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Sample records for hot strip mill

  1. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  2. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  3. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  4. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Makarov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  5. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhin, U.; Belskij, S.; Makarov, E.; Koinov, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal on the run-out roller table of a continuous wide hot-strip mill is presented. The mathematical model takes into account the heat generation during the polymorphic γ → α transformation of super cooled austenite phase and the influence of chemical composition on the physical properties of the steel. The model allows the calculation of modes of accelerated cooling of strips on the run-out roller table of a continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20 °C for 98.5 % of the strips from low-carbon and low-alloyed steels. key words: hot rolled, wide-strip, accelerated cooling, run-out roller table, polymorphic transformation, mathematical modeling

  6. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  7. Rolling process simulation of a pair-crossed hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaojie; Xu Jianzhong; Liu Xianghua; Wang Guodong

    2000-01-01

    Process simulation can help optimize the operating parameters aiming to improve the quality of rolled products. In this paper, software in Visual Basic language is developed to simulate the hot rolling process of a pair-crossed mill. The strip temperature is calculated by considering air cooling, water cooling, heat generation and conduction.The production parameters including rolling speeds, resistance to deformation, rolling forces, drive torques and powers are evaluated by mathematical models and their parameter identification support tools. The deformation of roll stack is calculated by influential function method. The roll temperature and expansion are calculated by finite differential method, and the roll wear is described by empirical formula. Based on these calculations as well as the effect of heredity is taken into account, the strip crown and flatness then can be obtained. The results show that the simulation software has friendly user interface, high accuracy and practicability. It can be served as a basis for the mill design and optimization of process parameters to acquire high quality of hot rolled strip. (author)

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  10. Service behaviour of high speed steel rolling rolls used in hot strip mills; Comportamiento en servicio de los aceros rapidos utilizados en la fabricacion de los cilindros de trabajo de los trenes de bandas en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziadi, A.; Belzunce, F. J.; Rodriguez, C.; Fernandez, I.

    2005-07-01

    Work rolls used in hot strip mills may be able to carry out severe actions: very high thermal stresses and wear, along with mechanical stresses due to normal rolling loads, which develop in the presence of cracks, produced by the former actions. The microstructure and the mechanical behaviour (strength and toughness) of high speed steels, which recently have been introduced in this applications, were studied in this work in comparison with high chromium cast irons. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    OpenAIRE

    J. Y. Jang; Y. W. Lee; C. N. Lin; C. H. Wang

    2015-01-01

    The reheating furnace is used to reheat the steel slabs before the hot-rolling process. The supported system includes the stationary/moving beams, and the skid buttons which block some thermal radiation transmitted to the bottom of the slabs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the steel slab temperature distribution during the heating period. A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab ha...

  12. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...

  13. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries. The known alternative in such condition is ... Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked plates ... used a locally manufactured stainless steel hollow mill, ... head ‑ plate hole” assembly as a mono‑block single unit. In.

  14. Application of powder metallurgy and hot rolling processes for manufacturing aluminum/alumina composite strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabihi, Majed, E-mail: m.zabihi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: toroghi@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafyei, Ali, E-mail: shafyei@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-10

    In this study, aluminum matrix composites (AMC) with 2, 4, 6 and 10 wt% alumina were produced using powder metallurgy (PM), mechanical milling (MM) and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) techniques; then, this was followed by the hot-rolling process. During hot rolling, AMCs with 6 and 10 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fractured whereas strip composites with 2 and 4 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced successfully. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes and tensile and hardness tests, respectively. Microscopic evaluations of the hot-rolled composites showed a uniform distribution of alumina particles in the aluminum matrix. It was found that with increasing alumina content in the matrix, tensile strength (TS) and hardness increased and the percentage of elongation also decreased. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate aluminum/alumina interfaces and fracture surfaces of the hot rolled specimens after tensile test. SEM observations demonstrated that the failure mode in the hot-rolled Al-2 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite strips is a typical ductile fracture, while the failure mode was shear ductile fracture with more flat surfaces in Al-4 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} strips.

  15. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lundkvist, M. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Albrecht, S.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Huber, D.; Justesen, A. B.; Karoff, C.; Aguirre, V. Silva; Van Eylen, V.; Vang, C.; Arentoft, T.; Barclay, T.; Bedding, T. R.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high...

  16. Improvements in electric power system of the effluent treatment station of the hot strip mill no. 2 (ETE/LTQ-2); Melhorias no sistema de alimentacao eletrica da estacao de tratamento de efluentes do laminador de tiras a quente n. 2 (ETE/LTQ-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Hamilton Geraldo; Pinho, Wilson Pereira de; Martinez, Flavio Costa; Rocha, Carlos Eduardo da [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Distribuicao de Energeticos

    2011-12-21

    The ETE/LTQ-2 is an vital area for the production process of coiled hot rolled strip. Any problems in the operating functions in this station results in the loss production in the mill. This is what occurred in 2007 January when there was problems in the termination of the power cables from the transformer of the circuit B-521 and in December in the same year, when there was an explosion of the oil cutout switch, which resulted in serious injury to the production process of the LTQ-2. Thus, began a search process for solutions to improve the reliability and security of the electrical system that meets the motor pumps of the ETE/LTQ-2 to reduce the risk of interference in the production process in result of the electrical faults. In 2010 June, was completed the implementations of the solutions to improve this performance, which consisted of repowering the two power circuits of the ETE/LTQ-2 (B-521 and B-570), replacement of the transformers for others of higher power (3.75 MVA to 5.5 MVA) of both circuits and replacement the oil cutout switch for SF6 circuit breakers. (author)

  17. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  18. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  19. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy, Quick, and Safe Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Amit; Garg, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective.

  20. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundkvist, M S; Kjeldsen, H; Albrecht, S; Davies, G R; Basu, S; Huber, D; Justesen, A B; Karoff, C; Silva Aguirre, V; Van Eylen, V; Vang, C; Arentoft, T; Barclay, T; Bedding, T R; Campante, T L; Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elsworth, Y P; Gilliland, R L; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Kawaler, S D; Lund, M N; Metcalfe, T S; Miglio, A; Rowe, J F; Stello, D; Tingley, B; White, T R

    2016-04-11

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths.

  1. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  2. A model for prediction of profile and flatness of hot and cold rolled flat products in four-high mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhagen, Christian; Mauk, Paul Josef

    2018-05-01

    For flat rolled products, the thickness profile in the transversal direction is one of the most important product properties. For further processing, a defined crown of the product is necessary. In the rolling process, several mechanical and thermal influences interact with each other to form the strip shape at the roll gap exit. In the present analysis, a process model for rolling of strip and sheet is presented. The core feature of the process model is a two-dimensional stress distribution model based on von Karman's differential equation. Sub models for the mechanical influences of work roll flattening as well as work and backup roll deflection and the thermal influence of work roll expansion have been developed or extended. The two-dimensional stress distribution serves as an input parameter for the roll deformation models. For work roll flattening, a three-dimensional model based on the Boussinesq problem is adopted, while the work and backup roll deflection, including contact flattening is calculated by means of finite beam elements. The thermal work roll crown is calculated with help of an axisymmetric numerical solution of the heat equation for the work roll, considering azimuthal averaging for the boundary conditions at the work roll surface. Results are presented for hot rolling of a strip in a seven-stand finishing train of a hot strip mill, showing the calculated evolution of the strip profile. A variation of the strip profile from the first to the 20th rolled strip is shown. This variation is addressed to the progressive increase of work roll temperature during the first 20 strips. It is shown that a CVC® system can lead to improvements in strip profile and therefore flatness.

  3. PERSPECTIVES OF MODERNIZATION OF WIRE MILL OF HOT ROLLING 150 AT RUP “BMZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gontarj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The offered modernization of the mill presumes the increase of capacity of the small-sort wire mill of hot milling 150 approximately till 40% at reduction of cost of the produced on it rolled wire by 15%, that will allow in future as well to grow the volumes of hardware production.

  4. Dominant root locus in state estimator design for material flow processes: A case study of hot strip rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Jaromír; Zítek, Pavel; Skopec, Pavel; Knobloch, Jan; Vyhlídal, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to achieve a constrained estimation of process state variables using the anisochronic state observer tuned by the dominant root locus technique. The anisochronic state observer is based on the state-space time delay model of the process. Moreover the process model is identified not only as delayed but also as non-linear. This model is developed to describe a material flow process. The root locus technique combined with the magnitude optimum method is utilized to investigate the estimation process. Resulting dominant roots location serves as a measure of estimation process performance. The higher the dominant (natural) frequency in the leftmost position of the complex plane the more enhanced performance with good robustness is achieved. Also the model based observer control methodology for material flow processes is provided by means of the separation principle. For demonstration purposes, the computer-based anisochronic state observer is applied to the strip temperatures estimation in the hot strip finishing mill composed of seven stands. This application was the original motivation to the presented research. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating anisotropic material with a stationary hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Félix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity

  6. Aluminum-graphite composite produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zamora, M.I.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum-graphite composites were produced by mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. Graphite content was varied between 0 and 1 wt.%. Al-graphite mixtures were initially mixed in a shaker mill without ball, followed by mechanical milling in a High-energy simoloyer mill for 2 h under argon atmosphere. Milled powders were subsequently pressed at ∼950 MPa for 2 min, and next sintered under vacuum for 3 h at 823 K. Finally, sintered products were held for 0.5 h at 823 K and hot extruded using indirect extrusion. Tension and compression tests were carried out to determine the yield stress and maximum stress of the materials. We found that the mechanical resistance increased as the graphite content increased. Microstructural characterization was done by transmission electron microscopy. Al-O-C nanofibers and graphite nanoparticles were observed in extruded samples by transmission electron microscopy. These nanoparticles and nanofibers seemed to be responsible of the reinforcement phenomenon

  7. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  8. Topographic hot spot before descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty is associated with postoperative hyperopic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate topographic "hot spots" on the anterior corneal surface before Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and their effects on postoperative visual acuity and hyperopic shift. Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with bullous keratopathy, who underwent DSAEK were studied. We defined a hot spot as a focal area with relatively high refractive power on the anterior corneal surface in eyes with bullous keratopathy. Refractive spherical equivalent, keratometric value, and corneal topography were retrospectively evaluated using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Hot spots were identified in 11 eyes (42.3%) before DSAEK and disappeared in 9 eyes of these eyes (81.8%) at 6 months after DSAEK. AS-OCT revealed focal epithelial thickening in the same areas as the hot spots. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual acuity between eyes with and without hot spots (P > 0.05). The keratometric value of the anterior corneal surface significantly flattened from 45.7 ± 2.7 diopters (D) before DSAEK to 44.2 ± 2.7 D 1 month after DSAEK in eyes with hot spots (P = 0.01), whereas in eyes without hot spots, there were no significant differences in the keratometric values before and after DSAEK. At 6 months, the refractive change was +1.1 ± 1.3 D in eyes with hot spots and -0.2 ± 0.6 D in eyes without hot spots (P = 0.034). In eyes with focal epithelial thickening, topographic hot spots on the anterior corneal surface were observed using AS-OCT. The hot spots disappeared after DSAEK and had no influence on the postoperative visual acuity.

  9. Hot gas stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide from simulated and actual in situ retort waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study proved that ammonia and carbon dioxide could be removed from retort water by hot gas stripping and that overall transfer rates were slower than for physical desorption alone. The ammonia in solution complexed with the carbonate species with the result that the CO/sub 2/ transfer rates were linked to the relatively slower desorption of NH/sub 3/ from solution. Ionic reactions in the liquid phase limited the quantity of free NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, thus decreasing the driving forces for mass transfer. The retort water exhibited foaming tendencies that affected the interfacial area which should be taken into account if a stripping tower is considered on a larger scale. Transfer unit heights were calculated for the process conditions studied and correlated such that scaleup to increased capacities is possible.

  10. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  11. Hot coiled steel strip with elevated niobium content for pipelines and its weldability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozda, J.; Zeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Examinations and tests have been performed on thermomechanically rolled and hot coiled 14 mm thick steel strips with a low carbon and elevated niobium content, assigned for the production of pipelines. There were examined basic mechanical properties of the steels, brittle fracture resistance of the parent material and simulated HAZ's, susceptibility to cold cracking as well as properties of MMA and GMA welded joints. It was found that the tested steels are characterized by a good weldability, are not prone to cold cracking, have a low brittle fracture transition temperature and the HAZ of welded joints shows a sufficient high brittle fracture resistance. (authors)

  12. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  13. ANALYSIS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF PRECIPITATES IN ULTRA-THIN HOT STRIP OF PLAIN LOW CARBON STEEL PRODUCED BY COMPACT STRIP PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Yu; Y.L. Kang; H.B. Dong; D.L. Liu; J. Fu

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigated the mechanism of precipitation and its influence upon prop-erties of ultra-thin hot strips of low carbon steel produced by CSP techniques usingexperiment and thermodynamics theory. The experimental results show that thereare lots of fine and dispersive precipitates in microstructures. By analysis, most ofaluminum nitrides are in grains, while coexisted precipitates of MnS are along grainboundaries. Coexisted precipitates compose cation-vacancy type oxides such as Al2O3in the core, while MnS is at the fringe of surface. The precipitation behavior of AlNand MnS in the hot strip is studied by thermodynamic calculation. At last, implica-tions between strengthening effect and techniques are analyzed using obtained solubilityproducts.

  14. Thermal conductivity of wood ash diatomite composites using the transient hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muia, L.M.; Gaitho, F.

    2003-08-01

    The transient Hot Strip method (THS) was used to determine the thermal conductivities of pure Wood Ash (WA), two kinds of diatomite i.e., DB and DF, and their composites. The effects of grain size and temperature on the thermal conductivities of the three systems and their composites were also determined. The lowest thermal conductivities of 0.02x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for wood ash and ∼ 3x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for the diatomites are found in the particle size range 60 -80μm. The thermal conductivities of the various composites range between 1.3x10 -3 and 6.8x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 . These values are a factor of 10 lower than those of the pure materials. The thermal conductivity of the three composites is independent of temperature in the range 26-350 deg. C, in contrast to those pure materials which increase with temperature. Generally, the thermal conductivites of the pure materials which increase as their porosity or moisture contents are increased. (author)

  15. Holographic quark–antiquark potential in hot, anisotropic Yang–Mills plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge/gravity duality we calculate the heavy quark–antiquark potential in a hot, anisotropic and strongly coupled Yang–Mills plasma in (3+1)-dimensions. As the anisotropic medium we take a deformed version of N=4 super Yang–Mills theory at finite temperature following a recent work where the dual type IIB supergravity solution is also proposed. We turn on a small value of the anisotropy parameter, for which the gravity dual is known analytically (perturbatively), and compute the velocity-dependent quark–antiquark interaction potential when the pair is moving through the plasma with a velocity v. By setting v=0 we recover the static quark–antiquark potential. We numerically study how the potential is modified in the presence of anisotropy. We further show numerically how the quark–antiquark separation (both in the static and the velocity-dependent case) and hence, the screening length gets modified by anisotropy. We discuss various cases depending upon the direction of the dipole and the direction of its propagation and make a comparative study of these cases. We are also able to obtain an analytical expression for the screening length of the dipole moving in a hot, anisotropic plasma in a special case

  16. Robust Tension Control of Strip for 5-Stand Tandem Cold Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem cold rolling process is a nonlinear complex system with external and internal uncertainties and significant disturbances. The improvement in the quality of the final output depends on the control strategy of centerline thickness and interstand tension. This paper focuses on interstand tension control problem in 5-stand tandem cold rolling mills. Tension dynamics can be described by a nominal model perturbed by parametric uncertainties. In order to overcome the model uncertainties and external disturbances, suboptimal H∞ and μ controllers are proposed and the Hankel-norm approximation is used to reduce the order of μ controller. The performance of the proposed controllers is demonstrated by some simulations.

  17. Preparation of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinzeck de Alcantara Abdala, Julia, E-mail: juabdala@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Bacci Fernandes, Bruno, E-mail: brunobacci@yahoo.com.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos, E-mail: dalcy@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Rodrigues Henriques, Vinicius Andre, E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Moura Neto, Carlos de, E-mail: mneto@ita.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Saraiva Ramos, Alfeu, E-mail: alfeu@univap.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2010-04-16

    This study reports on the preparation of the 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr (at.%) alloy by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing. The elemental powder mixture was processed in silicon nitride and hardened steel vials, and samples were collected after different milling times. To recover the previous powders in addition wet milling isopropyl alcohol (for 20 min) was adopted. The mechanically alloyed powders were hot-pressed under vacuum at 900 {sup o}C for 1 h using pressure levels close to 200 MPa. The milled powders were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry techniques. It was noted that the ductile starting powders were continuously cold-welded during ball milling. This fact was more pronounced during the processing of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders in hardened steel vial. After milling for 5 h, the results suggested that amorphous and nanocrystalline structures were achieved. The complete consolidation was found after hot pressing of mechanically alloyed 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders, and a large amount of the B2-NiTi phase was formed mainly after processing in stainless steel balls and vial.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

  19. In situ production of tantalum carbide nanodispersoids in a copper matrix by reactive milling and hot extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manotas-Albor, Milton, E-mail: manotasm@uninorte.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Km. 5 vía a Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla (Colombia); Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro [Laboratorio de Materiales a Nanoescala, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Tupper Av. 2069, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Rodrigo [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Mosquera, Edgar [Laboratorio de Materiales a Nanoescala, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Tupper Av. 2069, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum carbide nanodispersoids were obtained in a copper matrix. • Nanodispersoids were obtained by means of reactive milling followed by hot extrusion. • Hexane was used as the liquid medium for the reactive mechanical alloying process. • Hexane provides the carbon (C) needed for the process. • The reaction of tantalum carbide formation takes place in the hot extrusion. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the in situ production of tantalum carbide nanodispersoids in a copper matrix. The copper matrix composites were produced by means of reactive milling in hexane (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}) followed by hot extrusion. The composite materials were characterized by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vickers micro-hardness. The effect of milling time was analyzed in 10, 20 and 30 h in a composite with a nominal composition Cu–5 vol.% TaC. A systematic increase of the dislocations density and the carbon concentration were observed when the milling time was increased, whereas the crystallite size of the composite matrix decreased. The material milled for 30 h and hot-extruded showed a density of 9037 kg m{sup −3} (98.2% densification) and a softening resistance of 204 HV; however the latter value showed an abrupt drop after an annealing treatment at 923 K for 1 h. Finally, the TEM analysis showed the presence of tantalum carbide (Ta{sub 4}C{sub 3}) nanodispersoids.

  20. Effect of strip temperature on the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Monojit [R and D Division, Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur 831001 (India)], E-mail: monoron@yahoo.com; Singh, Shiv Brat [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The theory of nucleation has been employed to derive expressions for the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer during commercial strip galvanizing. This is then used to show the effect of the strip entry temperature on the nucleation of the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer. An attempt was also made to verify this effect through controlled experiments in a hot-dip galvanizing simulator and electron microscopic characterization of a few samples.

  1. Dry sliding tribological behavior and mechanical properties of Al2024–5 wt.%B4C nanocomposite produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Ali; Baharvandi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured Al2024 and Al2024–B 4 C nanocomposite prepared via mechanical milling. • The milled powders formed by hot pressing and then exposed to hot extrusion. • Tribological behavior and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. • Al2024–B 4 C nanocomposite showed a better wear resistance and mechanical properties. - Abstract: In this paper, tribological behavior and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al2024 alloy produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion were investigated before and after adding B 4 C particles. Mechanical milling was used to synthesize the nanostructured Al2024 in attrition mill under argon atmosphere up to 50 h. A similar process was used to produce Al2024–5 wt.%B 4 C composite powder. The milled powders were formed by hot pressing and then were exposed to hot extrusion in 750 °C with extrusion ratio of 10:1. To study the microstructure of milled powders and hot extruded samples, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used. The mechanical properties of samples were also compared together using tension, compression and hardness tests. The wear properties of samples were studied using pin-on-disk apparatus under a 20 N load. The results show that mechanical milling decreases the size of aluminum matrix grains to less than 100 nm. The results of mechanical and wear tests also indicate that mechanical milling and adding B 4 C particles increase strength, hardness and wear resistance of Al2024 and decrease its ductility remarkably

  2. Selective Electron Beam Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Strips: Effect of Build Orientation, Columnar Grain Orientation, and Hot Isostatic Pressing on Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Tang, H. P.; Yang, K.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many novel designs for additive manufacturing (AM) contain thin-walled (≤ 3 mm) sections in different orientations. Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is particularly suited to AM of such thin-walled titanium components because of its high preheating temperature and high vacuum. However, experimental data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V thin sections remains scarce because of the difficulty and high cost of producing long, thin and smooth strip tensile specimens (see Fig. 1). In this study, 80 SEBM Ti-6Al-4V strips (180 mm long, 42 mm wide, 3 mm thick) were built both vertically (V-strips) and horizontally (H-strips). Their density, microstructure and tensile properties were investigated. The V-strips showed clearly higher tensile strengths but lower elongation than the H-strips. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) produced the same lamellar α-β microstructures in terms of the average α-lath thickness in both types of strips. The retained prior-β columnar grain boundaries after HIP showed no measurable influence on the tensile properties, irrespective of their length and orientation, because of the formation of randomly distributed fine α-laths.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Fabrication of a Micro-Lens Array Mold by Micro Ball End-Milling and Its Hot Embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot embossing is an efficient technique for manufacturing high-quality micro-lens arrays. The machining quality is significant for hot embossing the micro-lens array mold. This study investigates the effects of micro ball end-milling on the machining quality of AISI H13 tool steel used in the micro-lens array mold. The micro ball end-milling experiments were performed under different machining strategies, and the surface roughness and scallop height of the machined micro-lens array mold are measured. The experimental results showed that a three-dimensional (3D offset spiral strategy could achieve a higher machining quality in comparison with other strategies assessed in this study. Moreover, the 3D offset spiral strategy is more appropriate for machining the micro-lens array mold. With an increase of the cutting speed and feed rate, the surface roughness of the micro-lens array mold slightly increases, while a small step-over can greatly reduce the surface roughness. In addition, a hot embossing experiment was undertaken, and the obtained results indicated higher-quality production of the micro-lens array mold by the 3D offset spiral strategy.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 solid solutions prepared by attrition milling and hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Lim, Young-Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Jae-Soung; Yang, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Bi 2 Te 3-y Se y (y = 0.15 - 0.6) solid solutions were prepared by attrition milling and hot pressing. The lattice constants decreased with increasing Se content, indicating that the Se atoms were successfully substituted into the Te sites. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction, and their electrical resistivities increased slightly with increasing temperature. With increasing Se content, the Seebeck coefficients increased while the thermal conductivity decreased due to the increase in phonon scattering. The maximum figure of merit obtained was 0.63 at 440 K for the undoped Bi 2 Te 2.4 Se 0.6 solid solution.

  5. A computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution between burners sections as input parameters for 3D CFD furnace calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Beloshevic, Srdjan

    2006-01-01

    Current computer technology development enables application of powerful software packages that can provide a reliable insight into real operating conditions of a steam boiler in the Thermal Power Plant. Namely, an application of CFD code to the 3D analysis of combustion and heat transfer in a furnace provides temperature, velocity and concentration fields in both cross sectional and longitudinal planes of the observed furnace. In order to obtain reliable analytical results, which corresponds to real furnace conditions, it is necessary to accurately predict a distribution of mill gases and hot air between burners' sections, because these parameters are input values for the furnace 3D calculation. Regarding these tasks, the computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution has been developed at the Department for steam boilers of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. The code is based on simultaneous calculations of material and heat balances for fan mill and air tracts. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of performed calculations and results obtained for the steam boiler furnace of 350 MWe Thermal Power Plant equipped with eight fan mills. Key words: mill gases, hot air, aerodynamic calculation, air tract, mill tract.

  6. Overall model of the dynamic behaviour of the steel strip in an annealing heating furnace on a hot-dip galvanizing line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-de-Pison, F.J.; Pernia, A.; Jimenez-Macias, E.; Fernandez, R.

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the temperature of the steel strip in the annealing process in a hot-dip galvanizing line (HDGL) is important to ensure the physical properties of the processed material. The development of an accurate model that is capable of predicting the temperature the strip will reach according to the furnaces variations in temperature and speed, its dimensions and the steels chemical properties, is a requirement that is being increasingly called for by industrial plants of this nature. This paper presents a comparative study made between several types of algorithms of Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence for the design of an efficient and overall prediction model that will allow determining the strips variation in temperature according to the physico-chemical specifications of the coils to be processed, and fluctuations in temperature and speed that are recorded within the annealing process. The ultimate goal is to find a model that is effectively applicable to coils of new types of steel or sizes that are being processed for the first time. This model renders it possible to fine-tune the control model in order to standardise the treatment in areas of the strip in which there is a transition between coils of different sizes or types of steel. (Author).

  7. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that

  8. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Lin, C. N.; Wang, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the walking-beam-type reheating furnace chamber. The steel slabs are heated up through the non-firing, preheating, 1st-heating, 2nd-heating, and soaking zones in the furnace, respectively, where the furnace wall temperature is function of time. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data from Steel Company in Taiwan shows that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. The effects of different skid button height (H=60mm, 90mm, and 120mm) and different gap distance between two slabs (S=50mm, 75mm, and 100mm) on the slab skid mark formation and temperature profiles are investigated. It is found that the skid mark severity decreases with an increase in the skid button height. The effect of gap distance is important only for the slab edge planes, while it is insignificant for the slab central planes.

  9. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yongjia; Yamasaki, Tohru; Fukami, Takeshi; Mitamura, Tohru; Terasawa, Mititaka

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  10. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, M; Kawalla, R; Rimnac, A; Bragin, S; Linzer, B; Warczok, P; Kozeschnik, E; Bernhard, C

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness. (paper)

  11. Overall model of the dynamic behaviour of the steel strip in an annealing heating furnace on a hot-dip galvanizing line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the temperature of the steel strip in the annealing process in a hot-dip galvanizing line (HDGL is important to ensure the physical properties of the processed material. The development of an accurate model that is capable of predicting the temperature the strip will reach according to the furnace’s variations in temperature and speed, its dimensions and the steel’s chemical properties, is a requirement that is being increasingly called for by industrial plants of this nature. This paper presents a comparative study made between several types of algorithms of Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence for the design of an efficient and overall prediction model that will allow determining the strip’s variation in temperature according to the physico-chemical specifications of the coils to be processed, and fluctuations in temperature and speed that are recorded within the annealing process. The ultimate goal is to find a model that is effectively applicable to coils of new types of steel or sizes that are being processed for the first time. This model renders it possible to fine-tune the control model in order to standardise the treatment in areas of the strip in which there is a transition between coils of different sizes or types of steel.La predicción de la temperatura de la banda de acero dentro del proceso de recocido de una planta de galvanizado continuo en caliente es importante para garantizar las propiedades físicas del material procesado. El desarrollo de un modelo preciso que sea capaz de predecir la temperatura que va a alcanzar la banda según las variaciones de temperaturas y velocidades del horno, y sus dimensiones y propiedades químicas del acero, es una necesidad cada vez más demandada por este tipo de plantas industriales. En el presente estudio se muestra una comparativa realizada entre diversos tipos de algoritmos deMinería de Datos e Inteligencia Artificial para el desarrollo de un modelo de predicci

  12. Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling opened up oil palm biomass structure resulting in enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IMPROVEMENT PROCESS FOR ROLLING MILL THROUGH THE DMAIC SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Ganguly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to address the problems that are facing a large aluminum company in a Developing Hot Rolling Mill Capabilities for Wider Widths Hard Alloys Rolling and b Eliminate down time due to strip /coil slippage during hard alloys 5xxx rolling at Hot Mill. The challenge for the company was to cater the fast changing export demand for Flat Rolled products with its existing resources. By applying Six Sigma principles, the team identified the current situation that the rolling mills operations were in. Si x Sigma DMAIC methodologies were use d in the project to determine the project's CTQ characteristics, defining the possible causes, Identifying the variation sources, establishing variable relationships and Implementing Control Plans. The project can be useful for any company that needs to fi nd the most cost efficient way to improve and utilize its resources.

  14. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  15. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  16. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  17. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure ( i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  18. The effect of hot strip mill processing parameters and alloy addition on low temperature toughness of API-X70 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Kwang Seop; Al-Shammary, Saad; Al-Butairi, Adel A. [QA and PTS, SAUDI IRON and STEEL COMAPNY, Al-Jubail, (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajeri, Khaled F. [Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Jubail, (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    The design of high strength steel grade is based on stringent specifications in terms of chemistry, mechanical properties and surface requirements. This study investigated the effect of alloy addition on low temperature toughness of API X70 pipeline steel. Seven different chemical compositions have been selected for experimental testing. Ni, Cr and Cu were added in various quantities to the tested material without deteriorating the phase transformation to acicular ferrite. A tensile test, Charpy impact test, DWTT pressed notch test and microstructural observations using optical microscope and SEM were carried out. Statistical analyses were done to identify the relationship between chemical composition and DWTT shear area. The following equation showed excellent agreement with the experimental test data: Pct Shear aero of DWTT (-10 degrees C) = 954 - 0.3*SRT + 0.5*TBT - 0.4*FRT + 0.04*CT - 306*C - 60*(Mn+Ni+Cu) + 38*(Mo+Cr) - 791*(Ti+Nb+V) - 4*MA. The results showed that it is possible to design high strength API X 70 steel grades with good DWTT toughness by using the statistical equation that was developed.

  19. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    material volume. Hereby, the roughing process is significantly sped up, reducing overall machining time. We compare our method to the convex hull and remove between 5% and 75% more material; on most models we obtain a 50% improvement. Our method ensures that no overcutting happens and that the result...

  20. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  1. Influence of the Radiation Shield on the Temperature of Rails Rolled in the Reversing Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołdasz A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model of heat transfer during cooling of hot-rolled rails in the reversing mill. The influence of the radiation shield on the temperature of rolled rails has been analyzed. The heat transfer model for cooling a strip covered by the thermal shield has been presented. The two types of shields build of steel and aluminum sheets separated with insulating layer have been studded. Calculations have been performed with self developed software which utilizes the finite element method.

  2. Impact Analysis of Roller System Stability for Four-High Mill Horizontal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hot Compact Strip Production (CSP, four-high mill vibration characteristics, and vibration suppression method, the roller system structure stability was analyzed and calculated at first in the paper. And then, the mill stand gap was measured at field and its influence on roll transverse vibration was analyzed. The drum gear coupling effect on the roller system stability and the automatic balance conditions of the coupling transmission torque were studied; the influence of axial force caused by the roller cross on the system stability was analyzed. Finally, the roller transverse friction chatter vibration mechanics model was established; the simulation analysis was carried out with eliminating mill house-bearing clearance and adding floating support for coupling, respectively. And the characteristics of the roller “jump vibration” were studied. We applied copper gaskets to eliminate or reduce mill house-bearing clearance for suppressing the rolling mill vibration on the spot; the test results show that the roller transverse vibration was suppressed after eliminating clearance.

  3. Influence of some additives to the kinetics of Zn-crystal growth onto continuous hot dip galvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsovski, Angel; Sekuloski, Predrag; Georgievski, Mile; Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    In this work we made attempt on determination of the gefree, of influence, of the different types of additives on zinc spangle growth during forming of zinc coating, at the process of continues hot deep galvanizing of steel strip. All investigations were made at cold rolling mill plant 'Ladna Valavnica'-Skopje - HDG line, Additives were implied manually using hand pump directly on full hard strip, just before annealing furnace. Three types of additives were used in unchanged state as well as their mixtures. Analysis of the results included macro photograph of the surface, microphotograph of the zinc coating as well as different attempts of mathematical models. During investigation all technological parameters (cleanness of the strip from the emulsion marks, temperatures of the different zones of the furnace, temperature of the molten zinc and chemical composition of the zinc pot) remained at their constant values. (Original)

  4. Bio-crude production from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and waste newspaper via co-liquefaction in hot-compressed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linghong; Champagne, Pascale; Xu, Chunbao

    2011-01-01

    Co-liquefaction of secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (solids concentration: 1.6 wt%) and waste newspaper with a total solids concentration of 11.3 wt% was investigated with and without the addition of catalysts in a 75 ml Parr High-Pressure reactor at temperatures of 250-380 o C for 20 min. The yield of heavy oil (HO) without catalyst was between 16.7 and 28.0 wt% within this temperature range, and peaked at 350 o C. The addition of HCO 2 H, FeS, or KOH at 5 wt% of the total solids (on a dry basis) was found to enhance the HO yield at 300 o C, particularly HCO 2 H, which increased the yield of HO from 24.9 to 34.4 wt%. More interestingly, synergistic effects between secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and waste newspaper were observed in the co-liquefaction operations. For example, the HO yield attained was 26.9 wt% at 300 o C in the co-liquefaction of the mixture of 33 wt% sludge and 67 wt% waste newspaper, and was noted to be 9 wt% and 6 wt% higher than the yields obtained from liquefaction of sludge and waste newspaper alone, respectively. The HOs from liquefaction or co-liquefaction at 300 o C for 20 min exhibited significantly higher energy contents (HHV ≥ 30 MJ/kg), almost doubled those (-tilde 16 MJ/kg) of the original feedstocks.

  5. New instability strip for hot degenerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new kind of variable star, designated as PG1159-035 is distinguished not only by the complete lack of hydrogen in its spectrum but also by an effective temperature that exceeds 8 x 10 4 K. The star does not fall near any of the known regions of instability in the HR diagram which suggests that the instability mechanism will not be helium and hydrogen ionization as in the Cepheid variables. The more unusual compositions are examined in order to discover the cause of the instability in PG1159-035

  6. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  7. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  8. The Role of Nano-TiO2 Lubricating Fluid on the Hot Rolled Surface and Metallographic Structure of SS41 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nano-TiO2lubricating fluid was chosen as an advanced rolling lubricant to investigate its effect on the hot rolled surface and metallographic structure of SS41 steel strips. The tribological performances of nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid were measured by a four-ball tribotester. The hot rolling experiments under different lubrication conditions were carried out by a four-high rolling mill. The surface morphology, oxide scales and metallographic structure after hot rolling were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The composition of surface attachments was analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicate that the nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid has a better tribological performance. The surface defects on the hot rolled surface could be decreased. The phase composition of the surface still appears as a mixture of ferrite and pearlite. The surface of steel strips is not micro-alloyed with titanium as predicted. Additionally, the grain size of rolled steel strips which were lubricated with the nano-TiO2lubricating fluid decreased by nearly 50%, compared with traditional lubricating fluid. Furthermore, it was found that the thickness of the oxide layers on the surface reduced, whilst the Rockwell hardness of the oxide layers was enhanced as nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid was applied.

  9. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  10. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  11. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  12. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  13. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  14. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  15. Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...

  16. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  17. Effect of ball mill treatment on kinetics of amorphous Ni78Si10B12 alloy crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, I.A.; Mochalova, T.Yu.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Lopatina, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the parameters of Ni 78 Si 10 B 12 alloy amorphous strip milling in a ball planetary mill on the stability of powder amorphous state, crytallization kinetics and dispersity is studied by the methods of differential scanning microcaloremetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Energy intensity of milling conditions is assessed. An increase of input energy results in a decrease of activation energy of powder crystallization. Strip milling parameters which enable to avaintain the amorphous state of the material are determined

  18. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  19. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  20. Observational study on the pavement performance effects of shoulder rumble strip on shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Coffey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rumble strip implementation has shown a constant increase with its safety benefits. Rumble strips are milled into the roadway shoulder to produce noise and vibrations when driven on. With the milling process, the pavement performance is expected to be negatively impacted by the decreased depth, though not mathematically quantified. Using methods defined by the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program, the severity of the shoulder site’s distresses, with and without shoulder rumble strips, will be quantified. The quantification would permit the design to compensate for the impact. This design compensation allows the implementation of hard shoulder running, the use of shoulder as a travel lane during congestion, and retains the shoulder rumble strip safety instead of removing, as suggested by some proposed projects. While hard shoulder running would not impact specific time periods, the safety benefit of rumble strips could be needed at any time. This study aims to quantify the rumble strip impact to enable the full shoulder strength for hard shoulder running while retaining the safety benefits of rumble strips. Keywords: Rumble strips, Shoulder, Cracking, Pavement performance, Hard shoulder running

  1. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  2. Study of mechanism on microstructure refinement during compact strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Kang Yonglin; Wang Kelu; Fu Jie; Wang Zhongbing; Liu Delu

    2003-01-01

    In this study, microstructures of 1.9 mm hot strip steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) are investigated by using optical metallograph observation and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) data to deduce the status of hot rolled austenite before phase transformation, because the evolution of hot rolled austenite is important to provide information for the microstructure refinement. The experimental results show that the finishing hot rolled microstructure is a mixture of recrystallized and deformed austenite, and the percentage of recrystallized austenite is greater than that of the deformed austenite. At last, microstructure evolution of austenite is modeled based on chemical compositions and techniques of producing 1.9 mm hot strip. The simulation results agree well with experimental data. Analysis shows that microstructure refinement, recrystallization and supercooling rate are the primary causes to fine microstructure

  3. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  4. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  5. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  6. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  7. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  8. Moving strip technique of electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Wakasa, Hiroyuki; Oguri, Nobuhiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1984-12-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In case of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field along the long axis of the body in order to flatten the dose of the border employing the moving strip used for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian cancer. We set the film in Mix-DP and used the strip field technique with 2.5cm steps. We discussed the relationship between the interval (distance between portals) and the flattening of the dose within the field. Skin movement due to breathing and influences on the flattening of the dose were considered. The proper flatness was obtained at depths of 0,1,2, and 3cm by setting the interval at 0.5cm. When skin movement was produced by breathing in +-1.5mm, the proper flaness was obtained also at a 0.5-cm interval. It seems that smoothing is increased by breathing. An ''electron beam moving strip'' with a 2.5-cm step and 0.5-cm interval was clinically effective in the treatment of patients with skin metastasis of colon cancer. (author).

  9. Tree growth studies on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Turcotte, M.

    1982-01-01

    Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared with those from other investigations. Competition for light appears to be a major contributor to mortality. Differences in soil moisture conditions under a tree stand as compared to those under a grass sward are potentially significant enough to affect the tailings hydrology and effluent contamination. Recommendations include planting seeds of deciduous species or deciduous and coniferous seedlings on strips of freshly disturbed tailings. The disturbed strips would provide reduced competition for the initial year and assist in tree survival. The planting of block stands of coniferous or deciduous trees would be useful for evaluating the hydrological impact of the trees as compared to the present grass sward

  10. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  11. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  12. Pavement maintenance procedures with and without milling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul A. Tarefder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates maintenance treatment followed by different Districts of New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT. In addition, two case studies on the use of old pavement materials, called the “millings”, in maintenance projects are reported. Based on this study, it is observed that none of the Districts have a written procedure for maintenance work. Rather Districts rely on the experience of the maintenance crew for conducting maintenance projects. All Districts prefer to use chip seal for maintenance irrespective of distress conditions of the pavements. Patching and crack sealing are usually done before chip sealing to extend the life of the chip seals. Sand seal, scrub seal, and slurry seal projects are not done by District maintenance crews but by outside contractors. It is also observed that all Districts are interested in using millings in maintenance projects and most have already used millings in at least one maintenance project with some success and failure. Most of the Districts have used coarse fraction of millings in chip seal projects successfully. However, they failed to find a proper way to process the fine fractions of millings. Case Study I shows that fine millings can be used to construct thin overlay when mixed with emulsion in pug mill or hot drums. Case Study II concludes that fine millings can be used as fine/sand seal successfully following the same procedure and using the same equipment as chip seal. Keywords: Millings, Maintenance, Emulsion, Rutting, Pug-mill

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  14. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  15. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  16. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  17. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  18. Analysis of Startup Process and Its Optimization for a Two-Stand Reversible Cold Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic analysis of a two-stand reversible cold rolling mill in the startup process was carried out. The delay algorithm of the interstand thickness was proposed. A new method combined with the accelerated secant and the tangent methods was established to solve the simultaneous equations. The thickness and interstand tension transition processes with different static tension establishing processes were analyzed. Both mills were operated under constant rolling force control mode in the above process. The results show that the strip thickness in the rolling gap reduces in the static mill screwdown process. The entry stand runs inversely to establish the static interstand tension. This area becomes an abnormal thickness reduction area of the incoming strip. It results in several abnormal interstand tension increases in the subsequent startup process. The tension increase leads to an impact force on the strip that is the main reason of the strip breakage in the startup process. So the static tension establishing process was optimized, and the interstand tension fluctuation and the strip breakage accidents both reduced significantly. The results are beneficial to the startup process of the two-stand reversible cold rolling mill.

  19. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  20. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  1. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  2. Precipitation Strengthening by Induction Treatment in High Strength Low Carbon Microalloyed Hot-Rolled Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzabal, G.; Isasti, N.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J. M.; Uranga, P.

    2018-03-01

    The use of microalloyed steels in the production of thick plates is expanding due to the possibility of achieving attractive combinations of strength and toughness. As market requirements for high strength plates are increasing and new applications require reduced weight and innovative designs, novel approaches to attaining cost-effective grades are being developed. The mechanism of precipitation strengthening has been widely used in thin strip products, since the optimization of the coiling strategy offers interesting combinations in terms of final properties and microalloying additions. Precipitation strengthening in thick plates, however, is less widespread due to the limitation of interphase precipitation during continuous cooling after hot rolling. With the main objective of exploring the limits of this strengthening mechanism, laboratory thermomechanical simulations that reproduced plate hot rolling mill conditions were performed using low carbon steels microalloyed with Nb, NbMo, and TiMo additions. After continuous cooling to room temperature, a set of heat treatments using fast heating rates were applied simulating the conditions of induction heat treatments. An important increase of both yield and tensile strengths was measured after induction treatment without any important impairment in toughness properties. A significant precipitation hardening is observed in Mo-containing grades under specific heat treatment parameters.

  3. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  4. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  5. Full-scale Milling Tests of Wood Pellets for Combustion in a Suspension-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan

    The size reduction of pelletized wood is crucial in suspension-fired power plants, and hence its milling characteristics are of interest to optimize the milling and combustion process. The objective of the study was to compare the size and shape of pellets disintegrated in hot water with that from......), and analyzing the comminuted particle shape and particle size distribution (PSD). Large-scale pellet comminution produced finer and wider PSDs than pellet disintegration in hot water, but only slightly altered the particle shape. The mill pressure loss, absorbed mill power, and hence SGEC depended on the pellet...

  6. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  7. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  8. The structural changes of Y2O3 in ferritic ODS alloys during milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilger, I.; Tegel, M.; Gorley, M.J.; Grant, P.S.; Weißgärber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are usually fabricated via mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. During the individual process steps, a complex evolution of the nanoparticle structure is taking place. Powders with different Y 2 O 3 contents were milled and examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). It has been observed that the Y 2 O 3 is fragmented and becomes partially amorphous upon milling due to the grain refinement of Y 2 O 3 during the milling process. There was no compelling evidence for Y 2 O 3 dissociation and dissolution into the steel matrix

  9. Effectiveness-NTU analyses in a double tube heat exchanger equipped with wavy strip considering various angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourahmad, Saman; Pesteei, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Double tube heat exchanger equipped with wavy strip turbulators was studied. • The effects of wavy strip angles on the effectiveness were investigated. • Variation of the effectiveness with hot and cold water flow rate was presented. • The effectiveness increases with the decrease of wavy strip angle. • The friction factor increases with the decrease of wavy strip angle. - Abstract: In the present study, effectiveness-NTU analyses in a double tube heat exchanger equipped with wavy strip considering various angles were experimentally studied. Moreover, variation of the effectiveness with hot water Reynolds numbers for different cold water flow rates were presented. These turbulators with different angles of 45°, 60°, 90°, 120° and 150° were made of galvanized plates with thickness of 1 mm and were installed in the inner tube of heat exchanger. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 3000–13,500 at turbulent flow regime. Throughout the experiments, hot and cold water flowed through the inner pipe and the space between the pipes (annulus), respectively. It was tried to keep the inlet hot and cold water temperatures at constant values. Effectiveness-NTU analyses were made for the conditions with and without wavy strips including their different angles and compared to each other. Results showed the considerable effect of turbulators on effectiveness (ε) and number of heat transfer units (NTU) of double tube heat exchanger. In addition, some empirical correlations expressing the results were also developed based on curve fitting.

  10. Axial Force Analysis and Roll Contour Configuration of Four-High CVC Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of technical parameters on work roll axial force of four-high continuous variable crown (CVC mill, the deformation analyzing model with top roll system and strip was established based on influence function method. Then a CVC work roll curve designing scheme was proposed and it was carried out on some cold rolling mill considering the requirement of comprehensive work roll axial force minimization. The status of comprehensive work roll axial force is improved considering the rolling schedule that is beneficial to the roller bearing. Corresponding to the newly designed work roll contour, the backup roll end chamfer was designed considering comprehensive performance of interroll stress concentration, comprehensive work roll axial force, and strip shape control ability. The distribution of roll wear with newly designed backup roll contour is more even according to the field application data. The newly established roll configuration scheme is beneficial to four-high CVC mill.

  11. daptive Filter Used as a Dynamic Compensator in Automatic Gauge Control of Strip Rolling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ROMAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a control structure of the strip thickness in a rolling mill of quarto type (AGC – Automatic Gauge Control. It performs two functions: the compensation of errors induced by unideal dynamics of the tracking systems lead by AGC system and the control adaptation to the change of dynamic properties of the tracking systems. The compensation of dynamical errors is achieved through inverse models of the tracking system, implemented as adaptive filters.

  12. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  13. Development of uranium milling and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirono, Shuichiro.

    1983-11-01

    The development and improvement of uranium milling and refining producing uranium tetrafluoride from ores by the wet process, without producing yellowcake as an intermediate product, have been carried out for over ten years with a small pilot plant (50 t-ore/day). In the past several years, a process for converting uranium tetrafluoride into hexafluoride has been developed successfully. To develop the process further, the construction of an integrated milling and conversion pilot plant (200 t-U/year) started in 1979 and was completed in 1981. This new plant has two systems of solvent extraction using tri-noctylamine: one of the systems treats the pregnant solution (uranyl sulphate) by heap-leaching followed by ion exchange, and the other treats the uranyl sulphate solution by dissolving imported yellowcake. The uranium loading solvents from the two systems are stripped with hydrochloric acid solution to obtain the concentrated uranium solution containing 100 g-U/1. Uranyl sulphate solution from the stripping circuit is reduced to a uranous sulphate solution by the electrolytic method. In a reduction cell, uranyl sulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid are used respectively as catholyte and anolyte, and a cation exchange membrane is used to prevent re-oxidation of the uranous sulphate. In the following hydrofluorination step, uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 .1-1.2H 2 O (particle size: 50-100μ), is produced continuously as the precipitate in an improved reaction vessel, and this makes it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The uranium tetrafluoride is dehydrated by heating to 350 0 C in an inert gas flow. The complete conversion from UF 4 into UF 6 is achieved by a fluidized-bed reactor and a high value of utilization efficiency of fluorine, over 99.9 percent, is attained at about 400 0 C. (author)

  14. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  15. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  16. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  17. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  18. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  19. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  20. Strip mining with hydraulic shover and cross-pit stacker; Tagebau mit hydraulischen Hochloeffelbagger und Direktversturz-Absetzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streck, W. [Dipl.-Ing. Willibald Streck, Boden, Wasser, Rohstoff, Bruehl (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    In the standard strip mining of sedimentary deposits draglines are used for overburden removal. In this paper an alternative is presented which offers significantly lower initial investment costs and equal operating and maintenance costs. It is applicable in certain mining conditions. The stripping system consists of a standard hydraulic shovel excavator loading into a hopper/stacker on crawlers (XPS). With a shovel of 34 m{sup 3} size the stripping height is limited to approximately 15 to 17 m. Cuts of 15 to 20 m width may be worked. The XPS may have a hopper size of 70 m{sup 3} and a discharge boom of 70 m. The system reaches an annual capacity in the range of 12 mill bank m{sup 3}. It compares well with a standard dragline of the Bucyrus W 2000 type. While the operating and maintenance cost per bank m{sup 3} are about the same, the initial investment costs differ drastically, about 16 mill US-Dollar for the shovel/XPS compared to 24 mill US-Dollar for the dragline. In new surface mining projects and under distinct mining conditions the low investment costs and other advantages may balance the limitations of the shovel/XPS system and justify the deviation from the standard stripping dragline. (orig.)

  1. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  2. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  3. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  4. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  5. Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S., E-mail: Shangping.chen@tatasteel.com [Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Butler, J. [Tata Steel, S60 3AR South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Melzer, S. [Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required θ-fibre is decreased and the unwanted γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the θ-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Asymmetrical hot rolling (AHR) produces more uniform distribution of texture through the thickness of the hot rolled strips and of the hot band annealed strips when compared with conventional hot rolling (CHR). • AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips. The θ-fibre is decreased but the γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling

  6. Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Butler, J.; Melzer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required θ-fibre is decreased and the unwanted γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the θ-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Asymmetrical hot rolling (AHR) produces more uniform distribution of texture through the thickness of the hot rolled strips and of the hot band annealed strips when compared with conventional hot rolling (CHR). • AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips. The θ-fibre is decreased but the γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling

  7. Image recognition of shape defects in hot steel rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balmashnova, E.; Bruurmijn, L.C.M.; Dissanayake, R.; Duits, R.; Kampmeijer, L.; Noorden, van T.L.; Boon, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A frequently occurring issue in hot rolling of steel is so-called tail pinching. Prominent features of a pinched tail are ripple-like defects and a pointed tail. In this report two algorithms are presented to detect those features accurately in 2D gray scale images of steel strips. The two ripple

  8. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  9. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  10. Effects of thermomechanical processing on titanium aluminide strip cast by the melt overflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, T.A. (Ribbon Technology Corporation, PO Box 30758, Columbus, OH 43230 (United States)); Hackman, L.E. (Ribbon Technology Corporation, PO Box 30758, Columbus, OH 43230 (United States)); Batawi, E. (Sulzer-Innotec, Division 1511, PO Box 65, Winterthur 8404 (Switzerland)); Peters, J.A. (Sulzer-Innotec, Division 1511, PO Box 65, Winterthur 8404 (Switzerland))

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of producing titanium aluminide foils from direct cast strip using ribbon technology''s plasma melt overflow process. Niobium-modified Ti[sub 3]Al alloys were melted in a cold copper crucible using a transferred plasma arc and then direct cast into strip on a rotating chill roll.Samples cut from the as-cast Ti[sub 3]Al-Nb ([alpha][sub 2]) titanium aluminide strip were encapsulated into a pack. The packs were heated to the rolling temperature and then hot rolled at low strain rates. Foils 70 [mu]m (0.003 in) thick, having a uniform [alpha][sub 2]-B2 microstructure with oxygen contents as low as 900 wt.ppm were obtained after pack rolling. The strips and foils were characterized in terms of microstructure and chemical composition in the as-received, heat-treated and pack-rolled conditions.The results indicated that it was technically feasible to produce foils from direct cast titanium aluminide strip using pack-rolling technology. The advantage of this technology lies in its cost-effectiveness, since the relatively low cost direct-cast titanium aluminide strip was thermomechanically processed into foil with the desired microstructure without any intermediate processing steps. ((orig.))

  11. 75 FR 19369 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    .... Hot-rolled dual phase steel, phase-hardened, primarily with a ferritic-martensitic microstructure.... See Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From France, 68 FR 69379...

  12. Cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jianmin; Cong Peng; Li Litao

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge. This gauge uses two-detector construction including penetrating ionization chamber and measuring ionization chamber. Standard magazine box is composed of three rotating plates driving by stepper motor, including 13 pieces of standard sample to build up 154 thickness value, obtaining standard sample curve covering thickness range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Automation system include Siemens S7-200 PLC as key controlling unit, embedded controlling system for data acquisition and computing, and PC as man-machine interface, and employ Ethernet (TCP/IP) or RS485/232 as communication protocol. Reversing Cold mill AGC closed-loop control operation test demonstrates that the gauge can adapt to the severe production environment, operate stably and reliably, measurement precision can reached to ±0.19%, reproducibility to ±0.09%, and stability to ±0.06%, response time range from 4 ms to 200 ms and be adjustable. So it can meet the high demanding of cold-rolled plate/strip production. (authors)

  13. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  14. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  15. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  16. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  18. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  19. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  20. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  1. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  2. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  3. Fabrication of wire and flat strips with elevated recrystallization temperature of Mo monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.M.; Nesgovorov, V.V.; Kabakova, L.G.; Korzukhin, V.E.; Savitskij, E.M.; Burkhanov, G.S.; Ottenberg, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is developed for manufacturing wire and flat strip of elevated recrystallization point from single crystals fo molybdenum with micro-additions of zirconium and titanium by rotary hot forging with subsequent drawing under hydrodynamic friction conditions. Flat strip is manufactured next from a wire annealed at 1300-1400 deg C in hydrogen. Resultant wire and flat strip feature a high recrystallization point and a good shape stability. Tests on their ultimate strength on the range of temperatures between 20 and 1700 deg C have shown that the maximum temperature of the recrystallization onset is that of a wire from Mo single crystals of orientation [110], containing micro-additions of Zr and Ti, whereas loss of strength is at its highest in a wire from non-alloyed single-crystal molybdenum

  4. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  5. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  6. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  7. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  8. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  9. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  10. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Sheng-Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 264209 (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  11. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  12. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  13. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  14. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  15. Cross Coating Weight Control by Electromagnetic Strip Stabilization at the Continuous Galvanizing Line of ArcelorMittal Florange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelton, Nicolas; Lopès, Catherine; Sordini, Henri

    2016-08-01

    In hot dip galvanizing lines, strip bending around the sink roll generates a flatness defect called crossbow. This defect affects the cross coating weight distribution by changing the knife-to-strip distance along the strip width and requires a significant increase in coating target to prevent any risk of undercoating. The already-existing coating weight control system succeeds in eliminating both average and skew coating errors but cannot do anything against crossbow coating errors. It has therefore been upgraded with a flatness correction function which takes advantage of the possibility of controlling the electromagnetic stabilizer. The basic principle is to split, for every gage scan, the coating weight cross profile of the top and bottom sides into two, respectively, linear and non-linear components. The linear component is used to correct the skew error by realigning the knives with the strip, while the non-linear component is used to distort the strip in the stabilizer in such a way that the strip is kept flat between the knives. Industrial evaluation is currently in progress but the first results have already shown that the strip can be significantly flattened between the knives and the production tolerances subsequently tightened without compromising quality.

  16. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  17. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  19. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  20. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot bond rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Kajimura, Haruhiko; Nagai, Takayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro.

    1997-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) to stainless steel piping are required for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar transition joints made of stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot bond rolling process of clad bars and clad pipes, using a newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. This report presents the manufacturing process of dissimilar transition joints produced from the clad pipe with three layers by the hot bond rolling. First, the method of hot bond rolling of clad pipe is proposed. Then, the mechanical and corrosion properties of the dissimilar transition joints are evaluated in detail by carrying out various tests. Finally, the rolling properties in the clad pipe method are discussed. (author)

  1. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  2. Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.

  3. Flow control inside a molten Zn pot for improving surface quality of zinc plated strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H. [Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. (Korea); Koh, M.S.; Kim, S. [Pohang University of Science and Technology Graduate School, Pohang (Korea)

    2001-10-01

    The flow fields inside a molten Zn pot of continuous hot-chip galvanizing process were investigated experimentally. With varying several parameters including the strip speed V{sub s}, flow rate Q of induction heater, scrapper location and baffle configuration, instantaneous velocity fields were measured using a PIV velocity field measurement technique. Inside the strip region, counter-clockwise rotating flow is dominant. The general flow pattern inside the strip region is nearly not influenced by the trip speed V{sub 2}, flow rate Q and the scrapper location. In the exit region, the flow separated from the moving strip due to the existence of a stabilizing roll ascends to the free surface, for the cases of no scrapper and scrapper detached form the roll. On the other hand, the ascending flow to the free surface is decreased, as the flow rate Q of induction heater increases. By installing a baffle around the uprising strip, the flow moving up to the stabilizing roll decreases. In addition, B-type baffle is better than A-type baffle in reducing speed of flow around the stabilizing rolls. However, the flow ascended to the free surface is largely influenced by changing the flow rate Q, and the scrapper location, irrespective of the baffle type. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs.

  4. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  5. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  6. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  7. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  9. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  10. Modeling and computation of heat exchanges in the configuration of an impinging jet on a hot plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, N.; Mimouni, S.; Simonin, O.; Gardin, P.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of the metal temperature history is essential, especially when strip leave the rolling mill, to get adequate final mechanical properties of steel. Some experiments have yet been carried out on the heat transfer associated with the impingement of a planar (1*9 mm 2 ) subcooled (5-16 K) water jet on a heated plate. Complete boiling curves were then obtained at different locations from the stagnation point and it was observed a phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' in the transition boiling region near the impingement point. The aim of this work is to compute the heat flux transferred between a very hot plate and a subcooled liquid under a planar impinging jet to obtain the transient temperature distribution in the plate. To achieve this goal, a physical modelling of the phenomenon of 'shoulder of flux' has been carried out. This modelling is based on the assumption that the apparition of periodic bubble oscillations at the wall surface is due to the hydrodynamic fragmentation by the jet. The relation derived from this modelling is validated against experimental results from the literature obtained for a wide range of jet velocity, subcooling and jet diameter. This model is implemented in the new multiphase flow solver developed by EDF 'SATURNE polyphasique'. Numerical results are then compared to experimental heat fluxes obtained on previous experiments. (authors)

  11. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  12. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  13. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  14. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  15. Numerical Analysis of Edge Over Coating and Baffle Effect on Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengren; Kang, Yonglin; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    In hot-dip galvanizing process, air jet wiping control is so crucial to determine the coating thickness and uniformity of the zinc layer on the steel strip. A numerical simulation of gas-jet wiping in hot-dip galvanizing was conducted to minimize the occurrence of edge over coating (EOC). The causes of EOC were identified by contrasting and analyzing the airflow fields on the strip edge with and without a baffle. The factors influencing the airflow field on the strip edge during the change in the gap between the baffle and the strip edge were also analyzed. The effect of the distance between the air knife and the strip was evaluated. Technological parameters with on-site guidance role were obtained by combining them with the actual production to elucidate the role of the baffle in restraining the occurrence of EOC. The uniform distribution of pressure and coating thickness on the strip is achieved when the distance of the baffle from the strip edge is about 0.3 times of the jetting distance.

  16. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  17. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  18. Wood pellet milling tests in a suspension-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig-Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan

    2018-01-01

    classification (i.e., the classifier cut size) are affected by the internal pellet particle size distribution obtained after pellet disintegration in hot water. Furthermore, optimal conditions for comminuting pellets were identified. The milling behavior was assessed by determining the specific grinding energy...... consumption and the differential mill pressure. The size and shape of comminuted pellets sampled from burner pipes were analyzed by dynamic image analysis and sieve analysis, respectively. The results showed that the internal pellet particle size distribution affected both the milling behavior...... similar. Mill operating changes had a negligible effect on the original elongated wood particle shape. To achieve the desired comminuted product fineness (i.e., the classifier cut size) with lower specific grinding energy consumption, power plant operators need to choose pellets with a finer internal...

  19. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  20. Cylindrical articles surfacing with a strip electrode at an angle to the generatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Іванов

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the strip electrode when surfacing is made along a variable path leads to a change in the melting process and the formation of a weld bead, due to the absence, in contrast to the wire electrode, of the axial symmetry of the strip cross section. In the layered surfacing of mill rolls with the rollers being at an angle to the generatrix, there may be such defects as undercuts and slagging along the edges of the seam, that worsen the quality and performance of the wear resistant layer. According to the results of the metallographic analysis of the sections, it has been established that these defects in the seam at the cross-over of the rolls during the layer-by-layer surfacing are not remelted by the arc and it leads to slag inclusions in the zone. There is an asymmetry in the formation of the weld pool, which is associated with the peculiarities of the liquid metal flow during its melting. Thus, a decrease in the minimum deviation angle of the strip electrode location with respect to the deposition rate vector leads to a decrease in the crack resistance of the working surface. Investigations of the weld bead formation during deposition by a strip electrode as a function of the angle of the strip rotation with respect to the deposition rate vector have been performed. The influence of the change in the angle of rotation of the strip electrode on the uniformity of the fusion line with the parent metal formation was studied. The allowable range of strip angle values has been determined, which ensures the quality and operability of the wear-resistant layer, as well as the absence of formation defects. Analysis of the wear characteristics and fracture toughness of the deposited layer showed that a change in the location of the strip electrode makes it possible to increase the fracture toughness of the welded layer with high quality of its formation and practically unchanged wear resistance

  1. Method of making steel strapping and strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Reilly

    2000-02-16

    The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this

  2. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  3. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  4. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  5. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  6. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  7. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  8. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  9. 78 FR 15703 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Others 20.28 Thailand Sahaviriya Steel Industries 7.35 Public Co., Ltd. Siam Strip Mill Public Co., 20.30... People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine; Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset... steel flat products from India, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, Thailand, and...

  10. Characterization of prealloyed copper powders treated in high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Viseslava; Bozic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milan T.

    2006-01-01

    The inert gas atomised prealloyed copper powders containing 3.5 wt.% Al were milled up to 20 h in the planetary ball mill in order to oxidize aluminium in situ with oxygen from the air. In the next procedure compacts from milled powder were synthesized by hot-pressing in argon atmosphere. Compacts from as-received Cu-3.5 wt.% Al powder and electrolytic copper powder were also prepared under the same conditions. Microstructural and morphological changes of high energy milled powder as well as changes of thermal stability and electrical conductivity of compacts were studied as a function of milling time and high temperature exposure at 800 deg. C. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for microstructural characterization, whereas thermal stability and electrical conductivity were evaluated by microhardness measurements and conductometer Sigmatest, respectively. The prealloyed 5 h-milled and compacted powder showed a significant increase in microhardness reaching the value of 2600 MPa, about 4 times greater than that of compacts synthesized from as-received electrolytic copper powder (670 MPa). The electrical conductivity of compacts from 5 h-milled powder was 52% IACS. The results were discussed in terms of the effect of small grain size and finely distributed alumina dispersoids on hardening and thermal stability of compacts

  11. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  12. Adaptive neural network controller for the molten steel level control of strip casting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung Yi; Huang, Shiuh Jer

    2010-01-01

    The twin-roll strip casting process is a steel-strip production method which combines continuous casting and hot rolling processes. The production line from molten liquid steel to the final steel-strip is shortened and the production cost is reduced significantly as compared to conventional continuous casting. The quality of strip casting process depends on many process parameters, such as molten steel level in the pool, solidification position, and roll gap. Their relationships are complex and the strip casting process has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate process model for designing a model-based controller to monitor the strip quality. In this paper, a model-free adaptive neural network controller is developed to overcome this problem. The proposed control strategy is based on a neural network structure combined with a sliding-mode control scheme. An adaptive rule is employed to on-line adjust the weights of radial basis functions by using the reaching condition of a specified sliding surface. This surface has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Since this model-free controller has a simple control structure and small number of control parameters, it is easy to implement. Simulation results, based on a semi experimental system dynamic model and parameters, are executed to show the control performance of the proposed intelligent controller. In addition, the control performance is compared with that of a traditional Pid controller

  13. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  14. On the cooling rate of strip cast ingots for sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.Q. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Wu, J.M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, W. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ying, H.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-04-30

    Effects of the cooling rate of strip cast ingots on magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It is found that the magnetic properties greatly depend on wheel speed due to different alloy microstructures, which affect readily the particle size distribution of powders obtained after the subsequent jet milling. At higher cooling rate, interlamellar spacing between Nd-rich platelets of the alloy was small, resulting in a lower saturated magnetization due to increased amounts of small particles after jet milling. With further decreasing cooling rate, the resultant larger interlamellar spacing led to too large particle sizes as well as a more irregular shape; thus deteriorated the magnetic properties of the final magnet. A model was developed to disclose the effects of particle sizes on the magnetic alignment process. In the current investigation, optimum magnetic properties of the final magnets were obtained with a cooling rate of 2.6 m/s for preparing the strip. The magnets made by conventionally cast ingot technique exhibited the lowest magnetic properties because of the slowest cooling rate.

  15. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  16. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  17. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  18. Review of the continuous casting of steel by strip casting technology. Twin roll method system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarrondo, I.

    2008-01-01

    In order to compete in the future steel market and to maintain market share, the steel makers will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. In this way, the strip casting technology by twin rol method is one of the most important research are in the iron and steel industry today. This review makes a general description of the strip casting technology as well as its different steps, such us; metal delivery and casting, solidification process, hot rolling reduction step, etc. Through mathematical and physical models, the influence on microstructure texture surface quality and mechanical properties of the materials obtained by this method are described as a function of processing parameters, specially the roughness of the rolls. the manufacturing of carbon, stainless and electrical steels involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower gas emissions, and an opportunity to create new grades due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structures. In sight of all this it is likely that Strip Casting technology will make a profound impact on the manufacturing landscape of the 21 s t century. (Author) 177 refs

  19. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  20. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  1. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  2. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  3. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  4. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  5. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  6. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  7. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  8. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  9. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  10. Application of rapid solidification powder metallurgy processing to prepare Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy strips with high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajpai, S.K., E-mail: vajpaisk@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dube, R.K., E-mail: rkd@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sangal, S., E-mail: sangals@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2013-05-15

    Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) strips were successfully prepared from rapid solidified water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powders via hot densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms. Finished heat-treated Cu–Al–Ni alloy strips had fine-grained structure, average grain size approximately 16 μm, and exhibited a combination of high strength and high ductility. It has been demonstrated that the redistribution of nano-sized alumina particles, present on the surface as well as inside the starting water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powder particles, due to plastic deformation of starting powder particles during hot densification rolling resulted in the fine grained microstructure in the finished SMA strips. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β{sub 1}{sup ′} and γ{sub 1}{sup ′} martensite. The average fracture strength and fracture strain of the finished SMA strips were 810 MPa and 12%, respectively, and the fractured specimens exhibited primarily micro-void coalescence type ductile nature of fracture. Finished Cu–Al–Ni SMA strips exhibited high characteristic transformation temperatures and an almost 100% one-way shape recovery was obtained in the specimens up to 4% applied deformation pre-strain. The retained two-way shape memory recovery increased with increasing applied training pre-strain, achieving a maximum value of 16.25% at 5% applied training pre-strain.

  11. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi; Monshi, Ahmad; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. → MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. → Retained austenite conversion to α'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. → Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr) 7 C 3 , may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  12. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  13. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  14. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  15. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  16. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  17. Rolling force prediction for strip casting using theoretical model and artificial intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Guang-ming; LI Cheng-gang; ZHOU Guo-ping; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2010-01-01

    Rolling force for strip casting of 1Cr17 ferritic stainless steel was predicted using theoretical model and artificial intelligence.Solution zone was classified into two parts by kiss point position during casting strip.Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics and stream function were introduced to analyze the rheological property of liquid zone and mushy zone,and deduce the analytic equation of unit compression stress distribution.The traditional hot rolling model was still used in the solid zone.Neural networks based on feedforward training algorithm in Bayesian regularization were introduced to build model for kiss point position.The results show that calculation accuracy for verification data of 94.67% is in the range of+7.0%,which indicates that the predicting accuracy of this model is very high.

  18. Multivariable H force/level control of the twin-roller strip caster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavazos, A.; Edwards, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Twin-roller steel strip casters may offer some advantages with respect to classical continuous casting hot rolling processes. Some works have reported control aspects of this process and although the process has been found to be highly interactive and non-linear, little or no attention has been given to its multivariable characteristics. The purpose of this work is to design a multivariable control capable of decoupling the system. This paper presents some important aspects of the strip caster modeling and reports the simulation results of the application of the multivariable H-optimal control for nominal performance to force/level control. Various controllers have been designed for different pool level heights and it is shown that they can decouple the system, allowing the application of PI decentralized controllers to considerably improve performance. (author)

  19. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  20. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  1. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  2. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  3. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  4. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  6. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  7. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  8. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  9. Investigation of planetary milling for nano-silicon carbide reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollo, Lauri, E-mail: lauri.kollo@staff.ttu.e [Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing, EMPA, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Leparoux, Marc; Bradbury, Christopher R.; Jaeggi, Christian [Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing, EMPA, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Carreno-Morelli, Efrain; Rodriguez-Arbaizar, Mikel [University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Design and Materials Unit, 1950 Sion (Switzerland)

    2010-01-21

    High-energy planetary milling was used for mixing aluminium powders with 1 vol.% of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles. A number of milling parameters were modified for constituting the relationship between the energy input from the balls and the hardness of the bulk nanocomposite materials. It was shown that mixing characteristics and reaction kinetics with stearic acid as process control agent can be estimated by normalised input energy from the milling bodies. For this, the additional parameter characterising the vial filling was determined experimentally. Depending on the ball size, a local minimum in filling parameter was found, laying at 25 or 42% filling of the vial volume for the balls with diameter of 10 and 20 mm, respectively. These regions should be avoided to achieve the highest milling efficiency.After a hot compaction, fourfold difference of hardness for different milling conditions was detected. Therewith the hardness of the Al-1 vol.% nanoSiC composite could be increased from 47 HV{sub 0.5} of pure aluminium to 163 HV{sub 0.5} when milling at the highest input energy levels.

  10. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  11. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  12. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  13. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  14. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  15. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  16. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  17. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  18. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.

  19. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  20. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  1. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  2. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  3. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  4. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  5. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  6. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of hot-pressed mechanically alloyed Al–Zn–Mg–Cu powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, A.; Fallahdoost, H.; Nejadseyfi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Al7050 alloy was synthesized by mechanical alloying. • Longer milling time led to increasing porosity in hot-pressed samples. • Significant improvement in strength and wear resistance was obtained by increasing the milling time up to 40 h. - Abstract: This research focuses on the preparation of Al7050 alloy via mechanical alloying and hot pressing techniques. The effect of milling time on the microstructure and densification response was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the samples including microhardness, compression strength, and wear resistance were examined as a function of milling time. The results of the experiments proved that by increasing the milling time the crystallite size was reduced, which has a significant effect on improving the mechanical properties. In addition, porosity formation increased when the milling time was increased due to reduction of the compressibility of finer particles. By increasing the milling time to more than 40 h, a relatively invariable crystallite size was obtained and it was observed that the porosities expanded in the samples. Therefore, the compressive strength, hardness, and wear resistance were enhanced up to 40 h milling time and then the strengthening effect was relatively diminished. On observing surfaces with SEM, the dominant wear mechanism was recognized as abrasion, delamination and adhesion

  7. Mechanism and prevention of edge over coating in continuous hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Y.

    2000-11-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of edge over coating (EOC) for continuous hot-dip galvanizing, a visualization test of the gas flow on strip and a cold model test to measure the profile of the coating thickness at the strip edge were carried out. Outward deflected gas flow was observed at the strip edge and EOC developed in the absence of gas wiping. With gas wiping, EOC developing below the wiping position is reduced by the impinging pressure of the gas wiping jet, and the film thickness becomes approximately uniform at the gas wiping position. However, upward of the gas wiping position. EOC increases again and the outward deflected gas flow on the strip edge sweeps the liquid film to the strip edge. EOC is considered to develop at the location where the dynamic pressure of the outward deflected gas flow balances with the surface tension. For the prevention of EOC, edge masking was devised and the effects which reduce EOC were measured in the cold model test and on a commercial line test. The edge mask which can be kept farther away from the strip edge is more effective for preventing EOC than the edge plates. The optimum dimension of the edge mask is 30mm in width and 75-100 mm in depth, and installing it at 4-10mm away from the strip edge is most effective. It was confirmed by the commercial line test that the edge mask can reduce EOC from 45% to less than 10%. (author)

  8. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  9. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  10. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  11. Yang-Mills gravity in biconformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B; Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills-type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat-space Yang-Mills theories. By applying the biconformal extension to a 4-dim pure Yang-Mills theory with conformal symmetry, we establish a 1-1, onto mapping between a set of gravitational gauge theories and 4-dim, flat-space gauge theories

  12. THE METHODS OF CALCULATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE BREAKDOWN FIELD IN THE LINE OF THE MODEM HIGH-SPEED WIRE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Zhuchkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation methods of the temperature field of the breakdown, being rolled in lines of the modern high-speed wire mill, is developed on the basis of solving of problem of the contact exchange of hot metal with cold rollers.

  13. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  14. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  15. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  17. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  18. Effect of milling on the damping behavior of nano-structured copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, Narasimalu; Thein, Maung Aye; Gupta, Manoj

    2004-02-05

    In the present study, elemental Cu powder was mechanically milled (MMed) for 10 h to reduce the grain (crystalline) size in the nano-range (<100 nm). The mechanically milled powder (10 h-MMed) and elemental powder without mechanical milling (MM) (0 h-MMed) was consolidated by die-cold compaction and were further hot extruded at different temperatures to maintain a crystallite size within the nano-range. Further, the specimen was tested by a novel free-free type suspended beam arrangement, coupled with circle-fit approach to determine damping characteristics. The characterization results help to understand the effect of the nano-size grains on the overall damping capacity of the bulk samples compared to a normal micro-crystalline sample. Results show that the damping capacity of the nano-grained material increases due to the presence of process induced microstructural changes similar to the damping behavior of a micro-grain sized specimen.

  19. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  1. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  2. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  3. Hot mechanical behaviour of dispersion strengthened Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, Jose; Espinoza G, Rodrigo; Palma H, Rodrigo; Sepulveda O, Aquiles

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a research project which objective is the improvement of the high-temperature mechanical properties of copper, without an important decrease of the electrical or thermal conduction properties. The general hypothesis is that this will be done by the incorporation of nanometric ceramic dispersoids for hindering the dislocation and grain boundaries movement. In this context, the object of the present work is the study of the resistance to hot deformation of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys which have prepared by reactive milling. Two different alloys, Cu-2,39wt.%Ti-0.56wt.%C and Cu-1.18wt.%Al, were prepared so as obtain a copper matrix reinforced with nanometric TiC y Al 2 O 3 particles with a nominal total amount of 5 vol.%. The particles were developed by an in-situ formation process during milling. The materials were prepared in an attritor mill, and consolidated by extrusion at 750 o C, with an area reduction rate of 10:1. The resistance to hot deformation was evaluated by hot compression tests at 500 and 850 o C, at initial strain rates of 10 -3 and 10 -4 s-1. To evaluate the material softening due temperature, annealing at 400, 650 y 900 o C during 1h were applied; after that, hardness was measured at room temperature. Both studies alloys presented a higher resistance to hot deformation than pure copper, with or without milling. Moreover, the Cu-Ti-C alloy presented a mechanical resistance higher than that of the Cu-Al one. Both alloys presented strain-stress compression curves with a typical hot-work shape: an initial maximum followed by a stationary plateau. The Cu-Ti-C alloy had a higher hardness and did not present a hardness decay even after annealings at the higher temperature imposed (900 o C), while the Cu-Al alloy did exhibit a strong decay of hardness after the annealing at 900 o C. The best behaviour exhibited by the Cu-Ti C alloy, was attributed to the formation of a major quantity of dispersoids that in the Cu-Al alloy. In

  4. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  5. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  6. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  7. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  8. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  9. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  10. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  11. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, N., E-mail: natsuki@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Niiyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, H. [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tran, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm{sup 2}/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm{sup 2} strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition. - Highlights: • Find a way to achieve a good time resolution with a large strip RPC. • 2.5 cm narrow strips have better resolutions than 5.0 cm ones. • The 0.5 mm narrow strip interval shows flat time resolutions between strips. • FEEs directly connected to strips make the signal reflection at the strip edge small. • A time resolution of 50 ps was achieved with 2.5 cm×100 cm strips.

  12. Observing RAM Pressure Stripping and Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael; West, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The two largest spirals in the Coma cluster, NGC4911 and NGC4921, are being vigorously ram-pressure stripped by the hot intracluster medium. Our HST ACS and WFC3 images have revealed galactic scale shock fronts, giant "Pillars of Creation", rivulets of dust, and spatially coherent star formation in these grand design spirals. We have now obtained HST WFC3 imaging of five additional large Coma spirals to search for and investigate the effects of ram pressure stripping across the wider cluster environment. The results are equally spectacular as the first two examples. The geometry of the interactions in some cases allows an estimation of the various time scales involved, including gas flows out of the disk leading to creation of the ICM, and the attendant triggered star formation in the galaxy disks. The global star formation patterns yield insights into the spatial and temporal ISM-ICM interactions driving cluster galaxy evolution and ultimately transforming morphologies from spiral to S0. These processes were much more common in the early Universe when the intergalactic and intracluster components were initially created from stripping and destruction of member galaxies.

  13. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  14. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  15. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  16. Magnetic imaging and machine vision NDT for the on-line inspection of stainless steel strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, M; Ficola, A; Fravolini, M L; Battaglini, L; Palazzi, A; Burrascano, P; Valigi, P; Appolloni, L; Cervo, S; Rocchi, C

    2013-01-01

    An on-line inspection system for stainless steel strips has been developed on an annealing and pickling line at the Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A. steel mill. Besides a machine vision apparatus, the system contextually exploits a magnetic imaging system designed and realized for the specific application. The main goal of the research is represented by the fusion of the information provided by the two apparatuses that can improve the detection and classification tasks by enlarging the set of detectable defects. In this paper, the development, the calibration and the characteristics of the magnetic imaging apparatus are detailed and experimental results obtained both in laboratory and in situ are reported. A comparative analysis of the performances of the two devices is also reported based on preliminary results and some conclusions and perspectives are drawn. (paper)

  17. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  18. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  19. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  20. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  1. Heavy metals adsorption on rolling mill scale; Adsorcion de metales pesados sobre cascarill de laminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, F. A.; Martin, M. I.; Perez, C.; Lopez-Delgado, A.; Alguacil, E. J.

    2003-07-01

    A great quantity of industries are responsible for contaminating the environment with the heavy metals which are containing in their wastewaters. The recovery of these metals is both from an environmental and economical points of view of the upmost interest. A study is made of the use of mill scale-originating in the hot rolling of steel-as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents. The adsorption of Zn''2+, Cd''2+ y Pb''2+ on the rolling mill scale was investigated by determination of adsorption isotherms. The effect of time, equilibrium temperature and concentration of metal solution on mill scale adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Langmuir and Freundlich. Desorption process of metals from loaded mill scales was also studied using several doser bent at different experimental conditions. It has been proved that the mill scale is an effective adsorbent for the cations studies in aqueous solutions within the range of the working concentrations. (Author) 32 refs.

  2. Mechanochemical Effects on the Synthesis of Copper Orthophosphate and cyclo-Tetraphosphate Bulks by the Hydrothermal Hot Pressing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper orthophosphate, Cu3(PO42, and cyclo-tetraphosphates, Cu2P4O12, were synthesized using phosphoric acid and basic copper carbonate, and then treated with a planetary mill for up to 360 minutes. The un-milled and milled samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. SEM images, particle size distribution, specific surface area, UV-Vis reflectance spectra were also used to evaluate the materials. The un-milled and milled materials were used to fabricate copper phosphate bulks by a hydrothermal hot pressing method. The influence of powder condition on the sintering behavior of the copper phosphates was studied.

  3. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  4. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjin; Trunov, Mikhaylo A.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dave, Rajesh N.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  5. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010, petitioners requested administrative [[Page 49525

  6. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  7. Consolidation of mechanically milled powder mixture of aluminum and quasicrystalline particle; Mechanical milling shita junkessho ryushi / aluminium gokin funmatsu no koka seikeisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, E.; Kawamura, C.; Sugiyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    A quasi-crystalline Al65Cu20Fe15 powder prepared from alloy cast rapidly solidified by metal-mold casting, and then it was mixed to aluminum powder with various volume fractions by mechanical milling. The powder milled for above 50ks made homogeneous dispersion of quasi-crystalline phase with particle size less than 1{mu}m. The powder was hot-pressed under various conditions and then its features of consolidation were examined by the observation of microstructure and fracture strength in 3-point-bending of the compacts. When the milled powder was hot-pressed at higher compacting temperature than 673K for 3.6ks under pressure of 600MPa, the compact became to dense. Hardness of the obtained compact increases and its fracture strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of quasi-crystalline particles. Intermetallic compound Al7Cu2Fe forms in the interface of aluminum matrix and quasi-crystalline particle. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  9. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  10. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  11. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  12. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  13. Development of TRIP-Aided Lean Duplex Stainless Steel by Twin-Roll Strip Casting and Its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, twin-roll strip casting was carried out to fabricate thin strip of a Mn-N alloyed lean duplex stainless steel with the composition of Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N, in which internal pore defects had been effectively avoided as compared to conventional cast ingots. The solidification structure observed by optical microscope indicated that fine Widmannstatten structure and coarse-equiaxed crystals had been formed in the surface and center, respectively, with no columnar crystal structures through the surface to center of the cast strip. By applying hot rolling and cold rolling, thin sheets with the thickness of 0.5 mm were fabricated from the cast strips, and no edge cracks were formed during the rolling processes. With an annealing treatment at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 5 minutes after cold rolling, the volume fractions of ferrite and austenite were measured to be approximately equal, and the distribution of alloying elements in the strip was further homogenized. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited an excellent combination of strength and ductility, with the ultimate tensile strength and elongation having been measured to be 1000 MPa and 65 pct, respectively. The microstructural evolution during deformation was investigated by XRD, EBSD, and TEM, indicating that ferrite and austenite had different deformation mechanisms. The deformation of ferrite phase was dominated by dislocation slipping, and the deformation of austenite phase was mainly controlled by martensitic transformation in the sequence of γ→ ɛ-martensite→ α'-martensite, leading to the improvement of strength and plasticity by the so-called transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By contrast, lean duplex stainless steels of Fe-21Cr-6Mn-0.5N and Fe-23Cr-7Mn-0.6N fabricated by twin-roll strip casting did not show TRIP effects and exhibited lower strength and elongation as compared to Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N.

  14. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  15. The production of rare earth elements group via tributyl phosphate extraction and precipitation stripping using oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Jorjani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solvent extraction and precipitation stripping were used to produce rare earth elements (REEs. Tributyl phosphate (TBP was used to extract yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium from an aqueous solution produced by nitric acid leaching of apatite concentrate. In the extraction stage, the effects of TBP concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, and phase ratio were investigated. The results show that about 95%, 90%, 87% and 80% of neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, and yttrium, respectively, can be extracted in optimum conditions of extraction. Hot, deionized water was used to scrub the impurities from the loaded organic phase. The results showed that three stages of scrubbing with a phase ratio (Va/Vo of five removed about 80%, 30%, 27%, and 15% of Ca, Mg, Fe, and P, respectively, from loaded TBP, while less than 9% of total REEs was lost. The effects on precipitation stripping of oxalic acid concentration, contact time, and phase ratio were investigated. The results showed that precipitation stripping is a viable alternative to traditional acid stripping in the REEs production process. Mixed REEs oxide with an assay of about 90% can be achieved as a final product.

  16. Search for cold and hot gas in the ram pressure stripped Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3418

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Kenney, J.D.P.; Růžička, Adam; Sun, M.; Combes, F.; Palouš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 556, August (2013), A99/1-A99/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P699; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : VCC 1217/IC 3418 * Virgo * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  17. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  18. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  19. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  20. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  1. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  2. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  3. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by microbial inoculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...

  4. Optimisation of milling parameters using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipski Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and test an intelligent computer software developed with the purpose of increasing average productivity of milling not compromising the design features of the final product. The developed system generates optimal milling parameters based on the extent of tool wear. The introduced optimisation algorithm employs a multilayer model of a milling process developed in the artificial neural network. The input parameters for model training are the following: cutting speed vc, feed per tooth fz and the degree of tool wear measured by means of localised flank wear (VB3. The output parameter is the surface roughness of a machined surface Ra. Since the model in the neural network exhibits good approximation of functional relationships, it was applied to determine optimal milling parameters in changeable tool wear conditions (VB3 and stabilisation of surface roughness parameter Ra. Our solution enables constant control over surface roughness parameters and productivity of milling process after each assessment of tool condition. The recommended parameters, i.e. those which applied in milling ensure desired surface roughness and maximal productivity, are selected from all the parameters generated by the model. The developed software may constitute an expert system supporting a milling machine operator. In addition, the application may be installed on a mobile device (smartphone, connected to a tool wear diagnostics instrument and the machine tool controller in order to supply updated optimal parameters of milling. The presented solution facilitates tool life optimisation and decreasing tool change costs, particularly during prolonged operation.

  5. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  6. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  7. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos-3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Castro, V. de [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An obstacle in the development of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels for structural applications in fusion reactors is the toughness lack of the material produced by powder metallurgy and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In particular, ODS EUROFER steel with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles appears to exhibit poor impact properties. To asses the capabilities of this material, it is necessary elucidate if its failure is an inherent characteristic of the production process that can not be mitigated by normalizing and tempering treatments. In order to investigate this particular point, the evolution of the structural defects retained in the ODS material during isochronal annealing has been probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The present study has been performed on bail milled EUROFER powders consolidated by HIP, containing 0.25 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For comparison, un-milled EUROFER powder consolidated under identical conditions, and as-received EUROFER97 plate produced by Boehler AG have been also investigated. Samples from these four materials were isochronally annealed for 90 min up to 1323 K. Materials produced from milled powders had a longer positron lifetime than the one produced from un-milled powder or the EUROFER plate. In the material containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, i.e. in ODS EUROFER, annealing above 723 K produced a continuous increase in the mean positron lifetime <{tau}> up to reach a maximum value of 208 ps after annealing at 1223 K. A similar annealing behavior was observed for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-free milled EUROFER (milled EUROFER), but the <{tau}> value steeply changed from {approx}160 ps at 823 K to {approx}200 ps after annealing at 1023 K. Subsequent anneals above this temperature produced meaningless changes in <{tau}>. The <{tau}> increase in milled EUROFER was accompanied by the intensity increase of a lifetime component of {approx}360 ps that is characteristic

  8. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid

    2008-01-01

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  9. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  10. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  11. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  12. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  13. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  14. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  15. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  16. Application of the Finite Element Method to Reveal the Causes of Loss of Planeness of Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets during Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, E. A.; Bolobanova, N. L.; Trusov, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    A finite element technique is developed to simulate the stresses and the strains during strip flattening to reveal the causes of the cutting-assisted loss of planeness of hot-rolled steel sheets processed in roller levelers. The loss of planeness is found to be caused by a nonuniform distribution of the flattening-induced longitudinal tensile stresses over the strip thickness and width. The application of tensile forces to a strip in a roller leveler decreases this nonuniformity and prevents loss of planeness in cutting.

  17. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  18. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red. 24 refs

  1. The Influence of Vanadium Microalloying on the Production of Thin Slab Casting and Direct Rolled Steel Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Milbourn, David

    Vanadium microalloying is highly effective in high strength strip steels produced by thin slab casting and direct rolled process. Because of the high solubility of V(C,N) in austenite, vanadium is likely to remain in solution during casting, equalisation and rolling. Vanadium microalloyed steels have better hot ductility and are less prone to transverse cracking than niobium containing steels. Despite a coarse as-cast austenite grain size before rolling, significant grain refinement can be achieved in vanadium microalloyed steels by repeated recrystallization during rolling, resulting in a fine uniform ferrite microstructure in final strip. Almost all vanadium present in microalloyed steels is available to precipitate in ferrite as very fine particles, contributing to precipitation strengthening. Vanadium microalloyed steels show less sensitivity to rolling process variables and exhibit excellent combination of strength and toughness.

  2. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  3. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  4. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertello, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author) [es

  5. Nanostructured Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr alloy prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, Amin; Shokuhfar, Ali; Zolriasatein, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured Al–7.8 wt% Zn–2.6 wt% Mg–2 wt% Cu–0.1 wt% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed (MA) from elemental powders and consolidated by hot press technique. The effect of the milling time and hot pressing process on microstructure was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and analytical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore mechanical properties of samples with different MA time as well as pure aluminum were investigated by microhardness and compression tests. The results show that an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr homogenous supersaturated solid solution with a crystallite size of 27 nm was obtained after 40 h of milling time. Microstructure refinement and morphological changes of powders from flake to spherical shape were observed by increasing milling time. Phase and microstructural characterization of high density bulk nanostructured samples revealed that increasing milling time up to 40 h leads to formation of MgZn 2 precipitation in the alloy matrix. With increasing milling time, density of the samples and crystalline size decrease. Significant enhancement of hardness and compressive strength is observed in the aluminum alloy by increasing milling time up to 40 h which is much higher than pure aluminum. Crystallite size refinement in pure aluminum samples from micro- to nanoscales resulted in 107% and 100% improvement in compressive strength and hardness, respectively. Furthermore the compressive strength and hardness of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr alloy nanostructured samples increased to 179% and 172%, respectively, compared to nanostructured pure Al, which was produced as reference specimen. 40 h of MA was the optimum case for preparing such an Al alloy and more milling up to 50 h led to deterioration of mechanical properties

  6. Microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of strip-casting non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel doped with cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao-Ze, E-mail: lhzqq83@163.com; Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-15

    A 0.3 mm thick non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel sheet doped with cerium is produced by twin-roll strip casting, hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the cerium precipitates in the as-cast strip, microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages is carried out by electron probe micro-analysis, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Grain interior distributing precipitates identified as Ce-oxides, Ce-oxysulfides and Ce-phosphides, and boundary distributing Ce-oxides and Ce-phosphides are observed in the as-cast strip. The initial as-cast strip is characterized by a much finer solidification microstructure and dominated by obvious < 001 >//ND texture through the strip thickness. After hot and warm rolling, inhomogeneous microstructure containing large amounts of in-grain shear bands is characterized by mixed < 110 >//RD and < 111 >//ND textures. The texture of the annealed sheet with a relatively large average grain size is far more optimized by the domination of the beneficial cube, rotated cube, (001)< 120 > to (001)< 130 > and Goss texture components, and the elimination of the detrimental γ-fiber texture, leading to a superior magnetic induction and improved iron loss. - Highlights: • An Fe–6.5 wt.% Si as-cast strip doped with cerium was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet with limited edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Strong λ-fiber and Goss recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic properties of the annealed sheet were significantly improved.

  7. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  8. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  9. Utilizing hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2018-03-01

    In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.

  10. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  11. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  12. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  13. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  14. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  15. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  16. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  17. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  18. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRD) surface probing technique. Preliminary results were obtained for the surface residual stress at the center of the titanium strips for the 100 and 325 mesh strips rolled at 0.1 roll gap for 20 and 50 mm set...

  19. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  20. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  1. Laser stripping of relativistic H- ions with practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlin, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes laser stripping of H - ions. Some applications are suggested for HEP including stripping 2GeV ions circulating in an accelerator with radius 75 meters where laser meets ion head on in a three meter interaction region. The paper describes photoionizaton cross section, laser power calculation, and how to generate the 5 micrometer light

  2. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  3. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  4. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  5. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  6. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, C.H.; Ring, R.J.; McNaughton, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  7. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  8. A morphological evaluation of a duplex stainless steel processed by high energy Ball Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekubo, Ariane Emi; Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2009-01-01

    The duplex stainless steels are formed by a ferrite and austenite mixture, giving them a combination of properties. Commercially, these steels are hot rolled, developing an anisotropic, alternated ferrite and austenite elongated lamellae microstructure. In this work, a duplex stainless steel was produced by the mixture of elementary powders with the composition Fe-19.5Cr-5Ni processed in an ATTRITOR ball mill during periods up to 15 hours. The powders obtained were compressed in specimens and were heat treated in the temperatures of 900, 1050 and 1200 °C during 1 hour and analysed by x ray diffraction, optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy. An optimized microstructure with ultrafine, equiaxial and regular duplex microstructure was obtained in the 15 hour milling and 1200 °C heat treatment. Afterwards, a commercially super duplex stainless steel UNS S32520 was aged at 800 °C aiming the precipitation of σ phase in order to reduce its toughness and then, milled in SPEX mill. The resulting microstructure was a very fine duplex type with irregular grain boundary morphology duo to the grain growth barrier promoted by the renascent σ phase particles during sintering process. (author)

  9. Proton beam shaped by “particle lens” formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Xu, Z. Z.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a “particle lens” in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a “fountain-like” pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  10. A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: wy069024019@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Lu, Xiang; Fang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Bo; Cao, Guang-Ming; Li, Cheng-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-12-01

    A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel was successfully produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and precipitate evolution under different first cold rolling reduction were investigated. It was shown that the as-cast strip was mainly composed of equiaxed grains and characterized by very weak Goss texture ({110}<001>) and λ-fiber (<001>//ND). The coarse sulfides of size ~100 nm were precipitated at grain boundaries during strip casting, while nitrides remained in solution in the as-cast strip and the fine AlN particles of size ~20–50 nm, which were used as grain growth inhibitors, were formed in intermediate annealed sheet after first cold rolling. In addition, the suitable Goss nuclei for secondary recrystallization were also formed during intermediate annealing, which is totally different from the conventional process that the Goss nuclei originated in the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet. Furthermore, the number of AlN inhibitors and the intensity of desirable Goss texture increased with increasing first cold rolling reduction. After secondary recrystallization annealing, very large grains of size ~10–40 mm were formed and the final magnetic induction, B{sub 8}, was as high as 1.9 T. - Highlights: • A novel chemical composition base on strip casting silicon steel was proposed. • The ultra-low carbon design could shorten the processing routes. • The novel composition and processes were beneficial to obtain more inhibitors. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  11. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  12. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  13. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  14. Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  15. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  16. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  17. The hot working characteristics of a boron bearing and a conventional low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, Waldo; Banks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive hot working constants were determined for an 11 ppm boron low carbon strip steel and compared from 875 to 1140 deg. C and strain rates of 0.001-2.5 s -1 to a high nitrogen low carbon strip steel. The boron steel showed a different hot working behaviour than the conventional steel with the steady state flow stress about 50-60% higher, the peak strain more than 50% higher and the eventual ferrite grain size about 40% smaller, if compared at the same temperature compensated strain rates or Z values. This difference persisted where the soaking temperature before compression was varied between 1140 and 1250 deg. C, proving that undissolved AlN in the boron-bearing steel was not responsible. With systematically varied linear cooling rates after hot working, the final ferrite grain size in the boron steel is finer and is independent of the two Z values applied during hot working. Retarded softening by dynamic recrystallisation during hot working in the boron containing steel is probably caused by boron solute drag of moving grain boundaries

  18. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  19. Eddy current distribution and lift force for finite MAGLEV strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L; Eastham, A R; Fombrun, C; Chong, M

    1974-07-01

    The transverse distribution of induced eddy currents across a flat conducing strip of finite width, due to a rectangular dc magnet moving above it, was modelled experimentally, and was compared with that calculated for an infinite sheet. The electrodynamic suspension was simulated by means of a stationary ac-excited copper magnet suspended above an aluminum strip, and the induced surface current density was measured by a voltage pickup probe connected to a lock-in amplifier. The effect of reducing strip width is examined and shown to produce high current densities close to the edges. These results are related to the variation of lift force with strip width, determined by impedance modelling. A slight enhancement of lift is evident for intermediate strip widths.

  20. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  1. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  2. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  3. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  4. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either discharge no visible emissions to the outside air from that asbestos mill, including fugitive sources, or...

  5. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  6. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  7. Effect of an Intermediate Heat-treatment on a Change of the Corrosion Resistance and Hardness of a HANA-4 Outer Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Eom, Kyong Bo; Park, Nam Gyu; Lim, Yoon Soo

    2008-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in collaboration with KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel) undertook some researches on the applicability of HANA-4 and HANA-6 alloys for the spacer grid for a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear fuel. As a part of the research, KAERI studied the effect of the final heat-treatment on the mechanical and corrosion properties of a HANA-4 inner strip. The strip was manufactured with a sheet which had been intermediately heat-treated at about 580 .deg. C for 2.5-4 hours after each cold rolling before being processed into the final strip product. It was mentioned that the process with the intermediate heat treatment needed reviewing to establish an improved manufacturing process for the cold rolling. So, this work tried to check the effect of an intermediate heat-treatment on the properties of a HANA-4 strip using a specimen that was taken from a second hot rolled material before a cold-rolling. The manufacturing processes, with three different kinds of annealings, were introduced to investigate the applicable intermediate heat-treatment process. After all the cold-rolling processes, the Vickers hardness was measured for the final annealed specimens and 60 days of corrosion tests were carried out to check on the effect of the intermediate heat-treatment. Finally, an appropriate intermediate heat-treatment was proposed to improve the manufacturability of the HANA-4 strip

  8. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  9. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  10. Influence of structure and properties of tubular billets of the 12 Kh 18N10T steel on deformability of tubes at cold-rolling mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'yams, O.S.; Bol'shova, N.M.; Olejnik, O.V.; Velikotnaya, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Metallographic analysis of the defects of the ''oblique cracks'' type on the surface of hot-rolled tubes of the 12Kh18N10T steel has been carried out. Recommended is the complex of mechanical properties and the structure factors (grain size) of conversion hot-rolled tubes, providing the combination of ductility and high rapture strength during rolling at pilger mills. At a grain size not coarser than number 5, a billet must have σsub(T) 5 >=40 %. Hot-rolled coarse-grained billet is not recommended for warm rolng because of high strain hardening

  11. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  12. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  13. Two loop diagrams in Yang Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.T.

    1974-01-01

    A calculation of the renormalization constants of the Yang Mills field to 0(g 4 ) is presented. The function β(g) is hence evaluated to 0(g 5 ) and possible implications for gauge theories of the strong interactions discussed

  14. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  15. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  17. Hot subluminous star: HDE 283048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, M.; Vuillemin, A.; Parsons, S.B.; Henize, K.G.; Wray, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The star HDE 283048, located at α = 3/sup h/50/sup m/.3, delta = +25 0 36', shows a strong ultraviolet continuum. Ground-based observations indicate a hot-dominated composite spectrum. Several lines of evidence suggest that the hot component is a hot subdwarf. 2 figures

  18. Infrared finiteness in Yang--Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Carazzone, J.; Kluberg-Stern, H.; Roth, M.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared divergences of renormalizable theories with coupled massless fields (in particular, the Yang--Mills theory) are shown to cancel for transition probabilities corresponding to finite-energy-resolution detectors, just as in quantum electrodynamics. This result is established through lowest nontrivial order in perturbation theory for the detection of massive muons in a quantum electrodynamic theory containing massless electrons or the detection of massive quarks in a Yang--Mills theory

  19. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  20. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  1. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  2. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  3. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  4. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  5. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  6. The ''hot'' patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed

  7. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  8. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  9. Yang Mills instantons, geometrical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1977-09-01

    The word instanton has been coined by analogy with the word soliton. They both refer to solutions of elliptic non linear field equations with boundary conditions at infinity (of euclidean space time in the first case, euclidean space in the second case) lying on the set of classical vacua in such a way that stable topological properties emerge, susceptible to survive quantum effects, if those are small. Under this assumption, instantons are believed to be relevant to the description of tunnelling effects between classical vacua and signal some characteristics of the vacuum at the quantum level, whereas solitons should be associated with particles, i.e. discrete points in the mass spectrum. In one case the euclidean action is finite, in the other case, the energy is finite. From the mathematical point of view, the geometrical phenomena associated with the existence of solitons have forced physicists to learn rudiments of algebraic topology. The study of euclidean classical Yang Mills fields involves naturally mathematical items falling under the headings: differential geometry (fibre bundles, connections); differential topology (characteristic classes, index theory) and more recently algebraic geometry. These notes are divided as follows: a first section is devoted to a description of the physicist's views; a second section is devoted to the mathematician's vie

  10. Lost Mountain: a year in the vanishing wilderness; radical strip mining and the devastation of Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, E.

    2007-02-15

    The mountains of Appalachia are home to one of the great forests of the world - they predate the Ice Age and scientists refer to them as the 'rainforests' of North America for their remarkable density and species diversity. These mountains also hold the mother lode of American coal, and the coal mining industry has long been the economic backbone for families in a region hard-pressed for other job opportunities. But recently, a new type of mining has been introduced -'radical strip mining', aka 'mountaintop removal'- in which a team employing no more than ten men and some heavy machinery literally blast off the top of a mountain, dump it in the valley below, and scoop out the coal. Erik Reece chronicles the year he spent witnessing the systematic decimation of a single mountain, aptly named 'Lost Mountain'. A native Kentuckian and the son of a coal worker, Reece makes it clear that strip mining is neither a local concern nor a radical contention, but a mainstream crisis that encompasses every hot-button issue - from corporate hubris and government neglect, to class conflict and poisoned groundwater, to irrevocable species extinction and landscape destruction. Published excerpts of Lost Mountain are already driving headlines and legislative action in Kentucky.

  11. Microscopic analysis and simulation of check-mark stain on the galvanized steel strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hongyun; Yoon, Hyun Gi; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    2010-11-01

    When galvanized steel strip is produced through a continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the thickness of adhered zinc film is controlled by plane impinging air gas jet referred to as "air-knife system". In such a gas-jet wiping process, stain of check-mark or sag line shape frequently appears. The check-mark defect is caused by non-uniform zinc coating and the oblique patterns such as "W", "V" or "X" on the coated surface. The present paper presents a cause and analysis of the check-mark formation and a numerical simulation of sag lines by using the numerical data produced by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the three-dimensional compressible turbulent flow field around the air-knife system. It was found that there is alternating plane-wise vortices near the impinging stagnation region and such alternating vortices move almost periodically to the right and to the left sides on the stagnation line due to the jet flow instability. Meanwhile, in order to simulate the check-mark formation, a novel perturbation model has been developed to predict the variation of coating thickness along the transverse direction. Finally, the three-dimensional zinc coating surface was obtained by the present perturbation model. It was found that the sag line formation is determined by the combination of the instantaneous coating thickness distribution along the transverse direction near the stagnation line and the feed speed of the steel strip.

  12. Gas stripping and mixing in galaxy clusters: a numerical comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Steffen; Springel, Volker

    2012-11-01

    The ambient hot intrahalo gas in clusters of galaxies is constantly fed and stirred by infalling galaxies, a process that can be studied in detail with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. However, different numerical methods yield discrepant predictions for crucial hydrodynamical processes, leading for example to different entropy profiles in clusters of galaxies. In particular, the widely used Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme is suspected to strongly damp fluid instabilities and turbulence, which are both crucial to establish the thermodynamic structure of clusters. In this study, we test to which extent our recently developed Voronoi particle hydrodynamics (VPH) scheme yields different results for the stripping of gas out of infalling galaxies and for the bulk gas properties of cluster. We consider both the evolution of isolated galaxy models that are exposed to a stream of intracluster medium or are dropped into cluster models, as well as non-radiative cosmological simulations of cluster formation. We also compare our particle-based method with results obtained with a fundamentally different discretization approach as implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that VPH leads to noticeably faster stripping of gas out of galaxies than SPH, in better agreement with the mesh-code than with SPH. We show that despite the fact that VPH in its present form is not as accurate as the moving mesh code in our investigated cases, its improved accuracy of gradient estimates makes VPH an attractive alternative to SPH.

  13. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  14. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  15. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  16. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot roll bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Ikenaga, Yoshiaki.

    1994-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) with stainless steel piping is needed for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar metal transition joints between stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot roll bonding process, using the newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. In the R and D program, appropriate bonding conditions in the manufacturing process of the joints were established. This report presents the structure of transition joints and the manufacturing process by the hot roll bonding technique. Then, the evaluation of mechanical and corrosion properties and the results of demonstration test of joints for practical use are described. (author)

  17. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot roll bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro; Shikakura, Sakae; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Kajimura, Haruhiko.

    1995-01-01

    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) with stainless steel piping is needed for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar metal transition joints between stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot roll bonding process, using the newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. In the R and D program, appropriate bonding conditions in the manufacturing process of the joints were established. This report presents the structure of transition joints and the manufacturing process by hot roll bonding technique. Then, the evaluation of mechanical and corrosion properties and the results of demonstration test of joints for practical use are described. (author)

  18. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a Nieto, Paulino Jos?; Garc?a-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ord??ez Gal?n, Celestino; Bernardo S?nchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism i...

  19. Effect of addition of water-soluble salts on the hydrogen generation of aluminum in reaction with hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum powder was ball milled for different durations of time with different weight percentages of water-soluble salts (NaCl and KCl). The hydrogen generation of each mixture in reaction with hot water was measured. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the morphology, surfaces and cross sections of the produced particles. The results show that the presence of salts in the microstructure of the aluminum considerably increases the hydrogen generation rate. At shorter milling times, the salt covers the aluminum particles and becomes embedded in layers within the aluminum matrix. At higher milling durations, salt and aluminum phases form composite particles. A higher percentage of the second phase significantly decreases the milling time needed for activation of the aluminum particles. Based on the EDS results from cross sections of the milled particles, a mechanism for improvement of the hydrogen generation rate in the presence of salts is suggested. - Highlights: • Milling and water soluble salts have a synergic effect on hydrogen generation. • Salt and aluminum form composite particles by milling. • Salt is dissolved in water leaving aluminum with much fresh surfaces for the reaction. • The chemical effect of salt on the reaction is negligible compared to its structural effect.

  20. Mechanism of Corrosion of Activated Aluminum Particles by Hot Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism of corrosion in aluminum particles by hot water treatment for hydrogen generation is evaluated. The aluminum powder was activated by ball milling for different durations, which modified size and microstructure of the particles. Open circuit potential test was carried out to elucidate different stages of the reaction. Tafel test was used to explain the effect of ball milling and growth of hydroxide layer on corrosion of the particles. Surface, cross section and thickness of the grown hydroxide on the aluminum particles were studied in a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of the aluminum powders depends on microstructure of the aluminum particles, growth of the hydroxide layer and a change in pH because of cathodic reactions. The hydrogen production test showed that a deformed microstructure and smaller particle size accelerates the corrosion rate of aluminum by hot water, the effect of the deformed microstructure being more significant at the beginning of the reaction. Effect of growth of the hydroxide layer on corrosion mechanism is discussed

  1. Solutions for Safe Hot Coil Evacuation and Coil Handling in Case of Thick and High Strength Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieberer Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently hot rolling plants are entering the market segment for thick gauges and high strength steel grades where the elastic bending property of the strip leads to internal forces in the coil during coiling operation. The strip tends to open. Primetals is investigating several possibilities to facilitate safe coil evacuation and coil handling under spring-back conditions. The contribution includes finite element models of such mechanical solutions. Results of parameter variation and stability limits of case studies are presented in the paper.

  2. THz Wave Propagation on Strip Lines: Devices, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kadoya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the propagation characteristics of THz pulses on micro-strip-lines and coplanar strip-lines, in which low permittivity polymer materials are used as the dielectric layer or the substrate. As a result of the low attenuation and small dispersion in the devices, the spectral width up to 3 THz can be achieved even after the 1 mm propagation. Spectroscopic characterizations of liquid or powder specimens are demonstrated using the devices. We also show a possibility of realizing a very low attenuation using a quadrupole mode in three strip coplanar lines on the polymer substrate.

  3. Improved dielectric functions in metallic films obtained via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuk Park, Jong; Nagpal, Prashant; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2012-02-01

    We compare the dielectric functions of silver interfaces obtained via thermal evaporation with those obtained with template stripping. Ellipsometry measurements show that the smoother template-stripped surfaces exhibit effective dielectric functions with a more negative real component and a smaller imaginary component, implying higher conductivity and less energy loss, respectively. These results agree with the relation between dielectric function and surface roughness derived from combining the effective-medium model and the Drude-Lorentz model. The improvement in the effective dielectric properties shows that metallic films prepared via template stripping can be favorable for applications in electronics, nanophotonics, and plasmonics.

  4. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  5. Effect of the milling atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS Fe-14Cr model alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: maria.auger@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Castro, V. de; Leguey, T. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Lozano-Perez, S.; Bagot, P.A.J.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Roberts, S.G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    A systematic study has been undertaken to assess how the milling atmosphere, in the processing of an ODS steel with nominal composition Fe-14Cr-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt%), will affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant alloys. Batches of the steel were manufactured by a powder metallurgy route incorporating mechanical alloying, hot isostatic pressing, forging and heat treatment. Hydrogen or helium atmospheres were used in the mechanical alloying, with all other processing parameters remaining identical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) show that both milling atmospheres promote a homogeneous dispersion of Y-rich nanoparticles in the final alloys, being smaller when milling in H. Previously reported mechanical characterisation of these alloys shows better mechanical response at high temperature for the alloy milled in a H. This can be justified by the presence of smaller Y-rich nanoparticles together with the absence of bubbles, observed in the alloy milled in He.

  6. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

  7. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  8. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  9. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  10. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, R.; Allegri, A.; Guarino, S.; Quadrini, F.; Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.

    2004-01-01

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker

  11. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.E.; Schuman, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  12. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  13. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  14. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  15. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  16. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  17. Decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill on bacteria in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotome, Itaru; Nei, Daisuke; Tsuda, Masuko; Mohammed, Sharif Hossen; Takenaka, Makiko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2011-06-01

    The decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill was investigated by counting the number of bacteria in brown and white rice flour with mean particle diameters of 3, 20, and 40µm prepared by the jet mill. In the jet mill, the particles are crushed and reduced in size by the mechanical impact caused by their collision. Although the brown and white rice grains were contaminated with approximately 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/g bacteria, the microbial load of the rice flour decreased as the mean particle diameter decreased, ultimately decreasing to approximately 104 and 103 CFU/g in the brown and white rice flour. The temperature and pressure changes of the sample were not considered to have an effect on reducing the bacterial count during the milling. Hence, it was thought that the rice flour was decontaminated by other effects.

  18. Dimensional ranges and rolling efficiency in a tandem cold rolling mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkiola, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, physical models and a neural network theory have been combined in order to predict the properties of a steel strip and to optimise the process parameters in cold rolling. The prediction of the deformation resistance of the material and the friction parameter is based on the physical model presented by Bland, Ford and Ellis and artificial neural network computing (ANN). The accuracy of these models has been tested and proved by using a large amount of the measured data. With the aid of these models it has been shown that (a) the small change to the relative reduction distribution can have a clear effect upon the rolling efficiency, (b) the dimensional ranges of the tandem cold roll mill can be determined and optimised and (c) the possibility to cold roll a new product of new width, strength or thickness can be determined and the parameters of the tandem cold rolling process can be optimised. (orig.) 43 refs.

  19. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  20. Progress in hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodhag, C.; Thevenot, F.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental technique is described to study hot pressing of ceramics under conditions of controlled temperature and pressure during both the heating and final sintering stages. This method gives a better control of the final microstructure of the material. Transformation mechanisms can be studied during initial heating stage (impurity degasing, reaction, phase transformation, mechanical behavior of intergranular phase...) using computer control and graphical data representations. Some examples will be given for different systems studied in our laboratory: B (α, β, amorphous), B 12 O 2 (reaction of B + B 2 O 3 ), Si 3 N 4 ( + additives), TiN, Al 2 O 3 + AlON,ZrC

  1. Multipurpose reprocessing hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A multipurpose hot cell is being designed for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant for handling future scheduled fuels that cannot be adequately handled by the existing facilities and equipment. In addition to providing considerable flexibility to handle a wide variety of fuel sizes up to 2,500 lb in weight the design will provide for remote maintenance or replacement of the in-cell equipment with a minimum of exposure to personnel and also provide process piping connections for custom processing of small quantities of fuel. (auth)

  2. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  3. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  4. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  5. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  6. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  8. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  9. High Pressure Water Stripping Using Multi-Orifice Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David

    1999-01-01

    The use of multi-orifice rotary nozzles greatly increases the speed and stripping effectiveness of high pressure water blasting systems, but also greatly increases the complexity of selecting and optimizing the operating parameters. The rotational speed of the nozzle must be coupled with its transverse velocity as it passes across the surface of the substrate being stripped. The radial and angular positions of each orifice must be included in the analysis of the nozzle configuration. Orifices at the outer edge of the nozzle head move at a faster rate than the orifices located near the center. The energy transmitted to the surface from the impact force of the water stream from an outer orifice is therefore spread over a larger area than energy from an inner orifice. Utilizing a larger diameter orifice in the outer radial positions increases the total energy transmitted from the outer orifice to compensate for the wider distribution of energy. The total flow rate from the combination of all orifices must be monitored and should be kept below the pump capacity while choosing orifice to insert in each position. The energy distribution from the orifice pattern is further complicated since the rotary path of all the orifices in the nozzle head pass through the center section. All orifices contribute to the stripping in the center of the path while only the outer most orifice contributes to the stripping at the edge of the nozzle. Additional orifices contribute to the stripping from the outer edge toward the center section. With all these parameters to configure and each parameter change affecting the others, a computer model was developed to track and coordinate these parameters. The computer simulation graphically indicates the cumulative affect from each parameter selected. The result from the proper choices in parameters is a well designed, highly efficient stripping system. A poorly chosen set of parameters will cause the nozzle to strip aggressively in some areas

  10. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  11. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, ......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  12. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  13. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  14. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  15. An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1983-04-01

    The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt

  16. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time...... is achieved. Drift independence is obtained for small critical features using a radial scan strategy, and a back scan routine ensures minimal line width deviation removing redeposited material. Milling a design similar to a nano four-point probe with a pitch down to 400nm we display what optimized FIB milling...

  17. Effect of melt conditioning on heat treatment and mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy strips produced by twin roll casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevdas80@gmail.com [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Barekar, N.S. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); El Fakir, Omer; Wang, Liliang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Prasada Rao, A.K.; Patel, J.B.; Kotadia, H.R.; Bhagurkar, A. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Dear, John P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fan, Z. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-03

    In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. Detailed optical microscopy studies were carried out on as-cast and homogenized TRC and MC-TRC strips. The results showed uniform, fine and equiaxed grain structure was observed for MC-TRC samples in as-cast condition. Whereas, coarse columnar grains with centreline segregation were observed in the case of as-cast TRC samples. The solidification mechanisms for TRC and MC-TRC have been found completely divergent. The homogenized TRC and MC-TRC samples were subjected to tensile test at elevated temperature (250–400 °C). At 250 °C, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. The mechanism of deformation has been explained by detailed fractures surface and sub-surface analysis carried out by scanning electron and optical microscopy. Homogenized MC-TRC samples were formed (hot stamping) into engineering component without any trace of crack on its surface. Whereas, TRC samples cracked in several places during hot stamping process.

  18. HOT AND COLD GALACTIC GAS IN THE NGC 2563 GALAXY GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Jesper [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bai, Xue-Ning [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van Gorkom, J. H.; Lee, Duane [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wilcots, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy, 4055 McPherson Laboratory, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH (United States); Roberts, Timothy P., E-mail: jr@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    The role of environmentally induced gas stripping in driving galaxy evolution in groups remains poorly understood. Here we present extensive Chandra and Very Large Array mosaic observations of the hot and cold interstellar medium within the members of the nearby, X-ray bright NGC 2563 group, a prime target for studies of the role of gas stripping and interactions in relatively small host halos. Our observations cover nearly all group members within a projected radius of 1.15 Mpc ({approx}1.4 R{sub vir}) of the group center, down to a limiting X-ray luminosity and H I mass of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, respectively. The X-ray data are consistent with efficient ram pressure stripping of the hot gas halos of early-type galaxies near the group core, but no X-ray tails are seen and the limited statistics preclude strong conclusions. The H I results suggest moderate H I mass loss from the group members when compared to similar field galaxies. Six of the 20 H I-detected group members show H I evidence of ongoing interactions with other galaxies or with the intragroup medium. Suggestive evidence is further seen for galaxies with close neighbors in position-velocity space to show relatively low H I content, consistent with tidal removal of H I. The results thus indicate removal of both hot and cold gas from the group members via a combination of ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions. We also find that 16 of the 20 H I detections occur on one side of the group, reflecting an unusual morphological segregation whose origin remains unclear.

  19. HOT AND COLD GALACTIC GAS IN THE NGC 2563 GALAXY GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Bai, Xue-Ning; Mulchaey, John S.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Lee, Duane; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Wilcots, Eric; Martini, Paul; Roberts, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of environmentally induced gas stripping in driving galaxy evolution in groups remains poorly understood. Here we present extensive Chandra and Very Large Array mosaic observations of the hot and cold interstellar medium within the members of the nearby, X-ray bright NGC 2563 group, a prime target for studies of the role of gas stripping and interactions in relatively small host halos. Our observations cover nearly all group members within a projected radius of 1.15 Mpc (∼1.4 R vir ) of the group center, down to a limiting X-ray luminosity and H I mass of 3 × 10 39 erg s –1 and 2 × 10 8 M ☉ , respectively. The X-ray data are consistent with efficient ram pressure stripping of the hot gas halos of early-type galaxies near the group core, but no X-ray tails are seen and the limited statistics preclude strong conclusions. The H I results suggest moderate H I mass loss from the group members when compared to similar field galaxies. Six of the 20 H I-detected group members show H I evidence of ongoing interactions with other galaxies or with the intragroup medium. Suggestive evidence is further seen for galaxies with close neighbors in position-velocity space to show relatively low H I content, consistent with tidal removal of H I. The results thus indicate removal of both hot and cold gas from the group members via a combination of ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions. We also find that 16 of the 20 H I detections occur on one side of the group, reflecting an unusual morphological segregation whose origin remains unclear.

  20. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  1. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  2. The development of drift-strip detectors based on CdZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gostilo, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2002-01-01

    The design and technological development of a CdZnTe drift strip detector is described. The device is based on a monocrystal of dimensions 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) and has a pitch of 200 mum and a strip width of 100 mum. The strip length is 9.5 mm. The distribution of the leakage currents of the strips...

  3. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  4. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  5. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry in lipophilic vitamins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sýs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to check if adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV is suitable tool for sensitive simultenous electrochemical detection of lipophilic vitamins. Retinol (vitamin A1, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, α-tocopherol (vitamin E and phylloquinone (vitamin K1 were selected as representatives. All electrochemical measurements were performed in two separate steps due to the lipophilic character of the analytes. In the first step, an accumulation of lipophilic vitamin on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE was done by immersing working electrode into the aqueous‑acetonitrile solutions (50%, v/v of each vitamin (50.0 µmol.L-1 at 400 rpm for 5 min. In the second one, differential pulse voltammetry of accumulated vitamins was performed in 0.01 mol.L-1 acetate (pH 4.5 buffer at potential step (Estep 5 mV, potential of amplitude (Eampl 25 mV, interval time (t 0.1 s and scan rate (ν 50 mV.s-1. It was observed that electrochemical behaviour of lipophilic vitamins adsorbed on surface of solid GCE in the aqueous electrolyte was very similar to those performed in organic/aqueous electrolyte in literature. Due to reversible electrochemical behaviour of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone/phyllohydroquinone redox couple, it was possible to detect all lipophilic vitamins only in one analysis. Observed values of peak potentials (Ep were sufficiently different for their recognition which was confirmed by the analysis of real sample. The results obtained in this study showed that simultaneous determination of some lipophilic vitamins is possible requiring further optimization study. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this work as an initial step in simultaneous determination of lipophilic vitamins without application of any chromatographic technique.

  6. Microstructure and properties of hot roll bonding layer of dissimilar metals. 2. Bonding interface microstructure of Zr/stainless steel by hot roll bonding and its controlling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Taka, Takao; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi.

    1996-01-01

    The hot roll bonding of zirconium and stainless steel inserted with tantalium was investigated using the newly developed rolling mill. The effect of hot rolling temperatures of zirconium/stainless steel joints on bonding interface structure was evaluated. Intermetallic compound layer containing cracks was observed at the bonding interface between stainless steel and tantalium when the rolling temperature was above 1373K. The hardness of the bonding layer of zirconium and tantalium bonded above 1273K was higher than tantalium or zirconium base metal in spite of absence of intermetallic compound. The growth of reaction layer at the stainless steel and tantalium interface and at the tantalium and zirconium interface was conforming a parabolic low when that was isothermally heated after hot roll bonding, and the growth rate was almost same as that of static diffusion bonding without using hot roll bonding process. It is estimated that the strain caused by hot roll bonding gives no effect on the growth of reaction layer. It was confirmed that the dissimilar joint of zirconium and stainless steel with insert of tantalium having the sound bonding interface were obtained at the suitable bonding temperature of 1173K by the usage of the newly developed hot roll bonding process. (author)

  7. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  8. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1986-11-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F 2 +α2F 4 ) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α 2 in six and ten dimensional spacetimes are given. The F 4 -terms turn out to occur in the combination α 2 (tr F 4 - 1/4(tr F 2 ) 2 ), where the trace is over the Lorentz indices. This result agrees with the low energy limit of the open superstring in ten dimensions, where α is the string tension. Surprisingly, the transformation rules of the Yang-Mills multiplet receive order α 2 corrections even in the off-shell formulation. For the case of Abelian Yang-Mills group, the action is expressed in Born-Infeld form with a metric generically given by (1+α 2 F 2 +...). (author)

  9. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  10. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.; Carlsen, B.; Tavrides, E.; Hoeven, C. van der; Phathanapirom, U.

    2013-01-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle. - Highlights: • We present environmental impacts of conventional uranium (U) mining and milling technologies. • Impacts include direct energy consumption, land use and water use. • Contemporary mine and mill data is used, updating published estimates that relied on 1970s-era data. • The direct energy used to mine and mill uranium is below 1% of the electrical energy ultimately produced by the uranium. • Even if U demand growth is strong, the direct energy return on investment of U mining and milling will remain well above 1

  11. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  12. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  13. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  14. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  15. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  16. Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations have been well known for a long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists since their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows one to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories. (orig.)

  17. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  18. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  19. Automation for pilger mills at NZFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoher; Ramesh, K.; Rout, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Pilgering is the critical operation in production of zircaloy fuel tubes. The in-going tube is required for feeding in pilgering and the outgoing pilger tube length is measured and is cut into required lengths and transferred to storage tank before sending for degreasing. The paper deals with the automation of the above operation carried out on the pilger mills of New Zircaloy Fabrication Plant (NZFP). This has helped in improving the quality of the pilgered tubes and productivity of the mill besides eliminating manual handling and cutting operations

  20. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  1. Nonperturbative Results for Yang-Mills Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Schechter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value....... Assuming the usual QCD value one finds it to be 1.67 GeV, which is in surprisingly good agreement with a quenched lattice calculation. A similar calculation is made for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory where the corresponding beta function is considered to be exact....

  2. Barium Ferrite Ball Milled in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.J.; Wu, E.; Kaczmarek, W.A.; Wang, G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic behaviour of BaFe 12 O 19 subjected to milling in vacuum for 1000 h has been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer effect spectroscopy techniques. Pronounced structural disorder is obtained along with partial decomposition of BaFe 12 O 19 to α-Fe 2 O 3 and evidence for superparamagnetic relaxation effects due to the fine particles produced on milling. Restoration of the fully crystallised BaFe 12 O 19 structure on annealing at 1000 deg. C is accompanied by a six fold enhancement in the magnetic coercivity. This behaviour is linked with the fine crystallites

  3. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  4. Forming of High-strength Steels Using a Hot-melt Dry Lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörnström, Sven-Erik; Karlsson, Erik; Olsson, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    during forming resulting in seizure of the tool/steel sheet contact and extensive scratching of the steel sheet surface. As a result, a number of concepts have been developed in order to reduce the tendency to galling in metal forming, including the development of new dry lubricants, new forming tool...... steel grades and improved surface engineering treatments such as the deposition of low friction CVD and PVD coatings. In the present study the performance of a hot-melt dry lubricant in the forming of hot and cold rolled and hot-dip galvanized high strength steel has been evaluated and compared...... with a conventional rust protection oil using four different tests methods, i.e. a strip reduction test, a bending under tension test, a stretch-forming test and a pin-on disc test. In the tests, two different cold work tool steels, a conventional steel grade and a nitrogen alloyed PM steel grade were evaluated...

  5. Electropolishing or chemical milling of beryllium to remove machining defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, J.R.

    1975-12-01

    The techniques of electropolishing and chemical milling to remove machine damage from beryllium are compared. Both techniques are found to be effective; chemical milling is recommended because it is easier to use and control

  6. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Keywords: CNC end milling, surface finish, material removal rate (MRR), entropy measurement technique, Taguchi method ...

  7. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GAS DEPLETION IN LOCAL GROUP DWARFS ON ∼250 kpc SCALES: RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING ASSISTED BY INTERNAL HEATING AT EARLY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey of the Galaxy and M31 reveals that more than 90% of dwarf galaxies within 270 kpc of their host galaxy are deficient in H I gas. At such an extreme radius, the coronal halo gas is an order of magnitude too low to remove H I gas through ram pressure stripping for any reasonable orbit distribution. However, all dwarfs are known to have an ancient stellar population (∼> 10 Gyr) from early epochs of vigorous star formation which, through heating of H I, could allow the hot halo to remove this gas. Our model looks at the evolution of these dwarf galaxies analytically as the host-galaxy dark matter halo and coronal halo gas build up over cosmic time. The dwarf galaxies-treated as spherically symmetric, smooth distributions of dark matter and gas-experience early star formation, which sufficiently heats the gas, allowing it to be removed easily through tidal stripping by the host galaxy, or ram pressure stripping by a tenuous hot halo (n H = 3 x 10 -4 cm -3 at 50 kpc). This model of evolution is able to explain the observed radial distribution of gas-deficient and gas-rich dwarfs around the Galaxy and M31 if the dwarfs fell in at high redshift (z ∼ 3-10).

  9. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  10. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  11. Machinability Evaluation in Hard Milling of AISI D2 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitonde, Vinayak Neelakanth; Karnik, Sulse Ramesh; Maciel, Caio Henrique Alves; Rubio, Juan Carlos Campos; Abrão, Alexandre Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Milling of hardened steel components provides considerable benefits in terms of reduced manufacturing cost and time compared to traditional machining. Temperature variation in milling is an important factor affecting the wear of cutting tools. The poor selection of milling parameters may cause excessive tool wear and increased work surface roughness. Hence, there is a need to study the machinability aspects during milling of hardened steel components. In the present work, influence of cutting...

  12. Management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations have not given rise to much concern about their hazards, and with advancing technologies for mill processing and waste management, the situation will continue to improve. However, the disposal of large quantities of waste produced in mining and milling does have an environmental impact, owing to the long half-lives and the ready availability of the toxic radionuclides Ra-226 and Rn-222. This article deals with the management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

  13. Effect of milling duration on the evolution of shape memory properties in a powder processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mohit; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shafeeq, Muhamed M.; Modi, Om P.; Prasad, Braj K. [CSIR - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2013-09-15

    The present work describes the effect of milling duration on the properties of a powder metallurgy processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti shape memory alloy employing mechanical alloying. Powder mixtures milled for different durations were sintered in order to investigate the formation of solid solution and evolution of martensitic structure. The idea was to optimize the duration of milling (mechanical alloying) to obtain chemical homogeneity as well as shape memory properties in the processed material without undergoing extensive post homogenization treatment. The martensitic structure was noted to evolve in the powder mix milled for at least 16 hrs, whereas complete transformation to martensite occurred after milling for 40 hrs. Interestingly, the dissolution of alloying elements (to form the {beta} phase prior to the formation of martensite) was noted to complete partially only during mechanical alloying for 40 hrs and remaining during subsequent sintering for 1 hr. The hot pressed compacts of the powders milled for 40 hrs were chemically homogeneous and consisted of fully martensite phase, which is essential for the realization of shape memory properties. They also revealed almost 100% shape recovery at the applied pre-strain levels of 1 and 2%. (orig.)

  14. Hot cell verification facility update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Moffett, S.D.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) provides a prototypic hot cell mockup to check equipment for functional and remote operation, and provides actual hands-on training for operators. The facility arrangement is flexible and assists in solving potential problems in a nonradioactive environment. HCVF has been in operation for six years, and the facility is a part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  15. 46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50... PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-3 Manufacturer or mill certification. (a) A manufacturer or mill producing materials used in certain products for installation on inspected vessels, shall...

  16. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  17. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  18. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. 58.419 Section... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.419 Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. Knives, hand rakes... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that...

  19. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  20. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, 2236-2 Kamimakuwa, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Tagaya, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  1. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K.; Tagaya, M.; Morinaga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  2. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  3. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  4. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Orto, F.A.C.; Ojima, M.; Hiroce, R.; Igue, T.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1988-06-01

    A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)

  6. Credentialism: Why We Have Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, George

    1982-01-01

    The demand for credentials and college degrees in the United States has spawned the establishment of many degree-granting institutions that are nothing more than diploma mills. Despite some indicators of institutional quality, such as accreditation and state licensing, the identification of substandard colleges is not always an easy task. (WD)

  7. Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1984-04-01

    Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references

  8. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  9. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  10. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  11. Random geometry and Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.

    1981-01-01

    The author states various problems and discusses a very few preliminary rigorous results in a branch of mathematics and mathematical physics which one might call random (or stochastic) geometry. Furthermore, he points out why random geometry is important in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory. (Auth.)

  12. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    simple model systems. ... times in a planetary mill are shown in figure 2. ... dynamics (CD) model, based on Martin's model for driven systems,21 along with an ... feature of the phase diagram is the self closing miscibility gap at low temperature.

  13. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  14. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  16. A class of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)

  17. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  18. The progress in the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-waste uranium ore milling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jintang

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium mill tailings and their risk assessment are described. The moethods of uranium mill tailings disposal and management are criticized and the necessity of the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-wasle uranium ore milling process are demonstrated. The progress for these researches in China and other countries with uranium production is reviewed, and the corresponding conclusions are reported

  19. Theoretical study of H- stripping with a wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The first step for injecting protons into the LAMPF Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL is to strip a beam of 800-MeV H - ions to H 0 with a 1.8-T dipole magnet. Because of the finite lifetime of energetic H - ions in the magnetic field, their trajectories bend before stripping causing the angular spread of the beam, and therefore its emittance, to grow during the stripping process. In the case of the PSR, the horizontal beam emittance grows by a factor of roughly three during injection. As a consequence, beam losses in the ring are significantly greater than they would be if there were not emittance growth. A speculative technique is proposed in which the beam divergence growth and resulting emittance growth is reduced by stripping the H - in a wiggler magnet whose transverse field alternates in direction as a function of position along the beam axis. The wiggler field configuration is adjusted so that the angular beam spread introduced during passage through one unidirectional-field increment of path is relatively small and so that 99.99% of the beam is stripped after passing through the whole magnet. With careful field design the net added angular beam spread is reduced because the incremental angular spreads are painted back and forth over the same small range. In the hypothetical case described, the calculated emittance growth and beam loss increase are significantly smaller than those calculated for a conventional stripper magnet. 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...