control.

  9. Information and supporting work about low energy buildings and using renewable energy in the Altai-area in Russia. Final report; Beratungs- und Unterstuetzungsleistung fuer energiesparendes Bauen und die Nutzung der erneuerbaren Energien in der Altairegion Russlands. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, C.

    2002-03-01

    Gebaeude im Bestand sowie der Energieversorgungs- und Umweltprobleme in Westsibirien, speziell der Altairegion, verstaerkt sich das Interesse an energiesparendem Bauen und der Nutzung erneuerbarer Energie im Bauwesen. Das Zentrum fuer nichttraditionelle Energetik und Energieeinsparung (AREZ), Barnaul unter Leitung von Dr. Fedjanin nahm 1994 erste Kontakte zum Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE in Freiburg auf, um die Erfahrungen des Institutes beim energiebewussten Bauen unter Nutzung solarer Energietechniken fuer die Entwicklung des energiesparenden Bauens in Russland zu nutzen. Als erstes Projekt wurde die Errichtung eines experimentellen energiesparenden Demonstrationsgebaeudes nach dem Vorbild des Solarhauses Freiburg vorgesehen. Mit fachlicher Unterstuetzung des Fraunhofer ISE wurde das bauliche und haustechnische Konzept des Gebaeudes entwickelt und 1999 mit dem Bau begonnen. Leider konnte das Projekt im vorgesehenen Zeitraum nicht beendet werden, da von russischer Seite in den Jahren 2000 und 2001 die Mittel fuer die bauliche Fertigstellung des Gebaeudes nicht bereitgestellt wurden. Es ist jedoch vorgesehen, in diesem Jahr die baulichen Arbeiten fortzusetzen. Waehrend der gemeinsamen Projektbearbeitung fand ein intensiver wissenschaftlicher Austausch zu allen Fragen des energiesparenden Bauens zwischen dem Fraunhofer ISE und dem AREZ statt. Dabei wurden die Erfahrungen des Fraunhofer ISE bei der Erstellung der energetischen Versorgungskonzepte fuer Gebaeude mit niedrigem Energiebedarf sowohl anhand von verschiedenen Simulationsberechnungen als auch an gebauten Projekten vorgestellt. Durch die aktive wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit des AREZ und des Fraunhofer ISE in der Altairegion wurden Fortschritte hinsichtlich der Nutzung energiesparender Technologien erreicht. Um die Arbeiten auf diesem Gebiet weiter zu intensivieren ist es jedoch erforderlich, die bisher vorliegenden Kontakte zwischen dem Fraunhofer ISE und dem AREZ weiter auszubauen. (orig.)

  10. Die menslikheid van en die verskeidenheid in die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries van Aarde

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The human character of the church and diversity within the church. In the ecumenical symbols of catholic Christianity the church is described as one, holy, catholic and apostolic. These notions correlate with the manner in which the one and only God interacts with humankind, as reported in Scripture. Holiness does not presuppose that the church consists of people who assume themselves to be in a timeless and spaceless heavenly kingdom, but that it consists of human beings, in a right relationship with God, who existentially live the values of God's kingdom. Catholicity presupposes the diversity of the church with regard to humankind, time, locality and culture. The catholic church, however, finds its identity not in plurality, but in its unity which transcends all diversity. This unity is the work of God's Spirit, encompassing the multiple witnesses of the prociaimers of the Jesus-event by empowering people in various ways at different times and places and letting them confess multifariously that Jesus Christ is Lord.

  11. Die Heilige Gees en die prediking in die erediens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. de Klerk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Spirit and preaching in the service The question investigated in this article is how the Holy Spirit is present and active in the action of preaching, and what the result of this is. The Spirit edifies the message and establishes certainty within the preachers that the Spirit will create the right audience for the words of the message. Christ as the centre of preaching is accepted and obeyed by the congregation in its meeting with the Lord. Preaching should transfer the lines in the text via the content of Scripture to the human being of today. The congregation should apply the sermon to their concrete life situation through the exercising of the gift of prophecy. Preach- ing and prayer stands in a causal relationship to Scripture reading, because Scripture reading elicits preaching and prayer. Preaching as testimony elicits prayer as worship, and the prayer in turn elicits testimony. This causal and interactive relationship is living and powerful through the dynamic work of God the Holy Spirit, who effects communion between God and the congregation in Jesus Christ through these events.

  12. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  13. Die andersheid van Die verdwaalde land – die waarheid as storie vertel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hattingh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Die verdwaalde land was written by Abraham Phillips, a so-called Coloured man from a South African working class background; someone who has no knowledge of literary conventions. The question arises: how can such a text be read without its uniqueness being affected by biased preconceptions? This article shows that post-structurally inspired theories on colonial discourse reveal perspectives on the complexity within the simplicity of this story. In this analysis of Die verdwaalde land particular emphasis is placed on identifying the framing strategies through which images and presentations of the Self and Other are created. Literary conventions are exposed as mechanisms which demarcate meaning, which in principle do not differ much from the manipulative strategies which define identity in the real world.Irrespective of nationality and time the line at which light race meets dark is the line at which human sociality is found at the lowest ebb; and wherever that line conies into existence there arc found the darkest shadows which we humans have cast by our injustice and egoism across the earth. (Olive Schreiner - Thoughts on South Africa

  14. Dying with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Die effek van "oefening op verskillende tye van die dag" op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die effek van "oefening op verskillende tye van die dag" op die bloedglukosevlakke van Tipe 2 diabete. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home ... This paper reports on the effect of the time of the day of exercise on the blood glucose levels of Type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. die bou van die st aa tsartilleriekaserne, potgieterstraa t, pretoria: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die Republiek, op. 12.4.1877, het die korps verdwyn en het 'n Britse militere kamp sy verskyning aan die suidekant ... in 'n voormalige Britse militere kamp, aan Potgie- terstraat gehuisves, op dieselfde plek waar tans ... drilplein (zynde het hart van de Scheiding- straat), en met den achtergevel 200 voet uit de verlengde ...

  17. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cameron

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  18. Die konvensie van Sandrivier as die afsluiting van die Groot Trek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Xhosastropers en ander rowers bly; wantroue in die regering se verdraagsame en onrealistiese houding teenoor die grensstamme. Daar was wantroue in die regering se bereidwilligheid en vermoe om hulle te beskerm of hulle besittings te waarborg, wat onvoldoende troepe vir hulle verdediging beskikbaar gestel het, ...

  19. Numerical Studies of Low Cycle Fatigue in Forward Extrusion Dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ø

    2000-01-01

    Forward extrusion dies typically fail due to transverse fatigue cracks or wear. Fatigue cracks are initiated in regions where the material is subjected to repeated plastic deformations, e.g. the transition radius in a forward extrusion die, in the present work, a material model capable of describ...

  20. The Palliation of Dying: A Heideggerian Analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes with a discussion of how Heidegger's work can inspire a more authentic stance toward dying. Leo Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilych is referred to in order to illustrate Heidegger's construal of this existential struggle toward dying. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 5, Edition 1 April 2005 ...

  1. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  2. Die rol van die rekenaar by mondeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For many years language teachers regarded the microcomputer as merely a drill-andpractice machine. One of its main disadvantages seemed to be that it could only be used in certain areas of language teaching, and not ,for example, in oral work. In this paper it is argued that advances in hardware as well as software now make the microcomputer an all-rounder with regard to language teaching. Not only can the analogue sound storage facilities enhance listening comprehension practice but it can also be used for listening practice for different dialects. Advances in software development,for example simulation programmes, open new possibilities for oral group work. Data base programmes can also be used for gathering and organising information before oral work commences. It is emphasized in this paper that the microcomputer will not easily become a willing and able partner in real conversation. On the other hand, if one looks at the recent advances in educational technology, an electronic conversation partner may be part of the language teaching scenario sooner than anticipated by language teachers.

  3. The energy of the future. Fourth monitoring report on the energy turnaround. A good piece of work; Die Energie der Zukunft. Vierter Monitoring-Bericht zur Energiewende. Ein gutes Stueck Arbeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    Energy consumption has decreased by 4.7 percent compared to the year 2013 in the year, 2014. The relatively mild weather of 2014 was significant responsible. The energy consumption reached 13,132 petajoules the lowest level since 1990. The renewable energies are Germany's most important power source. The share of renewable energy in electricity consumption in the first half 2015 was for the first time more than 30 percent. In the expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector, Germany is on target. The amount of the EEG surcharge has stabilized. The average increase of the energy efficiency 2008-2014 was 1.6 percent lower than envisaged in the energy concept of the federal government of 2.1 percent. Here additional action is needed. The Federal Government has therefore bundled and enforced with the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan decided on December 3, 2014 to increase and to sthrengthend efficiency. Final energy consumption in transport was in 2014 approximately 1.7 percent higher than in 2005. In order to achieve the objective of reducing the final energy consumption by 10 percent compared to 2005, further efforts are needed. For the first time for over ten years electricity prices decreased at the beginning of 2015, for household customers. For industrial and commercial customers, which are not covered by an asset relief scheme, electricity prices in 2014 remained almost unchanged. The spot price of electricity is 2014 declined by 10 per cent and continued to decline in 2015. In 2014, Germany imported fossil fuels worth around 81 billion euros. In 2013 there were still 95 billion euros. The decline in import expenditure mainly due to lower raw material prices, but lower import volumes have also contributed. [German] Der Energieverbrauch ist im Jahr 2014 um 4,7 Prozent gegenueber dem Jahr 2013 zurueckgegangen. Die relativ milde Witterung des Jahres 2014 hatte daran einen bedeutenden Anteil. Der Energieverbrauch erreichte mit 13

  4. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  5. Die uitgebrande verskynsel in die moderne beroepsmens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.J. de Villiers

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available The author is of the opinion that the changes in the modern world have contributed to the development of the burn-out phenomenon. Burn-out is characterised by physical, emotional and spiritual exhaustion which affects a person’s working as well as personal life. Certain people are more susceptable than others, including dynamic personalities, those in the service professions, the modern woman and the middle-aged. At personal and management level there should be an awareness of the causes, signs and symptoms and consequences of burn-out. Once the problem is diagnosed steps can be taken to deal with it.

  6. Deducing material quality in cast and hot-forged steels by new bending test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Henry; Langøy, Morten; Nedreberg, Mette; Helvig, Torgeir

    2017-10-01

    A special bend test has been developed and applied for the purpose of characterization and comparison of the material ductility in crankpin steel discs manufactured by casting, or casting subsequently followed by hot open-die forging (ODF) or closed-die forging (CDF). The bending test specimen consists of a small rectangular plate of material with a round hole cut out in the middle. The "eye-shape" specimens were cut out from various positions either near to the surface of, or from the interior of the discs. The test method revealed differences in ductility for the investigated materials, and for different depth positions inside the discs. The roughening of the specimen surface on the top-side of the specimen bend also varied dependent on the processing method for the material. Current results show that this test method is useful for evaluation of material quality in differently processed material. Experimental bend test results are presented for differently processed variants of the same material, i.e., crankpin discs either made by solely casting or casting subsequently followed by hot working either by ODF or CDF.

  7. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  8. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. van der Merwe

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  9. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  10. DIE BETREKKING TUSSEN JESUS EN JOHANNES DIE DOPER Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Erange/ium des /oAannes, Gött. t lte AufL 1950. 3) Vgl. HEGEStPPUS by Eus. H. E. IV. 22. Dit word tans algemeen aange- neem dat die Mandeërs nie die direkte voortsetting van die Doperdissipels was nie. In 56 n.C. het Paulus hulle nog aangetref te Efese en was hulle skynbaar ook verteenwoordig in Alexandrië.

  11. oor die inhoud en boodskap van die heidelbergse kategismus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gesê word dié artikels handel oor God die Vader “en ons skepping”, oor. God die Seun “en ons verlossing” en oor God die Heilige Gees “en ons heiligmaking”. ...... Catechism, whose single pages cannot be paid for even with tons of gold.' The love for the Catechism will remain as long as there are people who seek their.

  12. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    -two"). PNe result from the death of comparatively light stars, similar to our Sun, while SNRs originate from the explosive death of heavier stars. The collision between the surrounding interstellar matter and that ejected by the dying star, accompanied by the intense radiation from the hot stellar remnant (white dwarf, neutron star) excites the gas and makes it shine brightly. But the radiation of young hot stars embedded in an interstellar cloud is also able to heat the surrounding gas, resulting in the apparition of another type of emission nebula, that shines mostly in the light of ionized hydrogen (H) atoms. Such nebulae are therefore often referred to as "HII regions". The well-known Orion Nebula is an outstanding example of that type of nebula, cf. ESO PR Photos 03a-c/01. Highly excited nebulae The hotter the central object of an emission nebula, whether a white dwarf, a neutron star or just a young star, the hotter and more excited will be the surrounding nebula. The word "excitation" refers to the degree of ionization of the nebular gas. The more energetic the impinging particles and radiation, the more electrons will be lost and higher is the degree of excitation. Only in the most excited nebulae is there enough ultraviolet energy to completely ionize the helium atoms. When these ions subsequently capture an electron, this process gives rise to the characteristic radiation of single ionized helium (HeII). A particularly useful way to trace the very highest excitation areas is thus to map the distribution of HeII by means of imaging or spectroscopic observations that are sensitive to the radiation from these helium ions, for example at a particular wavelength in blue light (468.6 nm). It is common to detect the presence of HeII in Planetary Nebulae around extremely hot white dwarf stars, but not in "normal" HII regions. However, a few otherwise seemingly normal HII regions reveal the characteristics of high excitation. One of them is located in our own Milky Way

  13. Hot water supply in ''Smart Home''. Decentralized supply, decentralized control; Warmwasserversorgung im 'Smart Home'. Dezentral versorgen, dezentral steuern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechers, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    The separation of the heating system and domestic hot water is already established in commercial and residential construction. The decentralized hot water supply offers environmental and economic benefits. In this paper it is shown that one can also do this in a detached house. [German] Die Trennung von Heizsystem und Warmwasserbereitung ist im Gewerbe- und Wohnungsbau bereits etabliert. Die dezentrale Warmwasserversorgung bietet oekologische und oekonomische Vorteile. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass man dies auch bei einem Einfamilienhaus durchfuehren kann.

  14. Die ontwerp van ʼn Afrikaanse taakgebaseerde rekenaaronderrig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Beginner Afrikaans Vlak 1 te illustreer. Die navorsing val binne twee breë vakgebiede, waarvan die eerste een die taakgebaseerde benadering tot leer en onderrig is en die tweede een rekenaargesteunde taalonderrig (RGTO). Taakgebaseerde leer en onderrig is ʼn onderrig- benadering waar die fokus van die studente op ...

  15. NORMERING IN DIE AFRIKAANSE RADIO- EN TELEVISIEDIENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van die jonger Anglisismes kan moontlik met sukses geweer word, byvoorbeeld soveel so dat... (in so 'n mate dat...), die aandele is minder duur (... is goedkoper), die partye ontaoet nekaar halfpad. (... kom mekaar tegemoet), rat race (trapmeul), red tape (rompslomp), die sewentigs (die sewentiger- jare, die jare sewentig), ...

  16. Simulation and analysis of hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarefdoust, M.; Kadkhodayan, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators is simulated and analyzed. An increase in demand of industrial locking gear elevators with better quality and lower price caused the machining process to be replaced by hot forging process. Production of industrial locking gear elevators by means of hot forging process is affected by many parameters such as billet temperature, geometry of die and geometry of pre-formatted billet. In this study the influences of billet temperature on effective plastic strain, radius of die corners on internal stress of billet and thickness of flash on required force of press are investigated by means of computer simulation. Three-dimensional modeling of initial material and die are performed by Solid Edge, while simulation and analysis of forging are performed by Super Forge. Based on the computer simulation the required dies are designed and the workpieces are formed. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data demonstrates great compatibility.

  17. Die noodsaak van kultuurdifferensiasie in die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Steyn

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the necessity of cultural differentiation in education. Following a brief introduction in which various viewpoints are compared and contrasted, he outlines the concepts of culture, education and educational system, following this by a discussion of the interaction between culture and the educational system. He further illuminates this by referring to a number of the modes of existence of educational systems. In the physical manifestation of an educational system three main components can be distinguished, viz. educational policy, educational administration and execution of education. After a close reasoning and explication of these points, he comes to the conclusion that the educational system also belongs to culture, in that the educational system is man's most comprehensive cultural product in the field of education and teaching. This leads to the second part of the article where close attention is paid to the links between culture and the aims of education, between culture and the cirriculum. He comes to the final conclusion then that cultural differentiation is essential in education. Each country with a multi-cultural society has to work hard, through research and honest reflection, to enrich and to refine the existing practices in education.

  18. Die Moosgesellschaften des Nationalparks Harz

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Die Auswertung der in den Jahren 2002–2007 erarbeiteten Vegetationsaufnahmen im Nationalpark Harz ergab ihre Einordnung in 77 unterschiedliche Moosgesellschaften. 17 Moosgesellschaften gehören zu den bedrohten Lebensgemeinschaften der Länder Niedersachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt, womit die Bedeutung des Nationalparks Harz für die Erhaltung und den Schutz der Moosflora des Harzes deutlich wird. The evaluation of vegetation mapping of moss-communities in the National Park Harz in 2002–2007 result...

  19. Die winder van Afrikaans III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit was ’n gelukkige gedagte om vir hierdie feeste as tema te kies: die wonder van Afrikaans. Inderdaad het daar ’n wonder gebeur — die geboorte van ’n nuwe taal. Maar ’n taal kan nie bestaan sonder dat daar ’n nasie is wat dit praat en skryf nie. Die geboorte van ’.n nuwe nasie is net so ’n wonder.

  20. Die Smart Library UB Hildesheim

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Ewald; Schrader, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Der Beitrag benennt die aufgrund überholter Gebäudetechnik erforderlichen Modernisierungsmaßnahmen auf der Grundlage netzbasierter Steuerungstechniken, umgesetzt im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts und in Zusammenarbeit mit Studierenden der Studiengänge "Umweltsicherung" und "Umweltwissenschaft und Naturschutz" der Universität Hildesheim und zwei mittelständischen Firmen. Ziel ist die Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und die Erhöhung der Lern- und Arbeitsqualität durch den Einsatz digit...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION FOR HOT ROLLING MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Pretorius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Production systems have undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Many companies have implemented new technologies such as flexible manufacturing systems. There is therefore a shift in focus to maintenance and the effective management thereof. Maintenance is a dynamic activity and is comprised of a large number of interacting variables. An effective maintenance organisation is required to control these variables .
    This paper discusses the building of a maintenance organisation and the aspects that should be considered during the design. The way in which five companies that operate hot rolling mills apptoached the problem of building an effective maintenance organisation was investigated.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: y eryaardigingstelsels het drastiese veranderinge ondergaan die afgelope aantal jaar. Verskeie Il1~atskappyemaak nou gebruik van nuwe tegnologiee, soas byvoorbeeld aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels. Daar is gevolglik 'n verskuiwing in fokus na instandhouding en die effektiewe bestuur daarvan. lnstandhouding is 'n dinamiese aktiwiteit en behels 'n groot aantal ' gekoppelde veranderlikes. 'n Effektiewe instandhoudingsorganisasie word benodig om hierdie v'eranderlikes te beheer.
    Hierdie artikel bespreek die daarstelling van die instandhoudingsorganisasie en die parameters V~toorweeg moet word tydens die ontwerp. Die wyse waarop vyf maatskappye wat }V~rIl1walse bedryf die ontwikkeling van 'neffektiewe organisasie vir instandhouding benader hc(is ondersoek .

  2. Osteoporose - die Sicht des Radiologen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grampp S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die frühe Diagnose der Osteoporose und eine akkurate Beurteilung von Behandlungserfolgen stehen im Mittelpunkt der radiologischen Bemühungen. Die häufigsten angewendeten Methoden, um das periphere Skelett sowie das Achsenskelett zu beurteilen, sind die Zwei-Spektren-Röntgenabsorptiometrie, die quantitative Computertomographie und der quantitative Ultraschall. Generell werden die Meßergebnisse eines Individuums mit einer alters-, geschlechts-, und rassenspezifischen Kontrollgruppe verglichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse ein Indikator des künftigen Frakturrisikos eines Patienten. Die radiologische Diagnose der Osteoporose kann durch die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse erfolgen, auch wenn keine prävalenten Frakturen vorliegen. Das Frakturrisiko für den Meßwert eines Individuums steigt um etwa das 1,5 bis 2,5-fache für jede Standardabweichung (SD unter der Spitzenknochenmasse der Normbevölkerung (T-score. Die Wahl des Meßortes und der Untersuchungstechnik zur Bestimmung der Knochenmasse oder des Frakturrisikos muß sich nach individuellen Gegebenheiten des Patienten sowie den Stärken und Limitationen der Techniken richten.

  3. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Johan J.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal-holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  4. A Comparison of the Plastic-Flow Response of a Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy Under Nominally-Isothermal and Transient-Heating Hot-Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Mahaffey, D. W.; Tung, D. J.; Zhang, W.; Senkov, O. N.

    2017-04-01

    The flow-stress behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder-metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient-heating conditions. Two conventional methods, compression of right-circular cylinders and torsion of thin-walled tubes, were used for isothermal tests. A direct-resistance-heating technique utilizing torsion of round-bar specimens in a Gleeble® machine was applied for both isothermal and transient-heating conditions. When expressed in terms of effective stress and strain, baseline data determined by the two conventional methods showed good agreement. With the aid of a flow-localization analysis to assess the confounding influence of axial (and radial) temperature gradients on deformation uniformity, the flow stresses determined from nominally-isothermal Gleeble® torsion tests were shown to be broadly similar to those from the conventional tests. With regard to transient phenomena, Gleeble® tests were also useful in quantifying the effect of rapid heating and short soak time on the observed higher flow stress associated with a metastable microstructure. The present work also introduces two new test techniques using direct-resistance-heated torsion specimens. One involves continuous heating under constant-torque conditions, and the other comprises testing an individual specimen at a series of temperatures and strain rates. Using a single specimen, the former method enabled the determination of the apparent activation energy for plastic flow, which was similar to that determined from the series of isothermal tests; the latter provided a low-cost, high-throughput approach to quantify the flow behavior.

  5. 1/38 GEBEURLIKHEDE EN DIE BEWYSLAS IN DIE DELIKTUELE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    Gebeurlikhede1 in die deliktuele skadevergoedingsreg2 kan omskryf word as onsekere3 omstandighede4 van positiewe of negatiewe aard wat, onafhanklik van die verweerder se optrede5 en indien dit sou realiseer,6 waarskynlik7 'n persoon se gesondheid, inkomste, verdienvermoë, lewenskwaliteit, lewens- verwagting ...

  6. BOEKBESPREKING. Djakarta 1954, 103 blz. Die boeke oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    hierdie ,,Inleidings”-van-grotereromvang, is dat hulle eintlik monografië oor inleidingsvraagstukke (bv. Uitgangspunt, Grondslae, Gesindheid,. Oordeel, Handeling, Wet van God e.s.m.) gee. Die beginner vind hier weinig oriëntering, omdat 'n sodanige „Inleiding” alreeds 'n aansienlike vordering op die weg van Teologie en ...

  7. Die WAT en etimologie: Word die kringloop voltooi?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The WAT and etymology: Will the cycle be completed? Afrikaans historical lexicography is a neglected discipline and to a large extent metalexicographers hold the overall-descriptive Afrikaans dictionary, Die Woordeboek van die Ajri1cJumse Taal, responsible for this state of affairs. The WAT, however, describes ...

  8. Die vlugtige taal van vergeet: Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From his first book of poetry, die ysterkoei moet sweet (“the iron cow must sweat”, 1964), till his most recent one, die windvanger (“the windcatcher”, 2007), metaphor has been a central means towards the creation of meaning for Breytenbach. This article will investigate the use of metaphor particularly in this recent book.

  9. Die indianische Moderne : mit Traditionen die Zukunft gestalten

    OpenAIRE

    Behrend, Olaf; Carstensen, Christian; Kammler, Henry; Schlottner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Können sich die indianischen Kulturen Nordamerikas im 21. Jahrhundert anders behaupten als nur in der Pflege von Folklore? Wie können Stammesangehörige mit den überlieferten Kenntnissen umgehen und damit ihr Leben in der modernen amerikanischen Gesellschaft gestalten? Wie bestehen Kulturen, die nur knapp der Ausrottung entgangen sind, als Minderheiten im eigenen Land?

  10. die assimilasie van lidmate in die plaaslike geloofsgemeenskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13 Sep 2010 ... dui dus op 'n verskeidenheid formele en informele prosesse wat mense in staat stel om deel te word van die geloofsgemeenskap (Dudley 1998:114). Wanneer 'n geloofsgemeenskap 'n missionale identiteit ontdek, is groei die uitkoms (Basson 2006:37). Groei kan egter nie doeltreffend plaasvind as daar ...

  11. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...

  12. Demistifikasie van die metafoor “die kerk as bruid”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    5 Sep 2007 ... Boston, MA: Beacon. Barth, K 1939-67. Die kirchliche Dogmatik, 4. Zollikon: Evangelicher Verlag. Barth, K 1958. Die kirchliche Dogmatik, 2. Zollikon: Evangelischer Verlag. Batey, R 1961. The church, the bride of Christ. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. Baumann, G 2003. Love and violence: Marriage as ...

  13. Die rol van moreel in die militêre konflik

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Die rol van moreel in die militêre konflik.

  14. Die onderwysmanifes oor waardes en demokrasie in die onderwys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    28 Aug 2001 ... In die verband stel John Locke dit dat die mens 'n reg het op lewe, vry- heid, gesondheid, en besittings en dat ander hierdie regte moet respek- teer. As ons aanvaar dat sekere regte met menswees gegee is, dan vloei dit voort dat sodanige regte. • natuurlik is (met menswees gegee) in sover as wat hulle ...

  15. die museum se rolin die aankweek van 'n omgewingsbewustheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIE MUSEUM SE ROLIN DIE AANKWEEK VAN 'N. OMGEWINGSBEWUSTHEID. Martie van der Merwe. THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS. The aim of this paper is to stress the importance and urgency of educating about the environment in the South African context.

  16. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    , „Want Herodes vreesde Johannes' . Die griekse woord wat hier vertaal word as „bang wees", beteken ook iets anders, ^melik ,,om ontsag te hê" soos byvoorbeeld in Ef. 5 :33 en Lev. 19:3 (Septuaginta) Die sinsverband vra in hierdie teks ook.

  17. Die totstandkoming en bedrywighede van die ASAF-koor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Komposisies soos Elia van Mendelssohn, die Requiems van Mozart en Verdi, Beethoven se Negende Simfonie, Bach se Mattheuspassie en Händel se Messias was deel van hulle repertorium. Koorsang is ook deur Keet in ander sentrums aan die Witwatersrand aangemoedig. Danie van den Heever het Keet in 1963 as ...

  18. Die teologiese eie-aardigheid van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christus leeft in mij, en daartoe prediken wij de heden ten dage levende persoonlijkheid van Christus, niet alleen den historischen. Christus, die 1900 jaar geleden op aarde gewandeld heeft, maar Jezus. Christus, die nu nog elken dag naast ons staat.... Deze persoonlijke verhouding tot omgang met Jezus Christus komt tot ...

  19. Verkondig Christus totdat hy kom! Die huidige denke binne die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verkondig Christus totdat hy kom! Die huidige denke binne die Evangeliese Beweging. J J Kritzinger. Universiteit van Pretoria. Abstract. World evangelisation within the Lausanne movement. This article considers a number of key themes regarding world evangelisation. The point of departure is the second general ...

  20. die suid-afrikaanse blanke jeug in die tweede vryheidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blik gekondenseerde melk. "Undesirables" (B-skaal per dag). ~ Ib vars vleis. ~ Ib meel, rys of gestampte mielies. ~ ons koffie. 1 ons suiker. 1 ons sout. ,Je blik gekondenseerde melk19. Uit die bogenoemde rantsoenskale is dit duide- lik dat daar nie noodsaaklike voedsels soos groente, vrugte of vars melk verskaf is nie. Die.

  1. 'n Algoritme vir die minimum van die konkawe knapsakprobleem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Algoritme vir die minimum van die konkawe knapsakprobleem. G Venter∗. JS Wolvaardt†. Ontvang: 15 Januarie 1999; Hersien: 3 Desember 2004; Aanvaar: 27 Maart 2005. Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation among activities where the cost of each is described by a concave function.

  2. Bullinger en die verbond na aanleiding van die Tweede Switserse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    novum testamentum zusammengefast und durch seinen Tod vol- lendet oder ratifiziert hat ... Die botschaft der Evangelien ist es gerade, Christum leseum aliud nihil esse quam aetemi foederis aeternum obsidem atque misericordiae et veritatis Dei testem'. (Koch 1968: 399). Hiermee het duidelik geword dat Bullinger die ...

  3. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voudige daad, woord of gedagte nie, maar beskuldig ons dat ons ons hele lewe op die basis van hoogmoed voer en ons van begin tot end uit hierdie bodem voed. Die Woord beskuldig ons dat ons oral en altyd daaraan skuldig is, dat ons op God se genade nie met ooreenstemmende dankbaarheid nie, maar in een of.

  4. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  5. Die wortels en kenmerke van die tradisionele Afrikaanse lewenstyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coetzee

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In ons tydsgewrig kan dit moontlik vreemd opklink om by 'n akademiese fees te begin met ’n verwysing na ’n Bybelwoord, maar hier, vandág, waar ons die honderdste bestaansja a r feestelik gedenk van 'n hoëronderwysinrigting wat onbevange in sy naamvaandel die stempel „Christelik” dra, sal dit niemand verbaas as ek my reiaas vanmore plaas onder ’n Bybelteks nie: Matt. 7:16 — ... ’n Mens pluk tog nie druiwe van dorings of vye van distels nie? Matt. 12:33 — Julie moet of die boom goed maak en sy vrugte goed, of julle moet die boom sleg maak en sy vrugte sleg; want aan sy vrugte word die boom geken.

  6. Pylstertmotte (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. van den Berg

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available 'n Totaal van 42 spesies van pylstertmotte is in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin versamel. Die bekendste hiervan is die patatrusper (Herse convolvuli (L en die dood-skedelmot (Acherontia atropos (L. Die volgende spesies wat versamel is, se voorkoms is nog nie voorheen vir die Republiek van Suid-Afrika aangemeld nie nl. Pemba flavillacea (Walk., Praedora plagiata (R. &J., Leptoclanis basalis (Walk., Polyptychus calcareus (R. &J., Polyptychus compar (R. &J., Nephele aequivalens (Walk., Nephele peneus (Cram., Hippotion roseipennis (Butler en Xenosphingia jansei (Jord.. Die verspreiding van Oligographa juniperi (Bsd. wat langs die kusgebiede van Natal en die Oos-Kaap aangetrefword, is op verskeie plekke in die Krugerwildtuin versamel.

  7. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  8. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  9. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  10. D r. E. S. M ulder, Die Teologie van die Jesaja-apokalipse (Jes.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    In 26:15 is dit nogal gewaag om die vier perfecta met vier futurums weer te gee; as mens met die Afrikaanse vertaling die perfecta wil behou nie, sou 'n praesens- vertaling die regte wees. Of 26:20 die weergawe „vervloeking” beter is as die gebruiklike „toorn” lyk my baie twyfelagtig, vgl. die aan gehaalde parallelle op bl.

  11. Die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A) aan die Universiteit van Pretoria; Vrae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dié opsig het die vestiging en onderhoud van die Fakulteit ryke vrugte afgewerp. Oor die 75 jaar is meer as 500 predikante aan die kerk gelewer en het 56 die dokto- rale studie voltooi. Onder die genoemde 12 predikante van 1917 was daar twee wat die doktorale eksamen afgelê het (Van Belkum en Fourie) maar geen ...

  12. Dying and 'euthanasia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, S R

    1992-07-01

    Medical progress, secularisation of life, growing acceptance of individual human rights (including the right to refuse medical treatment) and of shared decision-making in medicine have focused public attention on the ways in which life may, and perhaps even ought to, be allowed to end in our complex modern era. Intense and thoughtful bio-ethical debate over many years has 'unpacked' the many different understandings and interpretations of the word euthanasia. The consequent conceptual clarification together with recognition and acknowledgement of psychological implications has facilitated a growing rational consensus on openly accepting the withholding and withdrawing of treatment (under defined conditions) within the realm of sound medical practice. This is clearly distinct from assisted suicide and active euthanasia which are generally considered unacceptable perversions of medical practice. Given the ability to sustain life for prolonged periods, often in a permanent state of unconsciousness, the unrealistic expectations of some medical personnel and the lay public, the severe constraints on health care facilities in South Africa and the totally inadequate allocation of resources for highly effective medical treatments, it is appropriate to re-open public debate on the limits of 'striving officiously to keep alive' and on the distinction between 'allowing to die' and 'killing'. Concern that 'rational' arguments reflect moral decay rather than moral progress keeps the debate open and focuses attention on some 'slippery slope' consequences.

  13. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  14. Electric steering; Die elektrische Lenkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Modern industrial trucks already have a large number of electronic systems. With electric steering systems, all steering systems have electronic interfaces, which will influence the safety, functionality and cost of a vehicle. Optimization of the driver workplace, the installation of active safety systems, and the optimization of the failure characteristics can improve passive and active safety. With electronic interfaces to all vehicle control system, the truck can be integrated easily in automatic transport processes. Finally, the simplified interfaces in the vehicle will reduce the overall cost. Failure management is an indispensable precondition for the introduction of electric steering systems, as are correct specifications. A status report is presented. [German] Eine Vielzahl von Systemen sind im modernen schweren Nutzfahrzeug bereits elektronisch (by Wire) realisiert. Mit der elektrischen Lenkung sind saemtliche Systeme zur Laengs- und Querregelung des Fahrzeuges mit elektronischen Schnittstellen versehen. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Sicherheit, die Funktionalitaet und die Kosten des Gesamtfahrzeuges. Durch Optimierung des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes, Einfuehrung aktiver Sicherheitssysteme und Optimierung des Ausfallverhaltens koennen die passive wie aktive Sicherheit des Fahrzeuges verbessert werden. Mit den elektronischen Schnittstellen zu allen Fahrzeugfuehrungssystemen kann das Nutzfahrzeug in hervorragender Weise in automatisierte Transportaufgaben integriert werden. Schliesslich lassen sich durch die vereinfachten Schnittstellen im Fahrzeug Kosten im Gesamtfahrzeug reduzieren. Die Beherrschung des Ausfallverhaltens ist aber ebenso wie eine angepasste Vorschriftenlage Voraussetzung fuer die Einfuehrung der elektrischen Lenkung. Ueber den Stand der Entwicklung wird berichtet. (orig.)

  15. Noodgevalle ID die Mediese Praktyk*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20 Jan 1973 ... pasient-geneesheer kontak, om deur soortgelyke hipo- tetiese drilprosedures te gaan? Om jouself moontlikc praktiese situasies voor te skilder, foute en tekortkoming~ in jou kennis op te spoor, en die leemtes aan te vul? 'n Paar willekeurige voorbeelde kan genoem word: I. 'n long man le in die straat met 'n ...

  16. DIE KERKLIKE STIMULASIE VAN EIETYDSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22 Nov 2010 ... and far-reaching possibilities within the industrial environment. INLEIDING. In die eerste artikel is as medewerker .... 1969, 1975) inspireer die Pan African Christian Leadership. Assembly (PACLA) in Nairobi (tydens 1976), ..... 1983, 'The process of contextualization and its limits', Verbum SVD 24, 163–171.

  17. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  18. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  19. OPMERKINGS OOR DIE MOONTLIKE HERSIENING VAN ONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    niks in hulle liturgie opneem wat nie vervat is in die geloofsbelydenis en wat nie bekend is uit die Kategismus nie. In hierdie sin is die reforma- toriese Kerk gekant teen „nuwighede” , d.w.s. teen die invoering van dinge wat nie bekend is uit die Kategismus van die Kerk nie. Daarom is die drie groot vaste liturgiese stukke van ...

  20. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  1. Die betekenis wat kommunikasiekunde vir die prediking kan hê

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Fourie

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Kommunikasiekunde is een van die jongste wetenskappe wat in die area van geesteswetenskappe ontstaan het. Dit is ’n vak wat eintlik ontstaan het uit die samevoeging van verskeie vertakkings wat vandag almal as onderafdelings van die Kommunikasiekunde beskou word. Die heel oudste hiervan is die retoriek soos dit al van voor Christus af deur die Grieke geleer is. In die meer resente verlede was Joernalistiek meer as dikwels die voorloper van huidige kommunikasiekunde-departement gewees.

  2. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  3. Die verband tussen angs en prestasie in takseer sentrumdimensies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Ehlers

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between anxiety and performance in assessment centre dimensions. This study is aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between Anxiety (Tension and Anxiety, as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and performance in assessment centre dimensions. The data set was collected from 145 white male candidates on entry and middle management level in an auditing firm in Gauteng. Ages of candidates varied from 24 to 35 years (x = 27,52; sd = 6,33. By using regression analyses it was found that Tension and Anxiety mainly show a negative relationship with the so-called interpersonal behaviour dimensions, such as Perseverance, Eogical and persuasive reasoning ability, and Perceived leadership image. The multiple analyses of variance (MANOVAS for the low, middle and high tension groups and low, middle and high anxiety groups revealed no statistically significant differences in respect of the assessment centre dimensions as a whole. Implications of the findings are discussed in the article. Opsomming Hierdie studie is daarop toegespits om vas te stel of daar 'n verband tussen Angs (Spanning en Angstigheid, soos deur die Sestien-persoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys gemeet, en prestasie in takseersentrumdimensies bestaan. Data is ingesamel van 145 blanke manlike kandidate op toetrede- en middelbestuursvlak in 'n ouditeursfirma in Gauteng. Ouderdomme van kandidate het gewissel van 24 to 35 jaar (x = 27,52; s = 6,33. Daar is deur middel van regressieontledings bevind dat Spanning en Angstigheid hoofsaaklik 'n negatiewe verband met die sogenaamde interpersoonlike gedragsdimensies, byvoorbeeld Deursettingsverrnoe, Eogiese en oorredende redenasievermoe en Waargeiwme leierskapsbeeld toon. Meervoudige variansieontledings (MANOVAS vir die lae, gemiddelde en hoe spanningsgroepe en die lae, gemiddelde en hoe angstigheidsgroepe hot gcen statisties-beduidende verskille ten opsigte van die takseersentrumdimensies in die geheel

  4. die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die nuwe testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    na die Evangelies gekyk het, dink jy vir altyd anders oor hulle tot- standkoming. Inderdaad, nuwe metodes ... het nie hierdie twee benaderings gekies omdat ek dink dat dit die beste beskikbare leesstrategieë is ...... Family of the King: dynamics of metaphor in the Gospel according to John. Leiden/. Boston: Brill. VAN ZYL H C.

  5. Die toepassing van die Q-metode van die NIPN vir poswaardering by kooperasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barnard

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Q-method of job evaluation in 13 small, medium and big co-operatives, is discussed. Specific attention is given to the purpose and method of investigation; the findings and recommendations made to the various boards of directors as well as the specific problems encountered in the application of the Q-method and the establishment of an integrated salary structure. Differences between the three categories of cooperatives regarding pay curves, the under or over payment of comparable job grades etc., are discussed.OpsommingDie toepassing van die Q-metode van poswaardering by 13 koöperasies, bestaande uit klein, middelslag en groot koöperasies, word bespreek. Aandag word veral aan die doel en metode van ondersoek gewy. Verder word bevindinge en aanbevelings aan die verskillende direksies bespreek rakende spesifieke probleme wat ervaar is met betrekking tot die toepassing van die Q-metode en die koppeling van posgrade met salarisskale. Verskille tussen die drie kategorieë koöperasies ten opsigte van salariskurwes, oor- of onderbetaling van vergelykbare posgrade, ens. word aangedui.

  6. Reformasie: John Knox, Die Skotse Calvinis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. d'Assonville

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available As ons aan John Knox, die Skotse Hervormer, dink, dan sien ons voor ons oprys die beeld van die Ou-Testamentiese profeet wat sy stem in die woestyn verhef en gekleed gaan met ’n harige mantel en ’n leergord om sy heupe. John Knox het die byl aan die wortel van elke afgodsboom gelê. Soos ’n Luther het hy in die taal van die volk gespreek en daar was by hom geen vrees om selfs in paleise die oordeel van God oor konings aan te kondig nie.

  7. Die sielkundige kontrak: Wedersydse verwagtings tydens die aanvangsfase van militêr-akademiese studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Beukes

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract: Mutual expectations during the join-up phase of military-academical studies. In order to determine the expectations of both the potential students of the Military Academy and the Military Academy itself, Kotter's expectation questionnaire was completed on 66 first year students and staff members of the Military Academy. Significant differences were found between the expectations of the students and the expectations of the organisation (as represented by those as staff members. The results also indicated significant differences between students with high expectations and those with low expectations in respect of work satisfaction and career expectations. Opsomming Ten einde voornemende militêre studente en die Militêre Akademie se verwagtings te bepaal, is 'n verwagtingsvraelys van Kotter op 66 eerstejaarstudente en staflede, verbonde aan die Militêre Akademie, geadministreer. Dit blyk uit die ondersoek dat beduidende verskille tussen studente se verwagtings en die organisasie se verwagtings (soos beliggaam in die van staflede bestaan en dat daar beduidende verskille tussen studente met hoe verwagtings en studente met lae verwagtings ten opsigte van werkstevredenheid en loopbaanverwagtings bestaan.

  8. A. VAN SELMS. LUKAS SE SEGSMAN VIR DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    wek dit die gewaarwording by die leser dat een van die Emmaüsgangers. -self hierdie geskiedenis aan die skrywer van die derde Evangelie vertel het. Hierdie gewaarwording van die onmiddellikheid van die oorlewe- ring berus op verskillende gronde. Die eerste is die merkwaardige palestynse kleur van die geskiedenis ...

  9. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  10. KAAPSE PREDIKANTE VAN DIE SEWENTIENDE EN AGTIENDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    'n vark en 'n buffel geslag is/). Later het dit egter beter geword, veral nadat die Klassis Amster dam in Maart 1621 'n liggaam in die lewe geroep het wat bekend gestaan het onder die naam van Depufai: ad. /nJ:*cas wat onder toesig van die Klassis die Indiese kerksake moes behartig. Hierdie ou sieketroosters het, wat ook ...

  11. pastorale begeleiding aan die persoon met dissosiatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although dissociative identity disorder is described as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV, there are still unresolved issues regarding the .... dat dit die sensasie van die media aangryp;. • dat dit 'n gewilde onderwerp van bespreking op die ..... misleiding van die slang (Satan). Die mens was aan God ongehoorsaam en het sy ...

  12. Die ontwikkeling van 'n groeiende bevrydingsbediening: 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die gegewens dui daarop dat hierdie bediening in die meeste kerklike denominasies sowel as deur sommige medici en ander professionele verwante gesondheidsvakkundiges beoefen word. Die noodsaaklikheid daarvan om die resultaat van die ondersoek in teorievorming te benut, word aangedui. (Acta Theologica, 21 ...

  13. Die Klein Begin 1916−1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Oberholzer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die opleiding neem ‘n aanvang met een kerklike dosent, J.H.J.A. Greyventein, en ‘n aantal universiteitsdosente. Die studentetal groei stadig. Die vertrek van professor Paterson en die koms van S.P. Engelbrecht in 1921 bring ‘n belangrike wending. Wanneer B. Gemser in 1926 toetree, is daar drie dosente wat tegelyk ampsdraers van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk is. Gemser is dosent in Teologie sowel as in Lettere en Wysbegeerte waar hy begin met die vestiging van ‘n sterk departement Semitiese Tale. Engelbrecht se kundigheid omvat Kerkgeskiedenis sowel as ‘n unieke kennis van die Voortrekker- en ou Tansvaalse geskiedenis en dit kom die Departement Geskiedenis ten goede. Die akademiese gehalte van die opleiding neem toe, en so ook die studentetal. ‘n Bedreiging vir die voortbestaan van die Fakulteit teologie is afgeweer deur die tydige optrede van S.P. Engelbrecht en die tussenkoms van die Eerste Minister. Die selfstandigwording van die Universiteit van Pretoria en die Afrikaanswording van die Universiteit bring ‘n veranderde konteks.

  14. Die kliniese kindersielkundige as diagnostikus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strümpfer

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die benaming „Kliniese Kindersielkunde” is nog onbekend en gevolglik betreklik onbemind. Dit is in 1951 die eerste keer gebruik. Die werk van die Kliniese Kindersielkunde is egter so oud as die werk van die algemene Kliniese Sielkunde, waarvan die geskiedenis gewoonlik teruggevoer word tot die begin van sielkundige toetsing vroeg in die tagtigerjare. Tot ’n aansienlike mate is hierdie vroeë werk op kinders uitgevoer, bv. dié van Galton en later die van Binet en Simon. Witmer het in 1896 die eerste sielkundige kliniek geopen en het ook die term „Kliniese Sielkunde” ingevoer; die meerderheid van sy pasiënte was egter ook kinders. Tot voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was klinies-sielkundige werk hoofsaaklik op kinders toegespits. Sedertdien het die kliniese sielkundige tot ’n belangrike mate toegetree tot die gebied van die diagnose en terapie van psigiese afwykings by volwassenes, tot so ’n mate dat in die gedagtes en geskrifte van baie werkers die terrein van die Kliniese Sielkunde byna tot werk met volwassenes beperk word.

  15. Die wêreld en ons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Kruger

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die jaar 1949 het Sowjet-Rusland twee groot suksesse behaal, n.l. die oorwinning van die Komniunisnie in China en die vervaardiging van die atoombom, albei gebeurtenisse wat vir sy westerse teenstanders ’n groot ontngtering was.

  16. ’n Ondersoek na die bronne van werkstevredenheid en werkstres onder middelvlakbestuurders in die Wes-Kaap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Strydom

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the study is to investigate the different attitudes and perceptions of middle level managers with regard to sources of job satisfaction, sources which contribute to job dissatisfaction, and to job stress. In this regard it was decided to make use of triangulation by which qualitative and quantitative research methods are used. Thematic analysis is used on the qualitative level to identify the possible sources of job satisfaction, dissatisfaction and job stress. This method is quantitatively supported by a determination of the frequencies and percentages of subject responses by means of semi structured interviews. On the qualitative level it was found that the experience of success is rated as the most important source of job satisfaction and that interpersonal relationships are the most significant source of job dissatisfaction. Finally it seems that work expectations/ demands appear to be the major source of job stress. Opsomming Die algemene doelstelling van die studie is om ondersoek in te stel na die verskillende houdings en persepsies van middelvlak-bestuurders rakende werkstevredenheid, sowel as die bronne wat bydra tot werkstres en werksontevredenheid. In dié verband is besluit om van triangulasie gebruik te maak. Op die kwalitatiewe vlak word tematiese analise gebruik om potensiële bronne van werkstevredenheid, ontevredenheid en werkstres te identifiseer. Hierdie metode word verder kwantitatief ondersteun deur ‘n bepaling van frekwensies en persentasies van subjekte se reponse wat uit semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude verkry is. Op die kwalitatiewe vlak blyk dit dat die ervaring van sukses die grootste bron van werkstevredenheid is en dat interpersoonlike verhoudings die bron is wat die meeste bydra tot ontevredenheid. Verder blyk dit dat werksverwagtinge/-eise die grootste bron van werkstres is.

  17. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  18. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  19. GUEST LECTURES Die Koue Oorlog: Die Wereid se Langste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were able to bring about, kept the world on the brink of war, a nuclear war that was gener- ally believed would be the ... nuclear physicist Bernard Baruch when he referred to the fact that we are in the midst of a cold war.2. In that same .... "its fusion of imperialist motive and anti-communist ideology"9. Die Nuwe Realisme: die ...

  20. Sintaksis in Duits-onderrig: die plasing van die onderwerp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn, E.C.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of strong similarities between German and Afrikaans syntax, there are also considerable differences, such as the positioning of the subject, which frequently appears much later in German sentences than in Afrikaans. This is evident, for example, in the comparison of a few parallel texts. An empirical investigation showed that the defennent of the subject undeniably creates problems for Afrikaans speaking students learning German. They find sentences with a deferred subject difficult to understand and find it even more difficult to construct their own sentences in this way. A few practical suggestions for teaching methods aimed at resolving these difficulties are presented here. Ten spyte van sterk ooreenkomste tussen die Duitse en Afrikaanse sintaksis bestaan daar ook wesenlike verskille, soos bv. ten opsigte van die plasing van die onderwerp, wat in Duitse sinskonstruksies dikwels later verskyn as in Ajrikaans. Dit blyk onder andere uit die vergelyking van 'n paar parallelle tekste. 'n Empiriese ondersoek het getoon dat hierdie vertraging van die onderwerp vir Afrikaanssprekendes wat Duits leer, heelwat probleme skep. Hulle vind dit moeilik om sinne met 'n vertraagde onderwerp te verstaan en nfJg moeiliker om self sulke sinne te konstrueer. Enkele praktiese wenke word aan die hand gedoen om hierdie probleme deur doelgerigte onderrig te bekamp.

  1. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  2. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  3. Hot Superplastic Powder Forging for Transparent nanocrystalline Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, W. Roger

    2006-05-22

    The program explored a completely new, economical method of manufacturing nanocrystalline ceramics, Hot Superplastic Powder Forging (HSPF). The goal of the work was the development of nanocrystalline/low porosity optically transparent zirconia/alumina. The high optical transparency should result from lack of grain boundary scattering since grains will be smaller than one tenth the wavelength of light and from elimination of porosity. An important technological potential for this process is manufacturing of envelopes for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The technique for fabricating monolithic nanocrystalline material does not begin with powder whose particle diameter is <100 nm as is commonly done. Instead it begins with powder whose particle diameter is on the order of 10-100 microns but contains nanocrystalline crystallites <<100 nm. Spherical particles are quenched from a melt and heat treated to achieve the desired microstructure. Under a moderate pressure within a die or a mold at temperatures of 1100C to 1300C densification is by plastic flow of superplastic particles. A nanocrystalline microstructure results, though some features are greater than 100nm. It was found, for instance, that in the fully dense Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic specimens that a bicontinuous microstructure exists containing <100 nm ZrO2 particles in a matrix of Al2O3 grains extending over 1-2 microns. Crystallization, growth, phase development and creep during hot pressing and forging were studied for several compositions and so provided some details on development of polycrystalline microstructure from heating quenched ceramics.

  4. die ontwikkeling van die menslike bewussyn ken wilber se aqal-teorie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sosiale sisteem'. Die eksterne individuele kwadrant (die eksterne enkelvoud) verteenwoordig die uiterlike fisieke ontwikkeling van die individu. Navorsers en teoretici in dié kwadrant is BF Skinner, John Watson, John Locke, en.

  5. Personeelbestuur as toepassingsgebied van die bedryfsielkunde met verwysing na die implikasies wat dit inhou vir die arbeidsituasie in Siud-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. De Villiers

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Psycho logy is a relatively young discipline. In recent years, however, it has been characterised by accelerated development and today covers various areas of application. The most rapid progress in this respect was perhaps experienced in the field of personnel management. Personnel management can be defined as the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organisational goals. In the past some personnel departments rendered merely screening services which included little more than preliminary interviews of applicants, wage and salary administration and other routine administrative work. Personnel management has, however, undergone drastic changes in which the trend has been clearly towards broader and more important assignments. From narrowly prescribed chores, its responsibilities have grown wider and deeper. The personnel manager of the modern organisation is undisputably a participant in top management, where he provides leadership in developing policies and programmes for manpower management.Opsomming Wetenskaplike personeelbestuur kan gedefinieer word as die beplanning, organisasie, rigtinggewing en kontrole van die voorsiening, ontwikkeling, vergoeding, integrasie en instandhouding van personeel om sodoende 'n bydrae tot organisasiedoelbereiking te lewer. Waar die vroegste "personeeldepartemente" hul hoofsaaklik bemoei het met aktiwiteite soos rekrutering en keuring van werkers, loon- en salarisadministrasie en ander roetine en administratiewe take, het daar in die laaste aantal jare drastiese veranderinge na vore gekom. Die personeeldepartement het tans heelwat meer komplekse take van 'n bestuurs- en uitvoerende aard. Die senior personeelamptenaar is dan ook tans deel van die topbestuur van die onderneming waar hy leiding gee in die ontwikkeling van beleid en programme vir doeltreffende

  6. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ehlers

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  7. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  8. P J Hoedemaker: 'Wat ék bedoel, is die behoud van die kerk'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit bly egter die moeite werd om die passie wat uit die lewe van hierdie man vir die kerk van Christus gestraal het, na te vors. Die laaste 20 jaar van die vorige eeu was 'n besonder gespanne tyd in. Nederland, in die Nederlandse kerkgeskiedenis en veral in die Nederlandse. Hervormde Kerk. 1 S S H m X 9 iC n -H T S 16/4 ...

  9. Die teilchen-macher

    CERN Multimedia

    Grosse, Angela

    2006-01-01

    10'000 people from 85 countries work in the biggest research center in the world for particle physics, near Geneva. They want to find some of the greatest mysteries of physics. There is no precise hierarchy, only the purpose counts. (2 pages)

  10. DIE SLEUTEL VAN JERUSALEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article below, dealing with the role of the South African Artillery in the capture of Nebi. Samwll (8 km northwest of Jerusalem) during World War 2, is but a short extract from a much more comprehensive work on the SA artillery that is being undertaken by the Military Information. Bureau, Pretoria. One of the burning ...

  11. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  12. Einfaches Ortungssystem fuer die Schallemissionspruefung

    OpenAIRE

    Greiff, R.

    1982-01-01

    Zur Ortung von Schallemissionssignalen, auch in dicken Koerpern und ohne Kenntnis der Schallgeschwindigkeit, werden an dem Koerper eine Anzahl von Schallaufnehmern in offener, vorzugsweise linearer Anordnung und/oder in geschlossener, vorzugsweise kreisfoermiger Anordnung befestigt und die Ankunftszeiten der Schallsignale an den einzelnen Aufnehmern gemessen und miteinander verglichen. Fuer die Schallquelle ergibt sich bei n Schallaufnehmern in offener Anordnung eine Ortsaufloesung von 2n-2, ...

  13. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  14. Geskiedenis van die Geneeskunde in Pretoria*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 1971 ... hou en 'n verbod ingestel op die goOl van afval en mtspan van diere in die strate. Pretorius het daarop die Kerkplein uitgewys wat die middel- punt van die nuwe dorp moes word en Louis Devereux en Jan. H. Visagie het begin om die plein uit te le en 'n kerk bou. Lydenburg het egter nou afgestig en sy eie ...

  15. Ursínus, die opsteller van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, Olevianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In hierdie hoedanigheid het hy 'n leidende aandeel aan die gestal- tegewing van die Calvinistiese kerk van die Palts. Veral met die opstel van die uitgebreide kerkordelike maatreels het sy regsopleiding goed te pas gekom. Met sy uitstaande organisatoriese bekwaamhede het hy in die kerkordenende werk 'n gro-.

  16. Die funksie en boodskap van die 'voorwoord' in 1 Korintiërs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - ging van die evangelie). Soos in 2 Korintiërs en Galasiers ontbreek die getuigskrif oor die gemeente se lewe. Maar ten spyte van die leemte verkry Paulus die ge meente se goedgesindheid met die verwysing na God se ryke gawes aan hulle ...

  17. Die impak en grondwetlikheid van die reg om te staak met ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    6 Jul 2009 ... verandering in die werkplek ingestel het verplig word om toe te laat dat die werknemers só voortgaan met hul werk as wat hul sou voordat die verandering ingestel is, tydens die dispuutbeslegting. 84 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 138. 85 Art 1 en 2 van die Conciliation Act 1896; art 95 van die Employment Protection ...

  18. Die geheim van die prediking: om mondig te word | Cilliers | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierdie artikel gaan uit van die oortuiging dat prediking 'n spraakgebeure is waarin die stem van die prediker - simbool van sy of haar persoonlikheid en spiritualiteit - 'n belangrike rol het om te speel. Die stem van die prediker mag nie misken word in die dinamiese struktuur van kommunikasie nie, en moet inteendeel op 'n ...

  19. Manifestasies van die liefde in Langsaan die vuur (A. H. M. Scholtz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Jan 2010 ... “regeer ”, waardeur van die liefdelose paradigmas elders in die verhaal op hulle kop gekeer word. Teenoor die motief van die moederlike liefde is hy 'n eksponent van die vaderlike liefde, soos geïllustreer deur sy verhouding met Chris. Teacher du Toit is 'n rassis, wat dan ook die rasseklassifikasiesisteem ...

  20. SPE DIE OORNAME VAN DIE HAREM DEUR 'N NUWE KONING. In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    voormalige byvrou van Saul; die Septuaginta in die Lucianus-recensie lees egter in vers 7: ,,Saul het n bywyf gehad, wie se naam was Rispa die dogter van Aja, en hy het haar geneem." Die gespasieerde woorde, wat in die Hebreeuse teks nie voorkom nie, is die gewone aanduiding van 'n wettige huwelik, vgl. I Sam.