WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot water consumption

  1. Measurements of hot water service consumptions: temperature influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, R.; Vallat, D.; Cyssau, R. (COSTIC, Saint Remy-les-Chevreuse (France))

    This article presents a campaign of measurements of which the aim is the observation of consumptions, for individual installations equiped with a hot water tank. The study takes an interest in the temperature of the water in the tank and the instantaneous power of the generator. The instrumentation, the installations and the results of this campaign are presented in this paper. The conclusion is the ''economic'' temperature of hot sanitary water is below 60/sup 0/C but above 55/sup 0/C.

  2. Forecasting HotWater Consumption in Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Gelažanskas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased number of intermittent renewables poses a threat to the system balance. As a result, new tools and concepts, like advanced demand-side management and smart grid technologies, are required for the demand to meet supply. There is a need for higher consumer awareness and automatic response to a shortage or surplus of electricity. The distributed water heater can be considered as one of the most energy-intensive devices, where its energy demand is shiftable in time without influencing the comfort level. Tailored hot water usage predictions and advanced control techniques could enable these devices to supply ancillary energy balancing services. The paper analyses a set of hot water consumption data from residential dwellings. This work is an important foundation for the development of a demand-side management strategy based on hot water consumption forecasting at the level of individual residential houses. Various forecasting models, such as exponential smoothing, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, seasonal decomposition and a combination of them, are fitted to test different prediction techniques. These models outperform the chosen benchmark models (mean, naive and seasonal naive and show better performance measure values. The results suggest that seasonal decomposition of the time series plays the most significant part in the accuracy of forecasting.

  3. Surprisingly low natural gas consumption for hot water in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerse, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch use hot water more efficient than previously expected. This conclusion is drawn from a recent study of hot water consumption in Dutch households and the corresponding natural gas consumption. Based on that (once-only) hot water use survey the hot water use models, as applied in the annual Basic Survey of Natural Gas Consumption of Small-scale Consumers in the Netherlands (BAK), will be modified. 6 tabs

  4. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  5. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  6. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  7. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  8. The analysis of the hot water consumption and energy performance before and after renovation in multi-apartment buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, K.; Borodinecs, A.; Geikins, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of hot water supply system analysis. Taking into account that the current consumption of hot water differs from normative values, real measured data of hot water consumption in multi-apartment buildings from year 2013 until year 2015 have been analyzed. Also, the thermal energy consumption for hot water preparation has been analyzed. Based on aggregated data and taking into account the fact that renovated systems of hot water supply in existing multi-apartment buildings have same pipelines’ diameters, it was analyzed how these systems are economically and energy efficient. For the study, residential buildings in Riga, which have different architectural and engineering solutions for hot water supply systems, were selected. The study was based on thermal energy consumption measurements, which were taken at the individual heating system’s manifolds. This study was done in order to develop database on hot water consumption in civil buildings and define difference in key performance criteria in unclassified buildings. Obtained results allows to reach European Regional Development Fund project “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS” Nr. 1.1.1.116A048 main targets.

  9. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berković-Šubić, Mihaela; Rauch, Martina; Dović, Damir; Andrassy, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher Q H,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  10. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  11. Optimization of Photovoltaic Self-consumption using Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Casaleiro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrified domestic hot water systems, being deferrable loads, are an important demand side management tool and thus have the potential to enhance photovoltaic self-consumption. This study addresses the energy and economic performance of photovoltaic self-consumption by using a typical Portuguese dwelling. Five system configurations were simulated: a gas boiler (with/without battery and an electric boiler (without demand management and with genetic and heuristic optimization. A sensitivity analysis on photovoltaic capacity shows the optimum photovoltaic sizing to be in the range 1.0 to 2.5 kWp. The gas boiler scenario and the heuristic scenario present the best levelized cost of energy, respectively, for the lower and higher photovoltaic capacities. The use of a battery shows the highest levelized cost of energy and the heuristic scenario shows the highest solar fraction (56.9%. Results also highlight the great potential on increasing photovoltaic size when coupled with electrified domestic hot water systems, to accommodate higher solar fractions and achieve lower costs, through energy management.

  12. ACCOUNTING FOR NONUNIFORMITY OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE EXHAUST AIR HEAT RECLAMATION SYSTEMS FOR HOT WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessment of the influence of variation of daily hot water consumption on the predicted energy effect by using heat recovery of exhaust air in typical exhaust ventilation systems of the most commonly used flat buildings during their switch to the mechanical induction for the pre-heating of water for hot water supply. It outlines the general principle of the organization of this method of energy saving and presents the basic equations of heat transfer in the heat exchanger. The article proposes a simplified method of accounting for changes in the heat transfer coefficient of air-to-water heat exchanger with fluctuations of water demand using existing dependencies for this coefficient from the rate flow of heating and heated fluid through the device. It presents observations to identify the parameters of the real changes of water consumption during the day with the main quantitative characteristics of normally distributed random variables. Calculation of thermal efficiency of the heat exchange equipment using dimensionless parameters through the number of heat transfer under the optimal opposing scheme of fluid motion is completed under conditions of variable water flow rate for the type residential building of the П3-1/16 series using the Monte Carlo method for numerical modeling of stochastic processes. The estimation of the influence of fluctuation of the current water consumption on the instantaneous thermal efficiency factor of the heat exchanger and the total energy consumption of the building is given, and it is shown that the error of said calculation using average daily parameters is within the margin of usual engineering calculation.

  13. Methods of accounting the hot water consumption modes at the solar installations design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav O. Dubkovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the high-powered solar systems for hot water heating are considered. The purpose of work consists in development of methods for accounting the 24-hourly hot water consumption mode, determining the solar systems dynamic descriptions. The basic solar system schemes are analyzed with their shortages from the user satisfaction view point due to sun energy. For the dynamic parameters improvement the use of operative expense tank is examined such receptacle bearing built-in worm-pipe, through which all heat carrier from solar collectors passes before entering the fast heat exchanger which heats a tank-accumulator. The scientific novelty refers to the proof that this tank principal parameter is a not the volume, but the built-in exchanger capacity, determined by the solar collectors field total thermal power. As an ecological constituent of operating costs it is suggested to take into account cost paid for the emission of combustion products. As this method practical application example considered is the solar collectors capacity optimization for a communal enterprise.

  14. The effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses during prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive hormones are likely to be involved in thermoregulation through body fluid dynamics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses to prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions. Eight healthy young women with regular menstrual cycles performed cycling exercise for 90 minutes at 50% V̇O2peak intensity during the low progesterone (LP) level phase and high progesterone (HP) level phase, with or without water consumption, under hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity). For the water consumption trials, subjects ingested water equivalent to the loss in body weight that occurred in the earlier non-consumption trial. For all four trials, rectal temperature, cardiorespiratory responses, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Throughout the 90-minute exercise period, rectal temperatures during HP were higher than during LP by an average of 0.4 °C in the non-consumption trial (Pwater consumption trial (Pwater consumption affected the changes in rectal temperature and heat rate (HR) during HP, but it did not exert these effects during LP. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between estradiol levels and rectal temperature during LP. During prolonged exercise at moderate intensity under hot conditions, water consumption is likely to be useful for suppressing the associated increase in body temperature and HR, particularly during HP, whereas estradiol appears to be useful for suppressing the increase in rectal temperature during LP.

  15. Conception, implementation and effect of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, S.; Schwenkel, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the experience gained from the operation of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs (Verbrauchsabhaengigen Heiz- und Warmwasserkostenabrechnung, VHKA), a system introduced in Switzerland as one of the first energy-policy measures in the nineteen-eighties. The study examines the strategic possibilities of the VHKA within the framework of future efficiency strategies. Also, as an operative goal, the study takes a look at the acceptance of the VHKA and its effectiveness. In this way, an indication on how the instrument can be optimised can be obtained. The report consists of five chapters that look at the concept and implementation of the VHKA, its effect on the lessees of apartments and real estate owners and, finally, presents a cost-benefit analysis of the VHKA. The methods used in the study include the analysis of documents, personal and telephone interviews and the evaluation of billing data and other data collected.

  16. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  17. Domestic hot water. Measurements of consumption and heat loss from circulation pipes; Varmt brugsvand. Maaling af forbrug og varmetab fra cirkulationsledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Schroeder, F.; Bergsoee, N.C.

    2009-07-01

    It is likely that the production and distribution of domestic hot water (DHW) in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present and in particular future energy design requirements. The goal of this project has been to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. The possibilities include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40 per cent reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings but also existing buildings in case of renovation of the installations. In this project measurements of water and energy consumptions have been carried out in a number of buildings, and heat losses from the production of domestic hot water and the distribution lines have been measured. In addition to the measurements, analyses and simulations have been carried out. Two models have been developed: One of an apartment room with vertical pipes passing through the room, and one of a room above a basement with horizontal heating pipes. The models make it possible to assess how much of the heat loss from the heating pipes is utilised for space heating. The following recommendations are pointed out: 1) In large buildings e.g. apartment buildings and office buildings the technical installations should be provided with meters so that it is possible to separate the energy consumption for DHW, space heating and ventilation, respectively. 2) In new buildings and in case of retrofitting existing buildings, careful planning of the placement and disposition of hot water taps compared with the location of the hot water tank or heat exchanger is recommended. Also, the necessity of a

  18. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  19. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  20. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  1. Conception, implementation and effect of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs; Konzept, Vollzug und Wirkung der verbrauchsabhaengigen Heiz- und Warmwasserkostenabrechnung (VHKA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Schwenkel, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the experience gained from the operation of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs (Verbrauchsabhaengigen Heiz- und Warmwasserkostenabrechnung, VHKA), a system introduced in Switzerland as one of the first energy-policy measures in the nineteen-eighties. The study examines the strategic possibilities of the VHKA within the framework of future efficiency strategies. Also, as an operative goal, the study takes a look at the acceptance of the VHKA and its effectiveness. In this way, an indication on how the instrument can be optimised can be obtained. The report consists of five chapters that look at the concept and implementation of the VHKA, its effect on the lessees of apartments and real estate owners and, finally, presents a cost-benefit analysis of the VHKA. The methods used in the study include the analysis of documents, personal and telephone interviews and the evaluation of billing data and other data collected.

  2. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  3. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  4. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  5. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  6. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  7. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  8. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  9. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  10. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  11. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  12. Water consumption in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Weber Miguel Ángel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Special considerations must be taken to calculate water require- ments of newborns and breastfeeding children; however, all their water needs should be covered with breast milk or breast-milk substitute formula. There is a need for 100 mL of water per 100 kcal consumed, or of 1,800 mL per square meter body surface area. From the age of six months, it is advisable to start providing 30 to 60 mL of water per day, with progressive increase; before that age, any other liquid must be avoided. Inadequate preparation of a substitute formula may cause hydric intoxication, or infections if the water used is contaminated. The increase in obesity and overweight is the result of increased intake of sugary beverages in children. This increased intake can also be linked to diabetes and other physiological and cognitive problems. Mexican children and teenagers have increased their caloric intake from sugary beverages in 126% between 1999 and 2006. As one of many healthy habits that children must acquire from home, is the avoi- dance of sugary beverages and the acknowledgment of water as a preferred hydration source.

  13. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  14. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  15. Gas consumption for water heating in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.; Weegink, R.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 the total gas consumption of Dutch households increased slightly. This is mainly due to an increase in the number of occupied homes by about 75,000, an advancing penetration of gas-fired tap water heaters and a marginal increase in gas consumption for space heating. Another striking feature is the stabilisation of gas consumption of an average household for hot water purposes, since it decreased in 1992 and 1993 by 3% and 4,5% respectively. The so-called Dutch BAK (basic survey of the small-scale gas consumption) study also shows that the penetration of gas appliances with higher outputs and changing water tapping behaviour, the major reasons for consumption increases in the previous years, have changed only moderately. Gas consumption for cooking purposes remained almost stable, though. 7 tabs., 1 ill

  16. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria | Adeoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    household level (blue water use), while water pollution impacts during processing and consumption (at households) are neglected. Using the 2007 cassava production estimates for Nigeria as baseline, the water impact related to the consumption of gari either as snack or as “eba” (gari reconstituted with hot water to form a ...

  17. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  18. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  19. Analysis of China department water consumption efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Jia-Hong

    2018-03-01

    The water comparable non-competitive input-out model of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 is established to calculate the department water consumption efficiency. The water direct and complete consumption coefficients of 38 departments are analysed. Agriculture and Electricity and steam supply have the highest water consumption coefficients and utilize water resource mainly by the direct way. Manufacture of food products and tobacco products, Manufacture of textiles, Manufacture of wearing apparel and leather products and Information service activities have high water complete consumption coefficients and affect water consumption mainly by the indirect way. Water complete consumption efficiency measures the efficiency from the view of final product, which reflected the department water use driving force more precisely.

  20. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  1. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  2. Should Workers Avoid Consumption of Chilled Fluids in a Hot and Humid Climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt B. Brearley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite provision of drinking water as the most common method of occupational heat stress prevention, there remains confusion in hydration messaging to workers. During work site interactions in a hot and humid climate, workers commonly report being informed to consume tepid fluids to accelerate rehydration. When questioned on the evidence supporting such advice, workers typically cite that fluid absorption is delayed by ingestion of chilled beverages. Presumably, delayed absorption would be a product of fluid delivery from the gut to the intestines, otherwise known as gastric emptying. Regulation of gastric emptying is multifactorial, with gastric volume and beverage energy density the primary factors. If gastric emptying is temperature dependent, the impact of cooling is modest in both magnitude and duration (≤ 5 minutes due to the warming of fluids upon ingestion, particularly where workers have elevated core temperature. Given that chilled beverages are most preferred by workers, and result in greater consumption than warm fluids during and following physical activity, the resultant increased consumption of chilled fluids would promote gastric emptying through superior gastric volume. Hence, advising workers to avoid cool/cold fluids during rehydration appears to be a misinterpretation of the research. More appropriate messaging to workers would include the thermal benefits of cool/cold fluid consumption in hot and humid conditions, thereby promoting autonomy to trial chilled beverages and determine personal preference. In doing so, temperature-based palatability would be maximized and increase the likelihood of workers maintaining or restoring hydration status during and after their work shift. Keywords: Fluid consumption, gastric emptying, hot and humid conditions, hydration, occupational

  3. Water chemistry management during hot functional test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Jiro; Kanda, Tomio; Kagawa, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure in light water reactor, it is important decrease radioactive corrosion product which is a radiation source. One of the countermeasures is to improve water quality during plant trial operation to form a stable oxide film and to minimize metal release to the coolant at the beginning of commercial operation. This study reviews the optimum water quality conditions to form a chromium rich oxide film during hot functional test (HFT) that is thought to be stable under the PWR condition and reduce the release of Ni that is the source of Co-58, the main radiation source of exposure. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  5. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  6. Impacts of Extreme Hot Weather Events on Electricity Consumption in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in electricity consumption due to hot weather events were examined for the German federal state Baden-Württemberg. The analysis consists of three major steps: Firstly, an analysis of the media coverage on the hot summer of 2003 gives direct and indirect information about changes in electricity demand due to changes in consumption patterns. On the one hand there was an overall increase in electricity demand due to the more frequent use of air conditionings, fans, cooling devices and water pumps. On the other hand shifts in electricity consumption took place due to modifications in daily routines: if possible, core working times were scheduled earlier, visitor streams in gastronomy and at events shifted from noon to evening hours, a temporal shifting of purchases took place in early morning or evening hours, and an increased night-activity was documented by a higher number of police operations due to noise disturbances. In a second step, some of the findings of the media analysis were quantified for households in the city region of Karlsruhe. For the chosen electric device groups refrigerators, mini-coolers, air conditionings, fans and electric stoves the difference between the consumption on a hot summer day and a normal summer day was computed. For this purpose, assumptions had to be made on the share of affected households, affected devices or usage patterns. These assumptions were summarized into three scenarios on low, medium and high heat induced changes in electricity consumption. In total, the quantification resulted in a range of about 7.5 to 9.2 % of heat-induced over-consumption related to the average amount of electrical load that is normally provided to Karlsruhe households on a summer's day. A third analysis of summer load curves aimed at testing the following hypotheses derived from the media analysis regarding changes in every-day routines and their effects on shifts in load profiles. To test the hypotheses, correlation tests were applied. (1

  7. Thermal water of the Yugawara Hot Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Ogino, K; Nagatsuka, Y; Hirota, S; Kokaji, F; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, M

    1963-03-01

    The Yugawara Hot Spring is located in the bottom of the dissected creata of the Yugawara volcano. Natural hot spring water ran dry almost twenty five years ago, and thermal water is now pumped up by means of deep drill holes. The hydrorogy of the thermal water was studied from both geochemical and geophysical points of view. Two types of thermal water, sodium chloride and calcium sulfate, are recognized. Sodium chloride is predominant in the high temperature area and low in the surrounding low temperature area. Calcium sulfate predominates in the low temperature area. Sodium chloride is probably derived from deep magmatic emanations as indicated in the high Li content. Sulfate ion seems to originate from oxidation of pyrite whose impregnation took place in the ancient activity of the Yugawara volcano. The content of Ca is stoichiometrically comparable with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. It is suggested that sulfuric acid derived from the oxidation of pyrite attacks calcite formed during the hydrothermal alteration of rocks. Some consideration of well logging in the geothermal area is also discussed. Temperature measurement in recharging of cold water is applicable to the logging of drill holes as well as the electric logging.

  8. Modelling Forest Water Consumption in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Nonhebel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The water consumption of oak, beech, spruce and pine forest is predicted from routinely measured meteorological data for five locations in the Netherlands. Differences in water consumption are found to be primarily a result of differences in interception loss. Predicted interception loss was found

  9. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  10. Emission of Air Pollutants in the Hot Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztof, Nowak; Maria, Bukowska; Danuta, Proszak-Miąsik; Sławomir, Rabczak

    2017-10-01

    The result of the deteriorating condition of the environment and climate change is to increase the efficient use of fuel and energy and the rational use of energy resources. Great potential for reducing consumption of fossil fuels are stuck in heating systems ranging from generation, transmission and distribution and ending with the recipients rationalize their consumption of heat. Efficient production of heat is obtained during optimal boiler load. The boiler type WR operates with the highest efficiency of 80-85%, the rate of fuel consumption is the lowest, and the process is close to complete combustion. In such conditions to the atmosphere are emitted mainly: SO2, CO2 and NOX. Pollutants such as CO, CH4, HF, HCl, NH3, etc., are the result of incomplete and imperfect combustion, that is, when the boiler is working inefficiently [1-3]. Measurements of pollutant concentrations were performed using an analyzer FTIR Gasmet DX4000. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a technique of measuring that allows a very precise identification of qualitative and quantitative range of compounds, including gaseous pollutants. Device used to measure the concentrations of gaseous pollutants allow determining the amount of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen compounds, which measurement is not defined any rules, including chlorine compounds, hydrogen, methane, ammonia and volatile organic compounds. In this publication presents part of the literature the use of heat for domestic hot water production in summer and heating demand in winter. Described the characteristics of the water boilers WR type used for heating. Presents the results study of the emissions in the production of hot water for the summer and winter seasons.

  11. Minimizing fuel wood consumption through the evolution of hot ston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central objective of this paper is to minimize fuelwood consumption through evolving alternative domestic energy. Data on alternative domestic energy sources, and use fuel wood consumption during scarcity of petroleum were collected using structured questionnaires. Data on time spent to cook yam, race and beans ...

  12. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  13. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  14. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  15. ON A NEW TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION OF HOT DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Jalilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains information concerning the new Cl-anionization technology in the preparation of hot drinking water. In contrast with water softening, that replaces all the hardness salts by sodium cations in the cation exchanger, this new technology makes it possible to replace incrustating HCO3̄ and SO42--anions in a strong-base anion exchanger by Cl⁻-ions. As a result, the incrustation on the surfaces of heating hot water heaters is prevented. Thus, cations of hardness that are valuable for the human body remain in the water, the quality of the latter conforming to drinking water quality. Considering the important role of calcium and magnesium in the human body, in Germany and Turkey the minimum value of hardness cations in drinking water is limited to 2.85 and 7.50 mg-Eqv/l, respectively. According to the World Health Organization, in the composition of drinking water, the concentration of cations of magnesium and calcium is recommended, respectively, within 10–(20–30, and 20–50 mg/l; the minimum value of total hardness is 2–4 mg-Eqv/l. According to the developed technology drinking water is passed consistently in the downward direction through the mechanical and chlorineanionite exchanger filters. In the latter, the main part of HCO3̄ and SO42--water ions are exchanged for Cl-anions of anionite. Then the water is collected in the tank, from where it is pumped to the hot water heater through the ultraviolet disinfection unit. After the depletion of the anionite by HCO3̄ and SO42--anions, it is regenerated by a solution of 8–12 % NaCl. The results of research by the anion exchangers Purolite A200EMBCl and AB-17-8 are plotted. It is noted that when the specific consumption of salt for regeneration is of about 45–55 kg/m³, working exchange capacity of the A200EMBCl occurs to be in the range 300–370 g-Eqv/m³. For anionization of water, the residual concentration of HCO3̄-ions are changed from 0.5 to 3.2 mg

  16. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  17. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  18. Water treatment in public swimming pools - reduction of energy consumption; Vandbehandling i svoemmebade - reduktion af energiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerich, H.; Radisch, N. (Ramboell, Koege (Denmark)); Olesen, Jens Christian (Gladsaxe Sportscenter, Gladsaxe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements were made in five public swimming baths, and energy savings were achieved using new filters, pumps, water treatment control depending on bather load, etc. In a 50 metre pool, electricity consumption for water treatment decreased by 50%, and in a hot-water/paddling pool, electricity consumption decreased by 30-40% while still maintaining satisfactory water quality - even during periods of heavy bather load. In another swimming bath, ventilation electricity consumption was reduced by 15%. The results will e.g. be used to revise the Danish executive order on swimming pools and water quality to allow bather load-dependent water circulation. (ln)

  19. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  20. Hot water glows directly to the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken; Fedders; Hohlein.

    1980-01-01

    The supply of industry and households with heat is a central problem of our economy. With the background of a crisis-affected oil supply the long term ensured heat supply with nuclear power plants is a discussible alternative. The long distance transfer of heat in the form of hot water, that is heated in nuclear power plants and led over a long-distance heating pipeline network to the consumers is limited by the inevitable heat losses. For the bridging of long distances between heat source and consumer and for the supply of heat at a high temperature level the long-distance transport by the Eva-Adam-principle has clear advantages. (orig.) [de

  1. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Rashmi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  2. Water Chlorination for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenti, A.; Giacosa, D.; Segatori, M.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning from this issue, an initiative of Federgasacqua (Federal association dealing with the gas and the water) takes place through the activities of the Task Forces Water Quality Control and Materials and Processes, which aim is to offer to the water industry operators and updated information concerning some main subjects, emphasizing in particular the technical and management applied topics. The paper deals with the chlorination processes in drinking water treatment. An overview of the italian situation is presented, concerning disinfection as well as other oxidation processes, together with an historical background on chlorination. Concerning the applications, the chemical technologies and the main processes, the disinfectant effectiveness and the byproducts formation have been described. Further, the regulations in force have been reported and discussed on national and international bases [it

  3. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  4. YACON INULIN LEACHING DURING HOT WATER BLANCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fenner Scher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTYacon roots contain inulin, which has prebiotic properties and it may be used as sucrose or fat substitutes. However, inulin is very soluble in water. The loss of this important nutrient during blanching is caused mainly by diffusion or leaching, which might be diminished if blanching temperature - time conditions are correctly employed. The aim of this study was to determine the leaching of the sugars inulin, glucose and fructose, present in yacon roots, during hot water blanching under different time/temperature conditions. The samples were cleaned and peeled and cut into geometric forms of 1.75 ± 0.35 mm thick disks. A complete factorial experimental design was used, and the treatments of the samples were compared using the Tukey test. The results indicated that the time and temperature were significant in the dissolution of the sugars. The lowest inulin losses occurred at temperatures and times lower than 60 ºC and 3 minutes. For all temperatures, the lowest glucose and fructose losses were obtained at time lower than 3 and 5 minutes, respectively.

  5. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  6. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......, calculations show that the yearly thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems is strongly reduced if the hot water tank has a thermal bridge located at the top of the tank....

  7. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  8. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Its two histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have been associated with different risk factors. The possibility of an association between the consumption of hot food and beverages and esophageal cancer, especially ESCC, has long been suspected, presenting a potentially modifiable risk factor. A meta-analysis of existing observational studies was performed to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Current Contents Connect to November 11, 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model for the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ESCC and EAC, as well as for studies that adjusted for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, two well-recognized risk factors for ESCC. Consumption of hot food and drink was associated with an increased risk of any esophageal cancer (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.46, 2.48). Heterogeneity was observed. There was an increased risk of ESCC (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.79, 2.93), which remained even after adjusting for significant confounding variables (OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.71, 3.33). The relationship was not significant for EAC. The consumption of hot food and beverages was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle assessment of domestic heat pump hot water systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water heating accounts for 23% of residential energy consumption in Australia, and, as over half is provided by electric water heaters, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to inclusion in rebate schemes heat pump water heating systems are becoming increasingly popular, but do they result in lower greenhouse gas emissions? This study follows on from a previous life cycle assessment study of domestic hot water systems to include heat pump systems. The streamlined life cycle assessment approach used focused on the use phase of the life cycle, which was found in the previous study to be where the majority of global warming potential (GWP impacts occurred. Data was collected from an Australian heat pump manufacturer and was modelled assuming installation within Australian climate zone 3 (AS/NZS 4234:2011. Several scenarios were investigated for the heat pumps including different sources of electricity (grid, photovoltaic solar modules, and batteries and the use of solar thermal panels. It was found that due to their higher efficiency heat pump hot water systems can result in significantly lower GWP than electric storage hot water systems. Further, solar thermal heat pump systems can have lower GWP than solar electric hot water systems that use conventional electric boosting. Additionally, the contributions of HFC refrigerants to GWP can be significant so the use of alternative refrigerants is recommended. Heat pumps combined with PV and battery technology can achieve the lowest GWP of all domestic hot water systems.

  10. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P HOT: -16%, P HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  11. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  12. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  13. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  14. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  15. Analysis of systems for hot water supply with solar energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results from the analysis of the hot water consumption of a group of hotels in the Black See resort Albena are presented. Structural schemes of hot water solar systems with flat plate collectors have been synthesized. By the synthesis have been analyzed the type of the consumers, the operating period, the existing heating plants, the auxiliary energy source - electricity. The change of the solar fraction by different performance of the system have been investigated. A comparative analysis of the alternative solutions has been fulfilled. The most advantageous solution has been chosen on the basis of the evaluation of the pay-back period, the life cycle savings and the benefit-cost ratio. The effect of the changing economic characteristics on the economic efficiency have been investigated. The risk for the investments has been examined. It had been proved that for the conditions in Bulgarian Black See region the use of solar energy for hot water producing is economic reasonable. (author)

  16. Lunchtime School Water Availability and Water Consumption Among California Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Babey, Susan H; Patel, Anisha I; Wang, Pan; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the potential impact of California SB 1413, which required school districts to provide free, fresh drinking water during mealtimes in food service areas by July 1, 2011, on greater water consumption among California adolescents. Data were drawn from the 2012 and 2013 state-representative California Health Interview Survey. A total of 2,665 adolescents aged 12-17 years were interviewed regarding their water consumption and availability of free water during lunchtime at their school. Three-fourths reported that their school provided free water at lunchtime, mainly via fountains. In a multivariate model that controlled for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and school type, adolescents in schools that provided free water consumed significantly more water than adolescents who reported that water was not available, bivariate (standard error) = .67 (.28), p = .02. School water access did not significantly vary across the 2 years. Lunchtime school water availability was related to water consumption, but a quarter of adolescents reported that their school did not provide free water at lunch. Future research should explore what supports and inducements might facilitate provision of drinking water during school mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Classifying hot water chemistry: Application of MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Rezky, Yuanno; Gio, Prana Ugiana; Agustin, Anggita

    2016-01-01

    This file is the dataset for the following paper "Classifying hot water chemistry: Application of MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS". Authors: Prihadi Sumintadireja1, Dasapta Erwin Irawan1, Yuano Rezky2, Prana Ugiana Gio3, Anggita Agustin1

  18. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  19. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  20. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  1. Economical utilization of hot water - an important precondition for an efficient utilization of waste heat in milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E; Pflug, C

    1985-01-01

    Indispensable both in the field of hydroecological and energy policies is the economical utilization of hot water. Hydroecological process analyses in specialized dairy cattle plants have shown that the specific mean annual abstraction of hot water (50/sup 0/C) may be reduced to 14 l per cow and per day. The proportionate contribution of different operational sectors and methods to arrive at the standards are pointed out. Economizing dairy cattly plants reducing hot water consumption as indicated and reaching average milking outputs of >= 1 l per cow and per day may thus bridge the summer season by heat recovery processes producing a sufficient quantity of hot water and allowing a shutdown of all heating units. At present the majority of dairy cattle plants cannot yet dispense with supplementary water during the remaining months. The hot water consumption rate is highest at the end of shifts. In double-shifted dairy cattle plants the estimated maximum hourly consumption amounts to 12 per cent of the average daily consumption. (orig.).

  2. Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.S.; Fung, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all

  4. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  5. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  6. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  7. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  8. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  9. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  10. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  11. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  12. The Comparison of Virtual Water Consumption among the Various Consumption Patterns of Diet

    OpenAIRE

    SHANG Hai-yang

    2015-01-01

    Water resource is the basic and necessary input in the process of production and various consumption patterns of products and goods causes cause different impacts on the water resource using. It is very important to analysis and measures those different influences, which is especially good for the sustainability of water resource, construction of sustainable consumption pattern and the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management. In this text, the virtual water consumption of Gansu...

  13. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  15. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...... as active Thermal Energy Storage (TES), where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the ASHP electricity consumption and the building heating consumption utilizing a heat dynamic model of the building. The results show that the proposed EMPC can save the energy cost by load...

  16. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  17. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  18. Lanthanoid abundance of some neutral hot spring waters in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) in some neutral hot spring waters as well as in acidic hot spring waters were determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that a higher pH resulted in lower concentrations of Ln's; the value of correlation coefficient (r) between the logarithm of the concentration of Sm ([Sm]), chosen as the representative of Ln's, and the logarithm of pH was -0.90. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was strongly correlated with [Ln]'s in the pH range of 1.3 and 8.8; the correlation was expressed as log[Sm] = 0.893 log([Al] + [Fe]) - 5.45 with the r value of 0.98. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was thus a good measure of the Ln contents in acidic and neutral hot spring waters. The Ln abundance patterns of neutral hot spring waters with normal CO 2 concentrations had concave shapes with relative depletion in the middle-heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln carbonates. The neutral hot spring water with a high CO 2 content of 1,800 ppm showed a Ln pattern with a relative enrichment in the heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln's observed for CO 2 -rich solutions. (author)

  19. Upgrading of biomass by carbonization in hot compressed water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of biomass (corn cob in hot compressed water was performed using a small bomb reactor at temperature 300-350ºC and pressure 10-18 MPa for 30 min. Then, the solid product or biochar was subjected to various analyses in order to investigate the effects of the carbonization in hot compressed water on the characteristics of the biochar. It was found that the yield of biochar carbonized in hot compressed water at 350ºC and pressure of 10 MPa for 30 min was 44.7%, whereas the yield of biochar carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 350ºC is 36.4%. Based on the information obtained from the elemental analyses of the biochar, it was found that the oxygen functional groups in the corn cob were selectively decomposed during the carbonization in hot compressed water. The pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of the biochar were found to be affected significantly by the carbonization in hot compressed water.

  20. Modeling Stochastic Energy and Water Consumption to Manage Residential Water Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Water; Energy Conservation

    2011-12-01

    Water energy linkages have received growing attention from the water and energy utilities as utilities recognize that collaborative efforts can implement more effective conservation and efficiency improvement programs at lower cost with less effort. To date, limited energy-water household data has allowed only deterministic analysis for average, representative households and required coarse assumptions - like the water heater (the primary energy use in a home apart from heating and cooling) be a single end use. Here, we use recent available disaggregated hot and cold water household end-use data to estimate water and energy consumption for toilet, shower, faucet, dishwasher, laundry machine, leaks, and other household uses and savings from appliance retrofits. The disaggregated hot water and bulk water end-use data was previously collected by the USEPA for 96 single family households in Seattle WA and Oakland CA, and Tampa FL between the period from 2000 and 2003 for two weeks before and four weeks after each household was retrofitted with water efficient appliances. Using the disaggregated data, we developed a stochastic model that represents factors that influence water use for each appliance: behavioral (use frequency and duration), demographical (household size), and technological (use volume or flowrate). We also include stochastic factors that govern energy to heat hot water: hot water fraction (percentage of hot water volume to total water volume used in a certain end-use event), heater water intake and dispense temperatures, and energy source for the heater (gas, electric, etc). From the empirical household end-use data, we derive stochastic probability distributions for each water and energy factor where each distribution represents the range and likelihood of values that the factor may take. The uncertainty of the stochastic water and energy factors is propagated using Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the composite probability distribution for water

  1. Design of water and heat recovery networks for the simultaneous minimisation of water and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, Graham Thomas; Picon-Nunez, Martin; Lopez-Maciel, Jose de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes procedures for the design of processes in which water and energy consumption form a large part of the operating cost. Good process design can be characterised by a number of properties, amongst the most important are: efficient use of raw materials, low capital cost and good operability. In terms of thermodynamic analysis these processes can be characterised as being either a 'pinch' problem or a 'threshold' problem. This paper concentrates on developing designs for problems of the threshold type. Most of the problems discussed by previous workers have been of this type. With these properties in mind this work looks at the design of integrated water and energy systems that exhibit the following features: 1. minimum water consumption, 2. minimum energy consumption, and 3. simple network structure. The approach applies for single contaminant. It is shown that the water conservation problem and the heat recovery problems can be de-coupled and the water conservation options should be established first. It is then shown that the number of heaters and heat recovery units required for the system, the quantity and type of hot utility needed for the plant and the complexity of the heat recovery network can all be determined without having to design any heat recovery network. This allows the engineer to select the better water conservation option before embarking on the design of the heat recovery network. For this type of problem the design of the heat recovery network itself is usually simple and straightforward.

  2. Long term performance of a solar floor and hot water heating house; Taiyonetsu yukadanbo kyuto jutaku no choki seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are measured energy consumption followed for 12 years for a totally electrified solar house with a floor-heating and hot-water heating system. In the solar system, hot water generated by the solar collector is sent, via a surge tank, to a living room, dining room and study to heat their concrete floors, and recycled back to the collector after heating the heat-storage tank for hot water supply. The collector is of plate type, consisting of 6 units, each with a white glass sheet as the heat-collecting membrane for selectively absorbing heat. Its total heat-collecting area is 11.4m{sup 2}. Long-term performance of the solar system installed for floor and hot-water heating in a totally electrified solar house, is analyzed by the measured results collected for 12 years. The house consumes secondary energy of 11.7MWh/year on the average, which is approximately 20% lower that that required for a house of the equivalent size. The solar system has been operated smoothly, to supply 46 and 35% of the required heat for hot-water and floor heating. It is however estimated that annual heat loss reaches 34% in the hot-water heating system, including that in the electric hot-water generator, and prevention of heat loss is one of the major themes for the future system designs. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Solar action: solar hot water in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, Adrie

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of solar hot water systems in the Netherlands, and reports on the Dutch Solar Domestic Hot Water System agreement signed in 1999 and set up to enhance the development of the market for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems and their application as a sustainable energy source. The Dutch Thermal Solar Energy Programme's objectives and goals, the subsidy schemes for thermal solar energy administered by Senter - an agency of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MEA), and the project-based and individual approaches to boosting the sales of SDHW systems are examined. Large system sales, the targeting of consumers via a national campaign, and national publicity using the slogan 'Sustainable energy. Goes without saying' commissioned by the MEA are discussed along with the support shown by the Dutch power distribution companies for SDHW systems, marketing aspects, and the outlook for sales of SDHW systems

  4. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Hot water supply system; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Kyuto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oze, H. [Toyo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    G-5 and 6 measure and investigate actual state of use of hot water supply systems in dormitories used by persons living alone without their families and by unmarried persons to collect fundamental data. G-5 considers how hot water is used, by making a questionnaire survey on the subject houses, and identifies the consumption trend of heat, water and hot water in the hot water supply systems as a whole. G-6 selected eleven houses from among the houses discussed in the previous report to identify the trend of use of hot water by each house. Also, quantity of hot water used in every day of the week is estimated. G-7 discusses methods for estimating water temperatures at faucets of water pipes from the water sources. This is intended to raise the accuracy of tap water temperature conversion coefficient by districts used for calculating estimated heat quantity as a parameter 'hot water supply energy consumption coefficient' to evaluate energy saving performance of a hot water supply facility. G-8 performs numerical simulations changing different parameters in the hot water supply piping system by using a heat loss calculation model for the existing household hot water supply piping. It executes evaluation on energy conservation performance of each model. G-9 estimates efficiency of instantaneous household gas hot water supply devices, not only on thermal efficiency of devices during steady state combustion, but also on non-steady state such as start-up, and discusses methods to derive actual efficiency by using calculations. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  6. NORTH PORTAL - HOT WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY NO.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540. The method used for the calculations is based on Section 4.4.1. The first step is to determine the maximum pressure drop between the most remote plumbing fixture and the main supply. The pressure drop for the hot water system is based on the total length of the supply piping from the cold water supply source through the water heater to the most remote hot water outlet. Equivalent fixture units are then assigned using Section 4.4.1. For hot water, the values are reduced by 25 percent in accordance with the UPC. The demand load in gpm is then determined based on the number of fixture units. The demand load and the pressure drop between the source and the most remote fixture is used to determine the pipe size and the corresponding friction losses for a given flow velocity not to exceed 10 feet/second

  7. Assessing water consumption in extreme diet scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Most of the food for humanity comes from agriculture. Producing it requires enormous resources, and the projected population growth will further increase the stress on the environment. A number of strategies have been suggested to make food production sustainable. One of them, changing the human diet, has been shown to have a considerable potential in reducing use of resources, including water. Using water footprint methodology, our results show that moving to a mostly plant-based diet or a more conservative diet change combined with halving food losses would reduce the number of people living under water scarcity by hundreds of millions. Alternatively, it would enable producing sufficient, healthy food supply for a much larger population. Questions are still remaining, though. While water footprints alone have been criticised for only concentrating on water volumes and not the impacts of consumption, with proper attention to existing resources and the ecological relevance of using them, the water footprints allow straightforward analysis of limited modifications to food systems. On the other hand, large changes to the demand of each of the crops as well as shifts in ratios between plant- and animal-based foodstuffs alter some of the underlying assumptions, which are based on the current production. We present concepts to try to tackle the dynamics involved with diet change. Specifically, we discuss and present results related to: 1) Effects of changes in the areas used for production of a crop on its marginal water footprint 2) Use of non-food grade crop production as feed 3) Use of feed from co-production systems

  8. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  9. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  10. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based on t...

  11. Investigations on stratification devices for hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Hampel, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the thermal stratification for the energy efficiency of small solar-thermal hot water heat stores is pointed out. Exemplary the thermal stratification build-up with devices already marketed as well as with devices still in development has been investigated experimentally...

  12. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  13. Investigation on Kombiterm GE Domestic Hot Water Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Heuer, Andreas Walter

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of a hot water tank with a high heat exchanger spiral with a small pipe diameter in the upper part of the heat exchanger spiral and a large pipe diameter in the lower part of the heat exchanger spiral in cooperation with Kãhler&Breum Beholder- og Maskinfabrik K/S. First preprint of ...

  14. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  15. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water spring was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of two 16S rRNA variable regions V1-3 and V4-7. Analysis of the community DNA revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Verrucomicrobia were the most ...

  16. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  17. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact ...... in an analysis using the first and second law of thermodynamics. The results showed how the entropy changes and the exergy changes in the storage during the draw-offs influenced by the Richardson number, the volume draw-off and the initial tank conditions....

  18. How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

  19. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T.; Murase, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35 o C ~ 65 o C. Cold air was approximately 25 o C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  20. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Nagano (Japan); Murase, M. [INSS, Mihama-cho, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35{sup o}C ~ 65{sup o}C. Cold air was approximately 25{sup o}C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  1. Problems of the water environment and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetsep, Aavo

    1999-01-01

    Water extraction and consumption in Ida-Viru County are based mainly on the groundwater and surface water. The major part of the surface water is consumed by power engineering, while households and industry are the main consumers of groundwater. The difference between water extraction and consumption shows that the unused mine water pumped up for draining the oil shale mines and open pits and discharged into rivers forms an essential part (on the average 86%, quantitatively 159-226 millions m 3 /yr.). Serious water supply problems have risen in connection with oil shale mining: numerous village and household wells have been depleted due to a deep drawdown cone, the groundwater of the upper aquifers is polluted with nitrates, phenols and oil products. The poor condition of water-pipes and great leakages (up to 60%) make it difficult to supply townspeople and villagers with high-grade drinking water meeting the Estonian general standard EVS 663:1995. Water pollution is conditioned by poorly treated wastewaters and sewage directed practically into all the major rivers and lakes of the county by industrial and power engineering enterprises and towns and rural settlements. The rivers of the Purtse basin have been continuously under a heavy pollution load: both the mine waters with high minerality and phenolic wastewaters (so-called ash hill waters) of the oil shale thermal processing have been discharged into the rivers. Various water contamination from land areas has led to excessive pollution of Northeast Estonian coastal waters of the Gulf of Finland with toxic organic compounds and nutrients, specially in the regions of Purtse, Saka, Sillamaee and Narva-Joesuu. Up to now, Estonia has not managed completely fulfil the recommendations of the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. In 1998-2010, water management in Ida-Viru County should be directed towards achieving two Principal objectives

  2. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  3. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  5. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  6. ''Terek-3'' a well flowmeter for hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A; Bar-sliva, V

    1979-01-01

    For studying ther applicability of an injection well with injection of hot water (with temperature to 150-200/sup 0/C) it is necessary to have well flowmeters which have high sensitivity and performance capacity at this temperature. In developing the well remote flowmeter ''Terek-3'' the All-Union Scientific research and Planning-Design Institute for comprehensive automation of oil and gas industry made a decision to use a drive-less packer developed by the authors of the article for the well flowmeter ''Terek-1'' designed to study high-output wells. Because of the use of the drive-less packer, the sensitivity of the flowmeter was considerably improved and the lower limit of measurements were decreased to 60 m/sup 3//day. In order to reduce friction in the supports of the turbines, agate step bearings and cores were used made of steel 40KKhNM. The upper step bearing was installed in the instrument housing, and the lower in the body of the turbines. This reduces the possibility of its contamination in the measurement process. One should also bear in mind that with an increase in temperature, the viscosity of water diminshes (roughly 5-fold with temperature of 150/sup 0/C). Therefore, with a decrease in the influence of viscosity on the readings of the flowmeter in the instrument, a turbine was used suggested by V. I. Bar-Sliva. In this turbine the blades are separated from the step which guarantees not only the obtaining of the maximum moving momentum but also reduces the influence of the change in viscosity on the operation of the turbine. The impulse output signal obtained with rotation of the turbine with magnet is transmitted on a single-strand cable to a surface apparatus consisting of a condensator frequency meter and universal logging recorder N-381 which guarantees recording of the changed consumption on a diagram tape as a function of depth or time. Experimental samples of the well flowmeter ''Terek-3'' passed state inspection tests.

  7. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  8. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  9. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  10. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  11. Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the

  12. Measurements of cold and hot water in ten dwellings; Maetning av kall- och varmvatten i tio hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Aasa; Nordman, Roger; Pettersson, Ulrik (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Reducing tap water consumption has considerable potential for reducing overall environmental impact. It not only saves fresh water, but also gives significant savings of energy that would otherwise have been needed to heat hot water. However, in order to improve the energy efficiency of building services systems and to help occupants act more energy-efficiently, more knowledge is needed on how water is used in our homes. Today, we actually know very little about usage patterns from one tapping point to another, or the division between cold and hot water use, and this study aims to help provide appropriate information. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of how tap water is used in Swedish households. The main purpose is to gain knowledge of how to decrease the energy use and for that reason the description of the use of hot water is essential. Measurement has been made of hot and cold water use at each tapping point in ten dwellings: four apartments in apartment buildings, and six single-family buildings. The households were of the following categories; single, young couple, middle-aged couple and families with children. The number of households is too low to represent the water use at national level, but can still contribute with important knowledge of how we use water in our homes. The results show the following division of tap water use: - wash basin: 19% (11 % hot water and 8 % cold water); - kitchen sink 41% (23 % hot water and 18 % cold water); - shower/bathtub 40% (27 % hot water and 13 % cold water). About 61% of the total water quantity is hot water (note that cold water for toilet flushing and for laundry is not included in the total water use). The proportions between tapping points are very similar for the dwellings in the apartment buildings and single-family houses, and the use of water in the shower/bathtub is essentially the same as the use in the kitchens. In the single-family buildings the water use in laundry rooms was measured

  13. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...... water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed...

  14. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  15. Solubility of solid ferrocene in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2010), s. 2866-2869 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized hot water * ferrocene * solubility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  16. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  17. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  18. Development of equipment for in situ studies of biofilm in hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, Lene Karen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    1999-01-01

    New equipment was developed for in situ studies of biofilms in hot water tanks and hot water pipes under normal operation and pressure. Sampling ports were installed in the wall of a hot water tank and through these operating shafts were inserted with a test plug in the end. The surface of the test...

  19. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  20. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  1. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  2. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  3. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  4. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the approved by rule projects..., being rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  5. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  6. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  7. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  8. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  9. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  10. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  11. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  12. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  13. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  14. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  15. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth...

  17. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  18. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  19. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  20. Efficiency, Equity and Effect: Virtual Water Consumption Characters and Sustainable Consumption on Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of water is the key factor which restricted the growth of social-economy. The virtual water theory provides a new way to solve the problem of water scarcity. In this thesis, we have calculated the virtual water consumption of each household grouped by income in the cities of Gansu in 1992-2005 after introduced the virtual water theory and calculations briefly. Then we advanced the indicator of virtual water per unit of consumption expenditure to analyze the efficiency of virtual ...

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  2. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  3. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. HEAT LOSS FROM HOT WATER SUPPLY LINE IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    近藤, 修平; 鉾井, 修一

    2011-01-01

    In order to the evaluate heat loss from hot water supply lines in a residential building, hot water demand in a house in Chiba prefecture was measured and analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The heat loss of the hot water supply line was about 132kJ for the shower and 110kJ for the bathtub in winter. Since the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the hot water supply line is small, the measured heat loss from the hot water supply line sometimes becomes negative...

  5. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management.......Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil...

  6. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4?13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (?tude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006?2007) data

    OpenAIRE

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Design Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4?8 years, 9?13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverage...

  7. Consumption of hot beverages and foods and the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yawen; Tong, Yeqing; Yang, Chen; Gan, Yong; Sun, Huilian; Bi, Huashan; Cao, Shiyi; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun

    2015-06-02

    Previous studies have mostly focused on the effects of specific constituents of beverages and foods on the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). An increasing number of studies are now emerging examining the health consequences of the high temperature of beverages and foods. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence and clarify the association between hot beverages and foods consumption and EC risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies, published before May 1, 2014, with the aim to estimate the association between hot beverage and food consumption and EC risk. A random-effect model was used to pool the results from the included studies. Publication bias was assessed by using the Begg test, the Egger test, and funnel plot. Thirty-nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, giving a total of 42,475 non-overlapping participants and 13,811 EC cases. Hot beverage and food consumption was significantly associated with EC risk, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.17). The risk was higher for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with a pooled OR of 1.60 (95% CI, 1.29-2.00), and was insignificant for esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.53-1.16). Subgroup analyses suggests that the association between hot beverage and food consumption and EC risk were significant in Asian population (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.62-2.61) and South American population (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25-1.85), but not significant in European population (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.68-1.34). Hot beverage and food consumption is associated with a significantly increased risk of EC, especially in Asian and South American populations, indicating the importance in changing people's dietary habits to prevent EC.

  8. DYNAMICS OF WATER CONSUMPTION CHANGES IN A TOURIST RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bartkowska

    2014-10-01

    Over 2011–2012 water extraction to the municipal water supply network was studied. The volume of water extracted every day was analyzed and the gathered volumes were analyzed statistically. The varying water extraction was also studied. The obtained results were presented in a graphic form. Basing on the descriptive stats and prepared diagrams certain general conclusions were drawn and the collected study figures and facts were summed up. This allowed to determine days of the highest and lowest water consumption. Also months of extreme water extraction and consumption were determined. The water extraction ranged from 1641 m3/24h to 2607 m3/24h, at an average value of 2077.4 m3/24h. Over the period under study the day of the largest water extraction and consumption was in July and the day of the lowest water extraction and consumption in December. During a week inhabitants used the highest water amount on Saturdays and the lowest on Sundays and other feast-days. Basing on the conducted measurements also the coefficient of water consumption per capita was determined. The fluctuation of this coefficient was identical as that for the water consumption. Within the period of study it ranged from 73.3 l/M 24h to 116.5 l/M 24h. The average value of the specific water consumption was 92.8 l/M 24h. For the sake of discussion the obtained results were compared with observations across the country.

  9. Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during a dry season in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.

  10. Long-distance heat transport by hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munser, H.; Reetz, B.

    1990-01-01

    From the analysis of the centralized heat supply in the GDR energy-economical and ecological indispensable developments of long-distance heat systems in conurbation are derived. The heat extraction from a nuclear power plant combined with long- distance hot-water transport over about 110 kilometres is investigated and presented as a possibility to perspective base load heat demands for the district around Dresden. By help of industrial-economic, hydraulic and thermic evaluations of first design variants of the transit system the acceptance of this ecologic and energetic preferred solution is proved and requirements for its realization are shown

  11. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  12. Specifying residential retrofit packages for 30 % reductions in energy consumption in hot-humid climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgett, J.M.; Chini, A.R.; Oppenheim, P. [University of Florida, 573 Rinker Hall, Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the application of energy simulation as an effective tool for specifying cost-effective residential retrofit packages that will reduce energy consumption by 30 %. Single-family homes in the hot-humid climate type of the Southeastern USA were used to demonstrate the application. US census data from both state and federal studies were used to create 12 computer simulation homes representing the most common characteristics of single-family houses specific to this area. Well-recognized energy efficiency measures (EEMs) were simulated to determine their cumulative energy reduction potential. Detailed cost estimates were created for cost-to-benefit analysis. For each of the 12 simulated homes, 4 packages of EEMs were created. The four packages provided home owners options for reducing their energy by 30 % along with the estimated up-front cost and simple payback periods. The simple payback period was used to determine how cost-effective a measure was. The packages are specific to a geographic area to provide a higher degree of confidence in the projected cost and energy savings. The study provides a generic methodology to create a similar 30 % energy reduction packages for other locations and a detailed description of a case study to serve as an example. The study also highlights the value that computer simulation models can have to develop energy efficiency packages cost-effectively and specific to home owner's location and housing type.

  13. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  14. Mechanism of Corrosion of Activated Aluminum Particles by Hot Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism of corrosion in aluminum particles by hot water treatment for hydrogen generation is evaluated. The aluminum powder was activated by ball milling for different durations, which modified size and microstructure of the particles. Open circuit potential test was carried out to elucidate different stages of the reaction. Tafel test was used to explain the effect of ball milling and growth of hydroxide layer on corrosion of the particles. Surface, cross section and thickness of the grown hydroxide on the aluminum particles were studied in a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of the aluminum powders depends on microstructure of the aluminum particles, growth of the hydroxide layer and a change in pH because of cathodic reactions. The hydrogen production test showed that a deformed microstructure and smaller particle size accelerates the corrosion rate of aluminum by hot water, the effect of the deformed microstructure being more significant at the beginning of the reaction. Effect of growth of the hydroxide layer on corrosion mechanism is discussed

  15. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  16. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  17. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  18. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user

  19. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  20. Generalizable occupant-driven optimization model for domestic hot water production in NZEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, H.; D’Oca, S.; Delmastro, C.; Lodeweyckx, S.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Smart meter data for domestic hot water consumption is collected for 46 NZEB. • Reinforcement learning optimizes energy consumed while constrained on user comfort. • Online optimization models learn occupant behaviour and system thermodynamics. • Offline generalizable models calibrate dynamically the storage vessel operation. • Real world application of the active controls resulted in energy savings of 27%. - Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate improved energy efficiency for domestic hot water (DHW) production in residential buildings. This is done by deriving data-driven optimal heating schedules (used interchangeably with policies) automatically. The optimization leverages actively learnt occupant behaviour and models for thermodynamics of the storage vessel to operate the heating mechanism – an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in this case – at the highest possible efficiency. The proposed algorithm, while tested on an ASHP, is essentially decoupled from the heating mechanism making it sufficiently robust to generalize to other types of heating mechanisms as well. Simulation results for this optimization based on data from 46 Net-Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) in the Netherlands are presented. These show a reduction of energy consumption for DHW by 20% using a computationally inexpensive heuristic approach, and 27% when using a more intensive hybrid ant colony optimization based method. The energy savings are strongly dependent on occupant comfort level. This is demonstrated in real-world settings for a low-consumption house where active control was performed using heuristics for 3.5 months and resulted in energy savings of 27% (61 kW h). It is straightforward to extend the same models to perform automatic demand side management (ADSM) by treating the DHW vessel as a flexibility bearing device.

  1. A Budyko-type Model for Human Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X.; Zhao, J.; Wang, D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the expansion of human water footprint, water crisis is no longer only a conflict or competition for water between different economic sectors, but also increasingly between human and the environment. In order to describe the emergent dynamics and patterns of the interaction, a theoretical framework that encapsulates the physical and societal controls impacting human water consumption is needed. In traditional hydrology, Budyko-type models are simple but efficient descriptions of vegetation-mediated hydrologic cycle in catchments, i.e., the partitioning of mean annual precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration. Plant water consumption plays a crucial role in the process. Hypothesized similarities between human-water and vegetation-water interactions, including water demand, constraints and system functioning, give the idea of corresponding Budyko-type framework for human water consumption at the catchment scale. Analogous to variables of Budyko-type models for hydrologic cycle, water demand, water consumption, environmental water use and available water are corresponding to potential evaporation, actual evaporation, runoff and precipitation respectively. Human water consumption data, economic and hydro-meteorological data for 51 human-impacted catchments and 10 major river basins in China are assembled to look for the existence of a Budyko-type relationship for human water consumption, and to seek explanations for the spread in the observed relationship. Guided by this, a Budyko-type analytical model is derived based on application of an optimality principle, that of maximum water benefit. The model derived has the same functional form and mathematical features as those that apply for the original Budyko model. Parameters of the new Budyko-type model for human consumption are linked to economic and social factors. The results of this paper suggest that the functioning of both social and hydrologic subsystems within catchment systems can be explored within

  2. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  3. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  4. Direct uses of hot water (geothermal) in dairying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmettler, E.R.; Rose, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Digital computer simulation was used to investigate the peak, steady energy utilization of a geothermal energy-supported dairy. A digital computer program was also written to assess the lifetime economics of the dairy operation. A dynamic simulation program was written to design water storage tanks under diurnal transient loading. The geothermal site specified is the artesian spring named Hobo Wells near Susanville, California. The dairy configuration studies are unique, but consist of conventional processing equipment. In the dairy, cattle waste would be used to generate methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic digestion. Some carbon dioxide would be removed from the gas stream with a pressurized water scrubber to raise the heating value. The product gas would be combusted in a spark ignition engine connected to an electric generator. The electrical power produced would be used for operation of fans, pumps, lights and other equipment in the dairy. An absorption chiller using a geothermal water driven generator would provide milk chilling. Space heating would be done with forced air hot water unit heaters.

  5. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  6. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  7. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  8. ALEXI analysis of water consumption in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing can be used to generate diagnostic estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) that provide information regarding consumptive water use across landscapes. These satellite-based assessments can be a valuable complement to prognostic simulations of basin-scale water budgets, providing an inde...

  9. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  10. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  11. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hot-film anemometry in air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Local measurements of void fraction and liquid velocity in a steady-state air-water bubbly flow at atmospheric pressure are presented. Use was made of a constant temperature anemometer and of a conical hot-film probe. The signal was processed with a multi-channel analyzer. Void fraction and liquid velocities are determined from the amplitude histogram of the signal. The integrated void fraction over a diameter is compared with the average void fraction along the same diameter obtained with a γ-ray absorption method. The liquid volumetric flow-rate is calculated from the void fraction and liquid velocity profiles and compared with the indication given by a turbine flowmeter [fr

  13. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  14. Sensitivity analysis of water consumption in an office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchacek, Tomas; Tuhovcak, Ladislav; Rucka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    This article deals with sensitivity analysis of real water consumption in an office building. During a long-term real study, reducing of pressure in its water connection was simulated. A sensitivity analysis of uneven water demand was conducted during working time at various provided pressures and at various time step duration. Correlations between maximal coefficients of water demand variation during working time and provided pressure were suggested. The influence of provided pressure in the water connection on mean coefficients of water demand variation was pointed out, altogether for working hours of all days and separately for days with identical working hours.

  15. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  16. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongibello, L; Graditi, G; Bianco, N; Di Somma, M; Naso, V

    2014-01-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed

  17. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.

    2014-11-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

  18. Assessing the economic aspects of solar hot water production in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Kovras, H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term performance of various systems was determined and the economic aspects of solar hot water production were investigated in this work. The effect of the collector inclination angle, collector area and storage volume was examined for all systems, and various climatic conditions and their payback period was calculated. It was found that the collector inclination angle does not have a significant effect on system performance. Large collector areas have a diminishing effect on the system's overall efficiency. The increase in storage volume has a detrimental effect for small daily load volumes, but a beneficial one when there is a large daily consumption. Solar energy was found to be truly competitive when the conventional fuel being substituted is electricity, and it should not replace diesel oil on pure economic grounds. Large daily load volumes and large collector areas are in general associated with shorter payback periods. Overall, the systems are oversized and are economically suitable for large daily hot water load volumes. (Author)

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  20. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  1. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as PAH exposure may pose an oesophageal cancer risk. Consumer education on risks associated with consumption of 'very hot' beverages and policy measures to threshold

  2. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Liangxin Fan; Fei Wang; Guobin Liu; Xiaomei Yang; Wei Qin

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are...

  3. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  4. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  6. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  7. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...

  8. Immune changes during whole body hot water immersion: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, M; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, M B; Galbo, H; Pedersen, B K

    1997-07-01

    Studies examined the role of growth hormone, catecholamines, and beta-endorphins in changes in natural killer cell activity, subtypes of blood mononuclear cells, and leukocyte concentration in response to hot water immersion in humans. The response of leukocytes and neutrophils to 2 hours of hot water immersion and simultaneous administration of propranolol, somatostatin, naloxone, or isotonic saline are reported.

  9. Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteurization of shell eggs for inactivation of Salmonella using hot water immersion can be used to improve their safety. The rotation of a shell egg immersed in hot water has previously been simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD); however, experimental data to verify the results do not ex...

  10. An Evaluation of Adults' Water and Fluid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardimci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to determine the daily water and fluid consumption of health professionals. Methods: The sample included 313 subjects (female: 222, male: 91 between 22 and 49 years of age. The questionnaire solicited demographic information from the participants and asked about their fluid consumption and its frequency. The principal variable was gender. To analyze the data statistically, tables of means, standard deviations (X±SD and percentage (% values were used. When identifying the fluid intake of healthcare staff, the independent t test was used to account for gender. Results: The fluid consumption of the participants was examined, and the average was 2,262.6±845.2 mL. The mean consumption of water was 1,404.0±719.8 mL. Other significant fluid intake included black tea at 314.4±147.9 mL, instant coffee at 160.5±52.2 mL, milk/ayran/kefir at 157.7±134.8 mL, soft drinks at 61.6±104.7 mL and fruit juice at 72.5±103.9 mL. It was also found that the gender differences in total fluid and soft drink consumption were statistically significant (p.05. Conclusion: To precisely determine water and fluid intake, studies should be planned and conducted with large samples using standardized assessment tools.

  11. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  12. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  13. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  14. Development of hot water supply system for a small district heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Toshihiko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    On the earth, there are many environmental problems. For example, rapid increase of world population causes the enormous consumption of fossil fuel and emission of CO 2 into the global air. Now, mankaind faced to deal with these serious problems. One solution for these problems is utilization of nuclear reactors. Currently, about 65% of thermal output of a nuclear reactor is thrown away to the sea or the atmosphere through a turbine condenser. When a hot-water pipeline from a nuclear plant will be constructed, the exhaust heat from nuclear reactor will able to be utilized. Therefore, authors began to study nuclear power plant system for district heating. This reactor is based on a PWR plant. Its thermal output is 10 MWth and its electrical output is 3.4 MW. The nuclear plant supply electricity and heat for 2000 to 3000 houses. The plant aim to supply all the energy for the adjacent pepole's life, for example, heat, electricity and hydrogen for fuel battery car. This total-energy supply system assumed to be built in Northern area such as Hokkaido in Japan. In order to develop an optimum thermal design method for the system, heat transport experiments and thermal-hydraulic calculations were carried out. Using a metal pipe covered with foam-polyurethane thermal insulator, feed-water temperature and return-water temperature was measured to evaluate heat loss. As the result, the heat loss from the hot-water temperature was very little. The thermal-hydraulic calculation method was verified and applied to actual pipeline size calculation. The result of heat loss calculation will be 0.2degC/5 km. considering these results, the best pipe specification was obtained. (author)

  15. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  16. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo; Esther, Velazquez

    2010-01-01

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  17. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  18. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  19. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  20. Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 sept. 2007 ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II. The first phase, funded under the project, 102474 Community of Practice in Ecohealth (sub-Saharan Africa), consisted of a study of the risk of diarrheal diseases or their resurgence in the area of the Yitenga ...

  1. Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina ... The first phase, funded under the project, 102474 Community of Practice in ... Gestion de l'eau de consommation et de la pollution dans le bassin versant de ...

  2. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  3. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  4. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  5. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  6. Hydrolysis kinetics of tulip tree xylan in hot compressed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junho; Lee, Hun Wook; Sim, Seungjae; Myint, Aye Aye; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable resource, can be converted into numerous valuable chemicals post enzymatic saccharification. However, the efficacy of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is low; therefore, pretreatment is necessary to improve the efficiency. Here, a kinetic analysis was carried out on xylan hydrolysis, after hot compressed water pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass conducted at 180-220°C for 5-30min, and on subsequent xylooligosaccharide hydrolysis. The weight ratio of fast-reacting xylan to slow-reacting xylan was 5.25 in tulip tree. Our kinetic results were applied to three different reaction systems to improve the pretreatment efficiency. We found that semi-continuous reactor is promising. Lower reaction temperatures and shorter space times in semi-continuous reactor are recommended for improving xylan conversion and xylooligosaccharide yield. In the theoretical calculation, 95% of xylooligosaccharide yield and xylan conversion were achieved simultaneously with high selectivity (desired product/undesired product) of 100 or more. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  9. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  10. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  11. Water footprint of European cars: potential impacts of water consumption along automobile life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Warsen, Jens; Krinke, Stephan; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2012-04-03

    Due to global increase of freshwater scarcity, knowledge about water consumption in product life cycles is important. This study analyzes water consumption and the resulting impacts of Volkswagen's car models Polo, Golf, and Passat and represents the first application of impact-oriented water footprint methods on complex industrial products. Freshwater consumption throughout the cars' life cycles is allocated to material groups and assigned to countries according to import mix shares or location of production sites. Based on these regionalized water inventories, consequences for human health, ecosystems, and resources are determined by using recently developed impact assessment methods. Water consumption along the life cycles of the three cars ranges from 52 to 83 m(3)/car, of which more than 95% is consumed in the production phase, mainly resulting from producing iron, steel, precious metals, and polymers. Results show that water consumption takes place in 43 countries worldwide and that only 10% is consumed directly at Volkswagen's production sites. Although impacts on health tend to be dominated by water consumption in South Africa and Mozambique, resulting from the production of precious metals and aluminum, consequences for ecosystems and resources are mainly caused by water consumption of material production in Europe.

  12. How much water is enough? Domestic metered water consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. The article adopts a mixedmethodological approach. Despite government progress in delivering water ...

  13. Toward Complete Utilization of Miscanthus in a Hot-Water Extraction-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ting Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus (Miscanthus sp. Family: Poaceae was hot-water extracted (two h, at 160 °C at three scales: laboratory (Parr reactor, 300 cm3, intermediate (M/K digester, 4000 cm3, and pilot (65 ft3-digester, 1.841 × 106 cm3. Hot-water extracted miscanthus, hydrolyzate, and lignin recovered from hydrolyzate were characterized and evaluated for potential uses aiming at complete utilization of miscanthus. Effects of scale-up on digester yield, removal of hemicelluloses, deashing, delignification degree, lignin recovery and purity, and cellulose retention were studied. The scale-dependent results demonstrated that before implementation, hot-water extraction (HWE should be evaluated on a scale larger than a laboratory scale. The production of energy-enriched fuel pellets from hot-water extracted miscanthus, especially in combination with recovered lignin is recommended, as energy of combustion increased gradually from native to hot-water extracted miscanthus to recovered lignin. The native and pilot-scale hot-water extracted miscanthus samples were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using a cellulase-hemicellulase cocktail, to produce fermentable sugars. Hot-water extracted biomass released higher amount of glucose and xylose verifying benefits of HWE as an effective pretreatment for xylan-rich lignocellulosics. The recovered lignin was used to prepare a formaldehyde-free alternative to phenol-formaldehyde resins and as an antioxidant. Promising results were obtained for these lignin valorization pathways.

  14. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  15. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Chen; Yongquan Wen; Nanyang Li

    2016-01-01

    With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted t...

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  17. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - With a focus on crop production, consumption and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-09-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and population. Four scenarios (S1-S4) are constructed by making use of three of IPCC's shared socio-economic pathways (SSP1-SSP3) and two of IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5) and taking 2005 as the baseline year. Results show that, across the four scenarios and for most crops, the green and blue WFs per tonne will decrease compared to the baseline year, due to the projected crop yield increase, which is driven by the higher precipitation and CO2 concentration under the two RCPs and the foreseen uptake of better technology. The WF per capita related to food consumption decreases in all scenarios. Changing to the less-meat diet can generate a reduction in the WF of food consumption of 44% by 2050. In all scenarios, as a result of the projected increase in crop yields and thus overall growth in crop production, China will reverse its role from net VW importer to net VW exporter. However, China will remain a big net VW importer related to soybean, which accounts for 5% of the WF of Chinese food consumption (in S1) by 2050. All scenarios show that China could attain a high degree of food self-sufficiency while simultaneously reducing water consumption in agriculture. However, the premise of realizing the presented scenarios is smart water and cropland management, effective and coherent policies on water, agriculture and infrastructure, and, as in scenario S1, a shift to a diet containing less meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The hydrodynamics of plant spacing distance: Optimizing consumptive and non-consumptive water use in water-limited environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Howington, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of soil moisture in water-stressed environments is one of the primary factors controlling plant performance and overall plant community productivity and structure. The minimization of non-consumptive water loss, or water not utilized by plants (i.e. consumptive use), to bare soil evaporation is a key plant survival strategy and important agricultural consideration. Competitive (negative) and facilitative (positive) interactions between individual plants play a pivotal role in controlling the local coupled soil-plant-atmosphere hydrodynamics that affect both consumptive and non-consumptive water use. The strength of these two types of interactions vary with spacing distance between individuals. In a recent PNAS publication, we hypothesized that there exists a quantifiable spacing distance between plants that optimizes the balance between competition and facilitation, and hence maximizes water conservation. This study expands upon on our previous work, for which only a subset of the data generated was used, through the development and testing of a numerical model that can test a conceptual model we presented. The model simulates soil-plant-atmosphere continuum heat and mass transfer hydrodynamics, taking into account the complex feedbacks that exist between the near-surface atmosphere, subsurface, and plants. This model has been developed to explore the combined effects of subsurface competition and micro-climatic amelioration (i.e., facilitation) on local soil moisture redistribution and fluxes in the context of water-stressed environments that experienced sustained winds. We believe the results have the potential to provide new insights into climatological, ecohydrological, and hydrological problems pertaining to: the extensively used and much debated stress-gradient hypothesis, plant community population self-organization, agricultural best practices (e.g., water management), and spatial heterogeneity of land-atmosphere fluxes.

  19. Emergency cooling system with hot-water jet pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.O.W.

    1977-01-01

    The ECCS for a PWR or BWR uses hot-water jet pumps to remove the thermal energy generated in the reactor vessel and stored in the water. The hot water expands in the nozzle part (Laval nozzle) of the jet pump and sucks in coolant (borated water) coming from a storage tank containing subcooled water. This water is mixing with the hot water/steam mixture from the Laval nozzle. The steam is condensed. The kinetic energy of the water is converted into a pressure increase which is sufficient to feed the water into the reactor vessel. The emergency cooling may further be helped by a jet condenser also operating according to the principle of a jet pump and condensing the steam generated in the reactor vessel. (DG) [de

  20. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  1. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). 53.05-2 Section 53.05-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers...

  2. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  3. Mobilization strategy to overcome global crisis of water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzdaleva, Antonina; Goryunova, Svetlana; Marchuk, Aleksey; Borovkov, Valery

    2017-10-01

    Today, the global water consumption crisis is one of the main threats that can disrupt socio-economic and environmental conditions of life of the majority of the world’s population. The water consumption mobilization strategy is based on the idea of increasing the available water resources. The main direction for the implementation of this strategy is the construction of anti-rivers - the systems for inter-basin (interregional) water resources redistribution. Antirivers are intended for controlled redistribution of water resources from regions with their catastrophic excess to regions with their critical shortage. The creation of anti-rivers, taking into account the requirements of environmental safety, will form large-scale managed natural- engineering systems and implement the principle of sustainable development adopted by the United Nations. The aim of the article is to substantiate a new methodological approach to address the problem, where the implementation of this approach can prevent large-scale humanitarian and environmental disasters expected in the coming years.

  4. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated ... coffee or sugar are added before heating, the risk is greatly reduced. If superheating has occurred, a ...

  5. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  6. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  7. Energy Requirement and Comfort of Gas- and Electric-powered Hot-water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedemann, B.; Schmitz, G.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the continuous reduction in the specific heating energy demand of new buildings the power demand for hot-water supply increasingly dominates the heating supply of residential buildings. Furthermore, the German energy-savings-regulation 2000 (ESVO) is intended to evaluate the techniques installed such as domestic heating or hot-water supply within an overall energetic view of the building. Planning advice for domestic heating, ventilation and hot-water systems in gas-heated, low-energy buildings has therefore been developed in a common research project of the Technical University of Hamburg Harburg (TUHH) and four energy supply companies. In this article different gas-or electricity-based hot-water systems in one family houses and multiple family houses are compared with one another with regard to the aspects of comfort and power requirements considering the user's behaviour. (author)

  8. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  9. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  10. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  12. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  13. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  14. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  15. Today's virtual water consumption and trade under future water scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowsky, B; Gudmundsson, L; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Hoekstra, A Y

    2014-01-01

    The populations of most nations consume products of both domestic and foreign origin, importing together with the products the water which is expended abroad for their production (termed ‘virtual water’). Therefore, any investigation of the sustainability of present-day water consumption under future climate change needs to consider the effects of potentially reduced water availability both on domestic water resources and on the trades of virtual water. Here we use combinations of Global Climate and Global Impact Models from the ISI–MIP ensemble to derive patterns of future water availability under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations scenarios. We assess the effects of reduced water availability in these scenarios on national water consumptions and virtual water trades through a simple accounting scheme based on the water footprint concept. We thereby identify countries where the water footprint within the country area is reduced due to a reduced within-area water availability, most prominently in the Mediterranean and some African countries. National water consumption in countries such as Russia, which are non-water scarce by themselves, can be affected through reduced imports from water scarce countries. We find overall stronger effects of the higher GHG concentrations scenario, although the model range of climate projections for single GHG concentrations scenarios is in itself larger than the differences induced by the GHG concentrations scenarios. Our results highlight that, for both investigated GHG concentration scenarios, the current water consumption and virtual water trades cannot be sustained into the future due to the projected patterns of reduced water availability. (letter)

  16. Kinetics of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hot or Cold Moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O

    1960-11-15

    The set of neutron kinetic equations developed in this report permits the use of long integration steps during stepwise integration. Thermal relations which describe the transfer of heat from fuel to coolant are derived. The influence upon the kinetic behavior of the reactor of a number of parameters is studied. A comparison of the kinetic properties of the hot and cold moderators is given.

  17. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  18. Well-to-Wheels Water Consumption: Tracking the Virtual Flow of Water into Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, D. J.; Elgowainy, A.; Hao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy resources are fundamental to life on Earth and essential for the production of consumer goods and services in the economy. Energy and water resources are heavily interdependent—energy production consumes water, while water treatment and distribution consume energy. One example of this so-called energy-water nexus is the consumption of water associated with the production of transportation fuels. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can be used to compare the environmental impacts of different transportation fuels on a consistent basis. In this presentation, the expansion of GREET to perform life cycle water accounting or the "virtual flow" of water into transportation and other energy sectors and the associated implications will be discussed. The results indicate that increased usage of alternative fuels may increase freshwater resource consumption. The increased water consumption must be weighed against the benefits of decreased greenhouse gas and fossil energy consumption. Our analysis highlights the importance of regionality, co-product allocation, and consistent system boundaries when comparing the water intensity of alternative transportation fuel production pathways such as ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity with conventional petroleum-based fuels such as diesel and gasoline.

  19. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  1. The occurrence of legionalla in hot water distribution systems of some Finnish apartment and office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacheus, O M; Kuittinen, M H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Institute, Dept. Environ. Hyg. and Toxicol., Kuopio (FI)

    1991-01-01

    A project concerning the effect of water temperature and water quality on the microbiology of hot water distribution systems in Finnish apartment and office buildings was started in 1989. Here we report preliminary results on the occurrence of legionella. Samples were taken from showerpipes and from hot water mains before and after calorifiers of 17 buildings. Water temperature in the showerpipes ranged from 39 to 55 deg. C. Water temperature before calorifiers ranged from 40 to 52 deg. C and after them from 39 to 59 deg. C. Water temperature did not explain well the occurrence of legionalla. Legionalla pneumophila was isolated from six systems. The isolates were serogroups 1, 5 and 6. Legionella concentrations in positive samples ranged from 100 to 350 000 CFU/l. Highest concentrations of legionalla were obtained from showerpipes and hot water mains before calorifiers. Four legionella positive distribution systems were decontaminated by raising the water temperature to 60-70 deg. C and cleaning taps and showerheads, and flushing them twice a day. The numbers of legionellas in the hot water mains fell below detection limit (50 CFU/l) and their numbers also decreased in showerpipes. Decontamination failed in some parts of the distribution systems where water temperature remained below 60 deg. C. (author) 26 refs.

  2. Effective use of thermal energy at both hot and cold side of thermoelectric module for developing efficient thermoelectric water distillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Madhhachi, Hayder; Min, Gao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New distillation process using thermoelectric to assist evaporation/condensation. • Novel thermoelectric distillation system with reduced specific energy consumption. • Freshwater production by thermoelectrically assisted evaporation and condensation. - Abstract: An efficient thermoelectric distillation system has been designed and constructed for production of drinkable water. The unique design of this system is to use the heat from hot side of the thermoelectric module for water evaporation and the cold side for vapour condensation simultaneously. This novel design significantly reduces energy consumption and improves the system performance. The results of experiments show that the average water production is 28.5 mL/h with a specific energy consumption of 0.00114 kW h/mL in an evaporation chamber filled with 10 × 10 × 30 mm"3 of water. This is significantly lower than the energy consumption required by other existing thermoelectric distillation systems. The results also show that a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold side of the thermoelectric module is 42.3 °C, which led to temperature increases of 26.4 °C and 8.4 °C in water and vapour, respectively.

  3. The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores

    2016-08-01

    Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.

  4. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults—SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, w...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... 14.40. Bicarbonate (HCO3). 107.36. Table 3. Trace elements composition at Siloam Hot spring. Element. Concentration (μg/L) Element. Concentration (μg/L) Element. Concentration μg/L. Antimony. 0.0. Cobalt. 0.1. Strontium. 20.4. Arsenic. 0.3. Copper. 0.0. Tellurium. 0.0. Barium. 4.2. Iodine. 1.9. Thallium.

  6. Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, S F; Locas, M C; Duchesne, A; Restieri, C; Ismaïl, J; Lefebvre, B; Labbé, A C; Dion, R; Plante, M; Laverdière, M

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.

  7. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  8. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption - the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Karol; Hamerla, Miłosz; Szulc, Jowita; Koczyk, Halina

    2017-11-01

    Occupants' attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants' behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants' behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey's respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants' behavior (e.g. the use of heating control) are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  11. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  12. Determination of Hot Springs Physico-Chemical Water Quality Potentially Use for Balneotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs areas are attractive places for locals and foreigners either for excursion or for medical purposes such as for healing of various types of diseases. This is because the hot spring water is believed rich in salt, sulfur, and sulfate in the water body. For many thousands of years, people have used hot springs water both for cozy bathing and therapy. Balneotherapy is the term used where the patients were immersed in hot mineral water baths emerged as an important treatment in Europe around 1800s. In view of this fact, a study of hot springs water was performed with the objective to determine the concentration of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , S, SO 4 2- and Cl - in hot springs water around the State of Selangor, Malaysia. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to measure the concentrations of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and S meanwhile for SO 4 2- and Cl - anion, Ion Chromatography (IC) was used. The concentration of Na + obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 33.68 to 80.95 and 37.03 to 81.91 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding concentrations of K + ranged from 1.47 to 45.72 and 1.70 to 56.81 ppm. Concentrations of Ca 2+ ranged from 2.44 to 18.45 and 3.75 to 19.77 ppm. The concentration of S obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 1.87 to 12.41 and 6.25 to 12.86 ppm. The concentrations for SO 4 2- and Cl - obtained ranged from 0.15 to 1.51 ppm and 7.06 to 20.66 ppm for filtered samples. The data signified higher concentration of salt and other important nutrients in hot spring water. (author)

  13. Water jet intrusion into hot melt concomitant with direct-contact boiling of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Boiling of water poured on surface of high-temperature melt (molten metal or metal oxide) provides an efficient means for heat exchange or cooling of melt. The heat transfer surface area can be extended by forcing water into melt. Objectives of the present study are to elucidate key factors of the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions for the water jet injection into melt (Coolant Injection mode). Proposed applications include in in-vessel heat exchangers for liquid metal reactor and emergency measures for cooling of molten core debris in severe accidents of light water reactor. Water penetration into melt may occurs also as a result of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) in modes other than CI, it is anticipated that the present study contributes to understand the fundamental mechanism of the FCI process. The previous works have been limited on understanding the melt-water interaction phenomena in the water-injection mode because of difficulty in experimental measurement where boiling occurs in opaque invisible hot melt unlike the melt-injection mode. We conducted visualization and measurement of melt-water-vapor multiphase flow phenomena by using a high-frame-rate neutron radiography technique and newly-developed probes. Although limited knowledge, however, has been gained even such an approach, the experimental data were analyzed deeply by comparing with the knowledge obtained from relevant matters. As a result, we succeeded in revealing several key phenomena and validity in the conditions under which stable heat transfer is established. Moreover, a non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving free surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile, which is useful for elucidation of flow mechanism accompanied by a free surface like the present phenomena. (author)

  14. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  15. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  16. The real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water in tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouhaier, M C [Center de recherche du Genie Rural B.P. No. 10-2080 Ariana (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Our research experiments, have been conducted in the experiment station of `Oued souhil` situated under semi-arid climate in tunisia. We have studied the real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water compared the results with trees using water from well. For measuring the different parameters, to determine soil humidity and the soil apparent density, we have used respectively neutron lead `Neutron probe` and radiation gamma instruments. However, the experiments results conducted for 7 years from 1987 to 1993 - allowed the evaluation of the read consumption of orange trees using reused water and well water and the production quantity. The effect of using the two different quality of water with different irrigation systems have been also studied. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water in tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouhaier, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Our research experiments, have been conducted in the experiment station of 'Oued souhil' situated under semi-arid climate in tunisia. We have studied the real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water compared the results with trees using water from well. For measuring the different parameters, to determine soil humidity and the soil apparent density, we have used respectively neutron lead 'Neutron probe' and radiation gamma instruments. However, the experiments results conducted for 7 years from 1987 to 1993 - allowed the evaluation of the read consumption of orange trees using reused water and well water and the production quantity. The effect of using the two different quality of water with different irrigation systems have been also studied. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  19. Energy saving type area hot water supply system using heat of hot waste water from the sludge center as hot source for hot water; New energy rokko airando CITY. Surajjisenta karano onhaisuinetsu wo kyuyuyo netsugen ni riyosuru sho energy gata chiiki onsui kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Heat source of area hot water supply system in Rokko island City (man-made island) is heat of combustion at the sludge center (sludge incineration plant) in this island. Dehydrated sludge cakes (230ton/day) brought from seven sewage disposal plants in Kobe City is combusted (850degC) in the fluid bed hearth. Combustion gas washed in the scrubber, hot waste water after the washing give heat into heat transfer water in the first heat exchanger. Temperature being 64degC in summer and about 50degC in winter, this heat transfer water is sent into the second heat exchanger at every condominium building throughout the pipe line system circulating in the area. At each home, gas heater and hot water supply devices fitted, additional combustion is not necessary in summer but is used according to demand in other seasons. This hot water supply service has been carried out since 1988 and at present has been used by 3600 homes. Amount of supplying hot water being about 3000cu.m/day, saving is calculated roughly as 60% of gas for hot water supply. Fee for this system is 1500/yen/month uniformly for each home. 14 figs.

  20. Effect of hot water extracted hardwood and softwood chips on particleboard properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Tsai Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Thomas Amidon

    2014-01-01

    The affinity of particleboard (PB) to water is one of the main limitations for using PB in moisture-rich environments. PB dimensional stability and durability can be improved by reducing the available hydroxyl groups in wood through hemicellulose removal, for example, by hot water extraction (HWE), which increases wood resistance to moisture uptake. The resulting...

  1. Effect of hot water and gamma radiation on postharvest decay of grapefruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    'Marsh' seedless white Florida grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were inoculated after harvest with a spore suspension of green mold (Penicillium digitatum Sacc.) and treated by immersion in hot water (50°C for 5 min) or irradiation with gamma rays (250 Gy) from a Cobalt-60 source or a combination of the two treatments. Fruit were wrapped individually with shrink film after hot water treatment and before irradiation and were stored with wrapped control fruit at 24°C for 9 days. Fruit treated with hot water developed less green mold rot than untreated fruit, even when treatment was delayed for 72 hr after inoculation. Fruit irradiated after a delay of 2 hr, but not 24-72 hr, after inoculation developed less rot than untreated fruit. Development of green mold rot was not significantly different in fruit treated with both hot water and irradiation than with hot water alone. No visible injury or off-flavors were detected in any of the fruit. (author)

  2. Application of waterproof breathable fabric in thermal protective clothing exposed to hot water and steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Li, R.; Song, G.; Li, J.

    2017-10-01

    A hot water and steam tester was used to examine thermal protective performance of waterproof and breathable fabric against hot water and steam hazards. Time to cause skin burn and thermal energy absorbed by skin during exposure and cooling phases was employed to characterize the effect of configuration, placing order and properties of waterproof and breathable fabric on the thermal protective performance. The difference of thermal protective performance due to hot water and steam hazards was discussed. The result showed that the configuration of waterproof and breathable fabric presented a significant effect on the thermal protective performance of single- and double-layer fabric system, while the difference between different configurations in steam hazard was greater than that in hot water hazard. The waterproof and breathable fabric as outer layer provided better protection than that as inner layer. Increasing thickness and moisture regain improved the thermal protective performance of fabric system. Additionally, the thermal energy absorbed by skin during the cooling phase was affected by configuration, thickness and moisture regain of fabric. The findings will provide technical data to improve performance of thermal protective clothing in hot water and steam hazards.

  3. Effect of Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment on the chemical properties of liquorice root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra takzare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra that was extracted in the factory in Kerman province, pre-hydrolyzed and then chemical compositions (Extractives, Lignin content, Holocellulose percent, the hydrolysis process yield and weight loss of the waste was measured. Pre-hydrolysis process was done on the above mentioned waste by hot water, hot water followed by 0.5 percent sulfuric acid and also alone sulfuric acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent The samples were pre-hydrolyzed in hot water at 150 °C and 30, 60 and 90 minutes as well as in the mixture of hot water and 0.5 % sulfuric acid at 150 °C and 60 minutes and also in pure sulfuric acid, at 130 °C and at 60 minutes. The results showed that the pre-hydrolyzed treatment with hot water in 60 minutes had been favorable performance in the respect of weight loss, lignin content and holocellulose percent. Also, in the case of pre-treatment including sulfuric acid, 2% dose can be good selected option in term of maximum holocellulose percent and minimum lignin content so that it can be suggested to produce higher value-added products such as bioethanol from licorice root bid.

  4. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  5. Head-out immersion in hot water increases serum BDNF in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takeshi; Banno, Motohiko; Umemoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Tokio; Ishida, Yuko; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2017-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin. The present study investigated the effects of head-out water immersion (HOI) on serum BDNF concentrations. Eight healthy men performed 20 min head-out water immersion at 42 °C (hot-HOI) and 35 °C (neutral-HOI). These experimental trials were administered in a randomised order separated by at least 7 days. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at rest, immediately after the 20-min HOI, as well as at 15 and 30 min after the end of the HOI. Serum BDNF and S100β, plasma cortisol, platelet and monocyte counts, and core body temperature (T cb ) were measured. T cb was higher at the end of the hot-HOI and 15 min after hot-HOI (p hot-HOI. No change in T cb was recorded during neutral-HOI. BDNF level was higher (p hot-HOI and at 15 min after the end of hot-HOI, and returned to the baseline at 30 min after hot-HOI. S100β, platelet count and monocyte count remained stable throughout the study. Cortisol level was lower at the end of the hot-HOI and returned to pre-HOI level during the recovery period. BDNF and S100β, cortisol, and platelet and monocyte counts did not change throughout the neutral-HOI study. The present findings suggested that the increase in BDNF during 20-min hot-HOI was induced by hyperthermia through enhanced production, rather than by changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), platelet clotting mechanisms or secretion from monocytes.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  8. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  9. Targeted removal of ant colonies in ecological experiments, using hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R; King, Joshua R

    2007-01-01

    Ecological experiments on fire ants cannot, or should not, use poison baits to eliminate the fire ants because such baits are not specific to fire ants, or even to ants. Hot water is an extremely effective and specific killing agent for fire ant colonies, but producing large amounts of hot water in the field, and making the production apparatus mobile have been problematical. The construction and use of a charcoal-fired kiln made from a 55-gal. oil drum lined with a sand-fireclay mixture is described. An automobile heater fan powered from a 12-v battery provided a draft. Dual bilge pumps pumped water from a large tank through a long coil of copper tubing within the kiln to produce 4 to 5 l. of hot water per min. The hot water was collected in 20 l. buckets and poured into fire ant nests previously opened by piercing with a stick. The entire assembly was transported in and operated from the back of a pickup truck. Five experimental plots containing 32 to 38 colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were treated with hot water over a period of two years. All colonies on the treatment plots were treated twice with hot water early in 2004, reducing their numbers to zero. However new colonies were formed, and mature colonies expanded into the plots. A third treatment was made in the spring of 2005, after which fire ant populations were suppressed for over a year. Whereas the 5 control plots contained a total of 166 mostly large colonies, the 5 treatment plots contained no live colonies at all. Averaged over a two-year period, a 70% reduction in total number of colonies was achieved (P ants.

  10. 76 FR 33019 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e... Wilson Drilling Pad 1, ABR-201103014, Lemon Township, Wyoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 2.000...

  11. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  12. A run-around heat exchanger system to improve the energy efficiency of a home appliance using hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sung; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant portion of the energy consumed by many home appliances using hot water is used to heat cold supply water. Such home appliances generally are supplied water at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, and the supply water is normally heated to its maximum operating temperature, often using natural gas or an electrical heater. In some cases, it is possible to pre-heat the supply water and save energy that would normally be consumed by the natural gas or electrical heater. In order to save the energy consumed by an appliance using water heater, a run-around heat exchanger system is used to transfer heat from the ambient to the water before an electrical heater is energized. A simple model to predict the performance of this system is developed and validated, and the model is used to explore design and operating issues relevant to the run-around heat exchanger system. Despite the additional power consumption by the fan and pump of the run-around heat exchanger system, the experimental data and analysis show that for some systems the overall energy efficiency of the appliance can be improved, saving about 6% of the energy used by the baseline machine.

  13. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  14. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...

  15. Thermal performance assessment and improvement of a solar domestic hot water tank with PCM in the mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Furbo, Simon; Kong, Weiqiang

    2018-01-01

    To develop an appropriate solar DHW (Domestic Hot Water) tank for residential dwellings and put it into the European solar thermal market for promotion, thermal performance tests of PCM (Phase Change Material) hot water storage tanks of both a prototype and an improved version with a water volume...

  16. Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2011-04-01

    Hibiscus cold (25 °C) and hot (90 °C) water extracts were prepared in various time-temperature combinations to determine equivalent extraction conditions regarding their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Equivalent anthocyanins concentration was obtained at 25 °C for 240 min and 90 °C for 16 min. Total phenolics were better extracted with hot water that also resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity in these extracts. Similar polyphenolic profiles were observed between fresh and dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus acid and 2 derivatives were found in all extracts. Hydroxybenzoic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins constituted the polyphenolic compounds identified in hibiscus extracts. Two major anthocyanins were found in both cold and hot extracts: delphynidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. In general, both cold and hot extractions yielded similar phytochemical properties; however, under cold extraction, color degradation was significantly lower and extraction times were 15-fold longer. Hibiscus beverages are prepared from fresh or dried calyces by a hot extraction and pasteurized, which can change organoleptic, nutritional, and color attributes. Nonthermal technologies such as dense phase carbon dioxide may maintain their fresh-like color, flavor, and nutrients. This research compares the physicochemical and phytochemical changes resulting from a cold and hot extraction of fresh and dried hibiscus calyces and adds to the knowledge of work done on color, quality attributes, and antioxidant capacity of unique tropical products. In addition, the research shows how these changes could lead to alternative nonthermal processes for hibiscus.

  17. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun; Yang, Jieyi; Wan, Fang; Ge, Quan; Yang, Longlai; Ding, Zunliang; Yang, Dequan; Sacher, Edward R.; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a

  18. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  19. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Appiah Otoo, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water-sealed single-use plastic sleeves-has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa.

  20. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Stoler

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water-sealed single-use plastic sleeves-has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa.

  1. Hot water systems as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital and nonhospital plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B; Mezmar, L; Wing, E J; Dowling, J N

    1982-05-01

    Samples obtained from plumbing systems of hospitals, nonhospital institutions and homes were cultured for Legionella spp. by plating the samples directly on a selective medium. Swab samples were taken from the inner surfaces of faucet assemblies (aerators, spouts, and valve seats), showerheads, and shower pipes. Water and sediment were collected from the bottom of hot-water tanks. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 5, and 6 were recovered from plumbing fixtures of the hospitals and nonhospital institutions and one of five homes. The legionellae (7 to 13,850 colony-forming units per ml) were also present in water and sediment from hot-water tanks maintained at 30 to 54 degrees C, but not in those maintained at 71 and 77 degrees C. Legionella micdadei was isolated from one tank. Thus legionellae are present in hot-water tanks which are maintained at warm temperatures or whose design results in warm temperatures at the bottom of the tanks. We hypothesize that hot-water tanks are a breeding site and a major source of L. pneumophila for the contamination of plumbing systems. The existence of these bacteria in the plumbing systems and tanks was not necessarily associated with disease. The extent of the hazard of this contamination needs to be delineated.

  2. Hot water systems as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital and nonhospital plumbing fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadowsky, R.M.; Yee, R.B.; Mezmar, L.; Wing, E.J.; Dowling, J.N.

    1982-05-01

    Samples obtained from plumbing systems of hospitals, nonhospital institutions, and homes were cultured for Legionella spp. by plating the samples directly on a selective medium. Swab samples were taken from the inner surfaces of faucet assemblies (aerators, spouts, and valve seats), showerheads, and shower pipes. Water and sediment were collected from the bottom of hot-water tanks. Legionella pnenumophila serogroups 1.5, and 6 were recovered from plubming fixtures of the hospitals and nonhospital institutions and one of five homes. The legionellae (7 to 13,850 colony-forming units per ml) were also present in water and sediment from hot-water tanks maintained at 30 to 54/sup 0/C, but not in those maintained at 71 and 77/sup 0/C. Legionella micdadei was isolated from one tank. Thus legionellae are present in hot-water tanks which are maintained at warm temperatures or whose design results in warm temperatures at the bottom of the tanks. We hypothesize that hot-water tanks are a breeding site and a major source of L. pneumophila for the contamination of plumbing systems. The existence of these bacteria in the plumbing systems and tanks was not necessarily associated with disease. The extent of the hazard of this contamination needs to be delineated.

  3. Determination of arsenic and bromine in hot spring waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Y.; Kawai, S.; Oi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in hot spring waters have been determined by neutron activation analysis using 0.5 cm 3 of sample waters without any chemical pretreatment. The samples prepared for neutron irradiation were simply pieces of filter papers which were infiltrated with samples. With the results of satisfactorily high accuracy and precision, this analytical method was found to be very convenient for the determinations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in water at ppm to sub-ppm levels. (author)

  4. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  5. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  6. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than the worker permissible dose limits to values very higher than the permissible dose limits.

  7. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL) in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than th...

  8. System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

  9. Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic...... model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations...

  10. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  12. Promoting water consumption on a Caribbean island: An intervention using children's social networks at schools

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, S.C.M.; Smit, C.R.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their water consumption and behavioral intention to do so and, consequently, to decrease SSB consumption and the associated behavioral intention. In this study, the moderating effects of descriptive and in...

  13. Laser-fluorescence determination of trace uranium in hot spring water, geothermal water and tap water in Xi'an Lishan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenyan; Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2002-01-01

    Using the Laser-Fluorescence technique, an investigation was made, adopting the standard mix method, on trace uranium concentrations in hot spring water and geothermal water from Lishan region, and in tap water from some major cities in Shanxi province. Totally 40 samples from 27 sites were investigated. Measurement showed that the tap water contains around 10 -6 g/L of uranium, whose concentrations in both hot spring water and geothermal water are 10 -5 g/L. Most of samples are at normal radioactive background level, some higher contents were determined in a few samples

  14. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  15. Visualization study on hot particle-water interaction by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Sugimoto, Jun

    1999-01-01

    In relation to severe accident research of a nuclear reactor, an experiment was performed to simulate the premixing process in the vapor explosion by dropping hot stainless-steel particle into heavy water filled in a rectangular tank. The test rig consisted of a furnace and a rectangular tank (400 mm in height, 100 mm in width and 30 mm in depth) filled with heavy water kept at 4degC. The particle diameter used in the experiment were 6, 9 and 12 mm, and the initial temperature of the particle ranged from 600 to 1000degC. The behavior of gas dome generated by heated particle-subcooled water interaction was successfully visualized by high-frame-rate neutron radiography at the recording speed of 500 frames/s. Temporal and spatial variations of void fraction in the gas dome were measured by processing the images obtained. The void fraction measurement indicated the possibility that the ambient fluid was superheated by the hot particle-water contact and the vapor was generated in proportion to the particle size and temperature. Preliminary calculations of heat transfer from hot particle to water were conducted by using and empirical correlation for steady film boiling. Comparison between experimental and calculated results suggested that the transient heat transfer around the hot particle could not be explained only by steady film boiling but some other heat transfer mechanisms such as unsteady film boiling or hear transfer due to direct contact may be needed. (author)

  16. The effect of different stabilizers on the thermostability of electron beam crosslinked polyethylene in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanpour, S.; Khoylou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic pipes owing to their flexibility, great lengths, easier handling and absence of corrosion have been used for hot-water installations. Crosslinked high-density polyethylene is one of the best materials, being used for this purpose. The useful lifetime of unstabilized polyethylene is predicted to vary from a few months in hot water (30-40 deg. C) to almost two years in cool water (0-10 deg. C). Polyethylene was mixed with different types of stabilizers, in order to increase its durability. The samples were irradiated at 100-150 kGy. The amount of gel fraction and the changes in mechanical properties were measured. Irradiated samples were immersed in hot water for 1000 h. The thermostability of the specimens and the existence of antioxidants were measured by the induction time technique using differential scanning calorimetry at different time intervals. Furthermore, the changes in chemical structure and mechanical properties of the samples during their immersion in hot water were determined

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  18. Thermal neutron activation analysis of the water Zamzam at Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the water of the fourty five hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    Samples from the Islamic holy water Zamzam in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the famous mineral water of Hot Springs, in Hot Springs, Arkansas were analyzed for trace elements content by thermal neutron activation analysis. For Zamzam the concentration of 37 S, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 31 Si, 42 K, 24 Na and 82 Br were found, respectively, to be 3, 107, 11, 12, 4, 14, and 9 ppm; and that for Hot Springs Sample, replacing 82 Br with 27 Mg, are 2, 44, 2, 10, 1, 4, and 5 ppm. The experimental limit of detection for pure standards of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were found to be 8, 8x10 - 3, 6x10 - 2, and 2x10 - 4 μg, respectively. These nuclides were not detected in Zamzam, therefore, it was concluded that in Zamzam the concentration levels of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were below that of the limit of detection of pure standards. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Naked Gold Nanoparticles and hot Electrons in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Khashayar; Wang, Furong; Landry, Cody; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2018-05-08

    The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles). The solvated electrons are also found to decay rapidly compared with the decay kinetics in water. These very fast reactions with electrons in water could provide an enhanced oxidizing zone around gold nanoparticles and this could be the reason for radio sensitizing behavior of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy.

  20. Promotion of water consumption in elementary school children in San Diego, USA and Tlaltizapan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Moreno-Saracho, Jessica E; Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of water may help promote health and prevent obesity in children by decreasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. This study used evidence-based strategies to increase water consumption in Mexican-American and Mexican children. In 2012, two schools in San Diego, USA and two other in Tlaltizapan, Mexico were recruited to Agua para Niños (Water for Kids), a program designed to promote water consumption among elementary grade students. Guided by operant psychology, the intervention focused on school and classroom activities to encourage water consumption. One control and one intervention school in each country were included. Agua para Niños resulted in increases in observed water consumption and bottle possession among US and Mexican students. Teacher receptivity to the program was very positive in both countries. Agua para Niños yielded sufficiently positive behavioral changes to be used in a future fully randomized design, and to contribute to school nutrition policy changes.

  1. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    A cup of coffee or tea in our hand means manifold consumption of water at the production location. The objective of this study is to assess the global water footprint of the Dutch society in relation to its coffee and tea consumption. The calculation is carried out based on the crop water

  3. Imaging the Extended Hot Hydrogen Exosphere at Mars to Determine the Water Escape Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dolon

    2017-08-01

    ACS SBC imaging of the extended hydrogen exosphere of Mars is proposed to identify the hot hydrogen population present in the exosphere of Mars. Determining the characteristics of this population and the underlying processes responsible for its production are critical towards constraining the escape flux of H from Mars, which in turn is directly related to the water escape history of Mars. Since the hot atoms appear mainly at high altitudes, these observations will be scheduled when Mars is far from Earth allowing us to image the hot hydrogen atoms at high altitudes where they dominate the population. The altitude coverage by HST will extend beyond 30,000 km or 8.8 Martian radii in this case, which makes it perfect for this study as orbiting spacecraft remain at low altitudes (MAVEN apoapse is 6000 km) and cannot separate hot atoms from the thermal population at those altitudes. The observations will also be carried out when Mars is near aphelion, the atmospheric temperature is low, and the thermal population has a small scale height, allowing the clear characterization of the hot hydrogen layer. Another advantage of conducting this study in this cycle is that the solar activity is near its minimum, allowing us to discriminate between changes in the hot hydrogen population from processes taking place within the atmosphere of Mars and changes due to external drivers like the solar wind, producing this non-thermal population. This proposal is part of the HST UV initiative.

  4. 207 EFFECTS OF HOT AND COLD WATER PRE- TREATMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments used were immersion of the seeds in cold water (at room o temperature) for 8, 12 and ... goat, sheep and cattle in the semi arid regions due to the palatability of its ... visible signs of infestation were selected out of the total seeds ...

  5. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults-SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality. Monthly SMS questionnaires were sent out during one year to obtain longitudinal information as well. SMS showed to be a promising tool for collecting self-reported consumption, as most citizens could participate and the method showed high response rate. Data collected via the SMS questionnaire shows an average consumption of cold tap water of 4.9 glasses/24 h (one glass=200 ml), while the average estimates of cold tap water collected by the traditional methods range from 4.5 to 7.0 glasses/24 h. For statistical distributions, the mean daily consumption of cold tap water for the population was best fitted to a gamma distribution. About 70% of the cold tap water is consumed at home. Based on the results from the SMS study, we suggest using 1 l/day for the average adult population and 2.5 l/day for high consumers for risk assessment of cold tap water consumption. As 46% of the tap water consumed is heated, we suggest using 1.85 l/day for total tap water consumption.

  6. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  7. Efficacy of brown sugar flotation and hot water methods for detecting Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods are accepted procedures for detecting larval western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and could be included in a systems approach for showing the absence of larvae in fruit. The methods require cr...

  8. [Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

    2011-06-30

    The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given.

  9. Evaluations of different domestic hot water preparing methods with ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of Legionella in the DHW (domestic hot water) and assure the comfortable temperature, all substations were installed with supplementary heating devices. Detailed measurements were taken in the substations, including the electricity demand of the supplementary heating devices. To compare the energy and economic...

  10. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  11. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  12. NORTH PORTAL-HOT WATER CIRCULATION PUMP CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING NO.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to size a circulating pump for the service hot water system in the Shop Building 5006, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculation is based on Reference 5.2. This consists of determining the total heat transfer from the service hot water system piping to the surrounding environment. The heat transfer is then used to define the total pumping capacity based on a given temperature change in the circulating hot water as it flows through the closed loop piping system. The total pumping capacity is used to select a pump model from manufacturer's literature. This established the head generation for that capacity and particular pump model. The total length of all hot water supply and return piping including fittings is then estimated from the plumbing drawings which defines the pipe friction losses that must fit within the available pump head. Several iterations may be required before a pump can be selected that satisfies the head-capacity requirements

  13. Non-parametric method for separating domestic hot water heating spikes and space heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; de Saint-Aubain, Philip Anton; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a method for separating spikes from a noisy data series, where the data change and evolve over time, is presented. The method is applied on measurements of the total heat load for a single family house. It relies on the fact that the domestic hot water heating is a process generating...

  14. Pressurized hot water extraction of proteins from Sambucus nigra L. branches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Hohnová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, DEC (2017), s. 312-315 ISSN 0926-6690 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) R200311521 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : elderberry * pressurized hot water extraction * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  15. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  16. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. Verification test report on a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information is provided on the development, qualification and acceptance verification of commercial solar heating and hot water systems and components. The verification includes the performances, the efficiences and the various methods used, such as similarity, analysis, inspection, test, etc., that are applicable to satisfying the verification requirements.

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application is given. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  20. Optimization of China's centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having...

  1. Spattering and Crackle of Hot Cooking Oil with Water: A Classroom Demonstration and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel; Gauthier, Carmen V.

    2009-01-01

    Any student that has spent time in the kitchen knows that hot vegetable oil will pop and spatter violently after coming into contact with water such as that on the surface of foods (meat, fish, potatoes, etc.). This well-known effect can be used as an instructional resource to promote cooperative, active, and inquiry-based learning about central…

  2. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  3. MICROBIAL POPULATION OF HOT SPRING WATERS IN ESKİŞEHİR/TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan YILMAZ SARIÖZLÜ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  4. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at

  5. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  6. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx...

  7. Emerging issues in environmental cracking in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, P.L.; Morra, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research and engineering application efforts have been made to understand and manage environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in high temperature water. EAC is a complex phenomena involving dozens of important parameters, and important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. (author)

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  9. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  10. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  11. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  12. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  13. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  14. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  15. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently

  16. Costs for heating and hot water more than halved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how solar technology provides three-quarters of the water-heating energy requirements of a Swiss chalet in Riederalp. Advances in solar heating technology and the reduction of prices over the past few years are discussed. The installation, which uses vacuum-tube collectors that are integrated into the balustrades of the south-facing balconies of the three-storey chalet with holiday apartments, is briefly described. The partial financial support provided by the local authorities is discussed as is the word-of-mouth propaganda triggered off in this mountain resort which has led to increased interest in the combination of solar energy and traditional heating forms

  17. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolesi, Antonio; Nosvelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side demographic

  18. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  19. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, D. H.; Reeder, W. F.

    1986-12-15

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  20. Generation of Domestic Hot Water, Space Heating and Driving Pattern Profiles for Integration Analysis of Active Loads in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Pigazo, Alberto; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    at household level. Despite of the well-known flexible service that this kind of loads can provide, their flexibility is highly dependent of the domestic hot water and space heating demand and the driving habits of each user. This paper presents two methodologies employed to randomly generate thermal power......The changes in the Danish energy sector, consequence of political agreements, are expected to have direct impact in the actual power distribution systems. Large number of electric boiler, heat pumps and electric vehicles are planned and will cope large percentage of the future power consumption...... demand and electric vehicle driving profiles, to be used for power grid calculations. The generated thermal profiles relied on a statistical analysis made from real domestic hot water and space heating data from 25 households of a typical Danish residential area. The driving profiles instead were formed...

  1. Experimental and computational analysis of the hot water layer for the radiological protection in swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio.

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and rare simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. An experimental apparatus was constructed to study the hot water layer stability. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature field. A numerical analysis was conducted simultaneously. Regarding experimental results, representative temperature contour lines of the hot water layer were plotted. The temperature field was determined in the numerical analysis and temperature contour lines corresponding to those of the experimental results were plotted. The hot water layer kept stable for experimental and numerical results. Good agreement between the results for the hot water layer position and thickness has been obtained. (author). 21 refs., 40 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Production and Consumption of Hydrogen in Hot Spring Microbial Mats Dominated by a Filamentous Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Hiroyo; Everroad, R. Craig; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Microbial mats containing the filamentous anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans develop at Nakabusa hot spring in Japan. Under anaerobic conditions in these mats, interspecies interaction between sulfate-reducing bacteria as sulfide producers and C. aggregans as a sulfide consumer has been proposed to constitute a sulfur cycle; however, the electron donor utilized for microbial sulfide production at Nakabusa remains to be identified. In order to determine this electron donor and its source, ex situ experimental incubation of mats was explored. In the presence of molybdate, which inhibits biological sulfate reduction, hydrogen gas was released from mat samples, indicating that this hydrogen is normally consumed as an electron donor by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Hydrogen production decreased under illumination, indicating that C. aggregans also functions as a hydrogen consumer. Small amounts of hydrogen may have also been consumed for sulfur reduction. Clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the mats indicated the existence of several species of hydrogen-producing fermentative bacteria. Among them, the most dominant fermenter, Fervidobacterium sp., was successfully isolated. This isolate produced hydrogen through the fermentation of organic carbon. Dispersion of microbial cells in the mats resulted in hydrogen production without the addition of molybdate, suggesting that simultaneous production and consumption of hydrogen in the mats requires dense packing of cells. We propose a cyclic electron flow within the microbial mats, i.e., electron flow occurs through three elements: S (elemental sulfur, sulfide, sulfate), C (carbon dioxide, organic carbon) and H (di-hydrogen, protons). PMID:22446313

  3. Determination of the calibration characteristic of cylindrical hot-film probes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanu, D.; Weinberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    On measurement with hot-film probes in industrial water circuits one has to account for temperature fluctuations of the water during the duration of the experiment. In contrast with measurements in air the material data of water already change, and among them especially viscosity, at very small temperature variations. This occurs for water most markedly at room temperature, i.e. in the normal range for water. In the range from 20 0 C to 40 0 C the kinematical viscosity for water varies by a factor of four as compared with air. Variations of 1 0 C in water temperature in this range means an error of 1.0 per cent in velocity. For measurements in water it therefore is necessary to know the calibration characteristic of the probes. (orig./TK) [de

  4. The Performance Evaluation of a Hot Water Layer using a Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Kim, Heon Il; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Most of all research reactors are immerged in the deep water pool to be a ultimate heat sink. At the neighbor of the reactor, some radio-active matters, such as Na-24, Ar-41, Mg-27, Al-28 and etc, may be generated by the neutron irradiation. Those radio-active isotopes may rise up to the pool water surface through the natural convection flow, which can make the radioactivity in the reactor hall rise high enough to concern about the health of people working in the reactor hall. When the irradiation test facilities are loaded or unloaded during a normal operation, the highly radio-activated primary coolant may flow out through the irradiation test holes on the top of the reactor. This also may be a main hazard source to make the working environment of the reactor hall bad. Making a hot water layer 1.5 ∼ 2.0 m thick at the top of reactor pool would be a good measure to resolve that problem. The hot water layer is formed by a thermal stratification of pool water, which can effectively suppress the ascending of the radio-active matters and primary coolant flowing out from the IR holes. In this study a performance evaluation of the hot water layer is conducted by a computational fluid dynamics technique. According to the results of the prediction the hot water layer is formed well about 1.5 m thick, and can suppress the flows containing radioactive matters ascending from the neighbor of the reactor

  5. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  6. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  7. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edo, S; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  9. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  10. Effects of Misasa hot spring water on the growth of vegetables (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Kita, Makoto; Goto, Yukari; Ishimori, Yuu

    2011-11-01

    Tottori University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a joint study to investigate the effect of hot spring water on the growth of vegetable plants in 2009. The aim of the study is to examine a feasibility of producing a regionally special vegetable with considering the characteristics of the Misasa district, where radon hot springs are historically famous. This report illustrates the intermediate results obtained from the study carried out from 2009 to 2010. (1) Screening test: Eighteen plants were examined for screening. As the results, Misasa hot spring water used in the water culture enlarged the growths of 14 plants. Lastly, 9 plants were selected as candidate plants for further examinations. (2) Sample preparation: Plants sampled in the water culture were lyophilized and stored in a freezer for nutrio-physiological analyses to select the suitable plant from the 9 plants. (3) Examination in labor-saving cultivation: Preliminary examinations were performed with a large-scale system to establish a practical labor-saving water culture system. (author)

  11. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  12. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  13. Aeromonas salmonicida bacteremia associated with chronic well water consumption in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida is associated with superficial skin infections in fish. Its virulence factors allow colonization of water including surface water such as salt water, beaches, and fresh water wells. Moreover, it is possible for immunocompromised patients to develop invasive disease after chronic exposure to Aeromonas spp. through contaminated water. While there are reports of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia following water ingestion, there have been no reports of A. salmonicida bacteremia from water consumption. We report the first case of A. salmonicida bacteremia in a patient with diabetes due to chronic consumption of well water.

  14. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  15. [Use of social marketing to increase water consumption among school-age children in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (pwater consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.

  16. Low cycle fatigue behavior of hot-bent 347 stainless steel in a simulated PWR water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Seo, Myung Gyu; Jang, Chang Heui [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Soon [Central Research InstituteKorea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The effect of hot bending on the Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 347 SS was evaluated in Room temperature (RT) air and simulated Pressurized water reactor (PWR) water environments. The LCF life of 347 SS in PWR water was shorter than that in RT air for the as-received and hot-bent conditions. The LCF life of hot-bent 347 SS was relatively longer than that of the as-received condition in both RT air and PWR water. Microstructure analysis indicated development of dislocation structure near niobium carbide particles and increase in dislocation density for the hot-bent 347 SS. Such microstructure acted as barriers to dislocation movement during the LCF test, resulting in minimal hardening for the hot-bent 347 SS in RT air.

  17. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling and water heating is an important source of energy consumption, accounting for more than 20% of all energy consumption in manufacturing industry. It is clear that the development of heat recycling schemes and better structural design...

  18. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-02-01

    What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 20802 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  20. 76 FR 50536 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  1. 75 FR 71177 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of approved projects. SUMMARY: This notice... for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18...

  2. 75 FR 23837 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of approved projects. SUMMARY: This notice... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e...

  3. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p water, or use electric kettles if they boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  4. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A radioecological survey of eatable organisms for natural radionuclides in hot spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Huang, X.; Song, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a radioecological survey on some aquatic eatable organisms raised in a hot spring water, which is rich in 226 Ra, in Hubei Province; and on agricultural products irrigated with the water. The contents of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the water, some aquatic organisms, rice, vegetable an some other connected environmental samples were determined. The Concentration Factor (CF) or Transfer Coefficient (TC) from environmental medium into the eatable parts of the organisms for these nuclides as well as relative Distribution Factor (DF) was calculated. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  6. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation Industry Team (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  7. Water consumption in artificial desert oasis based on net primary productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the water consumption is the basis for water allocation in oasis. However, the method of estimating oasis water consumption remains a great challenge. Based on net primary productivity (NPP) and the transpiration coefficient, a vegetation water consumption model was developed to estimate the water consumption in desert oasis in ERDAS environment. Our results demonstrated that the ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Heihe oasis consumed water of 18.41×108-21.9×108 m3 for irrigation. Without taking precipitation into account, the water consumption in farmland accounted for 77.1%-77.8% (or about 13.97×108-16.84×108 m3) of the oasis vegetation water consumption and in the farmland protection system accounting for 22%. The growing period precipitation in desert environments is about 7.02×108 m3, and the total annual precipitation is about 8.29×108 m3. The modeled water consumption of desert vegetation, however, is about 4.57×108 m3, equivalent to only 65% of the growing period precipitation or 55% of the total annual precipitation. The modeled value equals to the cumulative precipitation of greater than 5 mm, which is defined as the effective precipitation in arid desert.

  8. Study of the effect of injecting cold or hot water on the operation of an oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusein-Zade, M A; Kolosovskaya, A K; Lebedev, V V; Chicherov, L G

    1968-11-01

    Several Soviet reservoirs contain either highly paraffinic or viscous crude oils, where recovery by an ordinary waterflood is poor. Under such circumstances, hot water injection appears to be advantageous. Hot water injection is advisable when: (1) the reservoir is heterogeneous and contains low-permeability sections; (2) the oil is saturated with paraffin at reservoir temperature; and (3) reservoir pressure is only slightly higher than static pressure. In Uzen field, hot water injection should recover 1.5 times more oil than would be recovered with cold water. Various problems involved with hot water injection such as equipment and methods of heating the water, transportation of the water of the wellhead, heat losses in transport of hot water, and well equipment for handling hot water are discussed. Calculations indicate that it should be possible to transport 100/sup 0/C water through a 5 km pipeline with a 4/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/C temperature drop; then deliver to the well bottom at a temperature of 90/sup 0/ to 92/sup 0/C.

  9. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-04-15

    Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.

  10. Research of the heat exchanging processes running in the heating and hot water supply loops of the coil heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Геннадіївна Шитікова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fuel-energy complex research has made it possible to disclose a huge power-saving potential in the municipal heat-and-power engineering. Power-and-resource-saving units and systems are becoming extremely urgent because of the power engineering crisis expansion. The self-adjusting heat supply system from the individual heating points with the heat-accumulating units and coil heat exchangers for independent heating and water supply systems has been examined. Coil heat exchangers are used in municipal heating for heat transfer (e.g. geothermal waters for the independent mains of the heating and hot water supply systems. The heat engineering calculation of the heating and accumulating unit with the coil heat exchanger for independent heat supply systems from individual heater was performed and experimental data were received at the experimental industrial unit under the laboratory conditions. The peculiarities of the flows in the intertubular space, their influence on the heat exchange and temperatures of the first and intermediate mains have been shown. It is important to know the processes running inside the apparatus to be able to improve the technical characteristics of the three-loop coil heat exchanger. The task solution will make it possible to save the materials consumption for the three-loop coil heat exchangers in the future

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  12. Hydrothermal pretreatment of wood by mild steam explosion and hot water extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna; Hasani, Merima; Theliander, Hans

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the two most common hydrothermal pre-treatments for wood - mild steam explosion and hot water extraction - both with the prospect of enabling extraction of hemicelluloses and facilitating further processing. Although both involve autohydrolysis of the lignocellulosic tissue, they are performed under different conditions: the most prominent difference is the rapid, disintegrating, discharge employed in the steam explosion opening up the structure. In this comparative study, the emphasis was placed on local composition of the pre-treated wood chips (of industrially relevant size). The results show that short hot water extraction treatments lead to significant variations in the local composition within the wood chips, while steam explosion accomplishes a comparably more even removal of hemicelluloses due to the advective mass transport during the explosion step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  14. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  15. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  16. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  17. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  18. A semi-analytical refrigeration cycle modelling approach for a heat pump hot water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaras, G.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of heat pump systems in applications like the production of hot water or space heating makes important the modelling of the processes for the evaluation of the performance of existing systems, as well as for design purposes. The proposed semi-analytical model offers the opportunity to estimate the performance of a heat pump system producing hot water, without using detailed geometrical or any performance data. This is important, as for many commercial systems the type and characteristics of the involved subcomponents can hardly be detected, thus not allowing the implementation of more analytical approaches or the exploitation of the manufacturers' catalogue performance data. The analysis copes with the issues related with the development of the models of the subcomponents involved in the studied system. Issues not discussed thoroughly in the existing literature, as the refrigerant mass inventory in the case an accumulator is present, are examined effectively.

  19. Chemical composition of hot spring waters in the Oita river basins, Oita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Tamio

    1988-01-30

    The source of the water from Oita River comes from the Kuju and Yubu-Tsurumi Volcanos, pouring into Beppu Bay. Its drainage area is 646 km/sup 2/ with a total length of 55 km. Hot springs are exist throughout most of the basin of the main and branches of Oita River. The chemical components of the hot springs in the Ota River basin -Yufuin, Yunotaira, Nagayu, Shonai/Hazama, and Oita City - have been analyzed. The equivalent of magnesium exceeds that of calcium in the carbonate springs of the above. Ca+Mg has positive correlations with HCO/sub 3/ in these carbonate springs. The water from these springs flows into the rivers and pours into Beppu Bay. The flow rate and chemical component concentration were measured at Fudai bridge. The concentration of chemical components having an average flow rate (30 ton/sec) were calculated. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs)

  20. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  1. Hot water immersion as a treatment for stonefish sting: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene F. Ongkili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The North Borneo state of Sabah is known worldwide for its beautiful islands and dive sites. Local hospitals deal with a number of marine-related injuries, including marine fauna envenomation by Scorpaenidae and Synanceiidae families of fish. We report a case of a tourist who presented with excruciating pain on her right foot after stepping on a stonefish. Despite being given parenteral analgesia and regional anaesthesia, the pain persisted. Her pain improved after she soaked her foot in hot water for about 30 minutes. No further treatment was required. We reviewed the literature comparing this inexpensive mode of treatment with other conventional treatments. We also explored the possibility of using hot water immersion for treatment of envenomation by other types of marine animals.

  2. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  3. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A.M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is developed by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air to fuel ratio in order to increase the system’s efficiency and to decrease the air pollution by providing....... The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water and the essential heat for warming the room and cooking....

  4. Optimization of hot water transport and distribution networks by analytical method: OPTAL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Alain; Caizergues, Robert; Moret-Bailly, Jean

    1977-06-01

    This report presents optimization studies of hot water transport and distribution network by minimizing operating cost. Analytical optimization is used: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Optimum diameter of each pipe is calculated for minimum network operating cost. The characteristics of the computer program used for calculations, OPTAL, are given in this report. An example of network is calculated and described: 52 branches and 27 customers. Results are discussed [fr

  5. Looking beyond installation: Why households struggle to make the most of solar hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Osman, Peter; Head, Lesley; Voyer, Michelle; Harada, Theresa; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines household responses to sustainability issues and adoption of energy saving technologies. Our example of solar hot water systems highlights the complexity and variability of responses to low-carbon technologies. While SHW systems have the potential to provide the majority of household hot water and to lower carbon emissions, little research has been done to investigate how SHW systems are integrated into everyday life. We draw on cultural understandings of the household to identify passive and active users of SHW systems and utilize a model that illustrates how technology use is dependent on inter-relations between cultural norms, systems of provision, the material elements of homes, and practice. A key finding is that households can be ill-prepared to make the most of their SHW systems and lack post-installation support to do so. Thus, informed and efficient use of SHW systems is hit and miss. Current policy is largely aimed at subsidizing purchase and installation on the assumption that this is sufficient for emission reduction goals. Our analysis provides evidence to the contrary. Areas we highlight for policy and practice improvement are independent pre-purchase advice, installation quality, and practical guidance on system operation and interaction with patterns of hot water use. - Highlights: • We interview Australian households about their experience with SHW systems. • We identify active and passive users of SHW. Active users tend to be dissatisfied with their system. • Passive users tend to be satisfied but have relatively inefficient systems. • Householders struggle to integrate hot water use and system operation, compromising efficiency. • Policy should encompass pre and post-installation support as much as incentives to install.

  6. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  7. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  8. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  10. Prototype Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (A collation of Quarterly Reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report is a collection of quarterly reports from Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company (SEMCO) covering the period from November 1976 through September 1977. SEMCO, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32248, is developing two prototype solar domestic hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. These two systems are being installed at sites in Loxahatchee, Florida (OTS-27) and Macon, Georgia (OTS-28).

  11. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    FUJII, Terushige; OHTA, Jun-ichi; AKAGAWA, Koji; NAKAMURA, Toshi; ASANO, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    From the viewpoint of energy conservation and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. Among energy conversion device,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine,i.e.,Hero's turbine. Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine are analytically and experimentally clarified for flashing expansion of initially subcooled hot water. It is found that: (a)there is an optimum number of revolutions at which maximum tubine e...

  12. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 照重; 太田, 淳一; 赤川, 浩爾; 中村, 登志; 浅野, 等

    1990-01-01

    From the view point of energy saving and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. As one of the energy conversion expanders,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine(that is,Hero's turbine). Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine using subcooled hot water as a working fluid are clarified analytically and experimentally. It is found that:(a)there is an optimum rotational speed at which maximum turbine efficie...

  13. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  14. Sustainable and reliable hot water in utility buildings; Duurzaam en verantwoord warmtapwater in utiliteitsgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    Non-residential buildings that have a high demand for hot water were formerly equipped with large, conventional central hot water systems. A growing awareness of the risk of legionella infection and the thermal strategy needed to prevent the growth of these bacteria have generally resulted in higher water temperatures. The water circulation rate in such systems has also been raised. An unexpected side effect of these measures has been an increase in transmission loss from the hot water pipe network. This loss often results in the heating of water in adjacent cold water pipes to a higher temperature than desired or permitted. There is no longer any advantage in designing large centralized systems with a high thermal output. The answer is to split a large system into a number of smaller ones, and thereby reduce the pipe lengths required to serve the draw-off points. [Dutch] In utiliteitsgebouwen met veel warmwatertappunten is in het verleden vaak een grote traditionele centrale warmtapwaterinstallaties geplaatst. Door de groeiende bekendheid over de gevaren van de legionellabacterie en het thermisch beheer van de warmtapwaterinstallatie om legionellagroei te voorkomen, is de warmtapwatertemperatuur in de regel nu hoger ingesteld dan voorheen. Ook is de circulatie in de warmtapwaterinstallaties opgevoerd. Het bijkomend nadelig effect van deze maatregelen is dat het transmissieverlies van het warmtapwaternet groter is geworden, waardoor in veel gevallen de naastgelegen koudwaterleidingen onbedoeld warmer worden dan gewenst en toegestaan. Het heeft dus geen voordeel meer een grote centrale installatie met relatief veel warmteafgifte te ontwerpen. Het antwoord: splits de grote installatie in meerdere kleine installaties en beperk daardoor de noodzakelijke leidinglengtes naar de tappunten.

  15. Projecting the Water and Electric Consumption of Polytechnic University of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Mercado, Joseph; Bautista, Lincoln A.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates water and electric consumption in Polytechnic University of the Philippines - Sta. Mesa using a time series analysis. The researchers analyzed the water and electric usage separately. Electric consumption was examined in terms of pesos and kilowatt-hour, while water consumption was analyzed in pesos and cubic meter. The data are gathered from the university limited only from January 2009 to July 2015 in a monthly based record. The aim is to forecast the water and electric usage of the university for the years 2016 and 2017. There are two main statistical treatments that the researchers conducted to be able to formulate mathematical models that can estimate the water and electric consumption of the said school. Using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), electric usage was forecasted in peso and kilowatt-hour, and water usage in peso and cubic meter. Moreover, the predicted values of the consumptions are compared to the actual values using Paired T-test to examine whether there is a significant difference. Forecasting accurately the water and electric consumption would be helpful to manage the budget allotted for the water and electric consumption of PUP - Sta. Mesa for the next two years.

  16. Decomposing the Decoupling of Water Consumption and Economic Growth in China’s Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China’s textile industry (TI has occurred along with rising water consumption. The goal of industrial sustainable development requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption. This paper examines the relationship between water consumption and economic growth, and the internal influence mechanism of China’s TI and its three sub-sectors: the manufacture of textiles (MT sector, the Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel, Footwear, and Caps (MTWA sector, and the manufacture of chemical fibers (MCF sector. A decoupling analysis was performed and the Laspeyres decomposition method was applied to the period from 2001 to 2014. We showed that six of the fourteen years analyzed (2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2013 exhibited a strong decoupling effect and three of the fourteen years (2005, 2007, and 2010 exhibited a weak decoupling effect. Overall, China’s TI experienced a good decoupling between economic growth and water consumption from 2002 to 2014. For the three sub-sectors, the MTWA sector experienced a more significant positive decoupling than the MT and MCF sectors. The decomposition results confirm that the industrial scale factor is the most important driving force of China’s TI water consumption increase, while the water efficiency factor is the most important inhibiting force. The industrial structure adjustment does not significantly affect water consumption. The industrial scale and water use efficiency factors are also the main determinants of change in water consumption for the three sub-sectors.

  17. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  18. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  19. Oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption optimization at hot stove of Usiminas blast furnace 3; Otimizacao do consumo de oxigenio e GCO nos regeneradores do alto forno 3 da Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervino, Marco Antonio; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usiminas, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the model developed for determination of the correlation between oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption in the hot stove at Usiminas blast furnace 3, the applicability and results obtained. (author)

  20. Relation Decomposing between Urbanization and Consumption of Water-Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, J., , Dr; Jiang, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water resources and energy, important subsystems of city, are the basic guarantee for the normal operation of city, which play an important role to brace the urbanization. The interdependence between them are increasing along with the rapid development of China's economy. The relationship between urbanization and consumption of energy and water have become the focal point of the scholars, but the research have more attention to the impact of urbanization on two subsystems separately, and do not reveal the effects of urbanization on the water-energy nexus. Thus, there is little consideration upon the different characteristics of China's several regions in water and energy consumption in urbanization. In this paper, the STIRPAT model is built to reveal the relationship between urbanization and the consumption of water and energy. Also, the influence of urbanization on different main body of water and energy consumption are discussed. The different regional main factors of water and energy in the process of urbanization are identified through water and energy panel data of China's thirty provinces. Finally, through the regression analysis of total water consumption data of agriculture, industry, service industry with total energy consumption data, the relationship of water and energy in the process of urban development are analyzed.

  1. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  2. Effects of Disinfection on Legionella spp., Eukarya, and Biofilms in a Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletta-Denat, Marina; Frère, Jacques; Onillon, Séverine; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Robine, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Legionella species are frequently detected in hot water systems, attached to the surface as a biofilm. In this work, the dynamics of Legionella spp. and diverse bacteria and eukarya associated together in the biofilm, coming from a pilot scale 1 system simulating a real hot water system, were investigated throughout 6 months after two successive heat shock treatments followed by three successive chemical treatments. Community structure was assessed by a fingerprint technique, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). In addition, the diversity and dynamics of Legionella and eukarya were investigated by small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal cloning and sequencing. Our results showed that pathogenic Legionella species remained after the heat shock and chemical treatments (Legionella pneumophila and Legionella anisa, respectively). The biofilm was not removed, and the bacterial community structure was transitorily affected by the treatments. Moreover, several amoebae had been detected in the biofilm before treatments (Thecamoebae sp., Vannella sp., and Hartmanella vermiformis) and after the first heat shock treatment, but only H. vermiformis remained. However, another protozoan affiliated with Alveolata, which is known as a host cell for Legionella, dominated the eukaryal species after the second heat shock and chemical treatment tests. Therefore, effective Legionella disinfection may be dependent on the elimination of these important microbial components. We suggest that eradicating Legionella in hot water networks requires better study of bacterial and eukaryal species associated with Legionella in biofilms. PMID:22820326

  3. Elution behavior into the high pressured hot water and the organizational change of granite and andesite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Isao; Miyazaki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; kuriyakawa, Michio

    1988-04-01

    In the development of a high temperature rock system, the interaction between the rock and hot water which occurs in a reservoir provides big effects. The decline of the strength and the increase of the permeability are caused by the elusion of the rock on the surface of the hydraulic fracture and the redeposition of the eluded material also causes to narrow or close the channel. However, studies concerning the organizational change of the rock by the hot water or the material change associated with the organizational change are small in number. In this research, Inaba granite and Honkomatsu andesite were treated in heat with an autoclave in order to investigate the organizational changes of the rocks and at the same time, the elusion behavior of the rocks into the hot water was investigated by examining chemical components which were eluded into the fluid and the components remaining on the rock surface. The decreased amount per specific surface area due to the autoclave treatment is the order of 10/sup -3/(gcm/sup -2/) for both rocks and changeable depending upon the heating temperature and the kind of rock. As a result of the analysis of the fluids in the autoclave after the heat treatment, the Si concentration of Honkomatsu andesite was higher in the same temperature and the heating time. (2 figs, 3 tabs, 6 refs)

  4. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  5. The isotope geochemistry of hot springs gases and waters from Coromandel and Hauraki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.; Giggenbach, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses have been made on carbon dioxide,methane and water from warm and hot springs in the Coromandel Peninsula and Hauraki Plains. Most of the waters are isotopically unaltered meteoric waters. Methane δ 1 3C values vary widely, from -30%o to -72%o. Warm springs in swamps at Maketu and Kerepehi have microbial methane probably added to the water near the surface. Puriri, Okoroire and Miranda springs produce thermally derived methane, and the Hot Water Beach gas is similar to the Kaitoke gas in chemistry and isotopic composition but altered by shallow microbial oxidation. The Te Aroha gas, though, is not inconsistent with a geothermal origin and the boiling springs and oxygen-isotope altered water are further evidence for high temperatures. Other spring gases have mixtures of thermogenic and microbial methane and none are closely similar to major NZ geothermal CH 4 composition. CO 2 , which is usually present in lesser amounts than N 2 , has isotopic values which suggest a geothermal origin at Te Aroha and Maketu, but otherwise indicates a crustal origin. The dominance of N 2 implies that the fluid flows are tectonic fracture flow rather than geothermal. 3 He/ 4 He data gives further evidence of no major contribution from magmatic material except at Maketu, on the NW boundary of the TVZ. (author). 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available that affect people in developing and developed countries. The challenges outlined are; poor governance, water scarcity, sanitation and climate change. Nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced to help provide potable water and water for general assumption...

  7. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  8. Analysis of Blue and Green Water Consumption at the Irrigation District Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of virtual water and water footprint bring a new perspective for water management. Previous studies mainly focus on one type of water and the relationship between water footprint and water availability. In this study, three indicators were proposed to show water consumption and the influences of virtual water flows at the Hetao irrigation district, China, during 2001–2010, considering both blue and green water. Results indicate that the ratio of blue water footprint and blue water availability was 0.642 in 2010 and the value for green water was 0.148, coefficients on contribution of regional production on consumption in other areas were about 0.9, and coefficients on influences of trades from other regions to the district on regional water consumption were 0.528 (blue water and 0.433 (green water, respectively. Government should promote water pricing policies that can encourage the adoption of irrigation technologies and water-saving practices. Besides, the adjustment of the crop sowing date or the cultivation of new varieties may be helpful in using more rainfall. Lastly, a compensation mechanism for virtual water export should be built in the future, and virtual water importing can be advocated. Before actions are taken, the possible influences and related constraints should be considered.

  9. Potential in hot and tepid waters in the department of Landes - Present and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauquin, J.P.; Godard, J.M.; Tronel, F.; Pouchan, P.

    1994-12-31

    This study of the geothermal waters potentialities in the Landes department has selectively reviewed the areas of interest in respect of geology and hydrogeology and gives a picture of their potential valorizations. In the Landes, the exploitation of geothermal fields outside of the use for spa bathing was mainly geared to conventional applications (flats heating, swimming pools). Today geothermal potentialities can be extended to balneotherapy, horticultural and market garden greenhouses, fish farming and wood drying. The study performed delivers a data base to be used by the investor to define and to accurately devise their projects of hot and tepid waters utilization. (Authors). 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Imitation experiment for water-treatment by heat of solar collector and hot pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yuanzong; Liu Shuqing; Pang Heding; Zhao Zhongxin; Zhang Biguang; Wang Xiping; Huo Guangqing

    1997-01-01

    The author presents an imitation experiment in which solar collector and hot pump are jointed for supplying heat to evaporate cleaned water and diffuse it into air. The effects of the temperature and the quantity of supplying air, and circumstance conditions on evaporation quantity are studied. The ratio of evaporating quantity to consuming energy, the efficiency of evaporation, average efficiency of solar collector and supplying heat coefficient of heat pump are measured. The experiment shows that this supplying heat model is practicable, economic and efficient for treating cleaned water

  11. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  12. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay; Rafael Selvaggio Viñas; Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2015-01-01

    The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmenta...

  13. Determinants of domestic water consumption in a growing urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    principal factor hampering proper and adequate water demand estimation especially in the developing nations. (Ayanshola et al., 2010). Metering of water use which could have helped in efficient water use is not in use in. Nigeria, thus bases for proper definition of the actual water use, according to Bilthas (2008) is lacked.

  14. Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Bozorghi, Somayyeh; Heshmati, Maryam Khakbaz

    2018-04-01

    Hot-air drying is a slow energy-extensive process. Use of intermittent microwave (IM) in hot-air (HA) drying of food products is characterized with advantages including reduced process time, energy saving, and improved final quality. In this study, the effect of IM-HA drying following an osmotic dehydration (OD) pretreatment was analyzed on qualitative and quantitative properties of the output (i.e. effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), shrinkage, bulk density, rehydration and energy consumption). Temperature and airflow velocity were fixed at 40°C and 1 m/s, respectively. The process variables included sucrose solution concentration at five levels (0 or control, 10, 30, 50 and 70 w/w%), microwave output power at four levels (0 or control, 360, 600 and 900 W), and pulse ratio at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Use of osmotic dehydration in combination with IM-HA drying reduced the drying time by up to about 54%. Increasing the osmotic solution concentration to 30% and using higher pulse ratios increased the Deff. The lowest shrinkage and bulk density as well as the highest rehydration belonged to the 900 W microwave power and pulse ratio of 4. The lowest energy consumption was observed when using the 900 W power level, showing 63.27% less consumption than the HA drying method.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  16. Numerical investigation of wet-bulb effectiveness and water consumption in one-and two-stage indirect evaporative coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshari, Shahab; Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Fathipour, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wet bulb effectiveness of indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems are 76–81%. • Dimensionless water evaporation rate decreases as the primary air flow rate increases. • Water evaporation rate increases with increase of inlet dry bulb temperature. - Abstract: In this study, three configuration for two-stage indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems (IEC/IEC) were proposed (Type A, Type B and Type C) to determine what configuration produces a better wet-bulb effectiveness (or better energy-saving). For this purpose, six cities with a variety of hot weather conditions with the dry-bulb in range of 31.9–46.66 °C were selected. Results show that under these three configuration, the wet-bulb effectiveness of Type A, Type B and Type C varies over ranges of 62–68%, 76–81% and 85–91% respectively, whereas the effectiveness of a one stage IEC varies over a range of 54–60%. There is a common misconceive belief in the concept of water evaporation rate of an evaporative cooling system, which were fueled by many articles; this belief is, if a cooler consumes less water it is an environmentally friendly cooler for dry areas. A more accurate and practical definition is proposed in this article named Dimensionless Water Evaporation Rate (DWER). The numerical results showed that Type B is the optimum configuration, because of a range of 4–24% DWER saving could be obtained by Type B in comparison with Type C whereas Type B increases the product air up to 32%. As well as IEC, in a counter-flow regenerative evaporative cooler the DWER decreases as the primary airflow rate increases whereas water consumption increases. Moreover, using Type B the index of thermal comfort was investigated which showed that Type B could meet thermal comfort condition in two climatic zones of temperate-dry and hot-dry.

  17. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  18. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favila R, E.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, I.; Mireles G, F.

    2010-10-01

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of 222 Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure 222 Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 μS/cm. The 222 Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  19. Water Use in the United States Energy System: A National Assessment and Unit Process Inventory of Water Consumption and Withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Emily; Sanders, Kelly T

    2018-06-05

    The United States (US) energy system is a large water user, but the nature of that use is poorly understood. To support resource comanagement and fill this noted gap in the literature, this work presents detailed estimates for US-based water consumption and withdrawals for the US energy system as of 2014, including both intensity values and the first known estimate of total water consumption and withdrawal by the US energy system. We address 126 unit processes, many of which are new additions to the literature, differentiated among 17 fuel cycles, five life cycle stages, three water source categories, and four levels of water quality. Overall coverage is about 99% of commercially traded US primary energy consumption with detailed energy flows by unit process. Energy-related water consumption, or water removed from its source and not directly returned, accounts for about 10% of both total and freshwater US water consumption. Major consumers include biofuels (via irrigation), oil (via deep well injection, usually of nonfreshwater), and hydropower (via evaporation and seepage). The US energy system also accounts for about 40% of both total and freshwater US water withdrawals, i.e., water removed from its source regardless of fate. About 70% of withdrawals are associated with the once-through cooling systems of approximately 300 steam cycle power plants that produce about 25% of US electricity.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water... previous step. The final water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place. b. The test...

  1. Investigating the impact of training on water consumption saving in Khorramabad in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bazdar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the water demand management there is a certain relationship between attitudes, beliefs, actual behavior of consumers and water consumption. There are many factors in a positive attitude towards water use. By providing the right information should changed the beliefs and attitudes of citizens towards drinking water habits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of training on water consumption in the Khorramabad city in 1394. Methods: This study was conducted in the Lorestan province and in the Khorramabad city. That the effect of training on water saving was evaluated for 60 households with high water consumption levels. The selected households were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control and treatment. In the treatment group was taught how to properly use in a regular basis and periodically meter reading for both groups took .This study was performed for 6 months in summer and autumn in 1394. Results: The results of this study showed that households in 1393 and 1394 respectively in the control group consumed an average per capita consumption of 60.78 ± 253.7 and 62.35 ± 208 liters per day per person. The average consumption per capita in 93 and 94 in the treatment group was respectively 192.14 ±51.2 and 171.9 ± 48.57 liters per day per person. As well as due to intervention education decrease 9-11% water consumption. Conclusion: The basic results of this study to raise public awareness about the water crisis, stresses and the importance of water using education can affect to water use. It can also promote a culture of right consumption and to change people’s behavior towards water use.

  2. Operational Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Electricity Generation Technology in China—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As two indispensable resources for human development, energy and water are closely related. China, as the world’s largest consumer of electricity, is also experiencing very serious water shortages. Understanding the water consumption intensity in various types of electric power production technologies according to China’s national conditions is a prerequisite for understanding the potential impact of electrical power production on water resources. Therefore, following the steps of a meta-analysis, this paper provides a literature review on operational water withdrawal and consumption factors for electricity generation technology in China. We observed that 50% of water consumption for electricity generation was for coal power, whereas there was no research on the water consumption intensity of natural gas power generation, and a shortage of studies on water intake during electrical power production. The average water consumption intensity of hydropower is the largest. The results indicate that compared with other fuel types, hydropower is not a sustainable energy with respect to water conservation, and the study of hydropower applications should be improved in China.

  3. Microbial growth in domestic hot water systems with special emphasis on connections to district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, S [Lund Institute of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (SE); Krongaard Kristensen, K [Regional Food and Hygiene Authority, Koebenhavns Amt Vest, Glostrup (DK)

    1991-01-01

    It is by now well-estalished that domestic hot water systems often harbour Legionella bacteria. Measurements into a number of Danish systems have revealed many other bacteria, among them the thermophilic species Thermus, which is predominantly found on heating coils, where local temperatures are higher. This bacterium not only hampers heat transfer due to fouling, but may also be pathogenic, due to release of endotoxins. Its presence may explain a wide spectrum of symptoms experienced by people after hot baths, such as rashes and itching. The paper summarizes these findings, and on this basis engineering and microbiological considerations are presented in an effort to find ways of future control strategies that go beyond Legionella prevention. Special attention is given to district heating connections, in which low supply and return temperatures are generally wanted in the primary circuit. (author) 16 refs.

  4. Domestic hot water use study, multi-family building energy monitoring and analysis for DHW system sizing criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty New York City multifamily building combined steam heating and domestic hot water (DHW) plants were instrumented for monitoring (mostly hourly) apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures and burner on-off times. In nine of these buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil ampersand boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing (tempering) valve and on the circulating return line. The project's objectives are to develop comprehensive operating data on combined DHW and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications and for improving operating procedures. DHW requirements in multi-family buildings are currently calculated on the basis of questionable standards. These new, more precise DHW flow data result in a better basis for sizing than existed heretofore. There is a critical need for improved specifications and performance in newly constructed and renovated buildings. Better system choices among various instantaneous generation and storage scenarios will result in savings derived from smaller initial equipment investments as well as more energy efficient operations. The data being generated define figures for DHW energy use so that more reliable and accurate predictions of savings can be calculated. This paper presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15- and 60-minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels. This project is sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The results of this research are being reviewed for inclusion in a revision of DHW guidelines for the next edition of the ASHRAE Handbook

  5. Discussion on problems of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water at an uranium deposit in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiangguo

    2003-01-01

    According to scientific research and technical summing up reports, based on the field investigation, the possible problems of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water during the exploitation of an uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are discussed. The preliminary analysis and discussion on the distribution, distribution regularity, causes of formation and correlation of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water at the uranium deposit are carried out

  6. Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detaile...... programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems"....

  7. Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Final report, CDRL/PA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    The design plan for a solar process hot water system for a textile dye beck at Riegel Textile Corporation's LaFrance, South Carolina, facilities is presented. The solar system consists of 396 GE model TC 100 evacuated tube collector modules arranged in a ground mounted array with a total collector area of 6680 square feet. The system includes an 8000-gallon hot water storage tank. Systems analyses, specification sheets, performance data, and an economic evaluation of the proposed system are presented. (WHK)

  8. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  9. Promoting water consumption on a Caribbean island: An intervention using children's social networks at schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, S.C.M.; Smit, C.R.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their

  10. Freely accessible water does not decrease consumption of ethanol liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    In experimental studies, liquid ethanol diets are usually given as the sole source of nutrition and fluid. Two series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of freely accessible water on the consumption of ethanol liquid diets in male Long-Evans rats. The consumption of diets and subsequent learning ability of rats were first examined in animals given twice-daily saline injections. One group received diet with no access to water for 12 weeks and was subsequently given free access to water with diets for an additional 12 weeks. A second group was given diet and water ad libitum for 24 weeks. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose-containing diet (with or without ad libitum access to water). Subsequently, rats were tested for active avoidance learning. In the first 12 weeks, animals with ad libitum access to water drank more diet than did water-restricted animals, and previously water-restricted animals increased their diet consumption when access to water was freely available. All water-restricted animals, in both ethanol- and sucrose-treated groups, showed deficits in active avoidance learning, whereas only ethanol-treated animals in groups with ad libitum access to water showed learning deficits. In the second series of experiments, the effect of saline injections on diet consumption, both in the presence and absence of water, was examined. Although saline injections were associated with decreased diet consumption, there was no effect of free access to water. No differences in blood ethanol concentration were seen among groups. Findings obtained from both series of studies demonstrate that consumption of a Sustacal-based liquid ethanol diet does not decrease if access to water is freely available.

  11. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  12. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  13. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Heath, G; Hallett, K C

    2012-01-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  14. Analysing the dynamics of transitions in residential water consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.M.; Blokker, E.J.M.; Buscher, C.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Water infrastructure is inherently a socio-technical system. Rapidly changing urban trends and long-term uncertainties make water infrastructure management complex. This paper analyses the dynamics of residential water consumption in the Netherlands since 1900. During this period, different drivers

  15. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  16. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  17. Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Pahlow, Markus; Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies

  18. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place for non-metered faucets, or two decimal...

  19. Promoting Water Consumption on a Caribbean Island: An Intervention Using Children's Social Networks at Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Saskia C M; Smit, Crystal R; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-04-10

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their water consumption and behavioral intention to do so and, consequently, to decrease SSB consumption and the associated behavioral intention. In this study, the moderating effects of descriptive and injunctive norms were tested. A cluster randomized controlled trial was completed in schools (mean age = 11 years ± SD = 0.98; 54% girls). Children were assigned to the intervention group (IG; n = 192) or control group (CG; n = 185). IG children were exposed to peer influencers promoting water consumption and CG children were not. Regression analyses showed that water consumption increased for IG children with a high injunctive norm score ( p = 0.05); however, their intention to consume more water remained unchanged ( p = 0.42). Moreover, IG children showed a decrease in SSB consumption ( p = 0.04) and an increase in their intention to consume less SSB ( p = 0.00). These findings indicate that SNIs are a promising instrument for health behavioral changes for Aruba and other islands in the Caribbean region.

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  1. Improved plutonium consumption in a pressurised water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Bergeron, J.

    1995-01-01

    Our goal is to improve plutonium consumption in a dedicated PWR while limiting the production of minor actinides. For lack of proving the system's reliability, we stay in reasonable configurations in which power capacity is maintained. Three ways are investigated in determining the fuel assembly: (a) standard geometry with mixed oxide in enriched uranium base; (b) standard geometry with plutonium oxide included in an inert matrix; (c) new geometry with special all-plutonium consumption varies from 50 kg/TWeh (a) up to 140 kg/TWeh (b) (upper point). The new geometry with special all plutonium rods mixed with standard uranium rods appears promising with a burning rate of 92 kg/TWeh for a production of minor actinides of 10 kg/TWeh. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m 3 GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  3. WATER CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR DURING DRY SEASON AT PAMOR HAMLET, GROBOGAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipung Purwanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought disaster in Grobogan District takes place almost every year. This research aims to study the household water consumption behavior during dry season. Precipitation data, soil map, and land cover map were collected. Historical information was also collected with snowball sampling and depth interview. Public perceptions were collected through Focus Group Discussion. Interview and direct observation were conducted to discover people behaviour in collecting water. Survey was also done to collect data on water consumption. Historical information, people perception and people behaviour were done by qualitative analysis. Regresion analysis was applied for water consumption with amount of household member and cattles ownership. The result were: 1 The drought occured due to water deficit from May to October, although annual water balance was surplus, 2 the history of drought has been going on for long time. 3 Searching and collecting water from river or other places were an obligation, 4 When their wells dry up, they search for water from water springs within 1-3 kilometers distance, 5 The amount of water consumption each day was 0.453 m3/people/day; 0.283 m3/cow/day, and 0.044 m3/goat/day. This numbers can be applied as an input of the development plan of infrastructure to address drought and supply water needs in case of drought.

  4. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  5. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  6. Factors Influencing Water Consumption in Multifamily Housing in Tempe Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Central to the "Smart Growth" movement is that compact development reduces vehicle miles traveled, carbon emissions, and water use. Empirical efforts to evaluate compact development have examined residential densities, but have not distinguished decreasing lot sizes from multifamily apartments as mechanisms for compact development. Efforts to link design features to water use have emphasized single-family at the expense of multifamily housing. This study isolates the determinants of water use in large (>50) unit apartment complexes in the city of Tempe, Arizona. In July 2007, per-bedroom water use increased with pool area, dishwashers, in-unit laundry facilities, and irrigated landscaping. We explain nearly 50% of the variation in water use with these variables. These results inform public policy for reducing water use in multifamily housing structures, suggesting strategies to construct and market "green" apartment units.

  7. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption – the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandurski Karol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupants’ attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants’ behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants’ behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey’s respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants’ behavior (e.g. the use of heating control are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  8. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  9. Consumption of Water for Household Needs and the Affecting Factors at Banyudono Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of drinking water for a community is different from one area to the other. This is normally influenced by the population development, socio-economic, cultural, and physical conditions mainly related to the supply of drinking water and how to exploit it. Banyudono district is an area located in the regency of Boyolali. The development of this area depends on Boyolali City and Kartasura district. Such a location enables the area to have a process of the physical and socio-economi developments. In addition, it has an influence upon social behaviour to consume water. This research is aimed at knowing the average consumption of household need and analyzing the factors influencing the utilization of water as drinking water. The result of this research indicated that 1 the average consumption of a human being for drinking water was 79,37 litter a day. It means that the onsumption of a human being for drinking ater generally ranged from 60 to 80 litter a day; 2 most of the ater was consumed to meet basic needs such as cooking, drinking, bathing, and washing; 3 the difference of the average consumption was influenced by the kind of water source and how to exploit it; 4 a parameter of the most significant socio-economic condition that took effect on the average consumption for drinking water was the parameter of income with correlation of 0.362 and the significant level of 0.01.

  10. Simulation of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump with domestic hot water heating systems using HVACSIM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ping; Yang, Hongxing [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Spitler, Jeffrey D. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Oklahoma State University (United States); Fang, Zhaohong [Ground Source Heat Pump Research Center, Shandong University of Architecture and Engineering, Jinan (China)

    2008-07-01

    A hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) with domestic hot water (DHW) supply system has been proposed in this paper for space cooling/heating and DHW supply for residential buildings in hot-climate areas. A simulation model for this hybrid system is established within the HVACSIM+ environment. A sample system, applied for a small residential apartment located in Hong Kong, is hourly simulated in a typical meteorological year. The conventional GCHP system and an electric heater for DHW supply are also modeled and simulated on an hourly basis within the HVACSIM+ for comparison purpose. The results obtained from this case study show that the HGCHP system can effectively alleviate the imbalanced loads of the ground heat exchanger (GHE) and can offer almost 95% DHW demand. The energy saving for DHW heating is about 70% compared with an electric heater. This proposed scheme, i.e. the HGCHP with DHW supply, is suitable to residential buildings in hot-climate areas, such as in Hong Kong. (author)

  11. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  12. Performance analysis of proposed hybrid air conditioning and humidification–dehumidification systems for energy saving and water production in hot and dry climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, S.A.; Elattar, H.F.; Fouda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems are proposed. • Effects of operating parameters on the proposed systems are investigated. • System configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, power saving and total cost saving are identified. - Abstract: Performance of integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems proposed for hot and dry climatic regions is theoretically investigated. The proposed systems aim to energy saving and systems utilization in fresh water production. Four systems with evaporative cooler and heat recovery units located at different locations are proposed, analyzed and evaluated at different operating parameters (fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outside air wet bulb temperature). Other two basic systems are used as reference systems in proposed systems assessment. Fresh water production rate, A/C cooling capacity, A/C electrical power consumption, saving in power consumptions and total cost saving (TCS) parameters are used for systems evaluations and comparisons. The results show that (i) the fresh water production rates of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outdoor wet bulb temperature, (ii) powers saving of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio and supply air temperature and decreasing of the outdoor air wet bulb temperature, (iii) locating the evaporative cooling after the fresh air mixing remarkably increases water production rate, and (vi) incorporating heat recovery in the air conditioning systems with evaporative cooling may adversely affect both of the water production rate and the total cost saving of the system. Comparison study has been presented to identify systems configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, highest power saving and highest total cost saving. Numerical correlations for

  13. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50°C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  14. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella in Shell Eggs by Hot Water Immersion and Its Effect on Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Gurtler, Joshua B; Jones, Deana R; Bigley, Andrew B W

    2016-03-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strains PT8 C405, 2 (FSIS #OB030832), and 6 (FSIS #OB040159). Eggs were immersed in a circulating hot water bath for various times and temperatures. Come-up time of the coldest location within the egg was 21 min. SE was reduced by 4.5 log at both hot water immersion treatments of 56.7 C for 60 min and 55.6 °C for 100 min. Decimal reduction times (D-values) at 54.4, 55.6, and 56.7 °C were 51.8, 14.6, and 9.33 min, respectively. The z-value was 3.07 °C. Following treatments that resulted in a 4.5 log reduction (56.7 °C/60 min and 55.6 °C/100 min), the surviving population of SE remained static during 4 wk of refrigerated storage. After processing under conditions resulting in 4.5 log reductions, the Haugh unit and albumen height significantly increased (P eggs by 4.5 log, but also significantly affected several egg quality characteristics. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Hot water in the Long Valley Caldera—The benefits and hazards of this large natural resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Bergfeld, Deborah; Howle, James F.

    2018-03-26

    The volcanic processes that have shaped the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California have also created an abundant supply of natural hot water. This natural resource provides benefits to many users, including power generation at the Casa Diablo Geothermal Plant, warm water for a state fish hatchery, and beautiful scenic areas such as Hot Creek gorge for visitors. However, some features can be dangerous because of sudden and unpredictable changes in the location and flow rate of boiling water. The U.S. Geological Survey monitors several aspects of the hydrothermal system in the Long Valley Caldera including temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Constituents and Toxicity of Hot Water Extract from Red Maple Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Naamwin R; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-06-01

    The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg/ml, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

  19. Exergy efficiency enhancement of MSF desalination by heat recovery from hot distillate water stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Weshahi, Mohammed A.; Anderson, Alexander; Tian, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    This detailed exergy analysis of a 3800 m 3 /h Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) desalination plant is based on the latest published thermodynamics properties of water and seawater. The parameters of the study were extracted from a validated model of MSF desalination using IPSEpro software. The results confirmed that the overall exergy efficiency of the unit is lower than would be desirable at only 5.8%. Exergy inputs were destroyed by 55%, 17%, 10%, 4.3%, and 14% respectively, in the heat recovery stages, brine heater, heat rejection stages, pumps and brine streams disposal. Moreover, the detail of the study showed that the lowest exergy destruction occurs in the first stage, increasing gradually in heat recovery stages and sharply in heat rejection stages. The study concludes that recovering the heat from the hot distillate water stages can improve unit exergy efficiency from its low 5.8% to a more economical 14%, with the hot water parameters suitable for powering other thermal systems such as absorption chiller and multi-effect desalination

  20. Application of an intermediate LWR for electricity production and hot-water district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a 400 MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) for supplying district heat to the Minneapolis/St. Paul area. A total of three CNSS reactor sites, located various distances from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area load center, are evaluated. The distance from the load center is determined by the credited safety features of the plant design. Each site is also evaluated for three different hot water supply/return temperatures providing a total of nine CNSS study cases. The cost of district heat delivered to the load center is determined for each case

  1. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  3. Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important issue is the to use of urban space to increase the number and size of green areas. As well as another important issue is to work towards maintaining these spaces. One such important effort is to meet the water needs of plants. Naturally, the amount of water needed by plants depends on the species.

  4. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  5. Investigating the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khozondar, Balkess; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih

    2017-11-01

    The water-energy intertwined relationship has recently gained more importance due to the high water consumption in the energy sector and to the limited availability of the water resources. The energy and electricity demand of Turkey is increasing rapidly in the last two decades. More thermal power plants are expected to be built in the near future to supply the rapidly increasing demand in Turkey which will put pressure on water availability. In this study, the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants is investigated. The main objectives of this study are to identify the amount of water consumed to generate 1 kWh of electricity for each generation technology currently used in Turkey and to investigate ways to reduce the water consumption at power plants expected to be built in the near future to supply the increasing demand. The various electricity generation technology mixture scenarios are analyzed to determine the future total and per generation water consumption, and water savings based on changes of cooling systems used for each technology. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) program is used to determine the minimum water consuming electricity generation technology mixtures using optimization approaches between 2017 and 2035.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  8. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  9. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Bhatia, Hitasha Kaur; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  10. A system model for assessing vehicle use-phase water consumption in urban mobility networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Jeff; Bras, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Water consumption is emerging as an important issue potentially influencing the composition of future urban transportation networks, especially as projected urban populations are expected to outpace water availability and as alternative fuels and vehicles are being implemented in such regions. National and State policies aimed at reducing dependence on imported fuels and energy can increase local production of fuels and energy, impacting demand on local water resources. This article details the development of a model-based assessment on water consumption and withdrawal pertaining to the use-phase of conventional and alternative transportation modes based on regional energy and fuel production. An extensive literature review details water consumption from fuel extraction, processing, and distribution as well as power plant operations. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering principles and the Systems Modeling Language, a multi-level, multi-modal framework was developed and applied to the Metro Atlanta transportation system consisting of conventional and alternative vehicles across varying conditions. According to the analysis, vehicles powered by locally produced biofuels and electricity (assuming average local grid mix for charging) consume more water than locally refined gasoline and CNG-powered vehicles. Improvements in power plant technologies, electricity generation (e.g., use of solar and wind versus hydro power) and vehicle efficiencies can reduce such water consumption significantly. Total water withdrawal for each vehicle and fuel is significantly greater than water consumption. - Highlights: ► A model was made to assess the local water consumption due to conventional and alternatively powered vehicles in a city. ► Water consumed in the local and external production of various fuels was reviewed and included. ► Basic battery electric and biofuel powered vehicles consume on average more water than conventional gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG

  11. Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Rodríguez, A.; González-Gil, A.; Izquierdo, M.; Garcia-Hernando, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water (DHW) installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) with refrigerant R-134a, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1.1 kW and collectors with a total area of 5.6 m 2 . The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid. The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days. Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1.7 and 2.9, while the DHW tank temperature over the course of the study is 51 °C. -- Highlights: ► The study aims to present a new theoretical model and an experimental validation. ► The experimental COP vary between 1.7 and 2.9 (max. condensation temperature 57 °C). ► The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 50%. ► The useful surface area varies between 50% and 85% of the total surface. ► The system stops if conditions exceed the maximum value of the absorbed heat.

  12. Influences on residential water consumption in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... gies, centred upon tiered pricing, seasonal restrictions and leak elimination. ... Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is the pro- motion and ..... Analysis. The results of a correlation test for traditional determinants and.

  13. Water hardness and the effects of Cd on oxygen consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... regulatory and acid-base balance disturbances (Goss and Wood,. 1988). An increase in .... tanks, tap water and from a borehole at the farm Rooipoort 29 ..... lethal environmental copper exposure on the energy metabolism of.

  14. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  15. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Potential application of solar thermal systems for hot water production in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Yang Hongxing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation results of conventional solar water heater (SWH) systems and solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) systems for hot water production in Hong Kong. An economic comparison and global warming impact analysis are conducted among the two kinds of solar thermal systems and traditional water heating systems (i.e. electric water heaters and towngas water heaters). The economic comparison results show that solar thermal systems have greater economic benefits than traditional water heating systems. In addition, conventional SWH systems are comparable with the SAHP systems when solar fractions are above 50%. Besides, analysis on the sensitivity of the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) indicates that the towngas boosted SWH system has the greatest potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction with various solar collector areas and the electricity boosted SWH system has the comparative TEWI with the SAHP systems if its solar fraction is above 50%. As for SAHP systems, the solar assisted air source heat pump (SA-ASHP) system has the least global warming impact. Based on all investigation results, suggestions are given on the selection of solar thermal systems for applications in Hong Kong

  18. Interactive Effects of Corrosion, Copper, and Chloramines on Legionella and Mycobacteria in Hot Water Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, William J; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-06-20

    Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components that undermine engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1100 times more hydrogen (H 2 ) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions. H 2 is a favorable electron donor for autotrophs and causes fixation of organic carbon that could serve as a nutrient for OPs. Dosed cupric ions acted as a disinfectant in stratified stagnant pipes, inhibiting culturable Legionella and biofilm formation, but promoted Legionella growth in pipes subject to convective mixing. This difference was presumably due to continuous delivery of nutrients to biofilm on the pipes under convective mixing conditions. Chloramines eliminated culturable Legionella and prevented L. pneumophila from recolonizing biofilms, but M. avium gene numbers increased by 0.14-0.76 logs in the bulk water and were unaffected in the biofilm. This study provides practical confirmation of past discrepancies in the literature regarding the variable effects of copper on Legionella growth, and confirms prior reports of trade-offs between Legionella and mycobacteria if chloramines are applied as secondary disinfectant residual.

  19. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  20. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.