WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot shop area

  1. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Pinzel

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy is documenting the selection of an alternative for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area using a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). The scope of the removal action is limited to TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has assisted the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in identifuomg the most effective method for performing the decommissioning of this structure whose mission has ended. TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is located at Test Area North Technical Support Facility within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The selected alternative consists of demolishing the TAN-607 aboveground structures and components, removing belowground noninert components (e.g. wood products), and removing the radiologically contaminated debris that does not meet remedial action objectives (RAOs), as defined in the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10.

  2. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    Test Area North (TAN) -607, the Technical Support Facility, is located at the north end of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to decommission the northern section of the TAN-607 facility, hereinafter referred to as TAN-607 Hot Shop Area, under a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). Despite significant efforts by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) to secure new business, no future mission has been identified for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. Its disposition has been agreed to by the Idaho State Historical Preservation Office documented in the Memorandum of Agreement signed October 2005 and it is therefore considered a surplus facility. A key element in DOE's strategy for surplus facilities is decommissioning to the maximum extent possible to ensure risk and building footprint reduction and thereby eliminating operations and maintenance cost. In addition, the DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan is ''complete cleanup of the contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and testing sites across the United States. DOE is responsible for the risk reduction and cleanup of the environmental legacy of the Nation's nuclear weapons program, one of the largest, most diverse, and technically complex environmental programs in the world. The Department will successfully achieve this strategic goal by ensuring the safety of the DOE employees and U.S. citizens, acquiring the best resources to complete the complex tasks, and managing projects throughout the United States in the most efficient and effective manner.'' TAN-607 is designated as a historical Signature Property by DOE Headquarters Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and, as such, public participation is required to determine the final disposition of the facility. The decommissioning action will place the TAN-607 Hot Shop

  3. TAN Hot Shop and Support Facility Utilization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picker, B.A.

    2001-11-16

    Impacts to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex caused by early closure (prior to 2018) and Demolition and Dismantlement (D and D) of the Test Area North (TAN) hot shop and its support facilities are explored in this report. Various possible conditions, such as Standby, Safe Store and Lay-up, that the facility may be placed in prior to eventually being turned over to D and D are addressed. The requirements, impacts, and implications to the facility and to the DOE Complex are discussed for each condition presented in the report. Some details of the report reference the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Life Cycle Baseline Plan, the INEEL 2000 Infrastructure Long Range Plan, and other internal INEEL reports.

  4. TAN HOT SHOP AND SUPPORT FACILITY UTILIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Ken Crawforth

    2001-11-01

    Impacts to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex caused by early closure (prior to 2018) and Demolition and Dismantlement (D&D) of the Test Area North (TAN) hot shop and its support facilities are explored in this report. Various possible conditions, such as Standby, Safe Store and Lay-up, that the facility may be placed in prior to eventually being turned over to D&D are addressed. The requirements, impacts, and implications to the facility and to the DOE Complex are discussed for each condition presented in the report. Some details of the report reference the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Life Cycle Baseline Plan, the INEEL 2000 Infrastructure Long Range Plan, and other internal INEEL reports.

  5. Tourist shopping behavior in a historic downtown area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping is one of the most important activities for tourists. The purpose of this study is to describe and predict tourist shopping route choice behavior in a downtown historic center. Reported routes of tourists in the downtown shopping area of Maastricht, located in the Southern part of the

  6. Indices of pedestrian behavior in shopping areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.; Timmermans, H.

    2014-01-01

    A number of indices to describe and compare sets of pedestrian routes in shopping environments will be introduced. The first set of indices is related to characteristics of the trajectories and the second set to visiting outlets. These statistics can be used to assess the performance of models

  7. NORTH PORTAL-HOT WATER CIRCULATION PUMP CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING NO.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to size a circulating pump for the service hot water system in the Shop Building 5006, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculation is based on Reference 5.2. This consists of determining the total heat transfer from the service hot water system piping to the surrounding environment. The heat transfer is then used to define the total pumping capacity based on a given temperature change in the circulating hot water as it flows through the closed loop piping system. The total pumping capacity is used to select a pump model from manufacturer's literature. This established the head generation for that capacity and particular pump model. The total length of all hot water supply and return piping including fittings is then estimated from the plumbing drawings which defines the pipe friction losses that must fit within the available pump head. Several iterations may be required before a pump can be selected that satisfies the head-capacity requirements

  8. Parking in cites : How essential is parking for healthy central shopping areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Koetse, Mark; Woudenberg, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    A reason of concern with restrictive parking policies is that the cities will become less attractive as a destination of various trips so that some activities will relocate to other places. This holds true for example for shopping. When central shopping areas are difficult to visit, customer

  9. Propagation Characteristics in an Underground Shopping Area for 5GHz-band Wireless Access Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Kiyohiko; Kita, Naoki; Sato, Akio; Matsue, Hideaki; Mori, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hironobu

    5-GHz band wireless access systems, such as the RLAN (Radio Local Area Network) system of IEEE802.11a, HiperLAN/2, HiSWANa and AWA, are developed and provide transmission rates over 20 Mbps for indoor use. Those 5-GHz access systems are expected to extend service areas from the office to the so-called “hot-spot" in public areas. Underground shopping malls are one of the anticipated service areas for such a nomadic wireless access service. Broadband propagation characteristics are required for radio zone design in an underground mall environment despite previous results obtained by narrow band measurements. This paper presents results of an experimental study on the propagation characteristics for broadband wireless access systems in an underground mall environment. First, broadband propagation path loss is measured and formulated considering human body shadowing. A ray trace simulation is used to clarify the basic propagation mechanism in such a closed environment. Next, a distance dependency of the delay spread during a crowded time period, rush hour, is found to be at most 65 nsec, which is under the permitted maximum value of the present 5-GHz systems. Finally, above propagation characteristics support the result of transmission test carried out by using AWA equipment.

  10. AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FAMILIARITY AND WILLINGNESS TO USE ONLINE FOOD SHOPPING SERVICES IN A LOCAL AREA OF TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hiser, Jennifer; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Online food shopping is not only one of the newest innovations in grocery shopping but also one of the many services integrating the changing needs of consumers and the increasing use of modern technology. A survey was conducted in the Bryan/College Station area of Texas to determine a quantitative profile of consumers, via logit analysis, who are familiar with the concept of online food shopping and who are willing to use an online food shopping service. Older people, females, major shoppers...

  11. NORTH PORTAL-HOT WATER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Blackstone

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main for the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) (Section 4.4.1) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  12. Hot or Not: An Analysis of Online Professor-Shopping Behavior of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tarique M.

    2010-01-01

    With the proliferation of Web sites that allow students to praise or disparage their instructors depending on their whims, instructors across the country essentially are becoming subjects of comparison shopping by prospective students. Using a sample survey of 258 students majoring in business at a public university on the west coast of the United…

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements

  14. Designing Shopping Area Atmospheric Using Choice-based Conjoint Analysis: Case Study at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzianti Amalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a response to overcapacity issue at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, the government is recently planning on building larger terminal buildings to transport passengers. However, in designing an excellent terminal building, one should not only consider how to process passengers in the most efficient way, but also how facility-based environmental cues, or atmospheric cues, affect consumers’ emotional state and shopping behavior. This research aims at examining passenger preferences towards atmospheric cues in airport shopping area and proposing a shopping area design based on consumer preferences. Choice-based conjoint was conducted towards 500 passengers at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. Research findings suggested that there is a significant correlation between atmospheric cues and consumers’ purchase intention in airport shopping area. Passengers prefer a shopping area with high in-store visibility, cool colors for window display, floors, wall, and ceiling, and bright lighting for airport hallway. This research also concludes that Socio-economic Status (SES affects passengers’ preferences.

  15. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  17. A Gender Identification System for Customers in a Shop Using Infrared Area Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takuya; Kimura, Haruhiko; Abe, Takehiko; Abe, Koji; Nakamoto, Yoshinori

    Information about customers in shops plays an important role in marketing analysis. Currently, in convenience stores and supermarkets, the identification of customer's gender is examined by clerks. On the other hand, gender identification systems using camera images are investigated. However, these systems have a problem of invading human privacies in identifying attributes of customers. The proposed system identifies gender by using infrared area scanners and Bayesian network. In the proposed system, since infrared area scanners do not take customers' images directly, invasion of privacies are not occurred. The proposed method uses three parameters of height, walking speed and pace for humans. In general, it is shown that these parameters have factors of sexual distinction in humans, and Bayesian network is designed with these three parameters. The proposed method resolves the existent problems of restricting the locations where the systems are set and invading human privacies. Experimental results using data obtained from 450 people show that the identification rate for the proposed method was 91.3% on the average of both of male and female identifications.

  18. The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffner Krystian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.

  19. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, pshopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, pshopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  20. Probabilistic risk analysis for Test Area North Hot Shop Storage Pool Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A storage pool facility used for storing spent fuel and radioactive debris from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was evaluated to determine the risk associated with its normal operations. Several hazards were identified and examined to determine if any any credible accident scenarios existed. Expected annual occurrence frequencies were calculated for hazards for which accident scenarios were identified through use of fault trees modeling techniques. Fault tree models were developed for two hazards: (1) increased radiation field and (2) spread of contamination. The models incorporated facets of the operations within the facility as well as the facility itself. 6 refs

  1. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  2. Shopping list development and use of advertisements' pre-store food-buying practices within different socio-economic status areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffett, Rodney Graeme; Foster, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there is a difference in the development of shopping lists and use of advertisements as pre-store food-buying practices in terms of planned shopping by South African consumers who dwell in different socio-economic status (SES) areas. The paper also considers the influence of shopper and socio-demographic characteristics on pre-store food-buying practices in a developing country. A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey 1 200 consumers in retail stores in low, middle and high SES areas in South Africa. A generalised linear model was employed for the statistical analysis of pre-store food-buying practices within the SES area groups in a developing country. South African consumers that reside in high SES area displayed the largest of shopping list development, while consumers who dwell in low SES areas showed the highest incidence of advertisement usage. Several shopper and socio-demographic characteristics were also found to have an influence on pre-store food-buying practices in different SES areas in South Africa. A qualitative approach would offer a deeper understanding of consumers' pre-store food shopping predispositions as opposed to the quantitative approach, which was adopted for this study. A longitudinal design would also provide a more extensive representation of pre-store food shopping practices over a longer time frame than cross-sectional research. The survey was conducted on Saturdays, whereas consumers who shop during the week may have different shopping and socio-demographic characteristics. Astute food brands, marketers and grocery stores could use the findings of this study to assist with their marketing efforts that they direct at consumers in different SES areas in South Africa and other developing countries. The findings of this study may assist consumers in developing countries, especially those who reside in low SES areas, with food-buying strategies to reduce food costs, make wiser

  3. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M.; Solis, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  4. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  5. Identification of hot spot area of sediment contamination in a lake system using texture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2013-04-01

    Texture plays an important role in the identification of polluted stretch in a lake system. The organic matter as well as toxic elements get accumulated in the finer sediments. The aim of the work is to show the spatio-temporal distribution of texture of the lake sediment (Akkulam-Veli lake, Kerala) and to identify the hot spot areas of contamination. Hot spot areas vary with seasons. During PRM, (premonsoon), the upstream portion of the Akkulam lake is the hot spot. During MON (monsoon), the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake and the upstream portion of the Veli lake are the hot spots. During POM (postmonsoon), hot spot area is the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake. This methodology can be used for the quick identification of hot spots in water bodies.

  6. Features of geology in Anyuan hot spot area of southern Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinrong; Li Ziying; Pang Yaqing; Hu Zhihua; Gao Fei; Wang Yongjian; Zhong Qilong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the synthetical research on the characteristics of regional geology and structure, magmatic activity and metamorphism, it is considered that Anyuan area in southern Jiangxi Province has features of continent hot spot, and Anyuan hot spot area is an integrated geology body effected by the metamorphism. magmatism, tectonism and hydrothermal metallogenesis originated by the mantle upheaving. Anyuan hot spot area is a mineralization cluster area of uranium and poly-metal, which has the feature of ring structure, negative abnormity of gravity and high field of radioactivity. It is considered that metallogenesis of uranium and poly-metal is close to crust-mantle mixing and fluid of deep source. (authors)

  7. Internet Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays you no longer need to walk round hundreds of shops looking for the items you need. You can shop for just about anything from your armchair. All you need is a computer and access(进入) to the Internet.

  8. Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a certain area ("Walcheren project") III. The presence of salmonella in man, insects, seagulls and in foods, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants and drains of butcher's shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, W; van Schothorst, M; van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1978-12-01

    For a period of three months in a relatively small area (Walcheren), various materials (meat and meat products, insects, seagull droppings, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and stools of patients) were examined again for the presence of Salmonella as a continuation of previous investigations. As had been the case in previous studies, S. typhimurium (27.5%), S. panama (22.2%) and S. brandenburg (9.2%) were the three most frequently isolated serotypes. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhimurium were II 505 (62.1%) II 502 (5.3%) and I 650 (4.2%). The serotypes and phage types were present in almost all the materials examined which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies show that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shops. Salmonella organisms carried with the meat from the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and through meat and meat products, to the consumer on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluent is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis in man.

  9. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  10. TA-60-1 Heavy Equipment Shop Areas SWPPP Rev 2 Jan 2017-Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The primary activities and equipment areas at the facility that are potential stormwater pollution sources include; The storage of vehicles and heavy equipment awaiting repair; or repaired vehicles waiting to be picked up; The storage and handling of oils, anti-freeze, solvents, degreasers, batteries and other chemicals for the maintenance of vehicles and heavy equipment; and Equipment cleaning operations including exterior vehicle wash-down. Steam cleaning is only done on the steam cleaning pad area located at the north east end of Building 60-0001.

  11. Online Shopping In The UK

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Ramachandran; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  12. Shopping Malls - ShoppingCenters

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Collected from a variety of sources both commercial and internal, this layer represents shopping center locations within Volusia County and is maintained by the...

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Tendency Dan Visual Merchandising Terhadap Impulse Buying Dengan Positive Emotion Sebagai Variabel Intervaning Pada Area Ladies Matahari Department Store Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yanthi, Devi

    2014-01-01

    This research tried to determine what factors are causing consumers to do impulse buying in the area of ladies at Matahari Department Store. Variables examined in this research include hedonic shopping tendency and visual merchandising as the independent variable, positive emotion as the intervening variable, and impulse buying as the dependent variable. The sample used amounted 100 rerspondents. By using PLS-SEM analysis technique, demonstrated that through positive emotion variables, hedoni...

  14. Gachin dwellings on a hot area, but with normal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Hagh Parast, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: General population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In many countries, intensive studies have been carried out to establish natural back ground radiation in general, and also its significant components such as indoor and out door gamma radiation as well as radon contribution. Until 1996 sporadic studies had been carried out in Iran to assess background radiation in some area susceptible to high levels of radiation. Since 1996 M. T. Bahreyni Toossi and co-workers have measured environmental gamma radiation out- door and in-door for a vast area covering several provinces to establish the environmental gamma radiation level map of Iran. So far, Khorasan, Mazandaran, Kurdestan, Kerman and Bushehr counties have been investigated. In our latest project of these kind two counties, Sistan Baluchestan and Hormozgan in the south and south east Iran were studied. Gachin, a village located in south west Bandar Abbass had already been recognized as a high level natural back ground radiation with possible deposit of uranium. Therefore particular attention was paid to this village with some 3000 populations. Out door environmental radiation were measured for all 16 towns. In each town 5 stations were selected similar to those in previous studies i.e. one station at the town center and four station at the marginal area of the town along the four main geographical directions, i.e: north, south, east and west. Dose rates were measured over one minute interval for one hour. Mean of 60 individual measurements were taken as average dose rate for the selected station. In order to assess additional risk to Gachin inhabitants, in -door measurements were carried out inside 115 dwelling selected randomly. To measure environmental gamma radiation an environmental radiation meter type

  15. Gachin dwellings on a hot area, but with normal background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Hagh Parast, M. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences, Medical Physics Dep., Faculty of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: General population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In many countries, intensive studies have been carried out to establish natural back ground radiation in general, and also its significant components such as indoor and out door gamma radiation as well as radon contribution. Until 1996 sporadic studies had been carried out in Iran to assess background radiation in some area susceptible to high levels of radiation. Since 1996 M. T. Bahreyni Toossi and co-workers have measured environmental gamma radiation out- door and in-door for a vast area covering several provinces to establish the environmental gamma radiation level map of Iran. So far, Khorasan, Mazandaran, Kurdestan, Kerman and Bushehr counties have been investigated. In our latest project of these kind two counties, Sistan Baluchestan and Hormozgan in the south and south east Iran were studied. Gachin, a village located in south west Bandar Abbass had already been recognized as a high level natural back ground radiation with possible deposit of uranium. Therefore particular attention was paid to this village with some 3000 populations. Out door environmental radiation were measured for all 16 towns. In each town 5 stations were selected similar to those in previous studies i.e. one station at the town center and four station at the marginal area of the town along the four main geographical directions, i.e: north, south, east and west. Dose rates were measured over one minute interval for one hour. Mean of 60 individual measurements were taken as average dose rate for the selected station. In order to assess additional risk to Gachin inhabitants, in -door measurements were carried out inside 115 dwelling selected randomly. To measure environmental gamma radiation an environmental radiation meter type

  16. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  17. Changes in Extremely Hot Summers over the Global Land Area under Various Warming Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Yao, Yao; Zhao, Zongci

    2015-01-01

    Summer temperature extremes over the global land area were investigated by comparing 26 models of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with observations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Climate Research Unit (CRU). Monthly data of the observations and models were averaged for each season, and statistics were calculated for individual models before averaging them to obtain ensemble means. The summers with temperature anomalies (relative to 1951-1980) exceeding 3σ (σ is based on the local internal variability) are defined as "extremely hot". The models well reproduced the statistical characteristics evolution, and partly captured the spatial distributions of historical summer temperature extremes. If the global mean temperature increases 2°C relative to the pre-industrial level, "extremely hot" summers are projected to occur over nearly 40% of the land area (multi-model ensemble mean projection). Summers that exceed 5σ warming are projected to occur over approximately 10% of the global land area, which were rarely observed during the reference period. Scenarios reaching warming levels of 3°C to 5°C were also analyzed. After exceeding the 5°C warming target, "extremely hot" summers are projected to occur throughout the entire global land area, and summers that exceed 5σ warming would become common over 70% of the land area. In addition, the areas affected by "extremely hot" summers are expected to rapidly expand by more than 25%/°C as the global mean temperature increases by up to 3°C before slowing to less than 16%/°C as the temperature continues to increase by more than 3°C. The area that experiences summers with warming of 5σ or more above the warming target of 2°C is likely to maintain rapid expansion of greater than 17%/°C. To reduce the impacts and damage from severely hot summers, the global mean temperature increase should remain low.

  18. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  19. Some geophysical and geological studies of the Tanzawa Mountains. [Nakagawa Hot Spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, T; Matsuda, T; Hiraga, S; Horai, K I; Sugita, M

    1964-11-01

    Joints and zeolite-veins in both metamorphic rocks and quartz diorite exposed along the Nakagawa River were studied. Fractures with zeolite-veins are most developed in three areas, the Nakagawa hot spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa. They follow two prevailing directions: N--S with minor right-lateral displacement and N60/sup 0/E with minor left-lateral displacement. The two fractures should represent a conjugate set that was produced by stress with maximum principal axis of N30/sup 0/E-S30/sup 0/W. Distribution and prevailing directions of fractures are illustrated. Geothermal gradients are measured in two newly opened boreholes, at the Nakagawa hot spring area and Higashizawa. The geothermal gradients are 12.60 +- 0.48/sup 0/C/100m at the Nakagawa hot spring and 5.55 +- 0.24/sup 0/C/100m at Higashizawa. Temperature-depth relationships in the two boreholes are given. Seismic observation was made at the Higashizawa. In five days 43 shocks were recorded, of which 20 are thought to have occurred 2 to 20km from the observation station, that is, in and very near the Tanzawa mountains. None have shallower hypocenters than 2 km in depth.

  20. Response to comments on remedial investigation report for the Plating Shop Container Areas (S-334 and S-351) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Plating Shop Container Storage Areas site is composed of two solid waste management units (SWMUs) designated S-334 and S-351. Both SWMUs were previously sampled during a remedial investigation (RI) in 1989. Samples were collected at the ground surface, 2 ft below the ground surface, and 4 ft below the ground surface. Beryllium, chromium, cyanide, lead, uranium, and nickel were detected at slightly elevated concentrations at both SWMU locations within the site. The samples were not analyzed for organics. The samples collected for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) should have been analyzed for volatile organic contaminants. The site was resampled in August 1991. Samples were collected from between 1 ft to 3 ft from the boreholes drilled for the original RFI. In addition, samples were obtained from the same depth horizons that were sampled previously. These additional samples were analyzed for volatile organics. Tetrachloroethene was detected in some of the samples at concentrations up to 86 μg/kg. The baseline risk assessment was revised to incorporate the organic sampling data. The risks are unchanged as a result of information from the latest sampling effort (10 -7 ). This report, ES/ER-36 ampersand D2, is a companion document to Es/ER-36 ampersand D1, Remedial Investigation Report, Plating Shop Container Areas (S-334 and S-351), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  1. Efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto rigid substrates by hot pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junmo; Hwang, Soonhwi; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Min Hyeok; Ryu, Jaechul; Seo, Sang Jae; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2012-06-26

    Graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method have to be safely transferred onto desired substrates for further applications. Recently, a roll-to-roll (R2R) method has been developed for large-area transfer, which is particularly efficient for flexible target substrates. However, in the case of rigid substrates such as glass or wafers, the roll-based method is found to induce considerable mechanical damages on graphene films during the transfer process, resulting in the degradation of electrical property. Here we introduce an improved dry transfer technique based on a hot-pressing method that can minimize damage on graphene by neutralizing mechanical stress. Thus, we enhanced the transfer efficiency of the large-area graphene films on a substrate with arbitrary thickness and rigidity, evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images, Raman spectra, and various electrical characterizations. We also performed a theoretical multiscale simulation from continuum to atomic level to compare the mechanical stresses caused by the R2R and the hot-pressing methods, which also supports our conclusion. Consequently, we believe that the proposed hot-pressing method will be immediately useful for display and solar cell applications that currently require rigid and large substrates.

  2. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  3. Omni channel fashion shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; van Delft, L.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Pantano, E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives insight into consumers' online and offline fashion shopping behavior, consumers' omni-channel usage during the shopping process, and consumer fashion shopper segments. Based on a literature review, omni-channel shopping behavior during the shopping process was operationalized.

  4. Solvent-accessible surface area: How well can be applied to hot-spot detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João M; Ramos, Rui M; Pimenta, António C; Moreira, Irina S

    2014-03-01

    A detailed comprehension of protein-based interfaces is essential for the rational drug development. One of the key features of these interfaces is their solvent accessible surface area profile. With that in mind, we tested a group of 12 SASA-based features for their ability to correlate and differentiate hot- and null-spots. These were tested in three different data sets, explicit water MD, implicit water MD, and static PDB structure. We found no discernible improvement with the use of more comprehensive data sets obtained from molecular dynamics. The features tested were shown to be capable of discerning between hot- and null-spots, while presenting low correlations. Residue standardization such as rel SASAi or rel/res SASAi , improved the features as a tool to predict ΔΔGbinding values. A new method using support machine learning algorithms was developed: SBHD (Sasa-Based Hot-spot Detection). This method presents a precision, recall, and F1 score of 0.72, 0.81, and 0.76 for the training set and 0.91, 0.73, and 0.81 for an independent test set. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10{sup −6} for 445 nm illumination.

  6. Seismic modifications to the Hot and Suspect Repair area Argone National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ANL-W WIPP Waste Facility Enhancement Project required substantial remodeling and upgrades to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) building, including the Hot and Suspect Repair Area (HSRA). The HSRA is an enclosed single-storied area inside the HFEF. It is separated into several compartments, some of which are used for handling radioactive materials. The HSRA roof consists of 18 GA steel Robertson Q decking with 1.5 in. concrete topping, and is utilized for storage. Braced steel frames support the HSRA roof, except at the north side, where the steel beams are connected to the HFEF columns. The HSRA has hollow block masonry perimeter and interior walls. Seismic evaluations concluded that the HSRA did not have a competent seismic force resisting system. The structure was upgraded by decoupling it from the HFEF framing for N/S motions, modifying two existing braced frames, adding a new braced frame that can be removed temporarily during maintenance and strengthening the roof diaphragm by a unique modification consisting of special epoxy grout and steel plates installed over the existing concrete roof

  7. Seismic modifications to the hot suspect repair area Argonne National Laboratory, West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ANL-W WIPP Waste Facility Enhancement Project required substantial remodeling and upgrades to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) building, including the Hot and Suspect Repair Area (HSRA). The HSRA is an enclosed single-stoned area inside the HFEF. It is separated into several compartments, some of which are used for handling radioactive materials. The HSRA roof consists of 18 GA steel Robertson Q decking with 1.5 in. concrete topping, and is utilized for storage. Braced steel frames support the HSRA roof, except at the north side, where the steel beams arc connected to the HFEF columns. The HSRA has hollow block masonry perimeter and interior walls. Seismic evaluations concluded that the HSRA did not have a competent seismic force resisting system. The structure was upgraded by decoupling it from the HFEF framing for N/S motions, modifying two existing braced frames, adding a now braced frame that can be removed temporarily during maintenance and strengthening the roof diaphragm by a unique modification consisting of special epoxy grout and steel plates installed over the existing concrete roof

  8. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  9. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Berger, T.; Gebel, J.; Münch, W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas - if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world - could capture 17-25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42-63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2-3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.

  10. An empirical method for estimating surface area of aggregates in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Panda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen requirement in hot mix asphalt (HMA is directly dependent on the surface area of the aggregates in the mix, which in turn has effect on the asphalt film thickness and the flow characteristics. The surface area of aggregate blend in HMA is calculated using the specific surface area factors assigned to percentage passing through some specific standard sieve sizes and the imaging techniques. The first process is less capital intensive, but purely manual and labour intensive and prone to human errors. Imaging techniques though eliminating the human errors, still have limited use due to capital intensiveness and requirement of well-established laboratories with qualified technicians. Most of the developing countries like India are shortage of well-equipped laboratories and qualified technicians. To overcome these difficulties, the present mathematical model has been developed to estimate the surface area of aggregate blend of HMA from physical properties of aggregates evaluated using simple laboratory equipment. This model has been validated compared with the existing established methods of calculations and can be used as one of the tools in different developing and under developed countries for proper design of HMA.

  11. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  12. Decontamination of Savannah River Plant H-Area hot-canyon crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Sims, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination techniques applicable to the remotely operated bridge cranes in canyon buildings at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were identified and were evaluated in laboratory-scale tests. High pressure Freon blasting was found to be the most attractive process available for this application. Strippable coatings were selected as an alternative technique in selected applications. The ability of high pressure Freon blasting plus two strippable coatings (Quadcoat 100 and Alara 1146) to remove the type of contamination expected on SRP cranes was demonstrated in laboratory-scale tests. Quadrex HPS was given a contract to decontaminate the H-Area hot canyon crane. Decontamination operations were successfully carried out within the specified time-frame window. The radiation level goals specified by SRP were met and decontamination was accomplished with 85% less personnel exposure than estimated by SRP before the job started. This reduction is attributed to the increased efficiency of the new decontamination techniques used. 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  14. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  15. An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M. W.

    1980-04-01

    A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

  16. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ; Niveles de dosis en el area de celdas calientes-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, M.L. [UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jto@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  17. Dynamic and Geological-Ecological Spatial Planning Approach in Hot Mud Volcano Affected Area in Porong-Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Sulistyarso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By May 29t h 2006 with an average hot mud volcano volume of 100,000 m3 /per day, disasters on well kick (i.e. Lapindo Brantas Ltd. in Banjar Panji 1 drilling well have deviated the Spatial Planning of Sidoarjo’s Regency for 2003- 2013. Regional Development Concept that is aimed at developing triangle growth pole model on SIBORIAN (SIdoarjo-JaBOn-KRIaAN could not be implemented. This planning cannot be applied due to environmental imbalance to sub district of Porong that was damaged by hot mud volcano. In order to anticipate deviations of the Regional and Spatial Planning of Sidoarjo Regency for 2003-2013, a review on regional planning and dynamic implementation as well as Spatial Planning Concept based on geologicalecological condition are required, especially the regions affected by well kick disaster. The spatial analysis is based on the geological and ecological condition by using an overlay technique using several maps of hot mud volcano affected areas. In this case, dynamic implementation is formulated to the responsiblity plan that can happen at any time because of uncertain ending of the hot mud volcano eruption disaster in Porong. The hot mud volcano affected areas in the Sidoarjo’s Spatial Planning 2009-2029 have been decided as a geologic protected zone. The result of this research is scenarios of spatial planning for the affected area (short term, medium term and long term spatial planning scenarios.

  18. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-06-18

    To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z -score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z -scores: high content with a high z -score (HH), high content with a low z -score (HL), low content with a high z -score (LH), and low content with a low z -score (LL). The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1-4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  19. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  20. Identifying Hot Spots of Critical Forage Supply in Dryland Nomadic Pastoralist Areas: A Case Study for the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; van Wesenbeeck, C.F.A.; Georgis, Kidane; Beyene, Fekadu; Urbano, Ferdinando; Meroni, Michele; Leo, Olivier; Yimer, Merkebu; Abdullatif, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to identify hot spots of critical forage supply in nomadic pastoralist areas, using the Afar Region, Ethiopia, as a special case. It addresses two main problems. First, it makes a spatially explicit assessment of fodder supply and demand extracted from a data poor

  1. Geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W T; Ballantyne, J M; Bryant, N L; Dedolph, R E

    1980-01-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter and sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, plutonic rocks, and amphibolite-facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 70 m. Marcasite, pyrite, chlorite, and calcite occur below the water table at about 30 m. The thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium-chloride brine. The spring water now contains 10 times as much Ca, 100 times as much Mg, and up to 2.5 times as much SO/sub 4/ as the deep water. Although the present day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C, the temperature was 85/sup 0/C in 1950. A model for development of the observed alteration is supported by observation and irreversible mass transfer calculations. Hydrothermal fluid convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and the pH rises due to carbon dioxide escape. At the surface, hydrogen and sulfate ions are produced by oxidation of H/sub 2/S. The low pH water percolates downward and reacts with feldspar in the rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen ion is consumed. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  3. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic ...... parameters the ETX parameter is used in relation to the length of the shortest path. Proposed methods are independent of the media type and can be implemented either in wireless or PLC....

  4. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  5. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  6. Power Service Shops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TVA's Power Service Shops provides expert repair and maintenance of power system components and large industrial equipment. With world-class maintenance facilities...

  7. Technicians and Shop Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides information for shops and technicians that repair or service motor vehicle air-conditioning systems, including information on proper training, approved equipment, and regulatory practices.

  8. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of Online Shopping Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside the technologic developments, transformation in user behavior and business models has been observed. New areas and models are emerged in a lot of grounds like the communication of people or daily activities. So a new face put for shopping behavior by the e-commerce, which is one of the novelties. This study tries to research online shopping behavior in Turkey. With a quantitative research, device usage, the reasons behind to shop or not to shop online, online shopping category and e-commerce site preferences, payment methods, international e-commerce and online marketplace usage is investigated. As implications of the research, “saving time“ is found to be the foremost reason for shopping online in Turkey and “travel and bookings” category is found as the most shopped category among the results of the survey.

  10. IS ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING INCREASING IN STRENGTH?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, James J.

    2001-01-01

    Online grocery shopping is a relatively new innovation with regard to the way in which one purchases groceries. Some interesting concepts- designed to enhance the process of making grocery products available for consumption of the ever-changing consumer- have entered the food distribution industry channels. A telephone survey was conducted in the Boston trading area to determine the profile of online grocery consumers who are familiar with online grocery shopping.

  11. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  12. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  13. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  14. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  15. Separations and hot and cold spot areas for anterior adjacent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.S.; Sharma, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the limitation on the maximum field size opening on telecobalt machines, the use of two adjoining fields is a necessary requisite for treatment of abdominal malignancies. Matching of these adjoining fields is important to avoid cold and hot spots inside the tumour volume. Detailed treatment planning for these treatment is obligatory. Formulae have been derived for the determination of the separations required at the skin surface for achieving dose homogeneity at the depth of interest. The advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of higher source to skin distances are also discussed. In the case of adjoining fields from both anterior and posterior sides, adjustment in field size is a must. However, cold and hot spots cannot be completely avoided. During the course of treatment continous shifting of separations on the skin surface helps in reducing cold and hot spots. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. Roll-to-roll hot embossing system with shape preserving mechanism for the large-area fabrication of microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linfa; Wu, Hao; Shu, Yunyi; Yi, Peiyun; Deng, Yujun; Lai, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing is a promising approach to fulfilling the demands of high throughput fabrication of large-area polymeric components with micro-structure arrays which have been widely employed in the domains of optics, optoelectronics, biology, chemistry, etc. Nevertheless, the characteristic of continuous and fast forming for the R2R hot embossing process limits material flow during filling stage and results in significant springback during demolding stage. As a result, forming defects usually appear and the process window is very narrow which hinders the industrialization of this technology. This study developed a R2R hot embossing machine and proposed a shape preserving mechanism to extend the material filling time and realized the cooling effect during the demolding process. Comparative experiments were conducted on the R2R hot embossing process for micro-pyramid arrays to understand the effect of shape preserving mechanism. The influence of tension force and encapsulation angle to the forming quality was systematically analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of processing parameters has been investigated by using the one-variable-at-a-time method. Afterwards, a series of experiments based on the central composite design approach have been conducted for the analysis of variance and the establishment of empirical models of the R2R hot embossing process. As a result, the process window was extended by the shape preserving mechanism. More importantly, the feeding speed was improved from 0.5 m min-1 to 2.5 m min-1 for the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays, which is very attractive to the industrialization of this technology.

  17. Online shopping hesitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Hoan; Kang, Jaewon; Cheon, Hongsik John

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to understand which factors influence consumer hesitation or delay in online product purchases. The study examined four groups of variables (i.e., consumer characteristics, contextual factors perceived uncertainty factors, and medium/channel innovation factors) that predict three types of online shopping hesitation (i.e., overall hesitation, shopping cart abandonment, and hesitation at the final payment stage). We found that different sets of delay factors are related to different aspects of online shopping hesitation. The study concludes with suggestion for various delay-reduction devices to help consumers close their online decision hesitation.

  18. Energy saving type area hot water supply system using heat of hot waste water from the sludge center as hot source for hot water; New energy rokko airando CITY. Surajjisenta karano onhaisuinetsu wo kyuyuyo netsugen ni riyosuru sho energy gata chiiki onsui kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Heat source of area hot water supply system in Rokko island City (man-made island) is heat of combustion at the sludge center (sludge incineration plant) in this island. Dehydrated sludge cakes (230ton/day) brought from seven sewage disposal plants in Kobe City is combusted (850degC) in the fluid bed hearth. Combustion gas washed in the scrubber, hot waste water after the washing give heat into heat transfer water in the first heat exchanger. Temperature being 64degC in summer and about 50degC in winter, this heat transfer water is sent into the second heat exchanger at every condominium building throughout the pipe line system circulating in the area. At each home, gas heater and hot water supply devices fitted, additional combustion is not necessary in summer but is used according to demand in other seasons. This hot water supply service has been carried out since 1988 and at present has been used by 3600 homes. Amount of supplying hot water being about 3000cu.m/day, saving is calculated roughly as 60% of gas for hot water supply. Fee for this system is 1500/yen/month uniformly for each home. 14 figs.

  19. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  20. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  1. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... marketing goals go beyond information transfer and focus on behaviour .... thought their shop could do to help to inform the people in their area about AIDS. ..... history of residents of the shack area of Khayelitsha. Occasional ...

  2. Temporary shielding of hot spots in the drainage areas of cutaneous melanoma improves accuracy of lymphoscintigraphic sentinel lymph node diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, S.; Valencia, R.; Geworski, L.; Zander, A.; Munz, D.L.; Draeger, E.; Winter, H.; Sterry, W.

    2002-01-01

    Detection of the ''true'' sentinel lymph nodes, permitting correct staging of regional lymph nodes, is essential for management and prognostic assessment in malignant melanoma. In this study, it was prospectively evaluated whether simple temporary shielding of hot spots in lymphatic drainage areas could improve the accuracy of sentinel lymph node diagnostics. In 100 consecutive malignant melanoma patients (45 women, 55 men; age 11-91 years), dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy in various views was performed after strict intracutaneous application of technetium-99m nanocolloid (40-150 MBq; 0.05 ml/deposit) around the tumour (31 patients) or the biopsy scar (69 patients, safety distance 1 cm). The images were acquired with and without temporary lead shielding of the most prominent hot spots in the drainage area. In 33/100 patients, one or two additional sentinel lymph nodes that showed less tracer accumulation or were smaller (<1.5 cm) were detected after shielding. Four of these patients had metastases in the sentinel lymph nodes; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour negative. In 3/100 patients, hot spots in the drainage area proved to be lymph vessels, lymph vessel intersections or lymph vessel ectasias after temporary shielding; hence, a node interpreted as a non-sentinel lymph node at first glance proved to be the real sentinel lymph node. In two of these patients, lymph node metastasis was histologically confirmed; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour free. In 7/100 patients the exact course of lymph vessels could be mapped after shielding. In one of these patients, two additional sentinel lymph nodes (with metastasis) were detected. Overall, in 43/100 patients the temporary shielding yielded additional information, with sentinel lymph node metastases in 7%. In conclusion, when used in combination with dynamic acquisition in various views, temporary shielding of prominent hot spots in the drainage area of a malignant melanoma of the skin leads to an

  3. Consumers preferences of shopping centers in Bratislava (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been changes in the shopping behavior and preferences of consumers in the post-communist countries caused by political changes after 1989. Slovakia is not an exception, and it has been observed a change not only at the consumers’ level but also in retail stores. A notable bearer of such changes was the construction of big shopping centers that were a new phenomenon in shopping. They quickly became popular and changed spatial and shopping patterns of consumers. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shopping preferences of consumers based on the example of the capital city – Bratislava (at the level of urban districts. The database consists of results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011. Respondents were interviewed inside the shopping center. The partial aims focus on the analysis of consumers’ perceptions, the frequency of their shopping and the mode of transport used for shopping. One of the goals of this study is also to evaluate the perception of consumers in terms of the catchment areas of the chosen shopping center, as well as the perceptional classification of retail in the given area and the accessibility of stores.

  4. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  5. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G Serfas

    Full Text Available The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  6. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  8. Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Menglin; Lin, Shiwei, E-mail: linsw@hainu.edu.cn; Jiang, Wenkai; Pan, Nengqian

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High-quality holographic images were replicated in large-area shrink film. • Surface morphology evolution was analyzed in films embossed at different temperatures. • Optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics were systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Diffraction grating-based holographic images have been successfully replicated in biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint technique. Such hot embossing of holographic images on BOPP films represents a promising means of creating novel security features in packaging applications. The major limitation of the high-quality replication is the relatively large thermal shrinkage of BOPP shrink film. However, although an appropriate shrinkage is demanded after embossing, over-shrinking not only causes distortion in embossed images, but also reduces the various properties of BOPP shrink films mainly due to the disappearance of orientation. The effects of embossing temperature on the mechanical, thermal and optical properties as well as polymer surface morphologies were systematically analyzed. The results show that the optimal process parameters are listed as follows: the embossing temperature at 104–110 °C, embossing force 6 kg/cm{sup 2} and film speed 32 m/min. The variation in flow behavior of polymer surface during hot embossing process is highly dependent on the temperature. In addition, the adhesion from the direct contact between the rubber press roller and polymer surfaces is suggested to cause the serious optical properties failure.

  9. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  10. Features of internal water supply and water disposal of shopping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline from an external system should be inlet in the part of the building where a large number of water folding devices will be concentrated. As a rule, for shopping centers with a lot of water consumers it is necessary to make not less than three inputs, each of them should be connected to different areas of an external ring water supply system in order to make the work of the system more reliable.The places for water folding fittings in shopping centers are the following. The water folding devices: mixers are placed in sanitary cabins of shopping centers. Usually, for for water saving in buildings with a big pass-through capacity per hour it is reasonable to use contactless mixers, which are turned on upon raising a hand with a help of motion sensor or light sensor. Another important argument in favor of such mixers is prevention of infections spread for the reason that the consumer doesn't touch the device, so, the risk of bacteria transmission via the device decreases. Such mixer supplies water with a demanded expense and temperature. As a rule, water for such mixers moves from the centralized internal water supply system of hot water, mixing up with cold water. If there is no centralized hot water supply system, it is possible to use hot water storage heaters in case of a small number of visitors or to reject mixers at all in favor of the cranes giving water of only one temperature (cold, which is also practiced.For the branch of economic and household the water receivers are used, which are present in sanitary cabins in most cases by toilet bowls, wash basins, urinals.

  11. Binjai Shopping Mall : Arsitektur Metafora

    OpenAIRE

    Abadsyah, Haris

    2014-01-01

    City of Binjai have a potential to increase economic growth, especially in the field of trade and services.It can be seen from appearance of the commercial building like the shopping center ( Binjai Super Mall, Ramayana and Suzuya ) Construction of Binjai Shopping Mall intended for planning new shopping centers that provide public kebuthan in Binjai and well planned shopping center with optimal processing space and create a comfortable and pleasant atmosphere. In addition, the ...

  12. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  13. Attitudinal Explanation on Virtual Shopping Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Virtual stores provide great efficiency in the retail value chain, and their existence has tremendously paved the way for electronic commerce. Understanding the intention of consumers to shop online in attitudinal perspective will provide important contribution to the area of e-commerce. This research proposes Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU, and Perceived Usefulness (PU as the factors that drive consumers’ intention. The results from our survey study of 310 online consumers in Indonesia indicate that TTF affects PEoU and PU significantly. Our hierarchical model also reports that PEoU is the mediating effect on the relationship between TTF and Intention. The resulting model explains a large portion of the factors that lead a user’s behavioural intention to use a virtual shop. Keywords : Attitudinal, Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Retail, Virtual Shopping Intention

  14. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  15. Proportionate Flow Shop Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Mosquera, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In a proportionate flow shop problem several jobs have to be processed through a fixed sequence of machines and the processing time of each job is equal on all machines.By identifying jobs with agents, whose costs linearly depend on the completion time of their jobs, and assuming an initial

  16. Retail environments and spatial shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Gaerling, T.; Golledge, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The interplay between aspects of retail environments and consumer spatial shopping behavior has traditionally been an area of major concern in geography, urban planning and related disciplines. It reflects an interest in explaining the relationship between locational and nonlocational attributes of

  17. Shopping for Courses on the Mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an extension program conducted by Suffolk County Community College, New York, at an area shopping mall. Discusses program offerings, including a series of general interest lectures, regular credit courses, and a set of noncredit minicourses for mall employees. Examines the public relations value of the extension efforts. (JP)

  18. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  19. Skin Effect Simulation for Area 11 Dense Plasma Focus Hot Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. Timothy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Two arc flashover events occurred at the DPF Area 11 facility. These flashover events happened in the same location on the bank current delivery plates. The damage from one of these events can be seen on the left-hand side of Figure 1. Since the flashovers occurred in the same area of the bank, and the reliability of the bank is important for future DPF experiments, a failure analysis effort was initiated. Part of this failure analysis effort was an effort to understand the physical reasons behind why the flashover happened, and why it happened in the same place twice. This paper summarizes an effort to simulate the current flow in the bank in order to understand the reasons for the flashover.

  20. CERN Shop Christmas Sale

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

    2001-01-01

    11-13.12.2001 Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 11 to Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Calendar 10.- CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt (M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 25.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- CERN watch 25.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'How the web was born' (English) 25.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German) 40.-   If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs.

  1. Improving the first-line treatment of febrile illnesses in Ghana: willingness to pay for malaria rapid diagnostic tests at licensed chemical shops in the Kintampo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Malam, Keziah; Kwarteng, Anthony; Bart-Plange, Constance; Febir, Lawrence; Aubyn, Vivian; Obermann, Konrad; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku Poku

    2018-01-01

    Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South District of Ghana. Contingent valuation method using the dichotomous approach was applied to explore patient's willingness to pay. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were used to obtain information from licensed chemical operators' willingness to sell. Majority 161 (97%) of the customers were willing to pay for mRDT while 100% of licensed chemical operators were also willing to sell mRDT. The average lowest amount respondents were willing to pay was Ghana cedis (GH¢) 1.1 (US$ 0.26) and an average highest amount of GH¢ 2.1 (US$ 0.49). LCS operators were willing to sell the test kit at an average lowest price of GH¢1 (US$ 0.23) and average highest price of GH¢2 (US$ 0.47). Community members were willing to pay for mRDT and LCS operators are willing to sell mRDTs. However, the high cost of the mRDT is likely to prevent the widespread use of mRDT. There is a clear need to find system-compatible ways to subsidize the use of mRDT via National Health Insurance scheme.

  2. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilik Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs, a tool which provides information to customers and helps find the best offer. The research was conducted on the basis of an online questionnaire available on an internet web page. The main results confirmed a dependency between online purchasing and the use of shopping agents, which are very popular in the Czech Republic. Almost two-thirds of online shoppers use CPAs when they engage in internet shopping. The final part of the paper addresses references and customers’ reviews as an important factor for the selection of online retailer.

  3. CERN SHOP CHRISTMAS SALE

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2000-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 December from 10.00 to 16.00.   Sweat-shirt col zippé, grey, blue, black (M, L, XL) 30.- Sweat-shirt col polo, grey, collar blue (M, L, XL) 30.- T-shirt, black, (M, L, XL) 15.- WWW T-shirt, white, bordeau (M, L, XL) 15.- CERN silk tie (3 colours) 33.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau 25.- Silk scarf (blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- New model of CERN watch 25.- New CERN baseball cap 10.- Antimatter (English/anglais) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English,) 35.- Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen 45.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs (Shop will be closed at 12.00 on 22.12.).

  4. Evaluation of the ENVI-Met Vegetation Model of Four Common Tree Species in a Subtropical Hot-Humid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees can significantly improve the outdoor thermal environment, especially in subtropical zones. However, due to the lack of fundamental evaluations of numerical simulation models, design and modification strategies for optimizing the thermal environment in subtropical hot-humid climate zones cannot be proposed accurately. To resolve this issue, this study investigated the physiological parameters (leaf surface temperature and vapor flux and thermal effects (solar radiation, air temperature, and humidity of four common tree species (Michelia alba, Mangifera indica, Ficus microcarpa, and Bauhinia blakeana in both spring and summer in Guangzhou, China. A comprehensive comparison of the observed and modeled data from ENVI-met (v4.2 Science, a three-dimensional microclimate model was performed. The results show that the most fundamental weakness of ENVI-met is the limitation of input solar radiation, which cannot be input hourly in the current version and may impact the thermal environment in simulation. For the tree model, the discrepancy between modeled and observed microclimate parameters was acceptable. However, for the physiological parameters, ENVI-met tended to overestimate the leaf surface temperature and underestimate the vapor flux, especially at midday in summer. The simplified calculation of the tree model may be one of the main reasons. Furthermore, the thermal effect of trees, meaning the differences between nearby treeless sites and shaded areas, were all underestimated in ENVI-met for each microclimate variable. This study shows that the tree model is suitable in subtropical hot-humid climates, but also needs some improvement.

  5. Warming increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and shortens the duration of hot moments in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Razavi, Bahar S.; Holz, Maire; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Temperature effects on enzyme kinetics and on the spatial distribution of microbial hotspots are important because of their potential feedback to climate change. We used direct zymography to study the spatial distributions of enzymes responsible for P (phosphatase), C (cellobiohydrolase) and N (leucine-aminopeptidase) cycles in the rhizosphere (living roots of maize) and detritusphere (7 and 14 days after cutting shoots). Soil zymography was coupled with enzyme kinetics to test temperature effects (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C) on the dynamics and localization of these three enzymes in the detritusphere. Total hotspot areas of enzyme activity were 1.9-7.9 times larger and their extension was broader in the detritusphere compared to rhizosphere. From 10 to 30 °C, the hotspot areas enlarged by a factor of 2-24 and Vmax increased by 1.5-6.6 times; both, however, decreased at 40 °C. For the first time, we found a close positive correlation between Vmax and the areas of enzyme activity hotspots, indicating that maximum reaction rate is coupled with hotspot formation. The substrate turnover time at 30 °C were 1.7-6.7-fold faster than at 10 °C. The Km of cellobiohydrolase and phosphatase significantly increased at 30 and 40 °C, indicating high enzyme conformational flexibility, or isoenzyme production at warm temperatures. We conclude that soil warming (at least up to 30°C) increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) in the detritusphere. This, in turn, leads to faster substrate exhaustion and shortens the duration of hot moments.

  6. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  7. Shopping Online Sebagai Gaya Hidup

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Sri Budi

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet communication technology can make the world as if in one hand makes electronicbusiness with the concept of Online Shopping at its peak in recent years along with the development ofcommunication technologies over theInternet.How to shop online by using the internet through computers andmobile devices is increasingly popular smartphone can even be said to have become a trend today.Variousconvenience of shopping be the main thing to offer, with enough gadgets available in the...

  8. SHOPPING ONLINE SEBAGAI GAYA HIDUP

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Budi Lestari

    2016-01-01

    The use of internet communication technology can make the world as if in one hand makes electronic business with the concept of Online Shopping at its peak in recent years along with the development of communication technologies over theInternet.How to shop online by using the internet through computers and mobile devices is increasingly popular smartphone can even be said to have become a trend today.Various convenience of shopping be the main thing to offer, with enough gadgets ...

  9. Online Shopping Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Weili

    2011-01-01

    AS a frequent online shopper,Zhou Fangjie,a 28-year-old white-collar worker,was annoyed when she could not open Hanyidushe,an online shop selling Korean-style clothing on Taobao Mall.Her experience resulted from the online protest initiated by small vendors on Taobao Mall,China's largest business to consumer online platform.Thousands of small vendors started the protest against larger established vendors by discrediting them through False orders,forming an anti-Taobao Union and setting up a chat room to devise ways to disrupt operations on Taobao Mall.

  10. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  11. Engaging the Shopping Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sanne Dollerup

    The revenues in brick-and-mortar stores have declined in the last decade, not least due to competition from online shopping. This thesis investigates how traditional stores might use principles from experience design to reverse this tendency. Brick-and-mortar stores are very important...... the interest in brick-and-mortar stores by engaging the customers emotionally. This thesis suggests that using insights from Possible World Theory in designing stores is one way to do this. Theoretically the thesis is interdisciplinary by drawing on knowledge from a wide spectrum of fields such as consumer...

  12. Reception Shop Special Stand

    CERN Multimedia

    Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

    2004-01-01

    Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

  13. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.; Parry, W.T.

    1978-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.

  14. Why do you shop there? A mixed methods study mapping household food shopping patterns onto weekly routines of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy; Holaday, Rio; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2016-01-28

    The effectiveness of initiatives to increase healthy food access may be affected by where people decide to shop. People with poor neighborhood access to large grocery stores develop shopping patterns that require traveling to other areas, and some people who do have neighborhood access also travel elsewhere for food shopping. We sought to gain an understanding of household food shopping patterns in a sample of Black women in terms of where they shopped and why. All food shopping trips of 35 low- or middle/high-income black mothers or caregivers living with at least one child were identified from grocery shopping receipts collected over four consecutive weeks. Food shopping locations were mapped along with locations of participants' homes and other places they visited during weekly routine travels (e.g. work, child's school). Semi-structured individual interviews elicited narrative information about whether and how grocery shopping trips were linked to routine travels. Inductive content analysis was utilized to identify emergent themes from interviews. Themes were considered in relation to geospatial distances and travel patterns identified through mapping of participants' shopping. Participants shopped at an average of six different stores, traveling on average a total of 35 miles (sd = 41) (Euclidian distance) over the four weeks. The most frequented store was within a mile of home (57%) or home or another place visited in the weekly routine for about 77% of participants. Interview results emphasized the concept of convenience which referred to geographical proximity to the home or routine destinations and also to potential to save time because several stores were co-located or because the store layout was easy to navigate and familiar. Store selection also related to mode of transportation, pricing, and family preference for certain foods. People have specific reasons for consistently shopping in areas outside of their neighborhood of residence. Incorporating

  15. Energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaidi, Adel; AlFaris, Fadi; Montoya, Francisco G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Building sector consumes a significant amount of energy worldwide (up to 40% of the total global energy); moreover, by the year 2030 the consumption is expected to increase by 50%. One of the reasons is that the performance of buildings and its components degrade over the years. In recent years, energy benchmarking for government office buildings, large scale public buildings and large commercial buildings is one of the key energy saving projects for promoting the development of building energy efficiency and sustainable energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO_2 emissions and conventional air pollution. This paper focuses on energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region. In addition, this paper will analyze a sample of shopping centers data in Gulf Coast Region (Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Oman and Bahrain). It aims to develop a benchmark for these shopping centers by highlighting the status of energy consumption performance. This research will support the sustainability movement in Gulf area through classifying the shopping centers into: Poor, Usual and Best Practices in terms of energy efficiency. According to the benchmarking analysis in this paper, the shopping centers best energy management practices in the Gulf Coast Region are the buildings that consume less than 810 kW h/m"2/yr, whereas the poor building practices are the centers that consume greater than 1439 kW h/m"2/yr. The conclusions of this work can be used as a reference for shopping centres benchmarking with similar climate. - Highlights: •The energy consumption data of shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region were gathered. •A benchmarking of energy consumption for the public areas for the shopping centers in the Gulf Coast Region was developed. •The shopping centers have the usual practice in the region between 810 kW h/m"2/yr and 1439 kW h/m"2/yr.

  16. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Masahiro [Hikone Municipal Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Kasagi, Kanji [Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, PA (United States); Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (n=3435) or {sup 123}I (n=457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n=120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), 1 with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, congenital abnormality, clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, asymmetry

  17. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji

    2002-06-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent 99mTc-pertechnetate (n = 3435) or 123I (n = 457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n = 120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), I with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are 1) hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, 2) localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, 3) congenital abnormality, 4) clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, 5) asymmetry, etc

  18. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent 99m Tc-pertechnetate (n=3435) or 123 I (n=457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n=120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), 1 with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, congenital abnormality, clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, asymmetry, etc. Scintigraphic HA are

  19. Planning continuity and the actual conditions of shopping malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshitsugu; Tahara, Manabu

    2004-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the continuity of the planning of shopping malls in downtown areas of Japan and to look into the tendencies of the current existing malls until today. This paper is a summary of a survey conducted on the actual conditions of current shopping malls and a questionnaire administered to local governments in the survey areas. The results of this study allow us to summarize the reasons for and changes caused by renewal efforts directed toward the streets, public spaces, and urban elements (pavement, bench, streetlight, arcade, sculpture, etc.) in shopping malls. Furthermore, these results also help us to understand the scale of the renewal efforts as well as their timing in relation to when the shopping mall was originally constructed.

  20. Maritime Cast Shop Integrated Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    constraint departments (Upgrade & Radiography). The intent of this visual communication system was to limit the inspection queue to about one days...Install small work status boards in both work areas to facilitate visual communication .  Install protection for water coolant mix pipe... visual communication system to track parts as they move throughout the shop floor. Visual management systems tailored to the unique needs of a company

  1. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  2. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  3. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  4. The Effects of Machine Load Sitnations on Performance of Job Shop and Group Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Torkul, O.

    2018-01-01

    Perfonnance of job shop and group scheduling ndermulti­natch work input environment was exarnined against two nachine load (light and high load) situations. n order to conduct the analysis, a deterministic computer ;im ulation program was written and used. A job shop {JS) model is applied to the shop floor area and :ompared with a simulation of a similar proposal except hat group technology (GT) model was used in the shop loor area instead. )etailed analysis of the results from applying diffe...

  5. The Effects of Machine Load Sitnations on Performance of Job Shop and Group Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    O.TORKUL TORKUL

    1998-01-01

    Perfonnance of job shop and group scheduling ndermulti­natch work input environment was exarnined against two nachine load (light and high load) situations. n order to conduct the analysis, a deterministic computer ;im ulation program was written and used. A job shop {JS) model is applied to the shop floor area and :ompared with a simulation of a similar proposal except hat group technology (GT) model was used in the shop loor area instead. )etailed analysis of the results from applying diffe...

  6. Gold-decorated shopping centre; Golddekoriertes Shopping Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    In the autumn 2009, the German quality seal sustainable construction for commercial new buildings was introduced. Thus, owners and operators of retail real estate and shopping centres can make clear their commitment in the matter of sustainability. The Ernst-August-Galerie (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) developed and operated by ECE Projektmanagement GmbH and Co. KG (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) was a pilot project and also the first gold in one. With its around 150 shops, the Ernst-August-Galerie offers a supermarket, fashion outlets, a food court, service outlets and restaurants/cafes. The spacious and elegantly designed shopping mall with its piazzas and light-flooded rotundas exudes a Mediterranean air, making it a high-quality venue for shopping, strolling and leisure activities.

  7. Shopping Centres and Selected Aspects of Shopping Behaviour (Brno, the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Tonev, P.; Szczyrba, Z.; Frantál, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), s. 39-51 ISSN 2065-4421 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : shopping centres * shopping habits * commuting to retail shops Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/2_2012/05_josef_kunc_petr_tonev_zdenek_szczyrba_bohumil_frantal_shopping_centres_and_selected_aspects_of_shopping_behaviour.pdf

  8. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  9. Size-segregated aerosol in a hot-spot pollution urban area: Chemical composition and three-way source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, V; Elser, M; Valli, G; Valentini, S; Bigi, A; Fermo, P; Piazzalunga, A; Vecchi, R

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a comprehensive characterisation and source apportionment of size-segregated aerosol collected using a multistage cascade impactor was performed. The samples were collected during wintertime in Milan (Italy), which is located in the Po Valley, one of the main pollution hot-spot areas in Europe. For every sampling, size-segregated mass concentration, elemental and ionic composition, and levoglucosan concentration were determined. Size-segregated data were inverted using the program MICRON to identify and quantify modal contributions of all the measured components. The detailed chemical characterisation allowed the application of a three-way (3-D) receptor model (implemented using Multilinear Engine) for size-segregated source apportionment and chemical profiles identification. It is noteworthy that - as far as we know - this is the first time that three-way source apportionment is attempted using data of aerosol collected by traditional cascade impactors. Seven factors were identified: wood burning, industry, resuspended dust, regional aerosol, construction works, traffic 1, and traffic 2. Further insights into size-segregated factor profiles suggested that the traffic 1 factor can be associated to diesel vehicles and traffic 2 to gasoline vehicles. The regional aerosol factor resulted to be the main contributor (nearly 50%) to the droplet mode (accumulation sub-mode with modal diameter in the range 0.5-1 μm), whereas the overall contribution from the two factors related to traffic was the most important one in the other size modes (34-41%). The results showed that applying a 3-D receptor model to size-segregated samples allows identifying factors of local and regional origin while receptor modelling on integrated PM fractions usually singles out factors characterised by primary (e.g. industry, traffic, soil dust) and secondary (e.g. ammonium sulphate and nitrate) origin. Furthermore, the results suggested that the information on size

  10. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  11. The Impact of a Shopping Centre on the Value of Adjacent Residential Properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Sale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the South African retail landscape over the past few decades is the increase in the number and size of retail shopping centres situated in, or close to, residential areas. These shopping centres have the potential to generate both positive and negative externalities which may, in turn, be capitalised into adjacent residential property prices. However, policy makers are still unsure as to the effect of commercial land uses such as shopping centres on surr...

  12. Shopping Mall to Study Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the Burnsville (Minnesota) expanded its high school classroom space by buying a shopping mall and converting it into classrooms. Renovation costs and classroom layout are briefly discussed; a floor plan is included. (GR)

  13. Vape Shop Employees: Public Health Advocates?

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Joy L; Walker, Kandi L; Sears, Clara G; Lee, Alexander S; Smith, Courteney; Siu, Allison; Keith, Rachel; Ridner, S. Lee

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION E-cigarettes have increased in popularity and given rise to a new type of sales outlet?the vape shop. Expanding on work examining vape shop employee e-cigarette and tobacco attitudes and behaviors 1 , this study examined key messages that vape shop employees communicate to customers. METHODS Using informal interviews, observations, and a cross-sectional survey, we examined vape shop employees? (n=16) perceptions and e-cigarette use. Data were collected in nine vape shops in Louis...

  14. Hedonic Motivations for Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Pui-Lai To; E-Ping Sung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate hedonic online shopping motivations. A qualitative analysis was conducted to explore the factors influencing online hedonic shopping motivations. The results of the study indicate that traditional hedonic values, consisting of social, role, self-gratification, learning trends, pleasure of bargaining, stimulation, diversion, status, and adventure, and dimensions of flow theory, consisting of control, curiosity, enjoyment, and telepresence, exist in t...

  15. The role of food shopping in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Worrall, Caitlin; Biagioni, Nicole; Talati, Zenobia; Jongenelis, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    By the time they reach retirement, individuals are typically highly experienced in sourcing food products and they have strong familiarity with food retailing environments. To investigate the ongoing role of food shopping in later life, the present study explored seniors' attitudes to food shopping and their food-selection behaviours through the lens of their broader lifestyles. The aim was to provide insights of relevance to the development of future efforts to optimise seniors' food shopping experiences and nutrition-related outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 75 Western Australians aged 60 + years to discuss food shopping in the context of their day-to-day lives. The sample was comprised mainly of women (n = 64) and the average age was 74 years. In general, food shopping was perceived to be a manageable but mundane part of life. The findings suggest that there has been an improvement in food retailing practices because many of the numerous areas of concern identified in previous research conducted in this geographical location a decade ago were not nominated as relevant by the interviewees. Instead, food-related issues reported to be most problematic included the difficulties associated with sourcing affordable food products that had been produced locally and that did not contain unacceptable food additives. Seniors' food shopping concerns thus appear to have changed from functional aspects of the physical store environment to product attributes that reflect the increasing industrialisation of the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  17. With online shopping as the starting point and to promote the development of electronic commerce in the western area%以网购为抓手,促进西部地区电子商务发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈坤华; 陈忠余

    2014-01-01

    我国电子商务发展极不平衡,网购的自身特点决定了网购成为西部地区电子商务发展的重要抓手,以网购为抓手四步推动电子商务发展。%The development of e-commerce in China is extremely uneven,due to the characteristics of online shopping online shopping has become an important starting point of the western region development of e-commerce,online shopping as the starting point to the four step to promote the development of electronic commerce.

  18. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  19. Identification of the hot-spot areas for sickle cell disease using cord blood screening at a district hospital: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sujata; Sahu, Pushpansu; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic disorder often reported late, can be identified early in life, and hot-spot areas may be identified to conduct genetic epidemiology studies. This study was undertaken to estimate prevalence and to identify hot spot area for SCD in Kalahandi district, by screening cord blood of neonates delivered at the district hospital as first-hand information. Kalahandi District Hospital selected for the study is predominated by tribal population with higher prevalence of SCD as compared to other parts of Odisha. Cord blood screening of SCD was carried out on 761 newborn samples of which 13 were screened to be homozygous for SCD. Information on area of parent's residence was also collected. Madanpur Rampur area was found to be with the highest prevalence of SCD (10.52 %) and the gene distribution did not follow Hardy-Weinberg Equation indicating un-natural selection. The approach of conducting neonatal screening in a district hospital for identification of SCD is feasible and appropriate for prioritizing area for the implementation of large-scale screening and planning control measures thereof.

  20. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section A--Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "orientation and safety" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: orientation and general shop safety. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP; learning…

  1. Regional Rural Tourist Recreation Shopping Centers: A New Concept in the Leisure Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Leland L.

    1975-01-01

    A rural tourist-recreation shopping center is defined as an area relatively accessible to city dwellers that can be developed for recreation purposes. Twenty-three such areas have been identified in the Appalachian Highlands. (PS)

  2. ATTITUDES TOWARD ONLINE SHOPPING FROM THE ASPECTS OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SHOPPING MOTIVE THROUGH A DEVELOPING CONCEPT: PRIVATE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    BAYBARS, Miray; USTUNDAGLI, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Private shopping is one of the concepts that serve as a members-only online shopping platform with deep discounts and well-known brands. The aim of this paper is to determine whether consumers’ need for uniqueness and innovativeness as a personal trait and price discount orientation affect consumer attitudes toward private shopping and their purchase decision or not. Research results revealed that need for uniqueness and innovativeness affect positive attitudes towards private shopping positi...

  3. Consumer protection and internet shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to the issue of online shopping. Its aim is to analyze internet shopping and see the rights and obligations of consumers and sellers, which are based on current legislation. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part deals with purchase over the internet and its regulations. There are explained the concepts internet, e-business and e-commerce and indicate the types of e-business and is mentioned certification of online stores. The practical part i...

  4. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  5. Multiattribute shopping models and ridge regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding retailing facilities essentially involve multiple attributes of shopping centres. If mathematical shopping models are to contribute to these decision processes, their structure should reflect the multiattribute character of retailing planning. Examination of existing

  6. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  7. Using Eye Tracking to Explore Consumers' Visual Behavior According to Their Shopping Motivation in Mobile Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoon Min; Lee, Kun Chang

    2017-07-01

    Despite a strong shift to mobile shopping trends, many in-depth questions about mobile shoppers' visual behaviors in mobile shopping environments remain unaddressed. This study aims to answer two challenging research questions (RQs): (a) how much does shopping motivation like goal orientation and recreation influence mobile shoppers' visual behavior toward displays of shopping information on a mobile shopping screen and (b) how much of mobile shoppers' visual behavior influences their purchase intention for the products displayed on a mobile shopping screen? An eye-tracking approach is adopted to answer the RQs empirically. The experimental results showed that goal-oriented shoppers paid closer attention to products' information areas to meet their shopping goals. Their purchase intention was positively influenced by their visual attention to the two areas of interest such as product information and consumer opinions. In contrast, recreational shoppers tended to visually fixate on the promotion area, which positively influences their purchase intention. The results contribute to understanding mobile shoppers' visual behaviors and shopping intentions from the perspective of mindset theory.

  8. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Fluid geochemical investigation (hot-spring gas) report (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatus sokushin chosa. Ryutai chikagaku chosa (onsen gas) hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation elucidated the possible existence of geothermal reservoir layer in the subject area by studying and analyzing the hot-spring gasses of Musadake. The Musadake area is the one extending over Shibetu-cho and Nakashibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido. The sampling of the hot-spring gasses was carried out at three natural gusher sites and one hot spring well site. The gasses in the Kawakita hot spring is most affected by volcanic gasses. The origin of the volcanic gasses is a magmatic gas of andesite nature the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio of which is 8X10{sup -6} or about. As a result of the analysis, the hot-spring water is Na-Cl type, high salt concentrated, and 200 degrees C in temperature; from the result of a gas geochemical thermometer, it is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C. In the tectonic viewpoint, the depth hot water is derived from the meteorite water that flows in through a bent zone incident to the Musadake-Shitabanupuri mountain fault and from the fossil sea water that exists in the underground depth; the depth hot water is formed by conduction heat from a magma reservoir that formed Musadake and by volcanic ejecta. This depth hot water rises along Kawakita south, Urappu River fault, etc., mixing with the meteorite water and forming the shallow reservoir layer. (NEDO)

  9. Dynamic Support of Government in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hai, Le Chi; Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in online shopping for consumers requires consistent government support policies and the introduction of substantial government laws and regulations. In order to establish innovative developments in online shopping market environment that makes online shopping faster and stable, the government perspective is vital with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for research and development in online shopping behavior for consumer’s confidence and their purchase intention. The proposed...

  10. Marketing plan for a web shop business

    OpenAIRE

    Koskivaara, Leonilla

    2014-01-01

    Internet has changed the buying behavior of consumers during the past years and companies need to adapt to the changes. Web shop business is an important sales channel of today’s companies. Advantages of a web shop business include cost effectiveness and potential to do business globally. Challenges of a web shop business include search engine optimization and running both, a retail store and a web shop at the same time. Social media has become an important marketing channel and has bec...

  11. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  12. Assessment of PCBs and exposure risk to infants in breast milk of primiparae and multiparae mothers in an electronic waste hot spot and non-hot spot areas in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Anita; Essumang, David Kofi; Muff, Jens; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the levels of PCBs in the breast milk of some Ghanaian women at suspected hotspot and relatively non-hotspot areas and to find out if the levels of these PCBs pose any risk to the breastfed infants. A total of 128 individual human breast milk were sampled from both primiparae and multiparae mothers. The levels of PCBs in the milk samples were compared. Some of these mothers (105 individuals) work or reside in and around Agbogbloshie (hot-spot), the largest electric and electronic waste dump and recycling site in Accra, Ghana. Others (23 donor mothers) also reside in and around Kwabenya (non-hotspot) which is a mainly residential area without any industrial activities. Samples were analyzed using GC-MS/MS. The total mean levels and range of Σ 7 PCBs were 3.64ng/glipidwt and ˂LOD-29.20ng/glipidwt, respectively. Mean concentrations from Agbogbloshie (hot-spot area) and Kwabenya (non-hotspot areas) were 4.43ng/glipidwt and 0.03ng/glipidwt, respectively. PCB-28 contributed the highest of 29.5% of the total PCBs in the milk samples, and PCB-101 contributed the lowest of 1.74%. The estimated daily intake of PCBs and total PCBs concentrations in this work were found to be lower as compared to similar studies across the world. The estimated hazard quotient using Health Canada's guidelines threshold limit of 1μg/kgbw/day showed no potential health risk to babies. However, considering minimum tolerable value of 0.03μg/kgbw/day defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the values of some mothers were found to be at the threshold limit. This may indicate a potential health risk to their babies. Mothers with values at the threshold levels of the minimum tolerable limits are those who work or reside in and around the Agbogbloshie e-waste site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meat Safety: An Evaluation of Portuguese Butcher Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Costa, José M Correia da; Gomes-Neves, Eduarda

    2017-07-01

    Butcher shops are end points in the meat chain, and they can have a determinant role in cross-contamination control. This study aims to determine whether Portuguese butcher shops comply with European and Portuguese law regarding the sale of fresh meat and meat products. Butcher shops (n = 73) were assessed for meat handler and facility hygiene and for maintenance of the premises. Handlers (n = 88) were given a questionnaire composed of questions about knowledge and practice, including hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good practice in food industry, to assess their knowledge of and compliance with food safety practices. A checklist of 27 items was used to evaluate facility and meat handler hygiene and butcher shop maintenance. Our results revealed some lack of compliance in all the areas evaluated. The mean knowledge and practice score among the operators was 68.0%, and the mean "visual inspection" score for the butcher shops was 64.0%. Severe deficiencies were observed in the mandatory implementation of HACCP principles in this type of small food business. These findings indicate a need to modify training to enhance compliance with European food safety regulations at this step of the meat chain.

  14. Handbook for Trade and Industrial Shop Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook is intended to help teachers of pre-employment shop courses in organizing and delivering instruction in both the shop and classroom. Addressed in the guide are the following topics: the instructor's place in the local school organization; the instructor's job (objectives, advisory committees, occupational analysis, shop/classroom and…

  15. The Shopping Mall: A Teenager Hangout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kathryn H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)

  16. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give the CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Friday 11.12.2009 to Thursday 17.12.2009. Come to visit the CERN Shop at the Reception, Building 33. PH-EDU-PO

  17. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Monday 13.12.2010 to Saturday 18.12.2010. Come and visit the CERN Shop in the Reception Building 33.

  18. Kinect sensing of shopping related actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.; Koc, A.K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Wiggers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems in shopping malls or supermarkets are usually used for detecting abnormal behavior. We used the distributed video cameras system to design digital shopping assistants which assess the behavior of customers while shopping, detect when they need assistance, and offer their support

  19. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  20. The ultrasonic shop map and its use in preservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Section X1 of the ASME Code on Inservice Inspection, a plan was introduced by Westinghouse to perform ultrasonic examinations of areas of high stress and high fluence of reactor pressure vessels in the manufacturer's shop and subsequent to the shop hydrostatic test. The tests provided a shop reference map of ultrasonic responses to use in subsequent preservice and inservice inspections, and attempted to locate any ultrasonic reflections beyond the acceptance standards of ASME Section III and, later, of Section X1. The history of the program is reviewed. Thirty-six vessels were examined during 1970 to 1973. As a result of indications discovered during ultrasonic examination repairs were carried out on five of these. Details are given of inspections and repairs. A summary is also given of the indications detected and of the correlations between the ultrasonic evaluation and actual flow characteristics. (U.K.)

  1. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  2. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  3. English in the Garment Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Lorrie

    This text for limited-English-speaking workers in the garment industry consits of illustrated vocabulary words, grammar lessons, narratives or brief readings, and exercises on employment-related topics. The first section focuses on shop talk, including job-specific vocabulary, simple expressions and explanations, social language, seeking and…

  4. Customer experience with online shopping : what are the unique experiences customers seek from online shopping?

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Daoyan

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a great change in consumers' shopping behavior along with technological change. Online shopping is the use of computer technology for better shopping performance. Retailers are busy in studying consumers' behavior to see their attitudes toward online shopping and to meet the demand of online shoppers. Due to my interest in online business, I have also decided to study about customers' attitudes toward online shopping and specifically regarding factors that...

  5. Rules for Adaptive Learning and Assistance on the Shop Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Today's shop floor, the area of a factory where operatives assemble products, is a complex and demanding work environment. The employed and produced technology becomes ever more complex, and employees are responsible for an increasing amount of tasks. As a consequence, the employee is under constant pressure to solve problems occurring on the shop…

  6. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  7. Trends in gel dosimetry: Preliminary bibliometric overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s 1984 paper onwards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C

    2017-01-01

    John Gore’s seminal 1984 paper on gel dosimetry spawned a vibrant research field ranging from fundamental science through to clinical applications. A preliminary bibliometric study was undertaken of the gel dosimetry family of publications inspired by, and resulting from, Gore’s original 1984 paper to determine active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s paper up to and including 2016. Themes and trends of the gel dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for all relevant papers from 1984 to 2016. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualisation tool to generate cluster maps of gel dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics in gel dosimetry. (paper)

  8. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  9. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  10. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza; Atarilar, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize (226)Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of (226)Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and their phylogenetic affiliations were determined based on their 16S rRNA gene and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 analysis. A pigmented Serratia sp. ZF03 strain isolated from the water with (226)Ra content of 50471 mBq l(-1), caused 70% removal of (226)Ra at a radioactivity level of 50 Bq ml(-1), after 5 min and 75-80% in equilibrium time of 1 h, depending on the particular biosorption system and experimental conditions studied. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters on (226)Ra sorption, FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1973 in studies of technologies to develop and utilize resources and preserve national land. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1973 nendo chinetsu chiiki no nessuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    It is important for geothermal energy to develop and utilize it in a rational manner. To achieve the objective, hot water systems must be studied comprehensively and elucidated from the standpoint of the systems as a whole. The present study, standing on this viewpoint, is intended to elucidate hot water systems and establish a survey method thereon. Fiscal 1973 has selected four areas (northern Hachimantai, southern Hachimantai, Onikubi and Kuju areas) as the model study fields, and used as the main field the Onikubi area, which clearly shows the structural catchment basin. Studies were performed in this area on hydraulic hot flow rates, isotopic geology, and reservoirs. In the hydraulic hot flow rate study, the amount of rainfall, amount of flowing water, and amount of hot spring water flow-out were observed continually. In the isotopic geology study, hydrogen in hot spring water and underground water, and composition of oxygen isotope were analyzed. Estimation was made from the result thereof on water balance, heat balance, and underground residence time. In the study of reservoirs, measurements were performed inside the wells, and estimation was made on locations and sizes of the reservoirs by surveying distribution of transformed minerals and cracks. (NEDO)

  12. PENGARUH ATMOSFER PUSAT BELANJA PADA SHOPPING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Kusumowidagdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAt the moment, the creation of shopping environment design that provides certain sensation and experience become strategy of the shopping center. This research aims to find out about the influence of shopping center’s atmosphere towards shopping value. The formative factors of shopping centre’s atmosphere are architectural features, interior features and support facilities. The research begins with a focus group to adjust the indicators of the previous research to the present research’s object. The next stage of research is done with a multiple regression analysis. The research object is the atmosphere condition of Senayan City shopping center in Jakarta and the subjects are samples totaling to sixty people. The samples are visitors from the middle-class segment between the age of 18-35.The research finds that architectural features, interior features and support facilities collectively bring an influence towards shopping value in Senayan City Pusat belanja, wether partially, only interior features show the significant influence towards shopping value.Keywords: design, atmosphere, shopping centre, shopping value.AbstrakSaat ini penciptaan lingkungan belanja dengan yang memberikan sensasi dan pengalaman telah menjadi bagian dari strategi bisnis pusat belanja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelusuri pengaruh atmosfer pusat belanja terhadap shopping value. Atmosfer pusat belanja dibentuk oleh faktor-faktor yaitu fitur arsitektur, fitur interior dan fasilitas penunjang. Penelitian ini diawali dengan focus group untuk penentuan indikator yang tepat dan dilanjutkan dengan survey pada 60 orang dengan usia 18-35 tahun yang bersegmen menengah. Obyek penelitian adalahatmosfer dari pusat belanja Senayan City. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan dari faktor-faktor atmosfer pusat belanja secara serempak pada shopping value, sedangkan secara parsial hanya fitur interior yang memberikan pengaruh signifikan pada shopping value

  13. Consumers' perceptions of vape shops in Southern California: an analysis of online Yelp reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pentz, Mary Ann; Unger, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are sold at many different types of retail establishments. A new type of shop has emerged, the vape shop, which specializes in sales of varied types of e-cigarettes. Vape shops allow users to sample several types. There are no empirical research articles on vape shops. Information is needed on consumers' beliefs and behaviors about these shops, the range of products sold, marketing practices, and variation in shop characteristics by ethnic community and potential counter-marketing messages. This study is the first to investigate marketing characteristics of vape shops located in different ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, by conducting a Yelp electronic search and content analysis of consumer reports on vape shops they have visited. The primary measure was Yelp reviews (N = 103 vape shops in the Los Angeles, California area), which were retrieved and content coded. We compared the attributes of vape shops representing four ethnic communities: African American, Hispanic/Latino, Korean, and White. Vape shop attributes listed as most important were the selection of flavors or hardware (95%), fair prices (92%), and unique flavors or hardware (89%). Important staff marketing attributes included being friendly (99%), helpful/patient/respectful (97%), and knowledgeable/professional (95%). Over one-half of the shops were rated as clean (52%) and relaxed (61%). Relatively few of the reviews mentioned quitting smoking (32%) or safety of e-cigarettes (15%). The selection of flavors and hardware appeared relatively important in Korean ethnic location vape shops. Yelp reviews may influence potential consumers. As such, the present study's focus on Yelp reviews addressed at least eight of the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products' priorities pertaining to marketing influences on consumer beliefs and behaviors. The findings suggest that there were several vape shop and product attributes that consumers considered important to disseminate to others through postings on

  14. Land Use Change and Agricultural Land Fragmentation due to Anthropogenic Activities in an Hot Spot Area: A Case Study for Thrace Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altürk, Bahadır; Konukcu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural lands that supply food, energy and ecosystem services for human life have been lost due to anthropogenic activities such as construction of roads, urban and industry areas. The significant reasons for the increase of artificial surfaces were poorly planned economic decisions by the government and internal migration due to this poorly planning. Unplanned urban sprawl also give rise to land fragmentation. Fragmentation of agricultural land affects both the agricultural production capacity and rural sustainable employment. In this study: i) Land use changes between 1990-2014 period were assessed using remotely sensed data and ii) Spatial and temporal agricultural land fragmentation were investigated using landscape pattern indice (effective mesh size), Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) and Entropy method for 25 years period. The selected"hot spot" study area is located on east Thrace region of Turkey, being the service and industrial development zone where agricultural activities, water resources and natural habitat have been damaged due to rapid urban and industrial development for about 25 years. The results showed that agricultural lands decreased 6.44%, urban areas increased 111.68% and industry areas increased 251.19% during this 25 years period. Additionally, fragmentation analyses demonstrated that core agricultural areas sharply decreased and relative fragmentation (effective mesh size) increased from 50.68% to 56.77% during 1990 and 2014.

  15. Energy efficiency in U.K. shopping centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Michela

    Energy efficiency in shopping centres means providing comfortable internal environment and services to the occupants with minimum energy use in a cost-effective and environmentally sensitive manner. This research considers the interaction of three factors affecting the energy efficiency of shopping centres: i) performance of the building fabric and services ii) management of the building in terms of operation, control, maintenance and replacement of the building fabric and services, and company's energy policy iii) occupants' expectation for comfort and awareness of energy efficiency. The aim of the investigation is to determine the role of the above factors in the energy consumption and carbon emissions of shopping centres and the scope for reducing this energy usage by changing one or all the three factors. The study also attempts to prioritize the changes in the above factors that are more cost-effective at reducing that energy consumption and identify the benefits and main economic and legal drivers for energy efficiency in shopping centres. To achieve these targets, three case studies have been analysed. Using energy data from bills, the performance of the selected case studies has been assessed to establish trends and current energy consumption and carbon emissions of shopping centres and their related causes. A regression analysis has attempted to break down the energy consumption of the landlords' area by end-use to identify the main sources of energy usage and consequently introduce cost-effective measures for saving energy. A monitoring and occupants' survey in both landlords' and tenants' areas have been carried out at the same time to compare the objective data of the environmental conditions with the subjective impressions of shoppers and shopkeepers. In particular, the monitoring aimed at assessing the internal environment to identify possible causes of discomfort and opportunities for introducing energy saving measures. The survey looked at

  16. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  17. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sigirci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01. In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00. Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  18. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Y.; Yang, H.X. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Renewable Energy Research Group, Hung Hom, Kowloon, (Hong Kong). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability, the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas such as Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE), resulting in degradation of system performance and increased system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using a hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, as it uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. By modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components, this paper presented a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system. Based on this hourly simulation model, the computer program could be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system according to the cooling and hot water heating loads of a building. The paper discussed a case study that involved a design of both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system for a hypothetical private residential building located in Hong Kong. The economic comparisons were performed between these two types of systems. It was concluded through the simulations that the HGCHP system could effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial cost and operating cost of the air-conditioning system in the building. 19 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  19. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas of Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Sadeghizadeh, M.; Akbari Noghabi, K.; Farshidpour, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.; Atarilar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radionuclides, in particular those emitting alpha particles, make the largest contribution to the world population exposure. The most important example is 226 Ra, with a high potency for causing biological damages. Accordingly, it can be a potential concern in many areas, where these elements have been existed naturally, mined or processed. In addition to its own radiological properties, radium isotopes present additional environmental and health concerns due to the fact that they decay into radon ( 222 Rn); a Class-A carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer estimated to cause 21,000 deaths in the US annually. Physico-chemical methods have been widely used to remove radionuclides and heavy metal ions from wastewaters. These conventional methods may be ineffective or expensive with a few major disadvantages such as high energy requirements, incomplete removal and generation of toxic sludge which needs proper disposal. Biological treatment is an innovative technology available for heavy metal and radionuclide polluted wastewaters. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize 226 Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs of Ramsar containing high concentration of 226 Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Hence, the studied biomass proved very effective and could be used as a low cost and ecofriendly biosorbent for treatment of hot-spring waters containing high levels of 226 Ra in Ramsar

  20. Indoor air quality at nine shopping malls in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W M; Lee, S C; Chan, L Y

    2001-06-12

    Hong Kong is one of the most attractive shopping paradises in the world. Many local people and international tourists favor to spend their time in shopping malls in Hong Kong. Good indoor air quality is, therefore, very essential to shoppers. In order to characterize the indoor air quality in shopping malls, nine shopping malls in Hong Kong were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants included carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), formaldehyde (HCHO), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and total bacteria count (TBC). More than 40% of the shopping malls had 1-h average CO2 levels above the 1000 ppm of the ASHRAE standard on both weekdays and weekends. Also, they had average weekday PM10 concentrations that exceeded the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO). The highest indoor PM10 level at a mall was 380 microg/m3. Of the malls surveyed, 30% had indoor airborne bacteria levels above 1000 cfu/m3 set by the HKIAQO. The elevated indoor CO2 and bacteria levels could result from high occupancy combined with insufficient ventilation. The increased PM10 levels could be probably attributed to illegal smoking inside these establishments. In comparison, the shopping malls that contained internal public transport drop-off areas, where vehicles were parked with idling engines and had major entry doors close to heavy traffic roads had higher CO and PM10 indoor levels. In addition, the extensive use of cooking stoves without adequate ventilation inside food courts could increase indoor CO2, CO and PM10 levels.

  1. US Household Food Shopping Patterns: Dynamic Shifts Since 2000 And Socioeconomic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Robinson, Whitney R; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption that differential food access might underlie nutritional disparities, programs and policies have focused on the need to build supermarkets in underserved areas, in an effort to improve dietary quality. However, there is limited evidence about which types of stores are used by households of different income levels and differing races/ethnicities. We used cross-sectional cluster analysis to derive shopping patterns from US households' volume food purchases by store from 2000 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression identified household socioeconomic characteristics that were associated with shopping patterns in 2012. We found three food shopping patterns or clusters: households that primarily shopped at grocery stores, households that primarily shopped at mass merchandisers, and a combination cluster in which households split their purchases among multiple store types. In 2012 we found no income or race/ethnicity differences for the cluster of households that primarily shopped at grocery stores. However, low-income non-Hispanic blacks (versus non-Hispanic whites) had a significantly lower probability of belonging to the mass merchandise cluster. These varied shopping patterns must be considered in future policy initiatives. Furthermore, it is important to continue studying the complex rationales for people's food shopping patterns. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  3. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  4. Online Shop System with Zencart

    OpenAIRE

    Uqbah Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Written by Sabri Saifulsham and Syazwan Saifulsham, this book has eleven chapters that using quantitative research methodology to describes the three main components of success in building and managing online shops, namely the potential of products, obtain product and build and manage online stores. All three of these components are combined into a single system that can help anyone to build an online store even if no basic technical skills. The measures described also make it easy to use Zen...

  5. Design of online shopping system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yueyuan

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is a kind of comprehensive activity of management automation, business information network and financial electronic technology. It is a kind of commercial activity accomplished through the information network in all kinds of business activities in the world. As a new marketing model, the emergence of online stores is an epoch-making revolution in the field of product circulation. The thesis focuses on a study of how to design a small online shopping system which is simple and f...

  6. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  7. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  8. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  9. Shopping Problems among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. Methods A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. Results The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.93–4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Conclusion Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. PMID:21497217

  10. Shopping problems among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A

    2011-01-01

    Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Accessibility in Shopping Centres: The Cases of Istanbul Profilo and Kozzy Malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Selhan Yalçın Usal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centres are public areas which were used by people from every social strata and different age groups for consuming commodities or leisure. The aim of this study is to emphasize not only public areas accessibility of shopping centres but also consider interior space characteristics in terms of accessibility. The study showed that architectural design and interior design solutions were not sufficient to solve accessibility problem without active audit mechanism.

  12. Perancangan Interior Souvenir Shop Berbasis Human Centered Design Di Ekowisata Mangrove Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The design of commercial facilities in the form of a souvenir shop in Mangrove Ecotourism Surabaya is designed to support Surabaya city's government and also the Wonorejo Ecotourism institution in developing the facilities at Mangrove ecotourism wonorejo in order to fulfill the tourist's needs of particular handicrafts sale of mangrove ecotourism Surabaya and having the education value of mangrove processed goods. The souvenir shop consists of storage room, cashier area, and display area. The...

  13. The Accessibility in Shopping Centres: The Cases of Istanbul Profilo and Kozzy Malls

    OpenAIRE

    EVCİL, Ayse Nilay; YALÇIN USAL, S.Selhan

    2014-01-01

    Shopping centres are public areas which were used by people from every social strata and different age groups for consuming commodities or leisure. The aim of this study is to emphasize not only public areas accessibility of shopping centres but also consider interior space characteristics in terms of accessibility. The study showed that architectural design and interior design solutions were not sufficient to solve accessibility problem without active audit mechanism.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF HEDONIC SHOPPING MOTIVATION TO THE IMPULSE BUYING OF ONLINE-SHOPPING CONSUMER ON INSTAGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawati; Wahyuni S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to know the influence of Adventure Shopping, Relaxation Shopping, Value Shopping, Social Shopping and Idea Shopping variables to the variable of Impulse Buying of Online-Shopping Consumer on Instagram. The type of the research is explanatory research. The result of F-test showed that Fcount (12.829) > Ftable (2.669) which meant that research variables had influences to the Impulse Buying. With partial correlation value of 0.548, Idea Shopping variable became the dominant fa...

  15. Modeling the Joint Choice Decisions on Urban Shopping Destination and Travel-to-Shop Mode: A Comparative Study of Different Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint choice of shopping destination and travel-to-shop mode in downtown area is described by making use of the cross-nested logit (CNL model structure that allows for potential interalternative correlation along the both choice dimensions. Meanwhile, the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model and nested logit (NL model are also formulated, respectively. This study uses the data collected in the downtown areas of Maryland-Washington, D.C. region, for shopping trips, considering household, individual, land use, and travel related characteristics. The results of the model reveal the significant influencing factors on joint choice travel behavior between shopping destination and travel mode. A comparison of the different models shows that the proposed CNL model structure offers significant improvements in capturing unobserved correlations between alternatives over MNL model and NL model. Moreover, a Monte Carlo simulation for a group of scenarios assuming that there is an increase in parking fees in downtown area is undertaken to examine the impact of a change in car travel cost on the joint choice of shopping destination and travel mode switching. The results are expected to give a better understanding on the shopping travel behavior.

  16. Online Shopping With Spoofing Detection Using Web and Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    M.Poovizhi; K.Karthika; S.Nandhini; Dr.P.Gomathi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract— E-commerce is that the shopping for marketing of products and services, or the sending of funds or knowledge, over a web and straightforward access to immense stores of reference material, email, and new avenues for advertising and data distribution, to call some. Like most technological advances, there conjointly another side: criminal hackers. Governments, companies, and personal voters round the world area unit anxious to be an area of this revolution, however, they are afraid th...

  17. "Hot cores" in proteins: Comparative analysis of the apolar contact area in structures from hyper/thermophilic and mesophilic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossa Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of stabilizing factors have been invoked so far to elucidate the structural basis of protein thermostability. These include, amongst the others, a higher number of ion-pairs interactions and hydrogen bonds, together with a better packing of hydrophobic residues. It has been frequently observed that packing of hydrophobic side chains is improved in hyperthermophilic proteins, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. In this work, protein crystal structures from hyper/thermophilic organisms and their mesophilic homologs have been compared, in order to quantify the difference of apolar contact area and to assess the role played by the hydrophobic contacts in the stabilization of the protein core, at high temperatures. Results The construction of two datasets was carried out so as to satisfy several restrictive criteria, such as minimum redundancy, resolution and R-value thresholds and lack of any structural defect in the collected structures. This approach allowed to quantify with relatively high precision the apolar contact area between interacting residues, reducing the uncertainty due to the position of atoms in the crystal structures, the redundancy of data and the size of the dataset. To identify the common core regions of these proteins, the study was focused on segments that conserve a similar main chain conformation in the structures analyzed, excluding the intervening regions whose structure differs markedly. The results indicated that hyperthermophilic proteins underwent a significant increase of the hydrophobic contact area contributed by those residues composing the alpha-helices of the structurally conserved regions. Conclusion This study indicates the decreased flexibility of alpha-helices in proteins core as a major factor contributing to the enhanced termostability of a number of hyperthermophilic proteins. This effect, in turn, may be due to an increased number of buried methyl groups in

  18. Geological research for hot spring resources in the Kanno-kawa area, Tsukui-machi, Tanzawa mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-03-01

    The Kanno-kawa area is mainly composed of the following geological units: miocene submarine pyroclastic formation and its associated augite dolerite sheets, quartz diorite intrusive, and hornblende andesite dykes. The Miocene pyroclastic rocks mainly consist of tuff, tuff breccia, and agglomerate of basaltic, andestic, and dacitic composition intercalated with subordinate amounts of conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone beds. These rocks were divided into two lithological facies: basaltic and andestic tuff and tuff breccia facies and a facies of dacitic pumice tuff with characteristic white or gray spots of siliceous pumice (2 to 35 mm in diameter). These pyroclastic rocks suffered metamorphism mainly related to the intrusion of quartz diorite. The metamorphic rocks can be divided into the following four zones: amphibolite, actinolite hornfels, pumpellyite-prehnite, and zeolite. Probably during the late stage of the metamorphism, hornblende andesite intruded along sheared zones running from NE or NNE toward SW or SSW. Above noted Miocene pyroclastic rocks, quartz diorite, and hornblende andesite also suffered a hydrothermal alteration by which many zeolite bearing veins or networks were formed. Mineral waters of the Tanzawa mountains are believed to be related to the intrusion of quartz diorite, hornblende andesite, and formation of zeolite veins. In this respect, mineral water of highly alkaline nature can be expected by deep drilling of 600 to 1,000 m at some places such as Choja-goya and Hikage-zawa of the Kanno-kawa area.

  19. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  20. Cellular Phone Users- Willingness to Shop Online

    OpenAIRE

    Norazah Mohd Suki; Norbayah Mohd Suki

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify cellular phone users- shopping motivating factors towards online shopping. 100 university students located in Klang Valley, Malaysia were involved as the respondents. They were required to complete a set of questionnaire and had to own a cellular phone in order to be selected as sample in this study. Three from five proposed hypotheses were supported: purchasing information, shopping utilities and service quality. As a result, marketers and retailers should concent...

  1. Determinants Of Online Shopping In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Retailers utilize online media to reach more potential customers. Internet connects the retailer and customers without any geographic location boundaries. Internet growth has a positive impact for business world. There is a new shopping method in non-store shopping as people can buy products or services without having to travel to the outlets like traditional retail does. With the increase of online retailers on internet world, online shopping became popular. The objective of this research is...

  2. Reflexivity in performative science shop projects

    OpenAIRE

    Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.; During, R.; Straver, G.H.M.B.; Aalvanger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Science shop research projects offer possibilities for universities to engage with communities. Many science shop projects directly or indirectly intend to empower certain marginalised groups or interests within a decision-making process. In this article we argue that it is important to reflect on the role and position the researchers have in these projects. We present three science shop projects to illustrate some of the dilemmas that may arise in relation to citizen empowerment, democracy, ...

  3. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nethra; Dr. V. T. Dhanaraj

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of online shopping has caught the attention of many peoples. Many studies have been done in developed nations to know about the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards online shopping. The research is focused on consumer behaviour and attitude towards online shopping in Coimbatore district. The study is based on primary data which has been collected by issuing questionnaire to 200 respondents residing in Coimbatore district by adopting convenient sampling method. The stat...

  5. INDONESIAN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN ONLINE SHOPPING TRADING

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan F.; Wijayanti S.H.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to find out if the ease of shopping, site design, informative, comprehensive, and communication have a significant influence on the level of Indonesian customer satisfaction in online shopping transactions and how the impact to the word of mouth communication. Respondents of this study are the 250 students of Jakarta colleges. This study found that the variables of design, simplicity, and security have an influence on customer satisfaction in shopping online, while the info...

  6. The influences of social e-shopping in enhancing young women’s online shopping behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C; Morgan, A; Wright, LT; Jayawardhena, C

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 Westburn Publishers Ltd The background to this paper is that shoppers, particularly women, are motivated by a variety of different reasons, including socialising and enjoyment. Despite the growth of Internet retailing (e-retailing), these social needs are largely unmet in e-shopping. In the high street, women do most of the shopping but online shopping (e-shopping) tends to be dominated by male shoppers. At the same time, social networking is growing fast and is especially...

  7. INDONESIAN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN ONLINE SHOPPING TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawan F.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out if the ease of shopping, site design, informative, comprehensive, and communication have a significant influence on the level of Indonesian customer satisfaction in online shopping transactions and how the impact to the word of mouth communication. Respondents of this study are the 250 students of Jakarta colleges. This study found that the variables of design, simplicity, and security have an influence on customer satisfaction in shopping online, while the informative variable and communication have no influence on the customer's satisfaction online shopping.

  8. Designing electronic shops, persuading consumers to buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how to design persuasive and successful Web shops. An approach to commercial site design that draws on theories of visual persuasion is proposed. We focus on the role of emotion. Images in an ad are typically meant to create some emotional disposition toward....... To strengthen the discussion, an evaluation of shop home pages, situated within the perspective of visual persuasion is presented. This study has given some indications that viewers form distinctive emotional impressions from shop designs. Thus, by building on visual persuasion theories, we can learn how...... to design seductive Web shops....

  9. Geochemistry of hot springs in the Ie Seu’um hydrothermal areas at Aceh Besar district, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idroes, R.; Yusuf, M.; Alatas, M.; Subhan; Lala, A.; Saiful; Suhendra, R.; Idroes, G. M.; Marwan

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28,617 MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy. One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. The fluid type of Ie Seu’um manifestation was chloride (Cl-) obtained from the ternary diagram Cl--SO4 2--HCO3 -, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, argentometry and acidimetry method. The reservoir range temperature was 188,7 ± 9,3°C calculated using geothermometer Na-K-Ca, Na-K Fournier and Na-K Giggenbach by applying Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd.3 September 2012 by Powell & Cumming. The potential in the geothermal manifestation of Ie Seu’um was estimated about 50-100 MW (medium enthalpy).

  10. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  11. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Seaweeds as bioindicators of heavy metals off a hot spot area on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams El-Din, N G; Mohamedein, L I; El-Moselhy, Kh M

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Hg were measured successively in water, sediments, and six macroalgal species belonging to three algal classes during 3 years (2008-2010) from Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt: Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata), Phaeophyceae (Padina boryana), and Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Hypnea musciformis, Pterocladia capillacea). The study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the seaweeds, as well as to evaluate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the selected study site. Metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled with MH-10 hydride system. The obtained data showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were recorded in E. compressa; Cd, Ni, and Hg exhibited their highest mean concentrations in P. boryana, while Pb and Co were found in J. rubens. Abundance of the heavy metals in the algal species was as follow: Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Co > Cu > Cd > Hg. E. compressa showed the maximum metal pollution index (MPI) which was 11.55. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metals in algae was relatively high with a maximum value for Mn. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) values for the recorded algal species were low, which ranged between 1.00 in P. boryana and 2.72 in E. compressa. Enrichment factors for sediments were low fluctuating between 0.43 for Hg to 2.33 for Mn. Accordingly, the green alga E. compressa, brown alga P. boryana, and red alga J. rubens can be nominated as bioindicators. Based on MPI and PLI indices, Abu Qir Bay in the present study is considered as low-contaminated area.

  13. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  14. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  15. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  16. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  17. A new form of nicotine retailers: a systematic review of the sales and marketing practices of vape shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Orlan, Elizabeth N; Sewell, Kerry B; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-05

    Retailers that primarily or exclusively sell electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or vaping products represent a new category of tobacco retailer. We sought to identify (a) how vape shops can be identified and (b) sales and marketing practices of vape shops. A medical librarian iteratively developed a search strategy and in February 2017 searched seven academic databases (ABI/INFORM Complete, ECONLit, Embase, Entrepreneurship, PsycINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus). We hand searched Tobacco Regulatory Science and Tobacco Prevention & Cessation . We used dual, independent screening. Records were eligible if published in 2010 or later, were peer-reviewed journal articles and focused on vape shops. We used dual, independent data abstraction and assessed risk of bias. Of the 3605 records identified, 22 were included. We conducted a narrative systematic review. Researchers relied heavily on Yelp to identify vape shops. Vape shop owners use innovative marketing strategies that sometimes diverge from those of traditional tobacco retailers. Vape shop staff believe strongly that their products are effective harm-reduction products. Vape shops were more common in areas with more White residents. Vape shops represent a new type of retailer for tobacco products. Vape shops have potential to promote e-cigarettes for smoking cessation but also sometimes provide inaccurate information and mislabelled products. Given their spatial patterning, vape shops may perpetuate inequities in tobacco use. The growing literature on vape shops is complicated by researchers using different definitions of vape shops (eg, exclusively selling e-cigarettes vs also selling traditional tobacco products). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Doctor shopping: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Hall, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a significant problem in the United States that poses a serious health risk to Americans and is therefore significant to the field of nursing. The prescription drugs that are designated in the United States as having abuse potential are called controlled or scheduled drugs. The most common types of abused prescription drugs are benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, opioids prescribed for pain, and stimulants prescribed for attention deficit disorder. These prescription drugs are abused by taking larger doses than prescribed for nonmedical use to achieve a high or euphoric feeling, or are sold illicitly for profit. In 2009, there were 2.4 million nonmedical users of prescription opioids in the United States. These prescription drugs are often obtained by seeing multiple prescribers, often under false pretenses or with complicity from the prescribers that leads to abuse and illicit sales. The term doctor shopping has been used not only to refer to this phenomenon but has also had other meanings throughout the past decades. Thus, concept analysis is the focus of this article for clarification using the Walker and Avant method. Health implications and suggestions for minimizing doctor shopping are included.

  19. Recent Research Trends in Genetic Algorithm Based Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Amjad, Muhammad Kamal; Butt, Shahid Ikramullah; Kousar, Rubeena; Ahmad, Riaz; Agha, Mujtaba Hassan; Faping, Zhang; Anjum, Naveed; Asgher, Umer

    2018-01-01

    Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP) is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA) have gained the most popularity. Keeping in...

  20. Flexible job shop scheduling problem in manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Curralo, Ana; Pereira, Ana I.; Barbosa, José; Leitão, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses a real assembly cell: the AIP-PRIMECA cell at the Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, in France. This system can be viewed as a Flexible Job Shop, leading to the formulation of a Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP).

  1. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  2. Rental Values in UK Shopping Malls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuo, Tony Shun-Te; Lizieri, Colin; McCann, Phillip; Crosby, Neil

    This paper employs a unique dataset to analyse the retail rental levels of 1108 retail tenants in 148 UK regional shopping malls. The dataset integrates information regarding the characteristics of the shopping centre, the individual retailer, the brand, the individual unit occupied, the tenancy

  3. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  4. Hepatic volumetry with PhotoShop in personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Chang; Wang, Hao-Hua

    2004-02-01

    Convenient way to clarify liver volume or tumor volume in the liver is eagerly demanded by hepatobiliary surgeons, for so many aspects of clinical work need to know the liver volumetry. At present, some methods have been used to measure the liver volumetry, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, three-dimensional ultrasound volumetric system([1]) and 3-dimensional sonography([2,3]) et al. But enough volumetric information was failed to obtain by surgeons and a new way of measuring the liver volumetry that can be operated by themselves is exigent. Whereas we devise a new method of using PhotoShop in personal computer to measure the liver volumetry. A piece of whole CT film was transformed to a high quality digitized image by digital camera or scanner and then the digitized image was conducted as JPEG file into personal computer. The JPEG image file of CT film was opened by PhotoShop. Determining the edge of interested areas, and the data of pixel values of the interested areas divided by 1 cm2 pixel value will produce the actual area with the unit of square centimeter. If section thickness of CT scan is 1 cm, the sum of the areas of the liver or tumor in all sections naturally is the volume of the liver or tumor. Comparison of 10 hepatic volumes gained by this method and those gained by the GE Prospeed CT set showed a good relativity between the two groups. The volumes of three right lobes were calculated by this method before lobectomy and their real volumes were obtained postoperatively by a volumenometer. Their variation was limited to 5%. Hepatic volume obtained by PhotoShop is reliable. This method can be used to measure hepatic volume perfectly to meet clinical demand, and many parameters such as liver resection rate, graft volume can be achieved. The disadvantage of this method is the step of copying the pixel value from PhotoShop to Microsoft Excel.

  5. FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey. Report of hot water survey results (No. B-3 Kumaishi area); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Reported herein are the survey results of hot water in the Kumaishi area, Hokkaido, as part of the FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey project. A total of 277 spouting guidance tests were conducted by the swabbing method for 10 days at the N7-KI-1 well, which, however, failed to achieve continuous spouting of geothermal fluid. A total of 144 swabbing tests were conducted for 8 days at the N7-KI-2 well. The geothermal fluid is spontaneously spouted out, although intermittently, after the main valve was opened, because it had a pressure of 4.1 kg/cm{sup 2} G at the mouth of the well from the first. However, the final self-spouting quantity remained unchanged in spite of the guidance works. The hot water had a pH 6.4, and contained Na as a cation at 8,940 mg/L and Cl as an anion at 14,500 mg/L as the major impurities. The associated gas was mainly composed of carbon dioxide, containing little hydrogen sulfide. The hot water spouted out through the wells contained Na and a high concentration of Cl as the major impurities, suggesting possibility of mixing hot water containing a high concentration of salt with surface water. It is considered that neither hot water nor its impurity concentrations are evenly distributed in the deep underground of the Kumaishi area. It is therefore considered that the deep underground hot water sources for hot spring slightly vary in composition and impurity concentrations. (NEDO)

  6. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps

  7. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Langa, Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-11-22

    Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola) was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50%) were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role

  8. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Shopping Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Friis, Kristina; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV) in shop......The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV......) in shopping centres with focus on both the achieved IEQ and energy consumptions for air movement. By thermal building simulations it is found that there exists an interesting potential for hybrid ventilation of shopping centres, which can lead to great savings in the electrical energy consumptions...

  9. Report on geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on hot water (collection and analysis of hot water) in Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Nessui no chosa (nessui no saishu oyobi bunseki) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports the survey on hot water in the geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999 in the Tsujinodake area. The hot water pumped up at the N11-TD-2 well is considered to have been originated from sea water mixed with the same amount of meteoric water including waters from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond, and been heated mainly by heat conduction. The hot water temperature near the well is 120 to 130 degrees C, but the upper stream of hot water flow is estimated to be 160 to 230 degrees C. The test samples collected and analyzed are those pumped up from depths greater than 1,500 m, having the same origin as the high temperature hot water of higher than 200 degrees C flowing sideways at the relatively shallow portions (depths of 400 to 800 m). The hot water is estimated to be rising from deep portions of mainly the north-east shore of Unagi Pond in which exhalation bands are located, and its temperature is considered to be 260 to 270 degrees C at deep sections. The high temperature geothermal reservoir spreading in relatively shallow sections of the N11-TD-2 well mainly around the vicinity of the north-east shore of Unagi Pond has a high possibility of being continued even to the vicinity of the west Ibusuki area in the north-east direction. However, the spread of the geothermal reservoir with high temperatures (200 degrees C or higher) is considered not too large in the direction of the Matsugakubo in the north-west and the Narikawa area direction in the south-east. (NEDO)

  10. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yi; Yang, Hongxing; Wang, Jinggang

    2010-01-01

    The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE). This heat accumulation will result in degradation of system performance and increment of system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, which uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components. The computer program based on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system. As a case study, both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system are designed for a hypothetic private residential building located in Hong Kong, and the economic comparisons are conducted between these two types of systems. The simulation results show that the HGCHP system can effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial costs and operating costs of the air-conditioning system in the building.

  11. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yi; Yang, Hongxing [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Jinggang [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE). This heat accumulation will result in degradation of system performance and increment of system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, which uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components. The computer program based on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system. As a case study, both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system are designed for a hypothetic private residential building located in Hong Kong, and the economic comparisons are conducted between these two types of systems. The simulation results show that the HGCHP system can effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial costs and operating costs of the air-conditioning system in the building. (author)

  12. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Thomas, E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Deendarlianto,; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a k-{omega} turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all Code users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations.

  13. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohne, T.; Deendarlianto; Vallee, C.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M., E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Inst. of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden- Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a SST turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all ANSYS CFX users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations. (author)

  14. Possibilities of utilizing solar systems for heating the hot service water in Košice build-up areas KVP and Ťahanovce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A production of „HSW“ in block of flats areas by solar collectors means a real alternative to the traditional way of heating by fossil fuels (coal, gas. With this method, it’s possible to save ca. 50 % of energy from the net of the central service of the heat, what can reduce the production of pollutants in the locality, or it can enable to increase the quantity of customers without claims for the restructuralization of the central source. Because Slovakia is the producer of quality solar collectors it’s suitable to use them just for this reason, which could be projected into the price reduction of relatively expensive present systems. On the other side, when using the flat roofs on the block of flats, other useful places are hot occupied and the heating source is nearby the place of it sconsumption. In this case, a collaboration of the solar system and the Central Service of Heat is especially suitable in time with a shortage of the solar radiation.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF HEDONIC SHOPPING MOTIVATION TO THE IMPULSE BUYING OF ONLINE-SHOPPING CONSUMER ON INSTAGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of Adventure Shopping, Relaxation Shopping, Value Shopping, Social Shopping and Idea Shopping variables to the variable of Impulse Buying of Online-Shopping Consumer on Instagram. The type of the research is explanatory research. The result of F-test showed that Fcount (12.829 > Ftable (2.669 which meant that research variables had influences to the Impulse Buying. With partial correlation value of 0.548, Idea Shopping variable became the dominant factor influencing Impulse Buying on the online-shopping purchase on Instagram.

  16. Composition and fate of mine- and smelter-derived particles in soils of humid subtropical and hot semi-arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettler, Vojtěch, E-mail: ettler@natur.cuni.cz [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Johan, Zdenek [BRGM, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45082 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Kříbek, Bohdan; Veselovský, František [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Mihaljevič, Martin [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Vaněk, Aleš; Penížek, Vít [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Majer, Vladimír [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Namibia, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek (Namibia); Nyambe, Imasiku [University of Zambia, School of Mines, P. O. Box 32 379, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2016-09-01

    We studied the heavy mineral fraction, separated from mining- and smelter-affected topsoils, from both a humid subtropical area (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt) and a hot semi-arid area (Tsumeb, Namibia). High concentrations of metal(loid)s were detected in the studied soils: up to 1450 mg As kg{sup −1}, 8980 mg Cu kg{sup −1}, 4640 mg Pb kg{sup −1}, 2620 mg Zn kg{sup −1}. A combination of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) helped to identify the phases forming individual metal(loid)-bearing particles. Whereas spherical particles originate from the smelting and flue gas cleaning processes, angular particles have either geogenic origins or they are windblown from the mining operations and mine waste disposal sites. Sulphides from ores and mine tailings often exhibit weathering rims in contrast to smelter-derived high-temperature sulphides (chalcocite [Cu{sub 2}S], digenite [Cu{sub 9}S{sub 5}], covellite [CuS], non-stoichiometric quenched Cu–Fe–S phases). Soils from humid subtropical areas exhibit higher available concentrations of metal(loids), and higher frequencies of weathering features (especially for copper-bearing oxides such as delafossite [Cu{sup 1+} Fe{sup 3+} O{sub 2}]) are observed. In contrast, metal(loid)s are efficiently retained in semi-arid soils, where a high proportion of non-weathered smelter slag particles and low-solubility Ca–Cu–Pb arsenates occur. Our results indicate that compared to semi-arid areas (where inorganic contaminants were rather immobile in soils despite their high concentrations) a higher potential risk exists for agriculture in mine- and smelter-affected humid subtropical areas (where metal(loid) contaminants can be highly available for the uptake by crops). - Highlights: • Mining- and smelter-derived particles identified in subtropical and semi-arid soils • Sulphides, oxides, and metal-bearing arsenates most frequently encountered

  17. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  18. Branding on the Shop Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Gyimóthy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performed. By documenting the disloyal behaviour of butchers, we demonstrate that the affective commitment towards corporate brand values is closely related with self-enactment opportunities of occupational communities. Total service-orientation threatens butchers’ perception of autonomy and may therefore result in the emergence of resistant sub-cultures.

  19. Flow shop scheduling algorithm to optimize warehouse activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Centobelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful flow-shop scheduling outlines a more rapid and efficient process of order fulfilment in warehouse activities. Indeed the way and the speed of order processing and, in particular, the operations concerning materials handling between the upper stocking area and a lower forward picking one must be optimized. The two activities, drops and pickings, have considerable impact on important performance parameters for Supply Chain wholesaler companies. In this paper, a new flow shop scheduling algorithm is formulated in order to process a greater number of orders by replacing the FIFO logic for the drops activities of a wholesaler company on a daily basis. The System Dynamics modelling and simulation have been used to simulate the actual scenario and the output solutions. Finally, a t-Student test validates the modelled algorithm, granting that it can be used for all wholesalers based on drop and picking activities.

  20. Tenant mix structure in shopping centres: some empirical analyses from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Marona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to find an ideal tenant mix structure for the current shopping centres in Upper Silesian Urban Area Region in Poland, taking under consideration consumer preferences and behaviour. Research Design & Methods: Apart from literature review, empirical research is based on a survey questionnaire. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied in the analysis of the data collected. Findings: The research confirmed that to a great extent the valid tenant mix structure in the surveyed shopping centres meets with friendly attitude of customers. However, there are areas where improvement can increase the visitors’ satisfaction. Moreover, it was proven that shopping remains the main reason for customers’ visits in shopping centres, in spite of extending the offer of this type of places with new functions. Implications & Recommendations: Real estate managers are recommended to take actions aiming at increasing competitiveness on the market via the extension of the proposed shopping offer and their adjustment to customers’ expectations. For the managers, the results of the conducted research suggest lack of the necessity for radical transformations, and transforming Polish shopping centres into facilities of the fourth and fifth generation, which is slow in Poland, is, as it turns out, not necessarily expected, since customers identify shopping centres mainly with their traditional function. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed research model and findings can serve as a useful lens within the research of tenant mix structure in shopping centres in other parts of the Poland.

  1. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  2. 48 CFR 252.227-7033 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in shop drawings... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7033 Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 227.7107-(1)(c), use the following clause: Rights in Shop Drawings (APR 1966) (a) Shop drawings for construction means...

  3. 48 CFR 1952.227-77 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in shop drawings... Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 1927.405(h), insert the following clause: Rights in Shop Drawings (FEB 1985) (a) Shop drawings for construction means drawings, submitted to the Government by the...

  4. Dimensions of Consumer's Perceived Risk in Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Naiyi

    2004-01-01

    Perceived risk is an important concept in consumer behavior in online shopping. It impedes the adopting online shopping. A structure model with seven factors of consumer's perceived risk in online shopping is developed in this paper. The results have the descriptive power about Chinese consumers' perceived risk in Internet shopping and provide framework for managerial use in China's e-commerce market environment.

  5. Youth Clothes-Shopping Behavior: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Explored possible gender differences in clothes-shopping behavior among adolescents. Findings from 387 college students revealed that: parents financially assisted sons and daughters equally; there was no gender difference in shopping frequency; mothers more frequently shopped with sons than with daughters; fathers rarely shopped with any…

  6. Consumers’ Attitude towards Online Shopping : Factors influencing Gotland consumers to shop online

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Muhammad Umar; Uddin, Md. Nasir

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalization electronic marketing is a great revolution.  Over the last decade maximum business organizations are running with technological change.  Online shopping or marketing is the use of technology (i.e., computer) for better marketing performance. And retailers are devising strategies to meet the demand of online shoppers; they are busy in studying consumer behavior in the field of online shopping, to see the consumer attitudes towards online shopping. Therefore we have ...

  7. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin; Zakeri, Fardideh; Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. ► Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. ► Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. ► This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. ► In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ( 226 Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high 226 Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0–4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption–desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  8. ShopComm: Community-Supported Online Shopping for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, Katerina; Tigwell, Garreth W; Norrie, Christopher S; Waite, Miriam; Herron, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom has an ageing population whose members experience significant life transitions as they grow older, for example, losing mobility due to deteriorating health. For these adults, digital technology has the potential to sustain their independence and improve their quality of life. However older adults can be reluctant to use digital solutions. In this paper, we review a local charity providing a grocery shopping service for older adults who are unable to go themselves. We explore how older adults perceive the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and digital shopping. Using these insights, we designed ShopComm to enable and support older adults with mobility impairments to shop online.

  9. Job shop scheduling by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.; Ulder, N.L.J.

    1992-01-01

    We present a computational performance analysis of local search algorithms for job shop scheduling. The algorithms under investigation are iterative improvement, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and genetic local search. Our study shows that simulated annealing performs best in the sense

  10. Public Relations Program for a Shopping Mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigley, David A.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of a highly successful sports, health, and recreation exhibit run by Rutgers University (New Jersey) in a public shopping mall. Organization and entertainment were the keynotes of the success. (LH)

  11. Profiling the Shopping Behavior of Elderly Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. Barry; Bearden, William O.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected by personal interview on shopping roles, information processing, food stamp and coupon use, store brand purchases, mispricing and product unavailability experiences, and with familiarity with fair trade practices. Implications and directions for further research are suggested. (Author)

  12. The 3D virtual environment online for real shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Nahla

    2015-01-01

    The development of information technology and Internet has led to rapidly progressed in e-commerce and online shopping, due to the convenience that they provide consumers. E-commerce and online shopping are still not able to fully replace onsite shopping. In contrast, conventional online shopping websites often cannot provide enough information about a product for the customer to make an informed decision before checkout. 3D virtual shopping environment show great potential for enhancing e-co...

  13. RURAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING IN POLLACHI TALUK

    OpenAIRE

    K. Jayaprakash; A. Pavithra

    2017-01-01

    Online shopping is a recent phenomenon in electronic commerce and its definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. It is user friendly compare to in store shopping because consumers can just complete his requirements just with a click of mouse without leaving their home. In the present work, the researcher intended to analyze the most preferred online shopping website, factors influencing the rural customers towards online shopping and to analyze the level satisfaction of the ...

  14. Flow shop scheduling with heterogeneous workers

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Alexander J.; Ritt, Marcus; Miralles Insa, Cristóbal Javier

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension to the flow shop scheduling problem named Heterogeneous Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (Het-FSSP), where two simultaneous issues have to be resolved: finding the best worker assignment to the workstations, and solving the corresponding scheduling problem. This problem is motivated by Sheltered Work centers for Disabled, whose main objective is the labor integration of persons with disabilities, an important aim not only for these centers but for any company d...

  15. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  16. Chinese and Finnish Undergraduates’ Online Shopping Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...

  17. Assessment of noise levels generated by music shops in an urban city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebare, M N; Omuemu, V O; Isah, E C

    2011-09-01

    To assess the level of noise generated by music shops in an urban city in Nigeria. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The study involved music shops in three out of eight identified clusters of market areas in Benin City. A semi-structured, researcher-administered questionnaire was also used to collect data from music shop owners. Noise levels generated by speakers in the music shops were measured using a sound level meter, and blood pressure measurements were taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Of the 250 music shops studied, more than 90.0% generated noise levels >85 dB, and 54.8% had a continuous pattern of noise. Longer duration of working years was significantly associated with decreased hearing (P = 0.01), shouting when talking (P = 0.04) and high blood pressure (P = 0.003). The position of music dealers in relation to the speakers was significantly associated with shouting when talking (P = 0.000). A significant association was found between higher levels of noise and high blood pressure (P = 0.004). This study found very high levels of noise in music shops, which could be a source of occupational noise exposure among music dealers. Enlightenment campaigns on the hazards of exposure to loud noise and periodic audiometry examinations are recommended for this occupational group. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding safety climate in small automobile collision repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Bejan, Anca; Skan, Maryellen; Xi, Min

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 236,000 people work in 37,600 auto collision-repair businesses. Workers in the collision-repair industry may be exposed to a wide range of physical and chemical hazards. This manuscript examines the relationship of safety climate as reported by collision repair shop workers and owners to: (1) an independent business safety assessment, and (2) employee self-reported work practices. The study was conducted in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A total of 199 workers from 49 collision shops completed a survey of self-reported work practices and safety climate. Surveys were completed by an owner or manager in all but three shops. In general, self-reported work practices were poor. Workers' scores on safety climate were uniformly lower than those of owners. For workers, there was no correlation between how well the business scored on an independent audit of business safety practices and the safety climate measures they reported. For owners, however, there was a positive correlation between safety climate scores and the business safety assessment. For workers, safety rules and procedures were associated with improved work practices for those engaged in both painting-related and body technician-related activities. The enforcement of safety rules and procedures emerged as a strong factor positively affecting self-reported work practices. These findings identify a simple, cost effective path to reducing hazards in small workplaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  20. Excise tax differences at Oklahoma smoke shops: an opportunity for inter-tribal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Fritz L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Oklahoma's tribal tobacco shops are distributed throughout the state, including in urban areas. During the time frame of this study, state excise tax rates for cigarettes varied by tribe and region, and took five distinct levels, ranging from 5.75 cents to $1.03 per pack. To describe the pricing behavior of these smoke shops in a way that could support potential increases in the tribal taxation of cigarettes within the state. Two waves (2010 and 2011) of site visits were conducted, covering nearly all tribal smoke shops in the northeastern quarter of the state, an area containing the city of Tulsa and 60% of all tribal outlets. Researchers recorded representative prices and verified the tax rate paid (via tax stamp) for each shop. Data were analyzed in 2013. Lower-taxed tribal cigarettes tended to be priced at discounts that were even greater than the differential in tax rates. For example, across waves, the average pack of Marlboros from a shop with a 5.75-cent tax stamp sold for 52 cents less than the same pack from a 25.75-cent shop and 60 cents less than from a 51.5-cent shop. The minimal inter-tribal price response to the discontinuation of large quantities of contraband cigarette sales suggests that inter-tribal price competition in the Tulsa area is not as intense as expected. Ample scope exists for either unilateral or coordinated cross-tribal tax and price increases that will increase tribal cigarette tax revenue collections and improve public health. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shopping online and/or in-store? A structural equation model of the relationships between e-shopping and in-store shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Sendy; Schwanen, Tim; Dijst, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Searching product information or buying goods online is becoming increasingly popular and could affect shopping trips. However, the relationship between e-shopping and in-store shopping is currently unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate empirically how the frequencies of online searching, online buying, and non-daily shopping trips relate to each other, after controlling for sociodemographic, land use, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics. Data were collected from 826 respon...

  2. Why Shops Close Again : An Evolutionary Perspective on the Deregulation of Shopping Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new perspective on the deregulation of shopping hours based on ideas from evolutionary game theory. We study a retail economy where shopping hours have been deregulated recently. It is argued that first, the deregulation leads to a coordination problem between store owners

  3. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene

    2016-12-23

    The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important

  4. Science Shops - a concept for community based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete

    2001-01-01

    Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. The paper is based on an investigation of the impact of science shops on university curricula and research through a questionnaire...... sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university based science shops. These science shops had in the questionnaire indicated that the science shop in one way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. This paper focuses...... on the impact on university curricula. The case studies have been supplemented with articles and reports. The analysis has focused on the kind of impact, which the science shops have reported, and has tried to relate the impact to the local history of the science shop. One direct impact on the curricula...

  5. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  6. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  7. Digitalization influence on shopping centers strategic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioniţă Irene Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers are an important aspect of the extremely dynamic life of the 21st century consumer. Nowadays, worldwide, shopping centers represent significant multimillion euro investments, remarking themselves with bold architectures and structures and an individual brand image. Retail markets are currently under transformation by a confluence of new retailing technologies, dramatic shifts in the demographic profile and preferences of more affluent and educated shoppers. Part of the market share in modern retail moved to new forms of selling, which weakened the offer of some traditional retailers, while also creating opportunities for retailers to move and integrate their offerings with new digital tools (via electronic commerce, social commerce and mobile commerce. Meeting customer needs and increasing sales are the primary drivers behind retailers use of information systems and technology (IS/IT. New developments in IS/IT offer new opportunities and challenges for organizations and society. The current paper proposes to analyze the way digital media and information technology (computers and mobile devices influences the virtual and physical shopping experiences, and shopping centers management consequently. The need for communication & sales channels integration, the impact of new information technologies (IT’s, the growing role of social / digital media, the balance between personalization and privacy – all represent challenges retail industry needs to currently adapt to face digitalization. E-commerce is transforming both consumer behavior and retailing business models, by greatly expanding shopping convenience, selection and affordability.

  8. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  9. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  10. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  11. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms.

  12. The Virtual Shopping Experience: using virtual presence to motivate online shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Chin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping has thus far tended to be a niche business – highly successful in selling digital products such as shares, software and, increasingly, music and films, it has been less successful in persuading the purchasers of ‘traditional’ goods such as cars, clothes, toiletries, or household appliances to forsake their physical retailers and move into cyberspace. In this wide-ranging review paper we investigate the issue of the virtual experience – endeavouring to understand what is needed for a successful ‘shopping experience’ online and what the possible obstacles or pitfalls along the way might be. We initially introduce the concepts of virtual presence (the sense of ‘being there’ and virtual reality, discussing the possible roles both can play in providing a solution to the problem of effective online shopping. We then consider the Experience Economy, a concept which encapsulates many of the issues related to the problem of online shopping and which suggests ways in which online retailers can enhance the effectiveness of their sites by means of a virtual ‘experience’. Having set the scene for online shopping, we discuss eTailing today in terms of direct product experience and the opportunities which cyber-shopping offers to replicate this process. Finally, we identify some of the possibilities and problems of online shopping today, illustrating the current status of virtual presence in retailing with two micro-cases of success and failure.

  13. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  14. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  15. Fast-food, everyday life and health: A qualitative study of 'chicken shops' in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Ponsford, Ruth; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven

    2018-05-26

    The higher prevalence of fast food outlets in deprived areas has been associated with the production and maintenance of geographical inequalities in diet. In the UK one type of fast food outlet - the 'chicken shop' - has been the focus of intense public health and media interest. Despite ongoing concerns and initiatives around regulating these establishments, the 'chicken shop' is both a commercially successful and ubiquitous feature of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. However, little is known about how they are perceived by local residents. We report data from a qualitative study of neighbourhood perceptions in a low SES urban setting. Narrative family interviews, go-along interviews and school video focus group workshops with 66 residents of East London were conducted over two waves. The topic of chicken shops was a prolific theme and a narrative analysis of these accounts revealed that local perceptions of chicken shops are complex and contradictory. Chicken shops were depicted as both potentially damaging for the health of local residents and, at the same time, as valued community spaces. This contradiction was discursively addressed in narrative via a series of rhetorical rebuttals that negated their potential to damage health on the grounds of concepts such as trust, choice, balance, food hygiene and compensatory physical activity. In some instances, chicken shops were described as 'healthy' and patronising them constructed as part of a healthy lifestyle. Chicken shops are embedded in the social fabric of neighbourhoods. Successful strategies to improve diet therefore requires context-sensitive environmental interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shopping intention prediction using decision trees

    OpenAIRE

    Šebalj, Dario; Franjković, Jelena; Hodak, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The price is considered to be neglected marketing mix element due to the complexity of price management and sensitivity of customers on price changes. It pulls the fastest customer reactions to that change. Accordingly, the process of making shopping decisions can be very challenging for customer.Objective: The aim of this paper is to create a model that is able to predict shopping intention and classify respondents into one of the two categories, depending on whether they inten...

  18. Store Location in Shopping Centers: Theory & Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry D. Vandell; Charles C. Carter

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a formal theory of store location within shopping centers based on bid rent theory. The bid rent model is fully speci?ed and solved with the objective function of pro?t maximization in the presence of comparative, multipurpose and impulse shopping behavior. Several hypotheses result about the optimal relationships between store types, sizes, rents, sales, and distances from the mall center. The hypotheses are tested and con?rmed using data from a sample of 689 leases in ei...

  19. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report discusses the impact from university-based science shops on curricula and research. Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. This impact has been investigated...... through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  20. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social marketing ... The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the ... shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts.

  1. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  2. Marketing activities of vape shops across racial/ethnic communities

    OpenAIRE

    Garcίa, Robert; Sidhu, Anupreet; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There has been a surge in the number of vape shops in the USA. Research on the marketing practices of e-cigarette manufacturers is scarce and even less known are the practices of vape shop retailers. Past research on tobacco marketing has shown differences in the amount and content of marketing material, based on a community’s demographic profile. This study examined marketing strategies in vape shops and explored differences among vape shops located in communities that differ by...

  3. Growing Shopping Malls and Behavior of Urban Shoppers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    Shopping malls contribute to business more significantly than traditional markets which were viewed as simple convergence of supply and demand. Shopping malls attract buyers and sellers, and induce customers providing enough time to make choices as well as a recreational means of shopping. However, competition between malls, congestion of markets and traditional shopping centers has led mall developers and management to consider alternative methods to build excitement with customers. This stu...

  4. Consumer Buying Behavior Towards Online Shopping Stores in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2011-01-01

    The Internet as a global medium is quickly gaining interest and attractiveness as the most revolutionary marketing tool. The global nature of communication and shopping has as well redefined, seeing that it is the perfect vehicle for online shopping stores. Online convenient shop is mostly reflected in shorter time and less energy spent, including shipping cost reduction, less crowd and queues than real markets, unlimited time and space, which all increase convenience of shopping. Internet sh...

  5. End-user Acceptance of Online Shopping Sites in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bolar K; Shaw B

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping sites have recently gained momentum in India. Since the ecommerce industry is in infancy state, customer (end user) satisfaction with the online shopping is the prime concern because decreasing customer satisfaction leads to negative electronic word of mouth (eWOM) which is very severe for the business. Through a dataset gathered from 127 online shopping customers in with respect to online shopping sites in India, this study investigates the role of website quality, informatio...

  6. What do we know about consumer m-shopping behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Hannah; Williams, Michael; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides a review of mobile shopping (m-shopping) acceptance literature to bring international marketing and consumer research attention to m-shopping acceptance factors and limitations in current understandings to propose recommendations for further academic and retailing attention.\\ud Design/methodology – Keyword searches identified consumer-focused literature across mobile commerce, mobile shopping, mobile browsing, and mobile purchasing, published in English language ...

  7. Shop that has a face; Kao wo motta tenpo (kanto interview)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S.; Izuchi, T.

    2000-03-10

    This paper describes an opinion by the president of the Japan Franchise Chain (FC) Association. The FC Association is now thinking of two targets to be realized. One is the structuring of accurate database. While there are about 200 FC shops joining as the member of the Association, the total number of chain shops that introduce actually themselves as the FC shop is regarded to exceed one thousand. The president hopes that the database would cover as wide area as it can replace the registration system. He also hopes to publicize the FC system by putting it on home-page that may result in membership expansion and information disclosure. Another target is to support starting the FC business and increase chances of matching the franchiser with franchisees. Convenience stores have tried to expand merchandise line-up based on POS information and rationalized the shop management until today. From now on, it is wanted that they become 'shops that have a face' in their respective regions, while using the rationality of the standardization more effectively. This should result in increasing the strength of the franchiser. (NEDO)

  8. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  9. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  10. An architecture for agile shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    2000-01-01

    as shop floor control. This paper presents the Holonic Multi-cell Control System (HoMuCS) architecture that allows for design and development of holonic shop floor control systems. The HoMuCS is a shop floor control system which is sometimes referred to as a manufacturing execution system...

  11. A multipurpose shopping trip model to assess retail agglomeration effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Oppewal, H.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Multipurpose shopping is a prominent and relevant feature of shopping behavior. However, no methodology is available to assess empirically how the demand for multipurpose shopping depends on retail agglomeration or, in general, the characteristics of retail supply, such as the numbers and types of

  12. Approximation algorithms for the parallel flow shop problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xiandong); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the NP-hard problem of scheduling n jobs in m two-stage parallel flow shops so as to minimize the makespan. This problem decomposes into two subproblems: assigning the jobs to parallel flow shops; and scheduling the jobs assigned to the same flow shop by use of Johnson's

  13. Minimizing total weighted completion time in a proportionate flow shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhlevich, N.V.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Pinedo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the special case of the m machine flow shop problem in which the processing time of each operation of job j is equal to pj; this variant of the flow shop problem is known as the proportionate flow shop problem. We show that for any number of machines and for any regular performance

  14. Effects of time of day on shopping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, J C

    1999-04-01

    Shoppers interviewed in a shopping mall at different times of the day show different activities within the mall and attitudes toward the products. Prices also vary with the time of the day. These results can be explained in terms of shopping values and the related demographic characteristics of the population visiting the shopping center at different times of the day.

  15. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; van 't Erve, Sanne; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential

  16. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, Diana; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities.

  17. Internet Shopping Behavior of College of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyici, Mubin

    2012-01-01

    Internet is an important facilitator for human and humans use this medium almost every phase. As a shopping medium, internet attract human so attract researcher. Younger people can adapt newer technologies so they can adapt internet as shopping tool. In this research it is tried to define college of education students' online shopping behavior and…

  18. Online versus conventional shopping: Consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  19. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  20. Shopping centers as attractive spaces for urban mobility. The case of the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López García de Leániz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malls have become important focal points of trips in the outskirts of major urban conurbations. These trips take place predominantly in private vehicles, this compromising the objectives of sustainable mobility policies set by most of the metropolis. This article aims at characterizing the mobility patterns attracted by shopping malls within the Madrid metropolitan area. It is based on surveys carried out in eleven large commercial centers. Its departing hypothesis underlines that the location of shopping centers largely determines its incoming travel patterns. Therefore, from the standpoint of public policy, solutions should be addressed more from the perspective of urban planning that from the improvement of infrastructure and transport services.

  1. The ``Europark`` shopping center project in Salzburg; Projekt `Europark` - Einkaufszentrum in Salzburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-03-01

    The Salzburg ``Europark`` shopping mall is 250 m long and houses 80 shops with a total floor area of 28 000 m{sup 2}. The ``Europark`` has an impressive exterior, a parking lot for 2000 cars, and a sophisticated building management and control system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem `Europark` entstand in Salzburg eine Einkaufsmall mit rund 250 m Laenge. Rund 80 Geschaefte auf ca. 28 000 m{sup 2} Verkaufsflaeche bieten ein breites Angebot. Neben einer beeindruckenden Fassade und 2 000 Parkplaetzen bietet der `Europark` eine ausgefeilte Haustechnik. (orig.)

  2. Shop Floor-Level Control of Manufacturing Companies: An Interview Study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokola Henri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper publishes the results of interviews regarding shop-floor-level control of 18 Finnish manufacturing companies. The interviews had 17 open questions relating to demand characteristics, shop floor-level control issues, production flexibility, inventory control, and potential development areas. In order to get insights from the interviews, this paper analyses the answers from the interviews and categorises them into typical answers. The companies that were interviewed are also categorised as small companies with their own end products, subcontractors, or large companies with their own end products, and the emphasis of the analysis is on how companies differ in their shop floor-level control. The results show that different types of companies have different characteristics. Small companies are characterised by constant workflow, seasonal trends in demand, and the use of forecasts. Subcontractors have great daily variation in their demand and processing times. Large companies tend to focus on inventory issues.

  3. Cultural-Based Genetic Tabu Algorithm for Multiobjective Job Shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The job shop scheduling problem, which has been dealt with by various traditional optimization methods over the decades, has proved to be an NP-hard problem and difficult in solving, especially in the multiobjective field. In this paper, we have proposed a novel quadspace cultural genetic tabu algorithm (QSCGTA to solve such problem. This algorithm provides a different structure from the original cultural algorithm in containing double brief spaces and population spaces. These spaces deal with different levels of populations globally and locally by applying genetic and tabu searches separately and exchange information regularly to make the process more effective towards promising areas, along with modified multiobjective domination and transform functions. Moreover, we have presented a bidirectional shifting for the decoding process of job shop scheduling. The computational results we presented significantly prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the cultural-based genetic tabu algorithm for the multiobjective job shop scheduling problem.

  4. Architectural Considerations for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1997-01-01

    of the HMS concept, followed by an investigation regard-ing the development of shop floor control architectures. This will include a summary of the ongoing research on HMS, and current results regarding the development of a holonic SFC architecture in a cellular manufacturing perspective. The paper...

  5. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM... Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 709.3 to add a new temporary promotion during November... Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and November 21, 2012 (``promotion...

  6. CONSUMIDOR ADOLESCENTE EM AMBIENTE DE SHOPPING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunie Imamura Lima

    2009-07-01

    shopping center da cidade de Fortaleza (CE e objetivou conhecer as características bio-demográficas, os hábitos de utilização do shopping e os principais elementos influenciadores do processo de decisão de compra deste segmento. De natureza descritiva, quantitativa, com corte transversal; a pesquisa utilizou um questionário estruturado aplicado a uma amostra não-probabilística por conveniência, com maioria do sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 13 e 15 anos, provenientes de famílias de classe alta e renda familiar mensal superior a R$ 2700,00. Os resultados demonstraram que a maioria dos respondentes recebe mesada no valor menor que R$ 80,00; vai ao shopping de carro com pais ou parentes; gasta de R$ 10,00 a R$ 30,00; freqüenta o local 3 vezes na semana; permanece de 4 a 6 horas e é acompanhado pelos amigos. Ainda mostrou que pais ou familiares são os principais elementos influenciadores do processo de decisão de compra, enquanto os amigos os principais meios de informações sobre novos produtos. O estudo pretende contribuir com a literatura científica nas áreas de Marketing e Comportamento do consumidor e servir de instrumento gerencial aos dirigentes de shopping centers.

  7. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  8. Job shop scheduling by simulated annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, van P.J.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We describe an approximation algorithm for the problem of finding the minimum makespan in a job shop. The algorithm is based on simulated annealing, a generalization of the well known iterative improvement approach to combinatorial optimization problems. The generalization involves the acceptance of

  9. Job shop scheduling by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessens, R.J.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    We survey solution methods for the job shop scheduling problem with an emphasis on local search. We discuss both cleterministic and randomized local search methods as well as the applied neighborhoods. We compare the computational performance of the various methods in terms of their effectiveness

  10. The Great Irish Head Shop Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, Graham; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This research describes and analyses recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to the practice of selling psychoactive substances which, while not themselves illegal, mimic the effects of commonly used illegal drugs. These so-called "legal highs" had been sold in Ireland through an increasing number of "head shops"…

  11. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  12. Designing a Shopping System for Senior Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    It is all about serving the customer. That is how capitalism plays out. It finds a market need and then creates a product or service to address that need. The Baby Boomer generation, all 76 million, will be retiring soon. Eventually, some may find it very hard to move about and do their routine food shopping. In this article, the author's…

  13. Modelling Electrical Energy Consumption in Automotive Paint Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviandri, Muchamad; Safiee, Aidil Shafiza Bin

    2018-03-01

    Industry players are seeking ways to reduce operational cost to sustain in a challenging economic trend. One key aspect is an energy cost reduction. However, implementing energy reduction strategy often struggle with obstructions, which slow down their realization and implementation. Discrete event simulation method is an approach actively discussed in current research trend to overcome such obstructions because of its flexibility and comprehensiveness. Meanwhile, in automotive industry, paint shop is considered the most energy consumer area which is reported consuming about 50%-70% of overall automotive plant consumption. Hence, this project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate energy consumption at paint shop area by conducting a case study at XYZ Company, one of the automotive companies located at Pekan, Pahang. The simulation model was developed using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software version 13. From the simulation result, the model was accurately within ±5% for energy consumption and ±15% for maximum demand after validation with real system. Two different energy saving scenarios were tested. Scenario 1 was based on production scheduling approach under low demand situation which results energy saving up to 30% on the consumption. Meanwhile scenario 2 was based on substituting high power compressor with the lower power compressor. The results were energy consumption saving of approximately 1.42% and maximum demand reduction about 1.27%. This approach would help managers and engineers to justify worthiness of investment for implementing the reduction strategies.

  14. Shopping for Schools or Shopping for Peers: Public Schools and Catchment Area Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Market theory positions the consumer as a rational choice actor, making informed schooling choices on the basis of "hard" evidence of relative school effectiveness. Yet there are concerns that parents simply choose schools based on socio-demographic characteristics, thus leading to greater social segregation and undercutting the…

  15. T & I--Machine Shop. Kit No. 83. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jim

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the machine shop are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  16. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Hand and Bench Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "hand and bench work" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: hand and bench work and pedestal grinder. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP;…

  17. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section D--Power Saws and Drilling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "power saws and drilling machines" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: power saws and drill press. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP; learning…

  18. Mother logit analysis of substitution effects in consumer shopping destination choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of new shopping centers is largely related to their relative location and spending power in the trade area. Commercial developers, retailers, and retail planners need information about the likely impact of new retail developments on consumer choice behavior. Several types of consumer

  19. Commuter Shopping : A study in understanding commuting in the context of shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Åsa; Skoog, Sara; Svensson, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background For ages people have commuted to work, or to other activities, located outside their home municipality. Statements found indicate that the basic decision for commuting are based on utility maximisation and no matter what the character of the benefit is; it should be higher than what can be found closer to the home location. This thesis aims to investigate if people are also commuting with the purpose of obtaining benefits from shopping. The shopping location will in this thesis be ...

  20. Why Shops Close Again : An Evolutionary Perspective on the Deregulation of Shopping Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new perspective on the deregulation of shopping hours based on ideas from evolutionary game theory. We study a retail economy where shopping hours have been deregulated recently. It is argued that first, the deregulation leads to a coordination problem between store owners and customers, and second, the ‘solution’ to this problem depends on the specific cost structure of stores and the preferences of customers. In particular, it may happen that, even if extended shoppi...

  1. LINEAMENTS MAP OF TURKEY FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY AND SELECTING TARGET AREAS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION, RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL LINEAMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail HENDEN

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat coverage countrywide have been interpreted and a map of lineaments has been prepared. Circular features which are the surface expressions of deep or near   intrusions have  been  carefully mapped in order to investigate their relationship (if any to known mineralizations. From the outset it was postulated that the miner- alizations  are    located at the intersections of lineaments, especially in the vicinity of circular features.  To  test this hypo- thesis known mineralizations were placed on this map. It is noted that the metallic mineral deposits can be grouped into ten regions,  and out  of these,  two regions need to  be explored more intensively. In  some regions selected, locations of possible mineralizations were determined. Earthquake epicenters, mineral water sources and hot spring locations were placed on the  lineaments map. It is seen  that the hot springs and earthquake epicentres are located on regional fault systems.

  2. Possible Opioid Shopping and its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander M; Weatherby, Lisa B; Cepeda, M Soledad; Bradford, Daniel; Yuan, Yingli

    2017-11-01

    We created an operational definition of possible opioid shopping in US commercial health insurance data and examined its correlates. The population consisted of 264,204 treatment courses in persons with a fill for an opioid or diuretic prescription in 2012 and a second within 18 months. We examined counts of prescribers and pharmacies and the numbers of fills and overlaps for ability to discriminate courses of opioids from diuretics, which were a negative control. The most discriminatory measure, indicating possible shopping behavior, was cross-tabulated against other prescriptions filled and diagnoses as found in insurance claims. The associations between claims characteristics and shopping behavior were assessed in a logistic regression. A definition that classified possible "moderate" or "extensive" shopping when a person obtained drug through at least 3 practices and at least 3 pharmacies over 18 months was highly discriminatory between opioid and diuretic treatment. Overlaps between fills and number of fills did not improve the discrimination. Data from insurance claims strongly predicted moderate-to-extensive levels of possible shopping (c=0.82). Prominent among 20 significant predictors were: state of residence; amount of opioid dispensed; self-payment; use of nonspecialist prescribers; high use of anxiolytics, hypnotics, psychostimulants, and antipsychotics; and use of both immediate release and extended-release or long-acting opioids. The use of ≥3 prescribing practices and ≥3 dispensing pharmacies over 18 months sharply discriminated courses of opioid treatment from courses of diuretics. This pattern of fills was additionally associated with the numbers of nonspecialist and self-paid fills, the total morphine milligram equivalents dispensed, and heavier use of drugs for anxiety, sleep, attention, and psychosis.

  3. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D. Liese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI. We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc. with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61% or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%. Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should

  4. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  5. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-09-16

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m². The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one's primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m² higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m² lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  6. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...

  7. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1974 in Sunshine Project. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1974 nendo chinetsu chiiki no netsusuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This study has begun in fiscal 1973 under a five year plan with an objective to elucidate origin and maintenance of reservoirs of geothermal fluids. To achieve the objective, estimation was made on the systems of infiltration, storage and gushing of the fluids, particularly on infiltration areas. In the hydraulic flow rate study, observation was carried out in the Onikubi area on amount of rainfall, air pressures, temperatures, electric conductivity, and pH, and in ten fluid sources on flow rates, temperatures and pH. Flow rate observation was started at three rivers. In the Kuju area, flow rate observation was started on four fluid sources. Observations were started on temperatures, electric conductivity, flow rates, amount of rainfall by using the Takenoyu geothermal steal wells, and on amount of rainfall in the Teraono and Hacchobara areas. In the study of isotopic geology, site analyses and water collection were carried out in the Kuju area for underground water in six locations, hot spring water in seven locations, and 17 test samples from two geothermal wells. As a study on reservoirs, observation was started in the southern Hachimantai area on measurement of ground fluctuation in association with steam collection. In parallel, fracture survey and gravity measurement were carried out. In order to investigate transformed geology, analytic samples were collected from 12 survey wells in the Onikubi area. A spinner flow mater was tested in that area. (NEDO)

  9. Breaking Out of the Local: International dimensions of science shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar DeBok

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to give an overview of the international dimension and the interest of the European Union (EU in the concept of Science Shops. The European Commission (EC manages the day-to-day business by initiating and implementing EU policies and spending EU funds. The EC support for Science Shops has been an important factor for the international interest and progress of the Science Shop movement. This article will not give detailed information about daily routines of a Science Shop. Detailed information about the Science Shop concept can be found at the Living Knowledge website (www.livingknowledge.org. Living Knowledge represents the international Science Shop Network. In this article international developments of the Science Shop Network, like the project TRAMS, and Science Shop backgrounds will be linked with past and new EU policies like the EU 7th Framework Programme for Research. It shows how community-based research does not only have a local dimension. The international Science Shop activities show the strengths of international cooperation to break out of the local and to bring local issues on the international agenda. Detailed information about the Science Shop concept and daily routines of a Science Shop can be found at the Living Knowledge website (www.livingknowledge.org, e.g. at the FAQ section and in the toolbox.

  10. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  11. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  12. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  13. Marketing activities of vape shops across racial/ethnic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcίa, Robert; Sidhu, Anupreet; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    There has been a surge in the number of vape shops in the USA. Research on the marketing practices of e-cigarette manufacturers is scarce and even less known are the practices of vape shop retailers. Past research on tobacco marketing has shown differences in the amount and content of marketing material, based on a community's demographic profile. This study examined marketing strategies in vape shops and explored differences among vape shops located in communities that differ by ethnic composition. Data was gathered in 2014 from a pilot-study on vape shops (n=77) in Los Angeles, which documented the characteristics of shops through employee interviews and in-store observations. Data were collected from shops located in communities that were predominantly, African-American (n=20), Hispanic (n=17), Korean (n=18), or non-Hispanic White (n=22). Sixty-one percent of vape shops had advertisements (print ads and posters) for e-cigarettes and 84% offered discounts. Vape shops in Hispanic communities were more likely to have ethnic specific marketing material compared to shops in other communities. All the shops provided customers with free samples, however those in Korean and non-Hispanic White communities had a significantly higher prevalence of customer accessible free samples. Vape shop marketing practices differed by ethnic community. A large majority of shops provided free samples to their customers, a practice which is now banned by the FDA. It will be important to monitor how vape shops will adjust their marketing strategy because of this ban. Future research should expand on the findings presented here to provide regulators with further crucial information.

  14. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  15. The Effects of Shopping Orientations, Consumer Innovativeness, Purchase Experience, and Gender on Intention to Shop for Fashion Products Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Puspa Nirmala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many fashion retailers or marketers use the power of internet to promote and sell their products. This research examines the effects of consumers’ shopping orientations (brand/fashion consciousness, shopping enjoyment, price consciousness, convenience/time consciousness, shopping confidence, in-home shopping tendency, consumer innovativeness, online purchase experience for fashion products, and gender on consumers’ intention to shop for fashion products online. Data were collected through online surveys from the population of internet users in Indonesia, aged between 15 and 30 years old (generation Y, who had bought or browsed fashion products through the internet (N=210. This research is a quantitative research which uses purposive sampling and multiple regression analysis. Results show that the effects of several shopping orientations (shopping enjoyment, price consciousness, in-home shopping tendency, consumer innovativeness, online purchase experience for fashion products, and gender, are significant on consumers’ intention to shop for fashion products online. Furthermore, gender is marginally significant related to consumers’ intention to shop for fashion products online. Surprisingly, women tend to have lower intentions to shop for fashion products online compared to men.

  16. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pbags, irrespective of the load distribution, may have a stabilising effect during quiet standing. These results should help to alleviate concerns regarding safety of carrying shopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hot flashes and sleep in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen E

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disturbances during menopause are often attributed to nocturnal hot flashes and 'sweats' associated with changing hormone patterns. This paper is a comprehensive critical review of the research on the relationship between sleep disturbance and hot flashes in women. Numerous studies have found a relationship between self-reported hot flashes and sleep complaints. However, hot flash studies using objective sleep assessment techniques such as polysomnography, actigraphy, or quantitative analysis of the sleep EEG are surprisingly scarce and have yielded somewhat mixed results. Much of this limited evidence suggests that hot flashes are associated with objectively identified sleep disruption in at least some women. At least some of the negative data may be due to methodological issues such as reliance upon problematic self-reports of nocturnal hot flashes and a lack of concurrent measures of hot flashes and sleep. The recent development of a reliable and non-intrusive method for objectively identifying hot flashes during the night should help address the need for substantial additional research in this area. Several areas of clinical relevance are described, including the effects of discontinuing combined hormone therapy (estrogen plus progesterone) or estrogen-only therapy, the possibility of hot flashes continuing for many years after menopause, and the link between hot flashes and depression.

  18. Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Motivation Terhadap Impulse Buying Pada Toko Online: Studi Pada Toko Online Zalora

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Lia Octaria; Dewi, Citra Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping, including shopping for fashion goods, has become a trend in Indonesia. One of buyer's motivations to do online-fashion-shopping is hedonic shopping motivation. This research aims to examine the influence of hedonic shopping motivation on impulse buying process. Using 100 buyers of Zalora (an online shop) as the respondents, this study confirms that hedonic shopping motivation has a significant influence on the impulse buying process.

  19. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  20. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  1. Trustworthy Online Shopping with Price Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musial Jedrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet shopping is one of the main pillars of electronic commerce.According to the literature, the Internet Shopping Optimization Problem (ISOPhas been defined in order to optimize the global cost of online purchase, taking into account both the cost of products and shipping. In this study, it was decided to propose and analyze a very interesting, and really substantial, extension of the ISOP.Namely, trust factors were subjected to careful analysis from the customer point of view. The analysis is based on a specially prepared questionnaire, supplemented by the information from the literature and our own observations. Thus, it was possible to propose a definition of a new mathematical model of the problem, and to prove its affiliation to the class of strongly NP-hard problems. In addition, the heuristic algorithm is proposed, which can be used to solve the problem.

  2. Employee motivation improvement at "Drogas" shop

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Viktorija

    2012-01-01

    Work : Employee motivation improvement at “Drogas” shop for getting baccalaureate in science management. This work includes four parts. In the first section author explained the definition of motivation, there was reviewed motivation's role in enterprise. Author reviewed total motivation's model, which models exist for a long while and how they were changing in process of time. The second part contains wide information about motivation's theories and description of motivation's t...

  3. Shopping intention prediction using decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Šebalj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The price is considered to be neglected marketing mix element due to the complexity of price management and sensitivity of customers on price changes. It pulls the fastest customer reactions to that change. Accordingly, the process of making shopping decisions can be very challenging for customer. Objective: The aim of this paper is to create a model that is able to predict shopping intention and classify respondents into one of the two categories, depending on whether they intend to shop or not. Methods: Data sample consists of 305 respondents, who are persons older than 18 years involved in buying groceries for their household. The research was conducted in February 2017. In order to create a model, the decision trees method was used with its several classification algorithms. Results: All models, except the one that used RandomTree algorithm, achieved relatively high classification rate (over the 80%. The highest classification accuracy of 84.75% gave J48 and RandomForest algorithms. Since there is no statistically significant difference between those two algorithms, authors decided to choose J48 algorithm and build a decision tree. Conclusions: The value for money and price level in the store were the most significant variables for classification of shopping intention. Future study plans to compare this model with some other data mining techniques, such as neural networks or support vector machines since these techniques achieved very good accuracy in some previous research in this field.

  4. Factor Driving Consumer Intention in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Suwunniponth

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research paper was to study the influencing factors that contributed the willingness of consumers to purchase products online included quality of website, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust on online purchases, attitude towards online shopping and intentions to online purchases. The research was conducted in both quantitative and qualitative methods, by utilizing both questionnaire and in-depth interview. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 350...

  5. GENDER AND SHOPPING BEHAVIOR OUTCOMES IN THE CONTEXT OF SHOPPING CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nicoleta ABRUDAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding consumer behavior can be divided into three parts: before visiting the stores or shopping centers, during the visit, and after. From the point of view of the final result intended by retailers, satisfying customers in terms of profitability, all three components are equally important. A relevant segmentation criterion for most products and stores is gender. Previous research suggests that gender influences shopping motivations, the way people shop and shopping behavior outcomes. The purpose of this article is to investigate if there are, indeed, differences between shopping behavior outputs of women and men (affective loyalty (satisfaction and conative loyalty, as found by certain researchers, and also in terms of the factors that influence the formation of conative loyalty. The results confirm that there are few significant differences in the satisfaction level, although for women all values are slightly higher, and none in the repurchase and recommendation intentions between the two genders. Conative loyalty formation (defined as intent to repurchase and recommend takes place differently between the two genders.

  6. Genotoxic damage in auto body shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Basso da Silva, Luciano

    2010-10-01

    Some studies have shown increased DNA damage among car painters, but other professionals working in auto body and paint shops have not been extensively assessed. The aim of this study was to assess DNA damage in different types of auto body shop workers by measuring micronucleus (MN) levels in exfoliated buccal cells. The mean number of cells with MN per 2000 exfoliated buccal cells was analyzed in three groups of male workers: auto body repair technicians, painters, and office workers (control group). All participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, work practices, occupational exposure time, job activities, and use of protective equipment. The mean number of cells with MN was 3.50 ± 1.50 in auto body painters, 3.91 ± 2.10 in auto body repair technicians, and 0.80 ± 0.78 in office workers, with a significant difference between the control group and the two other groups (p = 0.0001). Age, occupational exposure time, use of protective masks, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit did not affect MN results. The findings indicate that technicians and painters working in auto body shops are at risk for genotoxic damage, while office workers seem to be protected.

  7. Aesthetic quality inference for online fashion shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    On-line fashion communities in which participants post photos of personal fashion items for viewing and possible purchase by others are becoming increasingly popular. Generally, these photos are taken by individuals who have no training in photography with low-cost mobile phone cameras. It is desired that photos of the products have high aesthetic quality to improve the users' online shopping experience. In this work, we design features for aesthetic quality inference in the context of online fashion shopping. Psychophysical experiments are conducted to construct a database of the photos' aesthetic evaluation, specifically for photos from an online fashion shopping website. We then extract both generic low-level features and high-level image attributes to represent the aesthetic quality. Using a support vector machine framework, we train a predictor of the aesthetic quality rating based on the feature vector. Experimental results validate the efficacy of our approach. Metadata such as the product type are also used to further improve the result.

  8. Rostocker Hof shopping mall; Galerie Rostocker Hof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The Rostocker Hof shopping mall comprises a 151-room hotel, a shopping mall of 45 shops, 22230m{sup 2} of office floor, and an underground garage with 308 parking lots. The following systems are described: Heating systems, air conditioning systems, refrigeration systems, ventilation systems, fire protection systems and electrical installation. Heat is supplied by the district heating grids. Circuit diagrams and flow charts are presented for the heat exchangers and heat supply system, the air conditioning system, the sanitary and sprinkler systems, and the single-room control systems for heat and fresh air supply. (MSK) [Deutsch] Der Rostocker Hof umfasst ein Hotel mit 151 Zimmern, eine Einzelhandelspassage mit 45 Laeden sowie 2230qm Bueronutzungsflaeche und eine Tiefgarage mit 308 Stellplaetzen. Die Haustechnik wird in folgenden Punkten erlaeutert: Heizungtechnik, Klimatechnik, Kaeltetechnik, Lueftungstechnik, Brandschutzanlage sowie Elektroinstallation. Die Waermerversorgung erfolgt durch Fernwaerme. Schaltplaene bzw. Funktionsablaeufe sind fuer die Waermeuebergabestation, die Waermeaufbereitung, die Luftaufbereitungsanlage, die Sanitaer- und Sprinkleranlage sowie fuer die Waerme- und Raumluftregelung der Einzelraeume enthalten. (MSK)

  9. 论网络购物中的消费者权益保护%Protection of consumer rights and interests in online shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何如; 俞华娟; 施燕飞

    2016-01-01

    随着互联网的发展和电子科技的进步,网络购物已经成为了当今社会新兴的购物方式。由于网络购物的便捷高效,商品多样,吸引着越来越多的人加入网络购物中来。消费者通过网络购物带给自身便利,但由于网络购物的高速发展和关于这个领域的立法空缺,网络购物存在的客观问题也开始显现。如何保障网络购物消费者的合法权益成为社会的热点。%With the development of internet and the advancement of electronic science and technology, online shopping has become a new way of shopping in today's society. Due to the convenience and efficiency of online shopping, goods are diverse, attracting more and more people to join online shopping. Consumers through online shopping to bring their own convenience, but because of the rapid development of online shopping and the legislative vacancy on this field, the existence of the objective problems of online shopping also began to show. How to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the consumers of online shopping has become a hot spot of society.

  10. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  11. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  12. Thermincola carboxydiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, carboxydotrophic, hydrogenogenic bacterium from a hot spring of the Lake Baikal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Tatyana G; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Chernyh, Nikolai A; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2005-09-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, strain 2204(T), was isolated from a hot spring of the Baikal Lake region. The cells of strain 2204(T) were straight rods of variable length, Gram-positive with an S-layer, motile with one to two lateral flagella, and often formed aggregates of 3-15 cells. The isolate was shown to be an obligate anaerobe oxidizing CO and producing equimolar quantities of H(2) and CO(2) according to the equation CO+H(2)O-->CO(2)+H(2). No organic substrates were used as energy sources. For lithotrophic growth on CO, 0.2 g acetate or yeast extract l(-1) was required but did not support growth in the absence of CO. Growth was observed in the temperature range 37-68 degrees C, the optimum being 55 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.7-9.5, the optimum pH being 8.0. The generation time under optimal conditions was 1.3 h. The DNA G+C content was 45 mol%. Penicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, vancomycin and tetracycline completely inhibited both growth and CO utilization by strain 2204(T). Thus, isolate 2204(T) was found to be the first known moderately thermophilic and alkalitolerant H(2)-producing anaerobic carboxydotroph. The novel bacterium fell within the cluster of the family Peptococcaceae within the low-G+C-content Gram-positive bacteria, where it formed a separate branch. On the basis of morphological, physiological and phylogenetic features, strain 2204(T) should be assigned to a novel genus and species, for which the name Thermincola carboxydiphila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 2204(T) (=DSM 17129(T)=VKM B-2283(T)=JCM 13258(T)).

  13. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  14. Determinants of Customer Continuance Intention of Online Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify theory and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping. A revised technology acceptance model integrates expectation confirmation theory and investigates effects of age differences. An online survey of internet shoppers in Saudi Arabia. Structural equation modelling and invariance analysis confirm model fit. The findings confirm that perceived usefulness, enjoyment and social pressure are determinants of e-shopping continuance. The structural weights are mostly equivalent between young and old but the regression path from perceived usefulness to social pressure is stronger for younger respondents. This research moves beyond e-shopping intentions to factors affecting e-shopping continuance, explaining 55% of intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore direct and indirect effects on continuance intentions. The findings contribute to literature on internet shopping and continuance intentions in the context of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Census tract correlates of vape shop locations in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Duncan, Dustin T; Coups, Elliot J; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-07-01

    Vape shops are opening across the USA, but little is known about the types of neighborhoods where they are located. This study explores community-level predictors of vape shop locations in New Jersey, USA. Vape shops were identified in July 2015 using a validated systematic online search protocol and geocoded using Google Earth Pro. Multivariable logistic regression identified demographic and other predictors of vape shop presence at the census tract level. Tobacco outlet density was consistently associated with higher odds of vape shop presence after adjusting for covariates (pretail were negatively associated with vapor outlets. Census tracts with a higher proportion of non-Hispanic black residents had significantly lower odds of having a vape shop (β=-0.03, pretail is high, but where fewer racial minorities live. The retail environment may communicate social norms regarding vaping and ultimately influence use behaviors of community residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    Science shops are mediating agencies at universities that give citizens and citizen groups access to the resources of the university through co-operation with students and researchers. Science shops have three aims: to support citizens and citizen groups in their efforts getting influence...... to the impact of science shops on universities and on society are discussed. A typology for the different types of knowledge requested by citizens and citizen groups through science shops is presented (documentation, knowledge building, development of new perspectives). As important aspects of the potentials......, prerequisites and limits to the impact of science shops are discussed the networking between the science shop and the researchers and teachers and with the citizens and other external actors, and the content and the structure of the curricula at the university....

  17. Social image of students who shop and don't shop online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H Bruce; Curren, Mary T; Cours, Deborah; Lammers, Marilyn L

    2003-06-01

    A descriptive survey of a stratified random sample of 326 undergraduates from a large, diverse university in Los Angeles was conducted to assess whether resistance to online shopping might be, in part, related to negative social perceptions of those who shop online. Indirect questioning showed that students perceived online student shoppers as more lazy and less likely to fear for the safety and security of others but also as more trustworthy, attractive, successful, and smart. Differences in social perceptions were not related to these students' own online spending.

  18. Optimal experience in online shopping: the influence of flow

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Ultan; Acton, Thomas; Conboy, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research investigates the influences of product presentation modes, decision behaviour and the consumer experience on Internet shopping. The growth of online shopping brings with it cognitive challenges for consumers attempting to assess large numbers of options in purchase decisions. Further, there is little guidance for vendors in terms of presenting large numbers of product. In this study, online shopping is viewed as an information processing, decision ta...

  19. Consumer behavior towards Online shopping of electronics in pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    BASHIR, ADIL

    2013-01-01

    E-commerce has made life simple and innovative of individuals and groups; consumer Behavior in online shopping is different from the physical market where he has access to see the product. The purpose of the research was to study the consumer behavior in online shopping of electronics especially in Pakistan. The main research question in thesis is how consumers behave while shopping online. Primary data was collected through the questionnaire survey and by emails from personal contacts in...

  20. Evaluation of Fresh Food Internet Shopping in Korean Beef

    OpenAIRE

    金, 鍾和; 森高, 正博; 福田, 晋; Kim, Jong-hwa; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer reactions to the fresh food internet shopping on Korea beef. In the paper, we have analyzed an effective relation in consumer's perceived qualities, the evaluation of commodities and the evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. As a result, two effective relations were found. Firstly, consumer's perceived qualities affect the evaluation of commodities. Secondly, the evaluation of commodities affects t-he evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. This result...

  1. Breaking Out of the Local: International dimensions of science shops

    OpenAIRE

    DeBok, Caspar; Steinhaus, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    In this article we want to give an overview of the international dimension and the interest of the European Union (EU) in the concept of Science Shops. The European Commission (EC) manages the day-to-day business by initiating and implementing EU policies and spending EU funds. The EC support for Science Shops has been an important factor for the international interest and progress of the Science Shop movement. This article will not give detailed information about daily routines of a Science ...

  2. E-commerce factors influencing consumers‘ online shopping decision

    OpenAIRE

    Baubonienė, Živilė; Gulevičiūtė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the ben...

  3. Specific energy use in Swedish and Norwegian shopping malls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensson, Sofia; Axell, Monica (SP Energy Technology, Boraas (Sweden)); Smaage, Kjell Petter (Evotek AS (Norway)); Fahlen, Per (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Building Services Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of shopping malls is growing worldwide. Internationally, there are differences in energy use and system solutions due to local outdoor climate, available energy resources, prices, national building regulations, traditions etc. On the other hand, tenants are usually international chains and they often have the same demands regarding indoor climate, system solutions etc. irrespective of the national differences. Shopping malls overall tends to have large lighting loads, high population density and, hence, a large air conditioning demand. There is also an apparent trend towards increasing glass surfaces and such design feature affects the energy balance of the building. For those interested in the energy efficiency of the building and its installations, it is interesting to know how different system solutions affect the energy use. Benchmarking between buildings gives valuable insight to energy efficient design and operation. However, available information on energy use for such benchmarking in shopping malls is still rather limited. This study investigates shopping malls in Sweden and Norway. Available national statistical data on retail and shopping malls are reviewed. Further building statistical data were collected from building owners and managers, covering energy use in 41 shopping malls. Additional energy use data for 115 shops, within three of these shopping malls were also collected. The building statistical data shows that the average energy use in Norwegian and Swedish shopping malls are approximately 291 and 279 kWh/m2/year respectively. The highest energy use exceeds the lowest figure by approximately 50 percent, indicating a significant potential for improvement. Results also show a wide deviation in energy use of the different shops in a shopping mall. The paper further provides a discussion concerning alternative benchmarking methods and necessary improvements to make valid conclusions regarding energy use in shopping malls.

  4. Customer Buying Behavior : - Online shopping towards electronic product

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Yang, Liuzi

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Online shopping in EU has been shown to a good potential market. The electronic equipment takes a high percent of the individuals shopping. Compared with other goods, online shopping of electronic goods adds great convenience to the life of the people. Buying electronic gadgets online gives customers an opportunity to find a great variety of product online, and customers can review a wide selection of products and find special offers and discount with the best deals online. In the co...

  5. HESITANCY TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING, A STUDY OF PAKISTANI CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman YOUSAF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of Perceived cost, risk, convenience and enjoyment on online consumer purchases. Being more convenient online shopping seems painless compared to in store shopping, why consumers are still reluctant to shop online?.A sample of 220 questionnaires was filled from different departments at University of Sargodha. Respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire based on four factors (Perceived cost, Perceived risk, Perceived convenience, Perceived enjoyment, there were 2 general questions. Out of 220, 207 questionnaires were returned. One sample test is applied in this study to check the reliability of independent variables. Analysis was also done on basis of gender and their ages. The most important factor out of four, which can persuade the customer's online buying decision, is delivery cost for purchased items and it has negative relationship with dependent variable, moreover perceived risk has also negative relationship with dependent one. Perceived convenience and Perceived enjoyment has positive relationship with online shopping preference. As online shopping is easier to do but due to extra delivery cost and risk factors consumers do not adopt online shopping and these factors should be minimized to promote online shopping. Online shopping should be promoted and to gain the consumer confidence, delivery cost and risk factor should be minimized. As online shopping is easier to do as compared to offline shopping but people still reluctant to use internet for online shopping, so to promote online shopping delivery cost and risk factor should be minimized to gain consumers attraction and confidence. People want to experience online shopping but it won’t be promoted until delivery cost and perceived risk factors be reduced. A little work has been done on exploring the factors that influence the online buying decision. These factors are called situational factors and include delivery charges, risk factors, convenience

  6. Distribution of projected area factors exhibited by occupants of a tertiary institutional building in the hot-humid tropics for thermal comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijhar Hidayat Rusli; Nor Mariah Adam; Nawal Aswan Abdul Jalil

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the factors that affect the thermal comfort levels of occupants of a built environment is the amount of heat exchange they engage in with the short-wave radiation originating from the sun. In quantifying this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine the projected area factors between an occupant and the geometrical location of the sun. This paper presents the projected area factors of an occupant of a tertiary institutional building exposed to short-wave radiation from the sun at different hours of a day throughout a year. It is seen that, for the current case studied, the months June and July show the highest projected area factors among all 12 months. This suggests that it is within these months that the interaction between an occupant and the radiant heat from the sun is greatest. An example of how the projected area factors can be used in thermal comfort evaluation is also presented incorporating actual measured irradiance values over a period of time. Such analysis and the information it provides allows for a more detailed investigation of the thermal comfort levels of a built environment in relation to fenestration design and can be coupled with day lighting analysis in virtue of a sustainable built environment. (author)

  7. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...

  8. E-shopping and its interactions with in-store shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, the Internet permeates society: for many people, life without the Internet is hard to imagine. E-shopping (searching and/or buying products online) has rapidly gained popularity in the past few years, and could affect consumers’ visits to stores. The goal of this research is to show which

  9. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  10. “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  11. Matching Danish Shop Stewards' Service Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    process of the collective bargaining system, which adds more and more tasks on the shoulders of the shop steward and; b) the on-going trend of union mergers. While it could be expected that union merger and the reduction of local branches would entail a lower service level and at democratic deficit...... unions from 1998 to 2011. During the same period, the unions under the confederation reduced the number of branches from 886 to 334; a reduction by 62 per cent. At the same time, a process of decentralisation of the collective bargaining system has taken place since the early 1990s based on the needs...

  12. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE EFFECTIVENESS IN JOB SHOP ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    OMAR CASTRILLON; WILLIAM SARACHE; JAIME GIRALDO

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo, es definir una nueva metodología la cual permita comparar la efectividad de algunas de las principales técnicas de inteligencia artificial (aleatorias, búsqueda tabú, minería de datos, algoritmos evolutivos). Esta metodología es aplicada en los procesos de secuenciación de la producción en ambientes job shop, en un problema con N pedidos y M máquinas, donde cada uno de los pedidos debe pasar por todas las máquinas sin importar el orden. Estas técnicas son med...

  13. Mode choice and shopping mall parking

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Fulya Yüksel; Ersoy, Fulya Yuksel

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I analyze individuals' mode choice decisions and shopping mall's parking space pricing behavior. Individuals have three choices: first they may come to the mall by car in which case they have to park, second they may come by public transportation, or they do not visit the mall and go for their outside option. The mall determines the price of the good and the parking fee after the government sets public transportation fare. I find that the equilibrium parking fees are always le...

  14. Verification Tools Secure Online Shopping, Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Just like rover or rocket technology sent into space, the software that controls these technologies must be extensively tested to ensure reliability and effectiveness. Ames Research Center invented the open-source Java Pathfinder (JPF) toolset for the deep testing of Java-based programs. Fujitsu Labs of America Inc., based in Sunnyvale, California, improved the capabilities of the JPF Symbolic Pathfinder tool, establishing the tool as a means of thoroughly testing the functionality and security of Web-based Java applications such as those used for Internet shopping and banking.

  15. Shopping Center Financing: Pricing Loan Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chinloy; James Musumeci

    1994-01-01

    The financing structure of a shopping center is decomposed into an income security and two put options. These put options are respectively held by the borrower against the lender for default, and by the lender against an insurer or reinsurer. The prices of the put option depend on the loan-to-value ration of the loan and on the risk of the investment. The interest rate charged on the loan is the sum of four components: a riskless rate, lender production costs, and the net price of the put opt...

  16. A New Look for the Shopping Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    STRUCTO-FAB, a product of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, is a lightweight but extremely durable tent-like material made of Fiberglas coated with Teflon. It transmits daylight with a reduced need for artificial lighting. It is an outgrowth of a material formulated by NASA in 1967 as a new space suit fabric. Owens-Corning and DuPont provided the original material, which was the basis for Structo-Fab, a permanent architectural fabric used for shopping malls, sports stadiums, etc.

  17. Building 9401-2 Plating Shop Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a plan for implementing surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities to ensure that Building 9401-2 Plating Shop is maintained in a cost effective and environmentally secure configuration until subsequent closure during the final disposition phase of decommissioning. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) G430.1A-2, Surveillance and Maintenance During Facility Disposition (1997), was used as guidance in the development of this plan. The S and M Plan incorporates DOE O 430.1A, Life Cycle Asset Management (LCAM) (1998a) direction to provide for conducting surveillance and maintenance activities required to maintain the facility and remaining hazardous and radioactive materials, wastes, and contamination in a stable and known condition pending facility disposition. Recommendations in the S and M plan have been made that may not be requirement-based but would reduce the cost and frequency of surveillance and maintenance activities. During the course of S and M activities, the facility's condition may change so as to present an immediate or developing hazard or unsatisfactory condition. Corrective action should be coordinated with the appropriate support organizations using the requirements and guidance stated in procedure Y10-202, Rev. 1, Integrated Safety Management Program, (Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), 1998a) implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the methodology of the Nuclear Operations Conduct of Operations Manual (LMES, 1999) for the Depleted Uranium Operations (DUO) organization. The key S and M objectives applicable to the Plating Shop are to: Ensure adequate containment of remaining residual material in exhaust stacks and outside process piping, stored chemicals awaiting offsite shipment, and items located in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA); Provide access control into the facility and physical safety to S and M personnel; Maintain the facility in a manner that will protect the public, the environment, and the S

  18. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  19. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  20. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable

  1. The planned Shopping Center as a generator of a new develpmente city district: the example of Catuaí Shopping Center in Londrina O Shopping Center planejado, como gerador de um novo (sub centro de desenvolvimento: o exemplo do Catuaí Shopping Center de Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Fava Grassiotto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dejan Sudjic (1999 considers shopping centers, modern airports and museums, as important reference marks of new urban landscape, “public” spaces, keys to contemporary cities definition. They are mega complexes that generate economic competition between cities, establishing their influence areas. Enterprises which concentrate populations, arise cultural interests that, independently of scale and without causing excessive development in cities, afford them structure, form and identity. This paper briefly characterizes the multifunctionality and the existing shopping center typologies, concentrating afterwards on the history of Catuaí Shopping Center and the dynamics of its evolutionary process. Matters such as the expansion of the surrounding and real property valorization, its power to attract investments and new activities, besides its performance as land use modifier, are mentioned. Finally, it is highlighted the role of the shopping center as an instrument of neighborhood progress, social transformation, and changing of behavior enabling, during its evolutionary process, the development of a characteristic city district and a new centrality.Dejan Sudjic (1999 considera os shopping centers, ao lado dos modernos aeroportos e museus, como importantes marcos de referência da nova paisagem urbana, espaços “públicos” chaves na definição da cidade contemporânea. São megacomplexos que geram competição econômica entre as cidades, estabelecendo suas áreas de influência. Empreendimentos concentradores de população, despertam interesses culturais, que independentemente da escala e sem causar o intenso crescimento das cidades, lhes dão estrutura, forma e identidade. Este texto, após uma breve caracterização da multifuncionalidade e das tipologias de shopping centers existentes, concentra-se na história do Catuaí Shopping Center de Londrina, e a dinâmica de seu processo evolutivo. Questões como: a expansão e valoriza

  2. Evaluation of the Kids' Shop Smart tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon C; Kalina, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the Kids' Shop Smart Tour program on participants' attitudes toward trying new foods and eating a variety of foods, as well as their recognition of Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Data were collected from parents/caregivers, students in kindergarten to grade 3, and teachers; questionnaires, quizzes, and interviews were used. Questionnaires were sent home with 947 students; 52% of parents/caregivers returned completed questionnaires. Many parents/caregivers reported that their children tried and liked unfamiliar foods on the tour. No significant difference was detected in children's willingness to try new foods or consumption of a greater variety of food before and after the tour. Quiz score differences between participants and a comparison group were not statistically significant. Of the 38 teachers who completed interviews, 97% reported that the program helped them meet curriculum requirements; 95% would recommend the resource to other teachers. Quantitative findings do not indicate that the program increases children's willingness to try new foods or eat a greater variety of food. However, qualitative data revealed that some parents observed their children trying new foods more willingly and demonstrating greater knowledge of and interest in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Further research with validated measurement tools is recommended to establish the effectiveness of the Kids' Shop Smart Tour.

  3. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  4. Production Scheduling in Complex Job Shops from an Industrie 4.0 Perspective: A Review and Challenges in the Semiconductor Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waschneck, Bernd; Bauernhansl, Thomas; Altenmüller, Thomas; Kyek, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    On the one hand, Industrie 4.0 has recently emerged as the keyword for increasing productivity in the 21st century. On the other hand, production scheduling in a Complex Job Shop (CJS) environment, such as wafer fabrication facilities, has drawn interest of researchers dating back to the 1950s [65, 18]. Although both research areas overlap, there seems to be very little interchange of ideas. This review presents and assesses production scheduling techniques in complex job shops from an Indust...

  5. An Approach to Teaching Young Children about "The Shop."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Ingrid

    An attempt was made to increase Swedish preschool children's understanding of aspects of commercial enterprise, particularly those of "the shop," by introducing a specific didactic approach to preschool education. Of particular interest were two aspects of the shop: advertising and the principle of trade. A total of 77 children up to 7 years of…

  6. Attitude of students towards online shopping of agricultural products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the attitude of students towards online shopping in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun state. One hundred and thirty-five respondents were sampled using multistage and simple random sampling procedures. Variables measured included their attitude towards online shopping, the factors that affect ...

  7. E-shopping in the Netherlands: does geography matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Rietbergen, T. van; Dijst, M.J.; Oort, F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Why consumers shop via the Internet, is a frequently asked question. As yet, the impact of spatial variables on e-shopping has received little attention. In this paper we report our investigation of the spatial distribution of Internet users and online buyers in the Netherlands for the time period

  8. The architectural foundations for agent-based shop floor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    simulation and cell controlenabling technologies. In order to continuethis research effortnew concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated.This paper reviews the multi-agent concept aimed at investigatingits potential use in shop floor control systems. The paper willalso include a survey...

  9. Smart Shopping Carts: How Real-Time Feedback Influences Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  10. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  11. Health Risk Screening Practices of Pharmacy and Chemist Shops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Fifty two pharmacy and chemist shops were selected using simple random number sampling technique from 120 registered pharmacy and chemist shops in Jos Metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire, examining the screening practice of the sales persons was interviewer administered to all the sales ...

  12. Metalworking Lathe; Machine Shop Work--Intermediate: 9555.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to assist the instructor to plan systematically and to present meaningful lessons to provide the training needed by the machine shop student. This is the third course of instruction in a series of machine shop work courses. The six blocks of instruction contained in this outline are designed to…

  13. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  14. FME Carpentry Shop Keeps Facility in Good Repair | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Peggy Pearl, Contributing Writer Did you know that what most people call the Carpentry Shop at Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) is actually made up of the three crafts, woodcrafting, painting, and locksmithing?  On any given day, throughout the Frederick National Laboratory campus, you may find shop staff utilizing an assortment of tools and a wide range of

  15. THE LIFE CYCLE OF SHOPPING CENTERS AND POSSIBLE REVITALIZATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept of shopping center life cycle. The concept is considered a possible explanation for the death of certain types of shopping centers and birth of others. Of course that there are also other theories that explains this evolut

  16. Print and Internet Catalog Shopping: Assessing Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.; Jones, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings of an empirical study that compared individuals' attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet catalogs suggest that individuals perceived differences between the two catalog media on the shopping factors of reliability, tangibility, and consumer risk. Product value, pre-order information, post-selection information, shopping…

  17. Constraint-based job shop scheduling with ILOG SCHEDULER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, W.P.M.; Le Pape, C.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce constraint-based scheduling and discuss its main principles. An approximation algorithm based on tree search is developed for the job shop scheduling problem using ILOG SCHEDULER. A new way of calculating lower bounds on the makespan of the job shop scheduling problem is presented and

  18. Future Shop: A Model Career Placement & Transition Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Deborah L.; And Others

    During 1988-89, the Collin County Community College District (CCCCD) conducted a project to develop, implement, and evaluate a model career laboratory called a "Future Shop." The laboratory was designed to let users explore diverse career options, job placement opportunities, and transfer resources. The Future Shop lab had three major components:…

  19. FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING WITH MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND TIME LAGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEZEBOS, J; GAALMAN, GJC; GUPTA, JND

    A scheduling system is proposed and developed for a special type of flow shop. Ln this flow shop there is one machine at each stage. A job may require multiple operations at each stage. The first operation of a job on stage j cannot start until the last operation of the job on stage j - 1 has

  20. Improving Interaction between NGO's, Science Shops and Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the results from the INTERACTS research project: Improving Interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops: Experiences and Expectations, running 2002-2004......An overview of the results from the INTERACTS research project: Improving Interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops: Experiences and Expectations, running 2002-2004...

  1. Workload control in job shops, grasping the tap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, Martin Jaap

    2004-01-01

    The term job shops is used to indicate companies that produce customer-specific components in small batches. Jobs (production orders) in a job shop are characterised by a large variety of routings and operation processing times. This variety, combined with irregular order arrivals, generally leads

  2. The Impact of Price Disclosure on Dynamic Shopping Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); V.Y. Golounov (Vladislav); J. Prabhu (Jaideep)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA potentially powerful way to assist consumers in making dynamic shopping decisions is to disclose price information to them before they shop, for example by posting prices on the Internet. This paper addresses the differential impact of disclosing either only current, or both current

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of expatriates’ shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, G.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Janssen, I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Explored is how shopping centre attributes can be adapted to culture-related shopping behaviour of expatriates. While awareness of consumer ethnicity and effectiveness of culture-based market segmentation are on-going and relevant topics in retailing, there is only limited information available on

  4. Authorizer Shopping: Lessons from Experience and Ideas for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boast, Lyria; Ellison, Shonaka; Hassel, Bryan C.; Conlan, Sean; Rausch, M. Karega

    2016-01-01

    As charter school authorizers and states have increased performance expectations and grown less hesitant to close failing schools, "authorizer shopping" has emerged as a growing threat to overall charter school quality. Authorizer shopping happens when a charter school chooses or changes its authorizer specifically to avoid…

  5. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  6. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what

  7. Tenant Placement Strategies within Multi-Level Large-Scale Shopping Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Shun-Te Yuo; Colin Lizieri

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that tenant placement strategies for large-scale multi-unit shopping centers differ depending on the number of floor levels. Two core strategies are identified: dispersion and departmentalization. There exists a trade-off between three income effects: basic footfall effects, spillover effects, and an effective floor area effect, which varies by the number of floor levels. Departmentalization is favored for centers with more than four floors. Greater spatial complexity also p...

  8. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Huis, J.R. van; Dijk, J.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature computation and pickpocket recognition. This is challenging because the environment is crowded, people move freely through areas which cannot be covered by a single camera, because the actual snat...

  9. Efficiency measurement of Swiss shopping centers using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bay

    2015-01-01

    DEA as an Operations Research based linear programming approach for evaluating the relative performance of homogenous Decision Making Units (DMUs) is applied to Swiss shopping centers. Output-to-input efficiency ratios – as for example the sales productivity – incorporate one output (sales) and one input (sales area). Peer group comparisons (efficiency rankings) are difficult if multiple inputs and / or multiple outputs of different kind of data (quantitative, qualitative, categorical etc.) o...

  10. MATERIALISTIC VALUES, SHOPPING, AND LIFE SATISFACTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIU FRUNZARU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that generally materialists are less happy than those lower in materialism. Several studies confirm that people who experience a lower level of life satisfaction are more interested in shopping; therefore materialism determines directly and indirectly (mediated by life satisfaction the desire of going shopping. There are only few studies that deal with this topic within Romanian consumers. The conceptual model proposed here was tested on a convenience sample of 390 Romanians. Using structural equation modelling, our findings confirm the hypothetical model only partially. Materialism leads to life dissatisfaction and shopping, but life dissatisfaction does not increase shopping. To the contrary, there is a positive relationship between life satisfaction and the desire for shopping. One possible explanation is that Romanians perceive materialism as a positive attitude. Anyway, nuances should be considered regarding the role of money and possession in bringing life satisfaction

  11. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  12. Nurses' shop stewards and their collaboration with management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bild, Tage; Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Lassen, Morten Staun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This study investigates the collaboration between Danish nurses' shop stewards and workplace management. The aim of the study is to track changes in workplace climate after a major structural reform of the health sector. Design/methodology/approach - The data source for the study...... is a comprehensive survey among union representatives in the health and care sectors. Findings - Generally, and not surprisingly, shops stewards maintain closer relations and a higher degree of loyalty to the nearest managers rather than management at higher levels in the hierarchy. It can also be demonstrated...... that more experienced shop stewards, those who have been employed in this position and in the workplace for the longest terms have more affirmative relations to management than less experienced shop stewards with shorter tenure. Those shop stewards who spend much time on the entitled duties are rewarded...

  13. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), Staphylococcus aureus , and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  14. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. Objective: To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Methods: Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. Results: The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6 mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6 mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  15. Impact of e-shopping on shopping-related travel behaviour: Analyses of the Netherlands Mobility Panel data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn-Lanser, S.; Olde Kalter, Marie-José José Theresia; Schaap, Nina

    2015-01-01

    From the moment e-shopping emerged, there are speculations about the impact that would have on personal mobility. Questions about the impact of e-shopping on mobility increase due to media coverage on the sharp increase in turnover of Internet purchases and the increasing number of consumers that

  16. An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

  17. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Landsmeer, S.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Antwerpen, G. van; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time

  18. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  19. The Virtual Shopping Experience: using virtual presence to motivate online shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Chin; Paula Swatman; Paula Swatman

    2005-01-01

    Online shopping has thus far tended to be a niche business – highly successful in selling digital products such as shares, software and, increasingly, music and films, it has been less successful in persuading the purchasers of ‘traditional’ goods such as cars, clothes, toiletries, or household appliances to forsake their physical retailers and move into cyberspace. In this wide-ranging review paper we investigate the issue of the virtual experience – endeavouring to understand what is nee...

  20. Researchers' Night: science at the shops

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    On 25 September, as part of European Researchers’ Night, CERN and POPScience joined forces to welcome the public at the Balexert shopping centre in Geneva. The Bulletin presents its gallery of photographs from the exciting and educational event.   Science through comic strips, games, cinema and television: POPScience approaches scientific questions through popular culture, with great success! Around 500 children attended the sessions for schools at Balexert's multiplex cinema, and 600 spectators flocked to the public screenings.  Using the big screen, scientists, directors and authors were on hand to disentangle truth from untruths and science from science fiction. The guests, some of whom appeared in person and others via video link, included Jorge Cham, author of PhD Comics and the spin-off film; David Saltzberg, physicist at CMS and scientific consultant for the television series The Big Bang Theory; Kip Thorne, scientific consultant for the film Interstellar; Lawrence ...

  1. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  2. Events Marketing Model of Dubai Shopping Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities and places have become major destinations through taking the extra mile of creativity and offering a well-researched package of offerings through systematically planned events. One such leading example in the list of successful festivals that have earned a global reputation due to its uniqueness and creative event offerings is the Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF in the United Arab Emirates. This paper is a case study based description of the internal and external drivers involved in planning and implementing a global event successfully and has captured the various drivers through a structured framework. The analysis serves as a good addition to the existing literature on ‘Events Marketing’. 

  3. Methods in Mapping Usability of Malaysia’s Shopping Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani Aida Affina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With more than 200 number of shopping centre in Klang Valley itself, we the consumer actually have vast of choices. Instead of the machineries varieties from the lower class product till the posh one, each of those shopping centres eventually offers the typical product same as others. Those shopping centers are competing with each other and in great endeavour to attract more consumers, to visit and spend. As for the visitor, the typical product and boring ambience seems similar in all malls, and is looking something beyond the standard. Something that promising quality embedded in shopping centre which evokes the various emotions of the user along their journey in malls. This quality is known as usability. Usability; as defined generally is a global user’s experience response with product, environment, service or facilities. It is an assessment in extracting the qualities of shopping centre design. In mapping it, there are a few synthesizing methods to implement it. Therefore, this paper purposely to review the method that been used in usability of Malaysia’s shopping centre research with a few references on previous research done in usability assessment by predecessor’s scholars. With the accentuation on three elements that anchoring what the usability is: effectiveness, efficient and satisfaction, it is hope that this overview can lead other researcher in portraying its relationship with the quality and ‘user friendly’ design of shopping centre.

  4. Solving multi-objective job shop problem using nature-based algorithms: new Pareto approximation features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the job shop scheduling problem (JSP with minimizing two criteria simultaneously is considered. JSP is frequently used model in real world applications of combinatorial optimization. Multi-objective job shop problems (MOJSP were rarely studied. We implement and compare two multi-agent nature-based methods, namely ant colony optimization (ACO and genetic algorithm (GA for MOJSP. Both of those methods employ certain technique, taken from the multi-criteria decision analysis in order to establish ranking of solutions. ACO and GA differ in a method of keeping information about previously found solutions and their quality, which affects the course of the search. In result, new features of Pareto approximations provided by said algorithms are observed: aside from the slight superiority of the ACO method the Pareto frontier approximations provided by both methods are disjoint sets. Thus, both methods can be used to search mutually exclusive areas of the Pareto frontier.

  5. Recent Research Trends in Genetic Algorithm Based Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal Amjad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP. The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA have gained the most popularity. Keeping in view this aspect, this article presents a comprehensive literature review of the FJSSPs solved using the GA. The survey is further extended by the inclusion of the hybrid GA (hGA techniques used in the solution of the problem. This review will give readers an insight into use of certain parameters in their future research along with future research directions.

  6. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  7. Vape shops: who uses them and what do they do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Julie; Lewis, Sarah; Bains, Manpreet; Britton, John; Langley, Tessa

    2018-04-23

    'Vape shops' are a popular source for buying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and related products. The products that vape shops sell, their marketing techniques and the extent to which they provide information or encouragement to smokers to quit tobacco use, as well as the patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use of their customers are not well understood. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in vape shops in the East Midlands region of the United Kingdom, one with shop staff (n = 41), and one with customers (n = 197). The majority of customers (84%) currently used e-cigarettes. Among current vapers, 19% were dual users and 78% had quit smoking. Over half of vapers reported using a lower level of nicotine in their current e-liquid than when they started using e-cigarettes. There was a wide variety in products and price ranges between the shops. Many staff reported that customers ask for information about quitting smoking (90%). Less than half reported providing smoking cessation advice, although 76% of staff reported feeling confident about delivering cessation advice to customers who ask for it. Just under half of customers and shop staff said they thought it was appropriate to deliver formal in-store smoking cessation support. The majority of vape shop customers are vapers who have quit smoking. Shop staff play a central role in providing customers with product information, and many provide smoking cessation advice. Further research is needed to investigate the potential for smoking cessation interventions in vape shops, including the extent to which these would appeal to non-vapers.

  8. E-COMMERCE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS‘ ONLINE SHOPPING DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Baubonienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the benefits received by buyers making purchases online. Specifically, the research explores how online shopping can be affected by such factors as age, gender or occupation. Design/methodology/approach – The factors that affect the consumer online shopping have been disclosed through quantitative research by analysing data collected via a web‐based questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 183 Lithuanian consumers who were purchasing online. Findings –The empirical findings of this study indicate that the main factors influencing consumers to shop online are convenience, simplicity and better price. Analysis of socio-demographical characteristics such as gender has shown that men shop more often online because of the lower price. Respondents of the 25–35 year age group more often choose shopping online for such reasons as lack of time and a wide range of products. The most beneficial factor of shopping online was identified as a possibility to compare prices and buy at a lower price. Research limitations/implications – This study was done regarding only general conditions and the findings may not necessarily be applicable to a particular e-business. Therefore, in the future it would be highly encouraged to examine consumers’ attitudes towards specialized online shopping websites to look for differences by kind of products or services.Practical implications – Attributes identified by this study could help e-business developers to forme their

  9. Job shop scheduling with makespan objective: A heuristic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Job shop has been considered as one of the most challenging scheduling problems and there are literally tremendous efforts on reducing the complexity of solution procedure for solving job shop problem. This paper presents a heuristic method to minimize makespan for different jobs in a job shop scheduling. The proposed model is based on a constructive procedure to obtain good quality schedules, very quickly. The performance of the proposed model of this paper is examined on standard benchmarks from the literature in order to evaluate its performance. Computational results show that, despite its simplicity, the proposed heuristic is computationally efficient and practical approach for the problem.

  10. E-Commerce Performance. Shopping Cart Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela I. MUNTEAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an e-commerce performance framework is important to identify the key performance indicators that measure success and together provide the greatest context into the business perfor-mance. Shopping carts are an essential part of ecommerce, a minimal set of key performance indicators being the subject of our debate. The theoretical approach is sustained by a case study, an e-shop implemented using PHP and MySQL, for simulating main business processes within the considered performance framework. Our approach opens a perspective for future research using additional indicators in order to properly evaluate the global performance of any e-shop.

  11. SHOP: scaffold hopping by GRID-based similarity searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Rikke; Linusson, Anna; Zamora, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    A new GRID-based method for scaffold hopping (SHOP) is presented. In a fully automatic manner, scaffolds were identified in a database based on three types of 3D-descriptors. SHOP's ability to recover scaffolds was assessed and validated by searching a database spiked with fragments of known...... scaffolds were in the 31 top-ranked scaffolds. SHOP also identified new scaffolds with substantially different chemotypes from the queries. Docking analysis indicated that the new scaffolds would have similar binding modes to those of the respective query scaffolds observed in X-ray structures...

  12. Online Infrastructure in Supply Chain for Hardware Shops

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen , Karl ,

    2014-01-01

    Part 4: Private Services; International audience; This article describes how the Scandinavian network communication system DATEX was used to build an online infrastructure in a retail chain of privately owned hardware shops and Do-It-Yourself (DIY) centers. The solution gave the staff in the shops the possibility to use EDP as early as in 1983. The Internet did not exist at the time. EDP was not part of the daily work in the shop and was for most employees something unknown that took place at...

  13. NON-FUNCTIONAL SHOPPING MOTIVES AMONG IRANIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the non functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers. In addition, the effects of marital status, gender, age and residential region as an indicator for social class on the non-functional shopping motives are investigated. This paper uses a self-reported and 15 items questionnaire. The analysis is done based on 363 returned and usable questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance is applied for this study. MANOVA results show that marital status, gender, age and region have different significant effects on the non-functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers.

  14. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Hot spots are areas where concentrations of one or more air toxics--organic vapors or particulate matter (PM)--are expected to be elevated. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA*) screening values for air toxics were used in our definition of hot spots. According to the EPA, a screening value "is used to indicate a concentration of a chemical in the air to which a person could be continually exposed for a lifetime ... and which would be unlikely to result in a deleterious effect (either cancer or noncancer health effects)" (U.S. EPA 2006). Our characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; namely 18 hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], acetone, and aldehydes) was added onto our ongoing National Cancer Institute-funded study of lung cancer and particulate pollutant concentrations (PM with an aerodynamic diameter highways. In Phase 1 of our study, 15 truck terminals across the United States were each visited for five consecutive days. During these site visits, sorbent tubes were used to collect 12-hour integrated samples of hydrocarbons and aldehydes from upwind and downwind fence-line locations as well as inside truck cabs. Meteorologic data and extensive site information were collected with each sample. In Phase 2, repeat visits to six terminals were conducted to test the stability of concentrations across time and judge the representativeness of our previous measurements. During the repeat site visits, the sampling procedure was expanded to include real-time sampling for total hydrocarbon (HC) and PM2.5 at the terminal upwind and downwind sites and inside the truck cabs, two additional monitors in the yard for four-quadrant sampling to better characterize the influence of wind, and indoor sampling in the loading dock and mechanic shop work areas. Mean and median concentrations of VOCs across the sampling locations in and around the truck terminals showed significant variability in the upwind concentrations as well as in the intensity of

  15. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan; Dhandayudham, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science - Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA.

  16. PERSEPSI MANFAAT DAN RISIKO DALAM PERILAKU PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN ONLINE SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Noor Yuliati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available  This study was to analyze lifestyle, perceived risks, perceived benefits, online searching, evaluation of information, and consumer purchasing behavior in online shop. Online shop election conducted purposively, that was facebook, kaskus, and online shop community. The study included 145 consumers. Data analysis was performed by descriptive, different test, and regression test. The results showed that perceived risks, evaluation of information, and online shopping expenditure among groups that worked and didn’t work differ significantly. Consumers had lifestyle in moderate category, perceived risk in risk category, neutral perceived benefits, and low online searching. Perceived benefits was influenced by gender, age, occupation, income, and lifestyle, while the perceived risks was influenced by work and lifestyle. Online search influenced by gender, while evaluation of information was influenced by gender, perceived benefits, and perceived risks. Fashion product buying behavior was influenced by gender, age, occupation, lifestyle, perceived benefits, online searching, and evaluation of information.

  17. Open|SpeedShop Graphical User Interface Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to create a new graphical user interface (GUI) for an existing parallel application performance and profiling tool, Open|SpeedShop. The current GUI has...

  18. Teaching E-Commerce by Shopping Only Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Catherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Bruce D. Weinberg, an assistant professor of marketing at Boston University (Massachusetts), who is doing all his shopping via the Internet to demonstrate to students what works and what fails when selling in cyberspace. (DB)

  19. Environmental Assessment. Moanalua Shopping Center Redevelopment Oahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pingree, Ryan; Halperin, William

    2004-01-01

    The Department of the Navy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) and determined that an Environmental Impact Statement is not required for the redevelopment of the Moanalua Shopping Center (MSC) Oahu Hawaii...

  20. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  1. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.

  2. EFFECT OF V C NCY ON SHOPPING CENTRES' INVESTMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... The paper examined the effect of vacancy rate on the rental returns of shopping centres ... the risk of rents not increasing appreciably ... relationship between vacancy rates and rent ... costs, heterogeneity of the housing stock,.

  3. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale on 13 and 14 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? As every year, we will be running a CERN Shop Stand in the Main Building, ground floor, on Wednesday 13 and on Thursday 14 December from 10.30 to 16.00. Some new articles will be on sale and special reductions are given for some articles. Come and visit the CERN Shop Stand and find your Christmas presents. DSU-CO group

  4. Social Media, Online Shopping Activities and Perceived Risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, M.; Firend, A.R

    2017-01-01

    The Internet shopping experience offers dissimilar ways of off-online communications with communication differences tools that need a better decision of their effect on customer communications. Social networking sites is also fast becoming the platform for interaction, attracting new potential customers and has become the trend for companies to engage with their consumers online. The main objective of this research is to examine Malaysia customer’s risk perception toward online shopping via s...

  5. A Shopping Mall Multiagent System: Ambient Intelligence in Practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Pérez, Javier; González Arrieta, Angélica; de Luis Reboredo, Ana; Saavedra, A.; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a multiagent model that facilitates aspects of shopping mall management, as well as increasing the quality of leisure facilities and shopping on offer. The work presented focuses on the use of a multi agent architecture, based on the use of deliberative agents that incorporates casebased planning. The architecture considers a dynamic framework that facilitates user’s interactions. The architecture incorporates agents whose aim is to acquire knowledge and adapt themselves t...

  6. ShopGirls Shine in Eco-Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Shante

    2011-01-01

    The ShopGirls of Granite Falls (WA) High School are the first-ever all-female team to successfully design, build, and race a prototype diesel car in the Shell Eco-marathon. The team took first place in the diesel fuel-efficiency category with a vehicle that achieved 470 miles per gallon! The idea for the ShopGirls came when Vervia Gabriel, career…

  7. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    , whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... shopping experiences, even to entertain them. Because there is evidence suggesting even satisfied customers sometimes switch brands and retailers due to boredom, it is important for retailers to continuously engage consumers and stir interest in a given store. Satisfying customers again and again...

  8. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  9. LinkShop v.1.0.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-15

    LinkShop is a software tool for applying the method of Linkography to the analysis time-sequence data. LinkShop provides command line, web, and application programming interfaces (API) for input and processing of time-sequence data, abstraction models, and ontologies. The software creates graph representations of the abstraction model, ontology, and derived linkograph. Finally, the tool allows the user to perform statistical measurements of the linkograph and refine the ontology through direct manipulation of the linkograph.

  10. Flow shop scheduling decisions through Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow-shop scheduling problem (FSP has been widely studied in the literature and having a very active research area. Over the last few decades, a number of heuristic/meta-heuristic solution techniques have been developed. Some of these techniques offer excellent effectiveness and efficiency at the expense of substantial implementation efforts and being extremely complicated. This paper brings out the application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method known as techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS using different weighting schemes in flow-shop environment. The objective function is identification of a job sequence which in turn would have minimum makespan (total job completion time. The application of the proposed method to flow shop scheduling is presented and explained with a numerical example. The results of the proposed TOPSIS based technique of FSP are also compared on the basis of some benchmark problems and found compatible with the results obtained from other standard procedures.

  11. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  12. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE EFFECTIVENESS IN JOB SHOP ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR CASTRILLON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo, es definir una nueva metodología la cual permita comparar la efectividad de algunas de las principales técnicas de inteligencia artificial (aleatorias, búsqueda tabú, minería de datos, algoritmos evolutivos. Esta metodología es aplicada en los procesos de secuenciación de la producción en ambientes job shop, en un problema con N pedidos y M máquinas, donde cada uno de los pedidos debe pasar por todas las máquinas sin importar el orden. Estas técnicas son medidas en las variables tiempo total de proceso, tiempo total muerto y porcentaje de utilización de las máquinas. Inicialmente, una revisión teórica fue realizada, esta muestra la utilidad y efectividad de la inteligencia artificial en los procesos de secuenciación de la producción. Posteriormente y con base en la experimentación planteada, los resultados obtenidos, muestran que estas técnicas presentan una efectividad superior al 95%, con un intervalo de confiabilidad del 99.5% medido en las variables objeto de estudio.

  13. Assessing product image quality for online shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

    2012-01-01

    Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

  14. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  15. How to deal with the annoying Hot Spots in FEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenninggaard, Jon

    2017-01-01

    How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?......How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?...

  16. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  17. Pengaruh Shopping Orientation, Online Trust Dan Prior Online Purchase Experience Terhadap Online Purchase Intention (Studi Pada Online Shop Hijabi House)

    OpenAIRE

    Azifah, Nurul; Dewi, Citra Kusuma

    2016-01-01

    Salah satu fashion yang semakin berkembang di kalangan masyarakat Indonesia khususnya wanita muslimah adalah jilbab. Hijabi House merupakan salah satu online shop yang menawarkan jilbab hasil produksinya melalui media sosial Instagram. Hasil wawancara awal, Hijabi House dinilai baik namun masih ada keluhan dari para followers berkaitan shopping orientation, online trust, dan prior online purchase experience. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketiga variabel tersebut terhadap...

  18. A causal model to evaluate the influence of consumer's perceptions of online shopping on their shopping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, Masami; Okano, Masao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factors influencing consumers' perception of online shopping and developed a causal model that explains how this perception affects their online-shopping behavior. We administered a questionnaire survey to 297 college students. By utilizing the answers to 13 questions pertaining to consumer perceptions, we conducted a factor analysis that identified the following three factors: "convenience", "anxiety regarding security" and "poor navigation". On the basis of this resu...

  19. Examining characteristics, knowledge and regulatory practices of specialized drug shops in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafula Francis N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialized drug shops such as pharmacies and drug shops are increasingly becoming important sources of treatment. However, knowledge on their regulatory performance is scarce. We set out to systematically review literature on the characteristics, knowledge and practices of specialized drug shops in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, WEB of Science, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO and websites for organizations that support medicine policies and usage. We also conducted open searches using Google Scholar, and searched manually through references of retrieved articles. Our search included studies of all designs that described characteristics, knowledge and practices of specialized drug shops. Information was abstracted on authors, publication year, country and location, study design, sample size, outcomes investigated, and primary findings using a uniform checklist. Finally, we conducted a structured narrative synthesis of the main findings. Results We obtained 61 studies, mostly from Eastern Africa, majority of which were conducted between 2006 and 2011. Outcome measures were heterogeneous and included knowledge, characteristics, and dispensing and regulatory practices. Shop location and client demand were found to strongly influence dispensing practices. Whereas shops located in urban and affluent areas were more likely to provide correct treatments, those in rural areas provided credit facilities more readily. However, the latter also charged higher prices for medicines. A vast majority of shops simply sold whatever medicines clients requested, with little history taking and counseling. Most shops also stocked popular medicines at the expense of policy recommended treatments. Treatment policies were poorly communicated overall, which partly explained why staff had poor knowledge on key aspects of treatment such as medicine dosage and side effects. Overall, very little is known on the link between regulatory

  20. Examining characteristics, knowledge and regulatory practices of specialized drug shops in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Francis N; Miriti, Eric M; Goodman, Catherine A

    2012-07-27

    Specialized drug shops such as pharmacies and drug shops are increasingly becoming important sources of treatment. However, knowledge on their regulatory performance is scarce. We set out to systematically review literature on the characteristics, knowledge and practices of specialized drug shops in Sub-Saharan Africa. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, WEB of Science, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO and websites for organizations that support medicine policies and usage. We also conducted open searches using Google Scholar, and searched manually through references of retrieved articles. Our search included studies of all designs that described characteristics, knowledge and practices of specialized drug shops. Information was abstracted on authors, publication year, country and location, study design, sample size, outcomes investigated, and primary findings using a uniform checklist. Finally, we conducted a structured narrative synthesis of the main findings. We obtained 61 studies, mostly from Eastern Africa, majority of which were conducted between 2006 and 2011. Outcome measures were heterogeneous and included knowledge, characteristics, and dispensing and regulatory practices. Shop location and client demand were found to strongly influence dispensing practices. Whereas shops located in urban and affluent areas were more likely to provide correct treatments, those in rural areas provided credit facilities more readily. However, the latter also charged higher prices for medicines. A vast majority of shops simply sold whatever medicines clients requested, with little history taking and counseling. Most shops also stocked popular medicines at the expense of policy recommended treatments. Treatment policies were poorly communicated overall, which partly explained why staff had poor knowledge on key aspects of treatment such as medicine dosage and side effects. Overall, very little is known on the link between regulatory enforcement and practices of specialized drug shops

  1. [Twisting and turning; the development of the Dutch science shops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lursen, M; Mulder, H; Lieshout, M

    2000-01-01

    The concept of science shops (Wetenschapswinkels) originates from the Netherlands. Science shops were based on the idea that universities had to play a more prominent role in the solution of social problems - an outcome of the discussion, initiated by students, on the democratisation of universities in the early 1970s. Starting as voluntary student organisations supported by individual staff members from the universities, they were devoted to give oppressed minority groups and the financially weak access to scientific research. Slowly, acknowledgement came. Science shops began to receive financial support from university boards. Support also came from the Dutch government. By now science shops have professionalized and most of them are well embedded in their universities. Many developments within society and the universities influenced the work and structure of the science shops. Positive developments were professionalization, growth, becoming embedded, and the introduction of new research themes. There were also negative developments, such as budget cuts and the fact that 'service to society' ceased to be a government objective for the universities. These led to recurring struggles for survival, which were not always won. Interest in the science shop concept has grown in other countries over the last years. In the 1980s, the system spread within Western Europe. Similar activities, based on the Dutch model, have started in North America and Eastern Europe in the 1990s. The activities on the international level led to an E.U. financial project to prepare an international network of science shops, which commenced in 1999. With information exchange and international cooperation as its major goals, the network will create new opportunties for the future.

  2. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  3. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  4. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  5. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  6. Shopping versus Nature? An Exploratory Study of Everyday Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tony P; Fischer, Anke; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing volume of empirical research shows that being in nature is important for human wellbeing, the definition of what constitutes an 'experience in nature,' and how this is different from other types of experiences, is very often left implied. In this paper we contrast everyday experiences involving nature with a category of everyday experience in which most people regularly partake. We present an exploratory study in which people ( N = 357) were explicitly asked to describe a memory they had of an everyday 'experience which involved nature,' as well as an everyday 'experience which involved shopping.' The open-ended responses to these questions were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Nature experiences were generally found to be more positive than shopping experiences, and they were more likely to be rated as 'peaceful' and 'active' compared to shopping experiences. Follow-up analyses indicate a significant interaction between experience category (nature or shopping), and the relationship between connectedness to nature and the amount of pleasure associated with that experience: The more strongly connected to nature a respondent was, the larger the disparity between the pleasantness of the shopping experience and that of the experience in nature tended to be.

  7. Shopping versus Nature? An Exploratory Study of Everyday Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony P. Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing volume of empirical research shows that being in nature is important for human wellbeing, the definition of what constitutes an ‘experience in nature,’ and how this is different from other types of experiences, is very often left implied. In this paper we contrast everyday experiences involving nature with a category of everyday experience in which most people regularly partake. We present an exploratory study in which people (N = 357 were explicitly asked to describe a memory they had of an everyday ‘experience which involved nature,’ as well as an everyday ‘experience which involved shopping.’ The open-ended responses to these questions were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Nature experiences were generally found to be more positive than shopping experiences, and they were more likely to be rated as ‘peaceful’ and ‘active’ compared to shopping experiences. Follow-up analyses indicate a significant interaction between experience category (nature or shopping, and the relationship between connectedness to nature and the amount of pleasure associated with that experience: The more strongly connected to nature a respondent was, the larger the disparity between the pleasantness of the shopping experience and that of the experience in nature tended to be.

  8. Hot Ductility Behavior of a Peritectic Steel during Continuous Casting

    OpenAIRE

    Arıkan, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Hot ductility properties of a peritectic steel for welded gas cylinders during continuous casting were studied by performing hot tensile tests at certain temperatures ranging from 1200 to 700 °C for some cooling rates by using Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical test and simulation machine in this study. The effects of cooling rate and strain rate on hot ductility were investigated and continuous casting process map (time-temperature-ductility) were plotted for this material. Reduction of area ...

  9. An Empirical Study Of Using New Technology like NFC, AI, RFID etc. to be implemented in shopping malls in ajmer : To Ease Out The Customer Shopping Experience Like Queue Less And Cashless Payment Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Dimple,; Jyoti Kushwah; Manisha Tak; Neeharika singh; Dr. Ajay Singh Jethoo; Vijay Laxmi Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    In today’s world due to rapid development of new shopping trend. The retailers launches new technologies for new shopping trend. In today scenario every people are busy. When we are talking about shopping from stores, shopping malls etc., the customers waiting in queue for long time for payment process. This is a problematic conditions for customers. The traditional shopping trend consuming more time of customers during shopping. To remove this problem many retailers are focussing that how to...

  10. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF CONSUMERS TRUST TO ONLINE SHOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dubovyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the conceptual model of the major factors that influence consumers trust in online shop: reliability of online store, reliable information system for making purchases online, factors of ethic interactiveness (security, third-party certification, internet-marketing communications of online-shop and other factors – that is divided enterprises of trade and consumers (demographic variables, psychological perception of internet-marketing communications, experience of purchase of commodities are in the Internet. The degree of individual customer trust propensity which reflects the personality traits, culture and previous experience. An implement signs of consumer confidence due to site elements online shop – graphic design, structured design, design of content, design harmonized with perception of target audience.

  12. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  13. Consumer Preferences Expressed via Shopping in Alternative Food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Miškolci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increasing consumer interest in shopping in alternative food chains can be observed also in the Czech Republic. For the successful development of alternative food networks, it is important to understand what motivates consumers to shop there. This paper is aimed to define and discuss the key aspects of the preference determinants of AFN shoppers. The empirical analysis was conducted on 333 shoppers at two alternative food chains in Brno, Czech Republic. The consumer survey was designed to examine cognitive, normative and affective determinants of preference for purchased food. First findings confirm, that by the shopping at alternative food chains consumers demonstrate preferences not only for fresh and tasty food, but also their normative position of willingness to support local production and community.

  14. Interaction between NGOs and science through science shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    and institutions have more resources themselves and easier access to and influence on the research facilities than NGO’s like consumer organisations, environmental organisations, trade unions, social organisations etc. Science shops are organisations that offer NGO’s free or very low-cost access to scientific...... knowledge and research in order to help them achieve social and environmental improvement. Originally developed at Dutch universities during the 1970’s, science shops now also exist in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Romania and the U.K., as well as in a number of non-European countries including Australia......, Canada, Malaysia, South Korea and the USA. Some science shops are independent not-for-profit research centres and some are affiliated to a university acting as the intermediary between NGO’s and university researchers, teachers and students, who conduct research in response. Most university based science...

  15. Relationships among Shopping Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility of Shopping Centers and Consumer Satisfaction: Case from Novi Sad (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Blešić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration satisfied customer as necessary for business maintenance, companies are trying to discover determinants which have the biggest influence on their consumer satisfaction. Here are presented two factors that have influence on consumer satisfaction in shopping centers: quality of shopping and corporate social responsibility. In this research, each of these factors had six elements. The results of the regression analysis are that “Value for money in stores” (beta=0.387, p=0.000 has the greatest impact on satisfaction when shopping quality performance is concerned, and that “Retailer support for (national/local cultural and sport events“ (beta=0.333, p<0.001 has the greatest impact on satisfaction in the case of CSR performance. Further analysis showed the difference in consumer perception of corporate social responsibility, depending on their occupation and level of education. It is also important to mention that consumers with environment and empathic concern have higher scores perception of CSR. However, there is not statistically important difference in consumer perception of shopping quality in shopping centers

  16. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  17. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  18. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  19. Environmental assessment for the Plating Shop Replacement, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The existing of Y-12 Plant Plating Shop provides vital support functions for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs operations. In addition to weapon component plating, the facility performs other plating services to support existing operations for the Y-12 Plant, other DOE facilities, and other federal agencies. In addition, the facility would also provide essential deplating services for weapons reclamation and teardown. The existing Y-12 Plant Plating Shop is presently located in a structure which is rapidly deteriorating and obsolete. The existing building structure was originally designed to house a steam plant, not chemical plating operations. As such, vapors from plating operations have deteriorated the structure to a point where a new facility is needed for continued safe operations. The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action was anticipated to be minimal and would affect no environmentally sensitive areas. Some short-term construction- and demolition-related effects would occur in an already highly industrialized setting. These include temporarily disturbing 72,000 square feet of land for the new plating shop and related site preparation activities, constructing a permanent building on part of the area, and using 80 construction personnel over a period of 18 months for site preparation and construction. Demolition effects vary depending on the environmentally suitable option selected, but they could involve as much as 262 cubic yards of concrete rubble and approximately 1600 cubic yards of soil disposed as waste. Either 1600 cubic yards of fresh soil or 1850 yards of clay and fresh soil could be required. Soil erosion would be minimal. Approximately 20 construction personnel would be involved for 12 months in demolition activities

  20. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale on 15 and 16 December 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU-CO Group

    2005-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? As every year, we will be running a CERN Shop Stand in the Main Building, ground floor, on Thursday 15 and on Friday 16 December from 10.30 to 16.00. Some new articles will be on sale and special reductions are given for articles such as 50th Anniversary T-shirts (15,-), all silk ties (30,-) and 50th Anniversary watches (35,-). Come and visit the CERN Shop Stand and find your Christmas presents. DSU-CO group

  1. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale on 12 and 13 December

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? As every year, we will be running a CERN Shop stand in the Main Building, ground floor, on Wednesday 12 and Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.30. Some new items will be on sale, such as cool fridge magnets and fleeces. The 2008 CERN calendar will be also available at the price of 10 CHF. Some items will have special reductions. Come and visit the CERN Shop stand and find your Christmas presents. DSU-CO group

  2. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  3. Developing a System Architecture for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi-cellular c......This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi...

  4. Crystalline roof glazing - Westside shopping centre, Berne; Kristalline Dachverglasungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2009-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at the new shopping and leisure centre on the western outskirts of Berne, Switzerland. In particular, the roof of this unusual building over the motorway with its sloping walls and zig-zag design is looked at. The centre's shopping mall, adventure baths and spa, a multiplex cinema, an old peoples' home and a hotel are briefly discussed, as is the embedding of the centre in its suburban environment. The roof construction with its crystalline skylights is examined and discussed in detail. The centre's building technical services are also briefly commented on.

  5. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  6. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  7. JOB SHOP METHODOLOGY BASED ON AN ANT COLONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR CASTRILLON

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the total process time (Makespan and to increase the machines working time, in a job shop environment, using a heuristic based on ant colony optimization. This work is developed in two phases: The first stage describes the identification and definition of heuristics for the sequential processes in the job shop. The second stage shows the effectiveness of the system in the traditional programming of production. A good solution, with 99% efficiency is found using this technique.

  8. The Virtual Shopping Aisle: More or Less Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dave; Livermore, Celia Romm

    This chapter explores Internet-based grocery shopping. A review of self-service and associated technologies is followed by a discussion of the three main styles of grocery shopping: over-the-counter, self-service and online. The chapter focuses on the distribution of work between the supplier and the customer in each of these modes. We observe some features of the self-service phenomenon which question prevailing assumptions about self-service activities, namely that they replace work done by employees with work done by customers.

  9. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  10. PrestaShop 1.5 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Caro, Jose Antonio Tizon

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a friendly voice with lots of tips, tricks, and screenshots to help you set up, extend, and personalize your own online shop. If you want to start your own e-commerce business, then this book will help you do that.This book is for people who are interested in creating an online shop. Basic HTML and CSS skills would be beneficial but are not required as we will provide you with all the code and know-how you need.

  11. How Can Stores Sustain Their Businesses? From Shopping Behaviors and Motivations to Environment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J.C. Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 discover consumer purchasing behaviors while shopping as a tourist and shopping at home, and (2 investigate tourist shopping preferences for an ideal shopping environment. A sample of 1,235 respondents participated in this study. Survey participants were asked to evaluate what store attributes they desired and what sources of information they used while selecting a store to shop in during their trips. Results indicate that consumers utilized various shopping channels while shopping in various environments. Also, different types of consumers exhibited clear preferences toward their ideal shopping environment. The results of this study are helpful for future service providers, tourism businesses, and tourism retailers to plan product development, provide better services, and equip a wider range of service skills.

  12. Design and Testing of an Air Force Services Mystery Shopping Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Justin

    1998-01-01

    .... Background The use of mystery shoppers to evaluate customer service experiences is widely used in commercial foodservice and hotel industries. Many companies "shop" their properties with inhouse programs while others contract an independent company to perform the shopping.

  13. Trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Northern New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the trip attraction rates of the shopping centers in Northern New : Castle County in Delaware. The study aims to provide an alternative to ITE Trip : Generation Manual (1997) for computing the trip attraction of shopping centers ...

  14. Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, Not the Shopping Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, not the Shopping Mall Article Chapters Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, not the Shopping Mall print full article print this chapter email this ...

  15. Design and Testing of an Air Force Services Mystery Shopping Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Justin

    1998-01-01

    .... Other service quality measurement methods such as mystery shopping are rarely used. Bases do not consider using mystery shopping programs because of the significant resources required to start the program...

  16. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  17. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  18. Comparison of the risks of shopping behavior and opioid abuse between tapentadol and oxycodone and association of shopping behavior and opioid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Kihm, Mary A; Mastrogiovanni, Greg; Yuan, Yingli

    2014-12-01

    This study compared the risks of opioid shopping behavior and opioid abuse between tapentadol immediate release and oxycodone immediate release and, to validate the definition of shopping, examined the association between opioid shopping and opioid abuse further. This retrospective cohort study using linked dispensing and diagnosis databases followed opioid-naive patients for development of shopping behavior and/or opioid abuse during 1 year after initial exposure to tapentadol or oxycodone. Shopping was defined by having overlapping opioid prescriptions from >1 prescriber filled at ≥3 pharmacies; abuse by having International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision diagnoses reflecting opioid abuse, addiction, or dependence. To determine their association, we cross-tabulated shopping and opioid abuse and calculated odds ratios. Risks of developing each outcome were estimated using logistic regression. Among 277,401 participants initiating opioid use with tapentadol (39,524) or oxycodone (237,877), 0.6% developed shopping behavior, 0.75% developed abuse. Higher proportions of patients in the oxycodone group developed shopping behavior and abuse than in the tapentadol group (shopping: adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.45 [0.36-0.55]; abuse: 0.44 [0.37-0.54]). Shopping behavior and abuse were associated; of those with shopping behavior, 6.5% had abuse. Age (18 to 64 y), sex (male), prior benzodiazepine use, paying cash, and history (mood disorders, abuse of nonopioid medications, and back pain) were risk factors for developing either outcome. Shopping behavior and abuse measure complementary, but associated, constructs, which further validates the current definition of shopping. The risk of developing either is lower among patients who initiate opioid use with tapentadol than those who initiate opioid use with oxycodone.

  19. Ranking Parameters on Quality of Online Shopping Websites Using Multi-Criteria Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrbakhsh Nilashi; Karamollah Bagherifard; Othman Ibrahim; Nasim Janahmadi; Leila Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    The growing use of Internet in Malaysia provides a developing prospect of online shopping for international students. Also, international students are an outstanding group in online shopping in Malaysia. In view of this, in order to improve increase online shopping among international students and Malaysian online shopping, a research framework was proposed and a survey of international student was done. Proposed research framework considers three key dimensions service quality, information q...

  20. The new century: Lessons learned from Singapore's shopping sector during the 1990's

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda J. Moscove; Robert G. Fletcher

    2001-01-01

    Singapore's main shopping corridor, Orchard Road, is being challenged as the international shopping paradise for residents and visitors. It no longer reigns supreme as the mecca for international shopping. The loss of prestige and dominance can be attributed to recent shifts in the Singaporean and regional marketplace such as: economic recession, tourism industry slump, societal concerns, technological trends and innovations, shopping sector development in the region, and political uncertaint...