WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot section materials

  1. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  2. 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 2: Advanced special functions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Sections Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analyses of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components.

  3. 3-D thermoelastic analysis of the straight section of a PWR hot leg containing a hot spot using BEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, R.S.; Sugimoto, J.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-D steady state thermoelastic analysis using the boundary element method has been successfully employed to investigate the structural response of the straight section of a pressurised water reactor hot leg containing a localised hot spot. With the present severe accident thermal boundary conditions, the analysis produces a nonuniform expansion across the hot leg thickness. This expansion was most predominant on the inner surface, especially at the hot spot location where surface swelling was obtained. Furthermore, the hot spot generates large tangential and axial tensile stresses on the outer surface. These could be detrimental to the integrity of the hot leg by acting as potential sites of crack initiation and subsequent propagation. (orig.)

  4. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  5. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diffusion aluminides to modified aluminides and a CoCrAlY overlayer. The recommendations for corrosion-resistant coatings (for low temperature and high temperature hot corrosion environments are as follows: silicon aluminide and platinumchromium aluminide for different gas turbine section superalloys substrates. Platinum metal additions are used to improve the properties of coatings on turbine components. Inorganic coatings based on ceramic films which contain aluminium or aluminium and silicon are very effective in engines and gas turbines. Diffusion, overlayer and thermal barrier coatings which are deposited on superalloys gas turbine components by pack cementation, plasma spraying processes and a number of chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition processes (such as electron beam, sputtering, ion plating are described. The principles underlying the development of protective coatings serve as a useful guide in the choice of coatings for other high temperature applications.

  6. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  7. Hot tea and tiny tots don't mix: A cross-sectional survey on hot beverage scalds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J D; Kimble, R M; Watt, K A; Cameron, C M

    2017-12-01

    Hot beverage scalds are a leading cause of burns in young children. The aim of this study was to look at the circumstances surrounding these injuries in terms of setting, mechanism, supervision and first aid to inform a prevention campaign. A cross-sectional study was delivered via iPad to parents and caregivers presenting with a child aged 0-36 months with a hot beverage scald at a major paediatric burns centre. Of the 101 children aged 0-36 months that presented with a hot beverage scald over a 12-month period, 54 participants were included. The scald aetiology was as expected with the peak prevalence in children aged 6-24 months, pulling a cup of hot liquid down over themselves. The majority of injuries occurred in the child's home and were witnessed by the caregiver or parent. The supervising adult was often in close proximity when the scald occurred. Less than a third (28%) of participants received recommended first aid treatment at the scene, with an additional 18% receiving this treatment with three hours of the injury-usually at an emergency department. While the aetiology of these scalds were as expected, the low use of recommended burn first aid was of concern. Although supervision was present in almost all cases, with the parent/caregiver close-by, this proximity still permitted injury. Attentiveness and continuity of supervision, which can be difficult with competing parental demands, appear to play a more important role role; as do considerations of other safety mechanisms such as hazard reduction through keeping hot drinks out of reach and engineering factors such as improved cup design. By incorporating the findings from this study and other research into a hot beverage scald prevention campaign, we hope to see a change in knowledge and behaviour in parents and caregivers of young children, and ultimately a reduction in the incidence of hot beverage scalds. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.

    1996-01-01

    During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure

  9. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the 'Nuclear Renaissance'. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very tight

  10. Safety distance for preventing hot particle ignition of building insulation materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayun Song; Supan Wang; Haixiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Trajectories of flying hot particles were predicted in this work, and the temperatures during the movement were also calculated. Once the particle temperature decreased to the critical temperature for a hot particle to ignite building insulation materials, which was predicted by hot-spot ignition theory, the distance particle traveled was determined as the minimum safety distance for preventing the ignition of building insulation materials by hot particles. The results showed that for sphere ...

  11. Materials and fabrication processes for operation in hot hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffias, R.H.; Duffy, A.J.; Arrieta, V.M.; Abrams, W.M.; Benander, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Operation in hot (2500 endash 3000 K) hydrogen severely limits the choice of structural materials. Rhenium is nonreactive with and has low permeability to hydrogen, and has sufficient strength up to 2800 K. Carbon, in the form of graphite or carbon composites, has excellent high temperature strength but reacts with hydrogen to form methane at a rapid rate above 2000 K. The carbides of zirconium, niobium, hafnium, and tantalum are nonreactive with and have low permeability to hydrogen, but they can be reliably fabricated only in the form of coatings. In order to demonstrate the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) solar-thermal propulsion concept, rhenium and rhenium-coated graphite were chosen as the structural materials for the receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) component of the ISUS system. Several methods were investigated for fabricating the rhenium parts and coatings, with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and Ultramet chosen as the most likely process and company for success. The CVD or rhenium and other refractory materials were thus applied to the ISUS program for fabrication of the RAC subsystem. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Material development for grade X80 heavy-wall hot induction bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Xiao Furen; Fu Yanhong; Chen Xiaowei; Liao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new material for X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bend was designed. ► The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were determined. ► The steel adapts to manufacture of X80 heavy-wall thickness hot induction bend. ► The optimum manufactural processes were obtained. ► The bending temperature is about 990 °C, and tempering is about 600 °C. - Abstract: A new steel for grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends was designed based on the chemical compositions of commercial X80 steels in this work. Then, its continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was determined with Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. Furthermore, the effects of heat treatment technology on its microstructure and mechanical property were investigated, and the technology parameters of the heat treatment were optimized. The results show that the acicular ferrite and/or bainite transformations are promoted, the polygonal ferrite and pearlite transformation are restrained, because proper amount of alloying elements were added into the new steel. Therefore, the strength of this new steel is improved markedly, even if the cooling rate is lower, which ensure the higher strength distribution along cross section of the heavy wall thickness. It is significant for the manufacture of grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends in the second West-to-East gas transportation pipeline project of China.

  13. Material development for grade X80 heavy-wall hot induction bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xu [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); CNPC Bohai Petroleum Equipment Manufacture Co. Ltd., Qingxian 062658 (China); Xiao Furen, E-mail: frxiao@ysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu Yanhong [CNPC Bohai Petroleum Equipment Manufacture Co. Ltd., Qingxian 062658 (China); Chen Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); CNPC Bohai Petroleum Equipment Manufacture Co. Ltd., Qingxian 062658 (China); Liao Bo, E-mail: cyddjyjs@263.net [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new material for X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bend was designed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The steel adapts to manufacture of X80 heavy-wall thickness hot induction bend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum manufactural processes were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bending temperature is about 990 Degree-Sign C, and tempering is about 600 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A new steel for grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends was designed based on the chemical compositions of commercial X80 steels in this work. Then, its continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was determined with Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. Furthermore, the effects of heat treatment technology on its microstructure and mechanical property were investigated, and the technology parameters of the heat treatment were optimized. The results show that the acicular ferrite and/or bainite transformations are promoted, the polygonal ferrite and pearlite transformation are restrained, because proper amount of alloying elements were added into the new steel. Therefore, the strength of this new steel is improved markedly, even if the cooling rate is lower, which ensure the higher strength distribution along cross section of the heavy wall thickness. It is significant for the manufacture of grade X80 heavy wall thickness hot induction bends in the second West-to-East gas transportation pipeline project of China.

  14. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  15. Fertility results from spermatic vein embolization with hot contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Hunter, D.W.; Darcy, M.D.; Cragg, A.H.; Castaneda-Juniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatic venography with hot contrast agent embolization was performed in 100 patients, nine with symptomatic varicocele and 91 with infertility, with at least a 1-year follow-up in all patients. All symptomatic patients improved. In patients with infertility there was an increase in sperm count in 71% and a motility increase in 71%. The impregnation rate is currently just above 30%. Complications were all minor and included scrotal swelling, anterior thigh anesthesia, and two cases of near aspermia. The results of hot contrast agent embolization are comparable to those achieved with other techniques. The procedure is inexpensive and easy to perform

  16. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals.

  17. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Jr., Carlos M. Torres,; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  18. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  19. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  20. Safety distance for preventing hot particle ignition of building insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trajectories of flying hot particles were predicted in this work, and the temperatures during the movement were also calculated. Once the particle temperature decreased to the critical temperature for a hot particle to ignite building insulation materials, which was predicted by hot-spot ignition theory, the distance particle traveled was determined as the minimum safety distance for preventing the ignition of building insulation materials by hot particles. The results showed that for sphere aluminum particles with the same initial velocities and diameters, the horizontal and vertical distances traveled by particles with higher initial temperatures were higher. Smaller particles traveled farther when other conditions were the same. The critical temperature for an aluminum particle to ignite rigid polyurethane foam increased rapidly with the decrease of particle diameter. The horizontal and vertical safety distances were closely related to the initial temperature, diameter and initial velocity of particles. These results could help update the safety provision of firework display.

  1. Investigation on field removed pipe sections in the PISC hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambini, M.; Crutzen, S.; Jehenson, P.; Bergh, R. Van den; Violin, F.

    1990-01-01

    Action No. 1 of PISC II: Real Contaminated Structures (RCS), seeks to collect results from specific investigations and limited round robin tests on real service induced defects in materials and structures of the primary circuit of Light Water Reactors. The hot cell facilities at JRC-Ispra are fully equipped for non destructive and destructive work on a collaborative basis. Cracked austenitic steel primary circuit pipes coming from the primary circuit of the Muhleberg reactor (Switzerland) have been inspected in order to demonstrate the validity of the facilities to examine these contaminated pieces. (author)

  2. Investigation on field removed pipe sections in the PISC hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambini, M.; Crutzen, S.; Jehenson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Action no. 1 of PISC III (Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components): Real Contaminated Structures (RCS), seeks to collect results from specific investigations and limited round robin tests on real service induced defects in materials and structures of the primary circuit of Light Water Reactors. The hot cell facilities at JRC-Ispra are fully equipped for non destructive and destructive work on a collaborative basis. Cracked austenitic steel pipes coming from the primary circuit of the Muehleberg reactor (Switzerland) have been inspected in order to demonstrate the validity of the facilities for the examination of these contaminated pieces

  3. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H W

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  4. Behavior of W-based materials in hot helium gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Hadraba, Hynek; Di Gabriele, F.; Kuběna, Ivo; Kolíbalová, E.; Michalička, J.; Čech, J.; Jäger, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 405-410 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : tungsten * helium * fusion materials Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFM-A); JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.03.009

  5. Behavior of W-based materials in hot helium gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matějíček

    2016-12-01

    A number of W-based materials (pure tungsten and some of its alloys prepared by powder metallurgy techniques was exposed to He atmosphere at 720ºC and 500kPa for 500h. Morphological surface changes were observed by SEM, chemical and phase composition was analyzed by EDS and XRD, respectively. The internal microstructure was observed by a combination of SEM, FIB and TEM techniques. Mechanical properties were determined by instrumented indentation. Some alloys developed a thin oxide layer, in some cases new morphological features were observed, while some samples remained mostly intact. The observed changes are correlated with specific compositions and microstructures.

  6. An overview of high thermal conductive hot press forming die material development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zulhishamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the automotive industries are using high strength steel components, which are produced via hot press forming process. This process requires die material with high thermal conductivity that increases cooling rate during simultaneous quenching and forming stage. Due to the benefit of high quenching rate, thermal conductive die materials were produced by adding carbide former elements. This paper presents an overview of the modification of alloying elements in tool steel for high thermal conductivity properties by transition metal elements addition. Different types of manufacturing processes involved in producing high thermal conductive materials were discussed. Methods reported were powder metallurgy hot press, direct metal deposition, selective laser melting, direct metal laser sintering and spray forming. Elements likes manganese, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and chromium were proven to increase thermal conductivity properties. Thermal conductivity properties resulted from carbide network presence in the steel microstructure. To develop feasible and low cost hot press forming die material, casting of Fe-based alloy with carbide former composition can be an option. Current thermal conductivity properties of hot press forming die material range between 25 and 66 W/m.K. The wide range of thermal conductivity varies the mechanical properties of the resulting components and lifetime of HPF dies.

  7. Small Punch Test Techniques for Irradiated Materials in Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Sik; Ahn, S. B.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Choo, Y. S.

    2006-06-01

    Detailed procedures of the small punch test including the apparatus, the definition of small punch-related parameters, and the interpretation of results were presented. The testing machine should have a capability of the compressive loading and unloading at a given deflection level. The small punch specimen holder consists of an upper and lower die and clamping screws. The clamped specimen is deformed by using ball or spherical head punch. Two type of specimens with a circular and a square shape were used. The irradiated small punch specimen is made from the undamaged portion of the broken CVN bars or prepared by the irradiation of the specimen fabricated from the fresh materials. The heating and cooling devices should have the capability of the temperature control within ±2 .deg. C for the target value during the test. Based on the load-deflection data obtained from the small punch test. the empirical correlation between the small punch related parameters and a tensile properties such as 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature and creep properties determined from the standard test method is established and used to evaluate the mechanical properties of an irradiated materials. In addition, from the quantitative fractographic assessment of small punch test specimens, the relationship between the small punch energy and the quantity of ductile crack growth is obtained. Analytical formulations demonstrated good agreement with experimental load-deflection curves

  8. Study of Low Work Function Materials for Hot Cavity Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B; Mattolat, C; Menna, Mariano; Österdahl, F; Raeder, S; Schwellnus, F; Stora, T; Wendt, K; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization on the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high-temperature, low-work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE / CERN, Geneva and RISIKO / University of Mainz.

  9. Study of low work function materials for hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Schwellnus, F; Crepieux, B; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Mattolat, Ch; Menna, M; Österdahl, F K; Raeder, S; Stora, T; Wendta, K

    2009-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization of the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high temperature, low work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva and RISIKO/University of Mainz.

  10. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  11. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility (open-quotes OHBISclose quotes, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility

  12. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, S.; Akiba, M.; Kawamura, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop plasma facing components which can resist these. We have established electron beam heat facility ('OHBIS', Oarai hot-cell electron beam irradiating system) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50 kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30 kV (constant) and 1.7 A, respectively. The loading time of the electron beam is more than 0.1 ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the main dimensions are 500 mm in inside diameter, 1000 mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for the thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. The performance of the electron beam is being evaluated at this time. In the future, the equipment for conducting static heat loadings will be incorporated into the facility. (orig.)

  13. Material influence on hot spot distribution in the nanoparticle heterodimer on film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Huang, Yingzhou; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Zeng, Xiping; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia

    2018-04-01

    The metal nanoparticle aggregated on film, as an effective plasma enhancement pathway, has been widely used in various surface plasmon-related fields. In this study, the hot spots on the metal nanoparticle dimer composed of different materials (Agsbnd Au, Agsbnd Pd, and Agsbnd Cu) on metal (Au) film were investigated with finite element method. Based on the results, the hot spot distribution affected by the material can be confirmed by the electric field distribution of the metal nanoparticle dimer on the film. The aggregation effects of Au and Ag nanoparticles in Ausbnd Ag dimer system are not significant. However, for the Pdsbnd Ag dimer system, the hot spot aggregation effect is slightly larger than that of the Pd nanoparticle under the Ag nanoparticle. Besides, the non-uniform hot spots would bring about the light focusing phenomenon that the light intensity under Ag nanoparticle is almost 100 times greater than that under Cu nanoparticle in Agsbnd Cu dimer system. These results were further confirmed by the surface charge distribution, and analyzed based on the plasmonic hybridization theory. The data about the nanoparticle dimer on the dielectric (Si) film demonstrate the importance of induced image charges on the film surface in such a light focusing phenomenon. Our findings can enhance the understanding of the surface plasmon coupling in different materials, which may have great application prospects in surface plasmon-related fields, such as SERS, plasmonic enhanced solar cell, and plasmonic sensoring, etc.

  14. Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Xu Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)

  15. Hot and cool executive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: Cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouklari, Evangelia-Chrysanthi; Tsermentseli, Stella; Monks, Claire P

    2017-10-20

    The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization. The developmental trajectories of some aspects of cool EF (working memory and planning) differed significantly as a function of age in ASD participants relative to controls. For both hot EFs, no significant age-related changes were found in either group. These findings extend our understanding regarding the maturation of EF from childhood through adolescence in ASD.

  16. Fusion reactor materials program plan. Section III. Plasma material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    A discussion of materials-related problems and an analysis of such problems is given for each major topical area. The strategy that will be used to solve the materials problems is described. As part of this program strategy, a series of major milestones is identified that extends over the next 20 years. Detailed task descriptions for the next five years leading to the achievement of the major milestones are given. Each task is described on a separate page (or task sheet) which includes the task number, task title, objective, scope, and the major milestones addressed by the task. Secondary milestones within a given task or subtask are defined, together with a priority assignment and an estimate of man-years to accomplish the work. Each Plan is organized along major topics which parallel the Subtask organization of the Task Group responsible for the Plan

  17. Polycarbonate as an Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Simulation of the Microstructure Hot Imprint Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Šakalys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC, as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc. must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  18. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating anisotropic material with a stationary hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Félix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity

  19. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  20. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully

  1. Deducing material quality in cast and hot-forged steels by new bending test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Henry; Langøy, Morten; Nedreberg, Mette; Helvig, Torgeir

    2017-10-01

    A special bend test has been developed and applied for the purpose of characterization and comparison of the material ductility in crankpin steel discs manufactured by casting, or casting subsequently followed by hot open-die forging (ODF) or closed-die forging (CDF). The bending test specimen consists of a small rectangular plate of material with a round hole cut out in the middle. The "eye-shape" specimens were cut out from various positions either near to the surface of, or from the interior of the discs. The test method revealed differences in ductility for the investigated materials, and for different depth positions inside the discs. The roughening of the specimen surface on the top-side of the specimen bend also varied dependent on the processing method for the material. Current results show that this test method is useful for evaluation of material quality in differently processed material. Experimental bend test results are presented for differently processed variants of the same material, i.e., crankpin discs either made by solely casting or casting subsequently followed by hot working either by ODF or CDF.

  2. Hot kinetic model as a guide to improve organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosorev, Andrey Yu; Godovsky, Dmitry Yu; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu

    2018-01-31

    The modeling of organic solar cells (OSCs) can provide a roadmap for their further improvement. Many OSC models have been proposed in recent years; however, the impact of the key intermediates from photons to electricity-hot charge-transfer (CT) states-on the OSC efficiency is highly ambiguous. In this study, we suggest an analytical kinetic model for OSC that considers a two-step charge generation via hot CT states. This hot kinetic model allowed us to evaluate the impact of different material parameters on the OSC performance: the driving force for charge separation, optical bandgap, charge mobility, geminate recombination rate, thermalization rate, average electron-hole separation distance in the CT state, dielectric permittivity, reorganization energy and charge delocalization. In contrast to a widespread trend of lowering the material bandgap, the model predicts that this approach is only efficient along with improvement of the other material properties. The most promising ways to increase the OSC performance are decreasing the reorganization energy, i.e., an energy change accompanying CT from the donor molecule to the acceptor, increasing the dielectric permittivity and charge delocalization. The model suggests that there are no fundamental limitations that can prevent achieving the OSC efficiency above 20%.

  3. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  4. Waste treatment process by solidifying cementitious materials using hydrothermal hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Kamakura, T.; Yamasaki, N.; Hashida, T.

    2001-01-01

    Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes containing Na 2 SO 4 with cement by hydrothermal hot-pressing (HHP) technique was examined. Relatively high mechanical strength, reduced leaching ratio of SO 3 , and higher resistance to the carbonation of the HHP product were attained in comparison with conventional concrete. The solidification by the HHP treatment may be proceeded by the rearrangement of particles and the bonding material formation among the particles by dissolution-deposition process. The possibility of developing the accelerated testing method for duration of cemented materials by hydrothermal method was discussed. (author)

  5. A computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution between burners sections as input parameters for 3D CFD furnace calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Beloshevic, Srdjan

    2006-01-01

    Current computer technology development enables application of powerful software packages that can provide a reliable insight into real operating conditions of a steam boiler in the Thermal Power Plant. Namely, an application of CFD code to the 3D analysis of combustion and heat transfer in a furnace provides temperature, velocity and concentration fields in both cross sectional and longitudinal planes of the observed furnace. In order to obtain reliable analytical results, which corresponds to real furnace conditions, it is necessary to accurately predict a distribution of mill gases and hot air between burners' sections, because these parameters are input values for the furnace 3D calculation. Regarding these tasks, the computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution has been developed at the Department for steam boilers of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. The code is based on simultaneous calculations of material and heat balances for fan mill and air tracts. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of performed calculations and results obtained for the steam boiler furnace of 350 MWe Thermal Power Plant equipped with eight fan mills. Key words: mill gases, hot air, aerodynamic calculation, air tract, mill tract.

  6. New phenomenological and differential model for hot working of metallic polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, J.; Munoz, J.; Gutierrez, V.; Rieiro, I.; Ruano, O. A.; Carsi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations) to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 degree centigrade a 1200 degree centigrade) and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1) in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary: mechanical properties under compressive stresses; material properties at elevated temperatures; influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties; production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported

  8. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary. - Mechanical properties under compressive stresses. - Material properties at elevated temperatures. - Influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties. - Production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported. (Auth.)

  9. The Effects of Plastic Anisotropy in Warm and Hot Forming of Magnesium Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleff, Eric M.; Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Yavuz, Emre

    Mg alloy sheet materials often exhibit plastic anisotropy at room temperature as a result of the limited slip systems available in the HCP lattice combined with a commonly strong basal texture. Less well studied is plastic anisotropy developed at the elevated temperatures associated with warm and hot forming. At these elevated temperatures, particularly above 200°C, the activation of additional slip systems significantly increases ductility. However, plastic anisotropy is also induced at elevated temperatures by a strong crystallographic texture, and it can require an accounting in material constitutive models to achieve accurate forming simulations. The type and degree of anisotropy under these conditions depend on both texture and deformation mechanism. The current understanding of plastic anisotropy in Mg AZ31B and ZEK100 sheet materials at elevated temperatures is reviewed in this article. The recent construction of material forming cases is also reviewed with strategies to account for plastic anisotropy in forming simulations.

  10. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  11. The Influence of Unusual Materials as Prospective Fillers in the Hot Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcate Ferrão, Wallace; Moizinho, Joel Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Among the factors that influence directly the durability of the asphaltic layer on pavements, the type and percentage of filler in the hot mix asphalt pavement (HMA) is a great player. The most traditional fillers, the Portland cement and the hydrated lime, are well known for resisting to weather variations and adding extra features to the hot mixtures. The glass powder, the cladding waste (gotten from clay bricks), the ashes of rice husks and laterite powder are proposed as substitutes to the traditional ones. The materials have been sieved and classified by fitting the powder on the filler grain size required by Brazilian Rules, eventually they have been tested with asphalt 50/70. The glass powder performed a Thermic Susceptibility Index (IST) of -0.69 for 5% in weight of filler and -0.75 for 10% in weight of filler, proving that this material satisfies the Brazilian specification DNIT-EM 095/2006; on the other hand, the laterite powder presented an IST of -0.61 for 5% and 0.32 for 10%. After executing the Softening Point, Penetration and Flash Point tests, it has been confirmed that the glass and laterite powder are recommended materials as potential substitutes to the Portland cement, however the first one performs better under balmy temperatures due to its negative IST; the cladding powder and the rice husks turns the mixtures too rigid and breakable on percentages close to 10%.

  12. Strain measurements at high temperatures in a concrete structure representing a cylindrical section of a PCPV with hot liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittenhelm, Ch.

    1975-11-01

    In an experimental ring, representing an 1 m high section of the Austrian PCPV-Model with hot liner, different types of strain gauges were installed in the insulating concrete and the prestressed concrete. In this ring the thermal conditions were the same as in the PCPV-Model. In this report the results of measurements of the past two years are brought and comparisons with static calculations is attempted. (author)

  13. Handbook of materials testing reactors and ancillary hot laboratories in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to make available to those interested in 'in-pile' irradiation experiments important data on Materials Testing Reactors in operation in the European Community. Only thermal reactors having a power output of more than 5 MW(th) are taken into consideration. In particular, detailed technical information is given on the experimental irradiation facilities of the reactors, their specialized irradiation devices (loops and instrumented capsules), and the associated hot cell facilities for post-irradiation examination of samples

  14. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  15. Reducing radar cross section by investigation electromagnetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komeylian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the Radar Cross Section (RCS is investigated in electromagnetic materials, i.e. double-positive (DPS , double-negative (DNG , epsilon-negative (ENG and mu-negative (MNG materials. The interesting properties of these materials lead to a great flexibility in manufacturing structures with unusual electromagnetic characteristics. The valid conditions for achieving the transparency and gaining resonance for an electrically small cylinder are established, in this corresponding The effect of incidence direction on RCS inclusive of transparency and resonance conditions is also explored ,through computer simulations for an electrically small cylinder.

  16. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo

    1999-01-01

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  17. Techniques and materials for skin closure in caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackeen, A Dhanya; Berghella, Vincenzo; Larsen, Mie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Caesarean section is a common operation with no agreed upon standard regarding certain operative techniques or materials to use. With regard to skin closure, the skin incision can be re-approximated by a subcuticular suture immediately below the skin layer, by an interrupted suture, or by staples...

  18. A material based approach to creating wear resistant surfaces for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sailesh

    Tools and dies used in metal forming are characterized by extremely high temperatures at the interface, high local pressures and large metal to metal sliding. These harsh conditions result in accelerated wear of tooling. Lubrication of tools, done to improve metal flow drastically quenches the surface layers of the tools and compounds the tool failure problem. This phenomenon becomes a serious issue when parts forged at complex and are expected to meet tight tolerances. Unpredictable and hence uncontrolled wear and degradation of tooling result in poor part quality and premature tool failure that result in high scrap, shop downtime, poor efficiency and high cost. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a computer-based methodology for analyzing the requirements hot forging tooling to resist wear and plastic deformation and wear and predicting life cycle of forge tooling. Development of such is a system is complicated by the fact that wear and degradation of tooling is influenced by not only the die material used but also numerous process controls like lubricant, dilution ratio, forging temperature, equipment used, tool geometries among others. Phenomenological models available u1 the literature give us a good thumb rule to selecting materials but do not provide a way to evaluate pits performance in field. Once a material is chosen, there are no proven approaches to create surfaces out of these materials. Coating approaches like PVD and CVD cannot generate thick coatings necessary to withstand the conditions under hot forging. Welding cannot generate complex surfaces without several secondary operations like heat treating and machining. If careful procedures are not followed, welds crack and seldom survive forging loads. There is a strong need for an approach to selectively, reliably and precisely deposit material of choice reliably on an existing surface which exhibit not only good tribological properties but also good adhesion to the substrate

  19. Innovative Structural Materials and Sections with Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Vikram

    The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and

  20. A note on the BFKL Pomeron and the 'Hot Spot' cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Lotter, H.

    1993-03-01

    We comment on the numerical calculation of the Lipatov Pomeron in the measurement of 'Hot Spots' in deep inelastic scattering. We illustrate that previous analytic estimates based upon the leading term in the Lipatov equation are accurate within 20%. We present evidence that numerical calculations should be done with a fixed α s . The use of a running α s appears as an unnecessary complication. We argue that at low Q 2 the BFKL Pomeron requires higher order corrections. (orig.)

  1. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50°C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  2. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  3. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-01-01

    are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have......Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts...... to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts....

  4. TEM study of a hot-pressed Al2O3-NbC composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Alumina-based composites have been developed in order to improve the mechanical properties of the monolithic matrix and to replace the WC-Co material for cutting tool applications. Al2O3 reinforced with refractory carbides improves hardness, fracture toughness and wear resistance to values suitable for metalworking applications. Al2O3-NbC composites were uniaxially hot-pressed at 1650 °C in an inert atmosphere and their mechanical properties and microstructures were analyzed. Sintered density, average grain size, microhardness and fracture toughness measurements and microstructural features were evaluated. Results have shown that the mechanical properties of alumina-NbC are comparable to other carbide systems. Microstructural analysis has shown that the niobium carbide particles are mainly located at the grain boundaries of alumina grains, which is an evidence of the "pinning effect", produced by NbC particles.

  5. Experimental Route to Scanning Probe Hot Electron Nanoscopy (HENs) Applied to 2D Material

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-06-09

    This paper presents details on a new experimental apparatus implementing the hot electron nanoscopy (HENs) technique introduced for advanced spectroscopies on structure and chemistry in few molecules and interface problems. A detailed description of the architecture used for the laser excitation of surface plasmons at an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is provided. The photogenerated current from the tip to the sample is detected during the AFM scan. The technique is applied to innovative semiconductors for applications in electronics: 2D MoS2 single crystal and a p-type SnO layer. Results are supported by complementary scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, traditional conductive AFM, and Raman measurements. New features highlighted by HEN technique reveal details of local complexity in MoS2 and polycrystalline structure of SnO at nanometric scale otherwise undetected. The technique set in this paper is promising for future studies in nanojunctions and innovative multilayered materials, with new insight on interfaces.

  6. Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Cryogenic Aromatic Moderator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantargi, Florencia; Granada, J.R.; Sbaffoni, Maria Monica

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a set of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture (by volume) of mesitylene and toluene, all of them in solid phase, was studied as potential moderator materials for cold neutron sources. Cross section libraries were generated for hydrogen bounded in those materials, at several temperatures in ACE format, and they were used in MCNP calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with traditional materials like solid methane and liquid hydrogen. In particular, cross section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is the operating temperature of the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. Although solid methane is the best moderator in terms of cold neutron production, it has very poor radiation resistance, causing spontaneous burping even at fairly low doses. Such effect is considerably reduced in the aromatic hydrocarbons. On the other hand, all of them show a similar and significant neutron production, with the exception of benzene. Even though those aromatic materials are very easy to handle, the solid phases that produce an enhanced flux of cold neutrons correspond to amorphous structures rich in low-energy excitations, and they can be created through lengthy cooling processes requiring in many cases additional annealing stages. The 3:2 mesitylene-toluene mixture, that forms in a simple and direct manner the appropriate disordered structure, constitutes an excellent cryogenic moderator material, as it is able to produce an intense flux of cold neutrons while presenting high resistance to radiation, thus conforming a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials. (authors)

  7. Carbon materials as new nanovehicles in hot-melt drug deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielicka, Agnieszka; Wiśniewski, Marek; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A; Furmaniak, Sylwester; Bieniek, A; Roszek, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The application of commercially available carbon materials (nanotubes and porous carbons) for the preparation of drug delivery systems is studied. We used two types of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and two activated carbons as potential materials in so-called hot-melt drug deposition (HMDD). The materials were first studied using Raman spectroscopy. Paracetamol was chosen as a model drug. The performed thermal analysis, kinetics, and adsorption–desorption studies revealed that nanoaggregates are formed between carbon nanotubes. In contrast, in pores of activated carbon we do not observe this process and the drug adsorption phenomenon mechanism is simply the filling of small pores. The formation of nanoaggregates was confirmed by the results of GCMC (grand canonical Monte Carlo) simulations and the study of the surface area on nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The application of carbon nanotubes in HMDD offers the possibility of controlling the rate of drug delivery. Performed MTT tests of nanotubes and drug-loaded nanotubes show that the observed decrease in cell viability number is caused by the influence of the cytostatic properties of nanotubes—they inhibit the proliferation of cells. The carbon nanotubes studied in this paper are essentially nontoxic. (paper)

  8. INVESTIGATION OF 'HOT-SPOTS' AS A FUNCTION OF MATERIAL REMOVAL IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel

    2006-01-01

    Poster - The performance of a single-cell cavity made of RRR > 200 large-grain niobium has been investigated as a function of material removal by buffered chemical polishing. Temperature maps of the cavity surface at 1.7 and 2.0 K were taken for each step of chemical etching and revealed several 'hot-spots', which contribute to the degradation of the cavity quality factor as a function of the RF surface field, mostly at high field levels. It was found that the number of 'hot-spots' decreased for larger material removal. Interestingly, the losses of the 'hot-spots' at different locations evolved differently for successive material removal. The cavity achieved peak surface magnetic fields of about of 130 mT and was limited mostly by thermal quench. By measuring the temperature dependence of the surface resistance at low field between 4.2 K and 1.7 K, the variation of niobium material parameters as a function of material removal could also be investigated. This contribution shows the results of the RF tests along with the temperature maps and the analysis of the losses caused by the 'hot-spots'.

  9. Proceedings of Prof. Brahm Prakash birth centenary workshop on high temperature materials and hot structures: souvenir and book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, monolithic ceramics and refractory metals were identified for use at high temperatures. Considerations such as higher operating temperatures, increased thermostructural loads, lower density, etc. brought exotic materials such as ceramic matrix composites, carbon based composites, ODS alloy, intermetallics and thermal barrier coatings to the horizon. Advent of ultra high temperature ceramics and functionally graded materials further pushed the threshold of applicability of high temperature materials and hot structures. Impressive progress in this area has been possible because of the fact that characterization tools along with design and simulation techniques have constantly kept pace with advancement occurring in the processing methods of these materials. The workshop scope includes: Thermal Protection Systems and Materials, Hot Structures, Ceramic and Carbon Matrix Composites, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Coating Technology, Simulation and Characterization. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Hot-wire chemical vapor synthesis for a variety of nano-materials with novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, A.C.; Mahan, A.H.; Deshpande, R.; Alleman, J.L.; Blackburn, J.L.; Parillia, P.A.; Heben, M.J.; Engtrakul, C.; Gilbert, K.E.H.; Jones, K.M.; To, R.; Lee, S-H.; Lehman, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) has been demonstrated as a simple economically scalable technique for the synthesis of a variety of nano-materials in an environmentally friendly manner. For example we have employed HWCVD for the continuous production of both carbon single- and multi-wall nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs). Unanticipated hydrogen storage on HWCVD-generated MWNTs has led insight into the adsorption mechanism of hydrogen on metal/carbon composites at near ambient temperatures that could be useful for developing a vehicular hydrogen storage system. Recent efforts have been focused on growing MWNT arrays on thin nickel films with a simple HWCVD process. New data suggests that these MWNT arrays could replace the gold black coatings currently used in pyroelectric detectors to accurately measure laser power. Finally, we have very recently employed HWCVD for the production of crystalline molybdenum and tungsten oxide nanotubes and nanorods. These metal oxide nanorods and nanotubes could have applications in catalysis, batteries and electrochromic windows or as gas sensors. A summary of the techniques for growing these novel materials and their various potential applications is provided

  11. PM-materials for hot working tools; PM-Werkstoffe fuer warmgehende Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berns, H.; Broeckmann, C.; Theisen, W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau; Wewers, B.

    2001-05-01

    Tools and wear parts for compacting tools are subjected to high abrasive wear and mechanical loading at elevated temperatures. MMC's based in iron- or nickel with hard particles are developed and investigated. The materials were manufactured from powders by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and subsequently heat treated. Diffusion between hard phases and metal matrix brings about certain micro structures which were tested with respect to the resistance against sliding abrasion at room and elevated temperatures. Three-point bending tests and thermal cycling of the material was utilized to characterise the mechanical behaviour. Based on this results a toolkit for a roller press for briquetting was produced and brought into application. (orig.) [German] Werkzeuge und Verschleissteile fuer die Verarbeitung von mineralischen Guetern bei erhoehter Temperatur unterliegen sowohl hohem abrasivem Verschleiss als auch hohen mechanischen Lasten. Es werden hartphasenhaltige Verbundwerkstoffe auf Eisen- und Nickelbasis entwickelt und untersucht. Die Fertigung dieser MMC's erfolgt durch heiss isostatisches Pressen (HIP) und anschliessende Waermebehandlung. Durch Diffusion zwischen Hartphasen und Metallmatrix entstehen Gefuege, die bezueglich ihres Widerstandes gegen Abrasivverschleiss bei Raumtemperatur und gegen Korngleitverschliess bei erhoehter Temperatur geprueft werden. Zur Charakterisierung der mechanischen Eigeschaften werden Dreipunktbiegeversuche und thermsiche Ermuedungsversuche durchgefuehrt. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden genutzt, um einen Werkzeugsatz fuer eine Brikettierpresse herzustellen und in Einsatz zu bringen. (orig.)

  12. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouril, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Christensen, E. [Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Eriksen, S.; Gillesberg, B. [Tantaline A/S, Nordborgvej 81, 6430 Nordborg (Denmark)

    2012-04-15

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85% phosphoric acid at 150 C and at polarization of 2.5 V/SSCE is tantalum. In that case, even a gentle cathodic polarization is harmful in such an acidic environment. Hydrogen reduction leads to tantalum hydride formation, to loss of mechanical properties and to complete disintegration of the metal. Contrary to tantalum, titanium is free of any corrosion resistance in hot phosphoric acid. Its corrosion rate ranges from tens of millimetres to metres per year depending on temperature of the acid. Alloy bonded tantalum coating was recognized as an effective corrosion protection for both titanium and stainless steel. Its serviceability might be limited by slow dissolution of tantalum that is in order of units of mm/year. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Ultra-low thermal conductivities of hot-pressed attapulgite and its potential as thermal insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuan; Ren, Zhifeng, E-mail: bohr123@163.com, E-mail: zren@uh.edu [Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Wang, Xiuzhang [Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Hubei Key Laboratory of Pollutant Analysis and Reuse Technology and School of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi, Hubei 435002 (China); Wang, Yumei [Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tang, Zhongjia; Makarenko, Tatyana; Guloy, Arnold [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zhang, Qinyong, E-mail: bohr123@163.com, E-mail: zren@uh.edu [Center for Advanced Materials and Energy, Xihua University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610039 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In the past, there have been very few reports on thermal properties of attapulgite which is a widely used clay mineral. In this work, we report on extremely low thermal conductivities in attapulgite samples synthesized by hot-pressing. Attapulgite powder was hot-pressed at different temperatures into bulk samples, and a systematic study was conducted on the microstructures and thermal properties. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis shows that hot-pressing induces a rapid dehydration of the attapulgite powders. X-ray diffraction data and scanning/transmission electron microscopy reveal that the hot-pressed attapulgite features high porosity and complex microstructures, including an amorphous phase. As a result, the hot-pressed attapulgite exhibits thermal conductivity less than 2.5 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} up to 600 °C. For one sample with porosity of 45.7%, the thermal conductivity is as low as 0.34 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} at 50 °C. This suggests the potential of hot-pressed attapulgite as a candidate for thermal barrier materials.

  14. New tube fitting range can slash assembly time, reduce tube material costs and eliminate hot work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    Parker Instrumentation has developed a permanent tube connection technology known as Phastite for use in high pressure applications such as in the offshore oil and gas sector. The Phastite push-fit connector offers major savings over traditional permanent and higher pressure connection techniques such as welded or cone-and-thread tube fittings. It also reduces assembly times by 20-fold or more and eliminates the need for hot work permits. The fittings are designed to withstand working pressures up to 1,379 bar. Phastite tube fittings can be used on offshore platforms, as well as on support vessels,, subsea equipment and ROVs such as hydraulic systems for wellhead control, emergency shut down, chemical injection, pumping packages, gas booster systems and test equipment. The connectors offer considerable savings in material cost and weight because they do not need to be used with more expensive tubing with extra thickness to accommodate a thread. Phastite is also resistant to vibration and does not need any anti-vibration accessories. A joint can be made in a matter of seconds with a simple handheld hydraulic tool that makes the push-fit connection. A sealing mechanism based on a series of defined internal ridges creates a secure seal by radial compression. The ridges grip in a way that retains all of the tubing's strength. An additional characteristic is the maintenance free nature of the Phastite connection. 1 fig.

  15. Hot corrosion behavior of magnesia-stabilized ceramic material in a lithium molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo-Haeng, E-mail: nshcho1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Young [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hyeon, E-mail: jonglee@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The isothermal and cyclic corrosion behaviors of magnesia-stabilized zirconia in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt were investigated at 650 °C in an argon atmosphere. The weights of as-received and corroded specimens were measured and the microstructures, morphologies, and chemical compositions were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. For processes where Li is formed at the cathode during electrolysis, the corrosion rate was about five times higher than those of isothermal and thermal cycling processes. During isothermal tests, the corrosion product Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was formed after 216 h. During thermal cycling, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was not detected until after the completion of 14 cycles. There was no evidence of cracks, pores, or spallation on the corroded surfaces, except when Li was formed. We demonstrate that magnesia-stabilized zirconia is beneficial for increasing the hot corrosion resistance of structural materials subjected to high temperature molten salts containing Li{sub 2}O. - Highlights: •Corrosion mechanism of MSZin LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt is proposed. •Formation of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}is main corrosion mechanism. •There were no cracks, pores and spallation after corrosion test. •MSZ shows high corrosion resistance to LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt.

  16. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 64}Ni + {sup 144,154}Sm reaction -- Energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The fission hindrance of hot nuclei was deduced recently from an enhanced emission of GDR {gamma} rays, neutrons and charged particles prior to scission of heavy nuclei. In the most recent experiments addressing this topic, namely new measurements of the pre-scission {gamma} rays and evaporation residues from the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reaction, a rather sharp transition from negligible to full one-body dissipation occurs over the excitation energy region E{sub exc} = 60-100 MeV. However, the cross section does not appear to level out or start to decline again at the upper end of the energy range as expected in this interpretation. It is therefore clearly desirable to extend the excitation energy range to look for such an effect in order to either corroborate or refute this interpretation.

  17. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP in our section material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP has been diagnozed in our section material in 23 cats, 19 Persian and 4 domestic, of both sexes, aged between 5 months and 8 years. The majority of the infected population were animals under 20 months of age. The macroscopic finding in most cats was of granulomatous character, and large quantities of goldenyellow gelatinous exudate were observed in the stomach cavity of 7 animals, corresponding to the exudative form of FIP. Granulomas were in most cases located in the abdomen wall, liver, spleen, omentum and serous membrane of intestines, and the histological structure was characterized by fibrinoid-necrotic centers with numerous lymphocytes, monocytes, angioblasts and fibroblasts. Immunohistochemically, feline corona virus (FCV antigens were exprimed in the cytoplasm of macrophages, more rarely in plasma cells in granulomas, and sometimes in necrotized areas.

  18. Serial sectioning methods for 3D investigations in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankel, Armin; Wagner, Julian; Poelt, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A variety of methods for the investigation and 3D representation of the inner structure of materials has been developed. In this paper, techniques based on slice and view using scanning microscopy for imaging are presented and compared. Three different methods of serial sectioning combined with either scanning electron or scanning ion microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) were placed under scrutiny: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which facilitates an ultramicrotome built into the chamber of a variable pressure scanning electron microscope; three-dimensional (3D) AFM, which combines an (cryo-) ultramicrotome with an atomic force microscope, and 3D FIB, which delivers results by slicing with a focused ion beam. These three methods complement one another in many respects, e.g., in the type of materials that can be investigated, the resolution that can be obtained and the information that can be extracted from 3D reconstructions. A detailed review is given about preparation, the slice and view process itself, and the limitations of the methods and possible artifacts. Applications for each technique are also provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chapter 2. Experimental testing methods of materials under hot working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossard, C.

    1976-01-01

    The deformation under hot working conditions is defined and the purpose of laboratory tests is explained: strength, structure, hot-workability. The concepts of generalized stress strain and strain rate are introduced. These concepts find an interesting application in the equivalence principle. The different testing methods (tension, compression, torsion) and their possibilities are reviewed. The softening mechanisms are recalled: dynamic recovery and recrystallization, static and post-dynamic recrystallization. To explain the possibilities of simulation tests in hot working conditions, some examples are given: the evaluation of the stress-strain relationship (effect of the mechanical and thermal history); the determination of structural behavior (quenching, controled cooling law, decomposition kinetics) [fr

  20. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  1. Density and field effect on electron-ion collision cross-sections in hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2003-03-01

    Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening

  2. Experimental investigation on influence of porous material properties on drying process by a hot air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Filippeschi, S

    2012-01-01

    The drying process of porous media is a subject of scientific interest, and different mathematical approaches can be found in the literature. A previous paper by the same authors showed that the celebrated Martin correlation for hot air jet heat and mass transfer yields different degrees of accuracy (from 15% to 65%, increasing at high values of input power) if tested on different fabrics, the remaining conditions being the same. In this paper the fabric drying has been experimentally investigated more in depth. A dedicated experimental apparatus for hot jet drying was assembled and operated, in which a hot jet impinges perpendicularly onto a wet fabric. A calibrated orifice was adopted to measure the jet flow rate, with an accuracy better than 3%. The drying power was determined by continuously weighing with a precision scale a moistened patch exposed to the drying jet. The effect of the time of the exposure and the initial amount of water has been evaluated for each sample. During the hot jet exposure, the temperature distribution over the wet patch has been observed by an infrared thermo-camera. A mathematical model of water transport inside and outside the fabric was developed, in order to evidence the governing transport resistances. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the experimental results, and showed the necessity to modify correlations and models accounting for fabric properties.

  3. Direct observation of the growth of voids in multifilamentary superconducting materials via hot stage scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.L.F.; Holthuis, J.T.; Pickus, M.R.; Lindberg, R.W.

    1978-11-01

    The need for large high field magnetic devices has focused attention on multifilamentary superconductors based on A15 compounds such as Nb 3 Sn. The commercial bronze process for fabricating multifilamentary superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires was developed. A major problem is strain sensitivity when long reaction times are employed. An improved hot stage for the scanning electron microscope was constructed to study the formation of the A15 phase by solid state diffusion. The nucleation and growth of voids near the interface of the A15 phase (Nb 3 Sn) and matrix were observed, monitored, and recorded on video tape. Successive layers of material heated in the hot stage were subsequently removed and the new surfaces were re-examined, using SEM-EDX and optical microscopy, to confirm the fact that the observed porosity was indeed a bulk rather than a surface phenomenon. These voids are considered to be a primary cause for degrading the mechanical, thermal and superconducting properties

  4. FINITE-ELEMENT MODELING OF HOT FORMING OF BUSHES MADE FROM HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH A GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF GRAPHITE INCLUSIONS OVER CROSS-SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imitation modeling of direct hot extrusion of bushes made from high-strength cast iron is performed using finite-element method. The evolution of stress and strain fields during processing and the probability of crack formation are evaluated. The specific feature of the work is that during hot forming a special technique was used which permitted obtaining a gradient distribution of graphite inclusions over the cross-section of bushes. The results of modeling are used in certain technologies which are implemented in industrial practice.

  5. New neutron cross sections for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Smither, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron cross sections are being developed for a variety of fusion-related applications including neutron dosimetry, fusion plasma diagnostics, the activation of very long-lived isotopes, and high-energy accelerator neutron sources

  6. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  7. Effect of Phase Change Materials (PCMs Integrated into a Concrete Block on Heat Gain Prevention in a Hot Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a phase change material (PCM contained in an insulated concrete block is tested in extremely hot weather in the United Arab Emirates (UAE to evaluate its cooling performance. An insulated chamber is constructed behind the block containing PCM to mimic a scaled down indoor space. The effect of placement of the PCM layer on heat gain indoors is studied at two locations: adjacent to the outer as well as the inner concrete layer. The inclusion of PCM reduced heat gain through concrete blocks compared to blocks without PCM, yielding a drop in cooling load indoors. The placement of PCM and insulation layers adjacent to indoors exhibited better cooling performance compared to that adjacent to the outdoors. In the best case, a temperature drop of 8.5% and a time lag of 2.6 h are achieved in peak indoor temperature, rendering a reduction of 44% in the heat gain. In the tested hot climate, the higher ambient temperature and the lower wind speed hampered heat dissipation and PCM re-solidification by natural ventilation. The findings recommend employing a mechanical ventilation in hot climates to enhance regeneration of the PCM to solid state for its optimal performance.

  8. Metallic glasses: viable tool materials for the production of surface microstructures in amorphous polymers by micro-hot-embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henann, David L; Srivastava, Vikas; Taylor, Hayden K; Hale, Melinda R; Hardt, David E; Anand, Lallit

    2009-01-01

    Metallic glasses possess unique mechanical properties which make them attractive materials for fabricating components for a variety of applications. For example, the commercial Zr-based metallic glasses possess high tensile strengths (≈2.0 GPa), good fracture toughnesses (≈10–50 MPa√m) and good wear and corrosion resistances. A particularly important characteristic of metallic glasses is their intrinsic homogeneity to the nanoscale because of the absence of grain boundaries. This characteristic, coupled with their unique mechanical properties, makes them ideal materials for fabricating micron-scale components, or high-aspect-ratio micro-patterned surfaces, which may in turn be used as dies for the hot-embossing of polymeric microfluidic devices. In this paper we consider a commercially available Zr-based metallic glass which has a glass transition temperature of T g ≈ 350 °C and describe the thermoplastic forming of a tool made from this material, which has the (negative) microchannel pattern for a simple microfluidic device. This tool was successfully used to produce the microchannel pattern by micro-hot-embossing of the amorphous polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) (T g ≈ 115 °C) and Zeonex-690R (T g ≈ 136 °C) above their glass transition temperatures. The metallic glass tool was found to be very robust, and it was used to produce hundreds of high-fidelity micron-scale embossed patterns without degradation or failure

  9. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  10. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirov, S.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V.; Gladyshev, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed

  11. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  12. DENTAL MATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SAVIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of the students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi on the biocompatibility of the dental materials used in current practice. To this end, we elaborated our own questionnaire, including 10 questions to which 92 students from the last 2 years of study answered. The questionnaire cotains assertions on the potential toxic reactions of the most frequently used dental materials. The students answered correctly to the questions related to the biocompatibility of certain dental materials, such as glass-ionomer cement and calcium hydroxide, and they recognized that allergic reactions determined by acrylic resins may occur. We also noticed the lack of knowledge referring to the irreversible modifications produced by the tooth whitening substances on the enamel and dentin, as well as to the side effects produced by dental amalgam.

  13. Removal cross section for 14 mev neutrons in constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Using flight time difference the direct and scattered neutrons and gammas produced in the target head and samples were separated. With this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head has been studied. Thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete was also measured. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections

  14. Hot Water Treatment, Trunk Diseases and Other Critical Factors in the Production of High-Quality Grapevine Planting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Waite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the critical factors on which successful grapevine propagation depends and discusses the steps that can be taken to improve the quality of planting material available to growers. Spasmodic occurrences of young vine decline and the failure of planting material have plagued the wine industry since the 1990s. The syndrome now described as Petri disease has been identified as the probable cause of many of the failures, but hot water treatment (HWT of dormant cuttings (50°C/30 min, for the control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and other endogenous pathogens, has also been implicated in the losses. HWT is known to cause a temporary switch to fermentative respiration and early retarded growth in treated material, particularly in Pinot Noir, but the effects of HWT on dormant vine tissue are not yet fully understood. Poor nursery hygiene and poor storage and handling practices during propagation and planting have also been implicated in vine failure. Demand for planting material has exceeded supply and there has been little incentive for nurseries to improve their standards. The quality of planting material could be significantly improved by changing nursery practices, particularly by discontinuing the practice of soaking cuttings in water, treated or untreated, and by improving general standards of nursery hygiene and the management of cool rooms. There is a need to develop a set of universal quality standards for cuttings and rooted vines. Growers also need to be made aware of the characteristics and benefits of high quality planting material.

  15. Room temperature deformation mechanisms in ultrafine-grained materials processed by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.Q.; Dirras, G.F.; Benyoucef, M.; Bacroix, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine-grained (uf-g) and microcrystalline-grained (mc-g) irons have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing of nanopowders. The mechanical properties have been characterized by compressive tests at room temperature and the resulting microstructures and textures have been determined by combining electron back scatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A transition of the deformation mode, from work hardening to work softening occurs for grain sizes below ∼1 μm, reflecting a transition of the deformation mode from homogeneous to localized deformation into shear bands (SBs). The homogeneous deformation is found to be lattice dislocation-based while the deformation within SBs involves lattice dislocations as well as boundary-related mechanisms, possibly grain boundary sliding accommodated by boundary opening

  16. A model for radiative heat transfer in mixtures of a hot solid or molten material with water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, L.

    1997-05-01

    A model has been devised for describing the radiative heat transfer in mixtures of a hot radiant material with water and steam, to be used, e.g., in the framework of a multiphase, multicomponent flow simulation. The main features of the model are: 1. The radiative heat transfer is modelled for a homogeneous mixture of one continuous material with droplets/bubbles of the other two, of the kind normally assumed for the material distribution in one cell of a bigger calculational problem. Neither the heat transfer over the cell boundaries nor the finite dimensions of the cell are taken into account. 2. The geometry of the mixture (radiant material continuous or discontinuous, droplet/bubble diameters and number densities) is taken into account. 3. The optical properties of water and water vapour are modelled as functions of the temperature of the radiant and, in the case of water vapour, also of the absorbing material. 4. The model distinguishes between heat transfer to the surface of the water (leading to evaporation) and into the bulk of the water (pure heating). (orig./DG) [de

  17. PIE technology on mechanical tests for HTTR core component and structural materials developed at Research Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizaki, Minoru; Honda, Junichi; Usami, Kouji; Ouchi, Asao; Oeda, Etsuro; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2001-02-01

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) with the target operation temperature of 950degC established the first criticality on November, 1998 based on a large amount of R and D results on fuel and materials. In such R and D works, the development of reactor materials are one of the key issues from the view point of reactor environments such as extremely high temperature, neutron irradiation and so on for the HTTR. The Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) had carried out much kind of post irradiation examinations (PIEs) on core component and pressure vessel materials for during more than a quarter century. And obtained data played an important role in development, characterization and licensing of those materials for the HTTR. This paper describes the PIE technology developed at RHL and typical results on mechanical tests such as elevated temperature tensile and creep rupture tests for Hasteloy-X, Incolloy 800H and so on, and Charpy impact, J IC fracture toughness, K Id fracture toughness and small punch tests for normalized and tempered 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel from historical view. In addition, an electrochemical test technique established for investigating the irradiation embrittlement mechanism on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is also mentioned. (author)

  18. MATERIAL PARAMETER OF RUBBER GLOVE VULCANIZED USING COMBINED INFRARED AND HOT-AIR HEATING

    OpenAIRE

    Tipapon Khamdaeng; Numpon Panyoyai; Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2014-01-01

    Vulcanization is an important chemical-thermal process in production of rubber products resulting in change of material properties, increased elasticity and strength. In general, Young’s modulus is used as an indicator of elastic deformation at loading configuration. However, rubber is not truly elastic and a single parameter is insufficient to describe the whole deformation contributed by microstructure of rubber network. Therefore, we present the material parameters concerning the mec...

  19. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2011-01-01

    The two stroke diesel engine has been continually optimized since its invention more than a century ago. One of the ways to increase fuel efficiency further is to increase the compression ratio, and thereby the temperature in the combustion chamber. Because of this, and the composition of the fuel...... used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49...

  20. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE...

  1. A Study of Moisture Induced Material Loss of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Maine Department of Transportation has noticed the partial or complete loss of material within 2-3 years of construction in the traffic wheel path in the presence of moisture in few of their mixes. Regularly used moisture susceptibility tests are una...

  2. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernyshova, M.; Gribkov, V. A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Bondarenko, G.G.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, December (2016), s. 109-118 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Radiation damageability * Materials tests * Plasma focus * Plasma streams * Ion beams * Laser interferometrya Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616306858

  3. Mechanical Tests Plan after Neutron Irradiation for SMART SG Tube Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Jai; Kim, Do Sik; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Song, Woong Sub; Choo, Kee Nam; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Yong Sun; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    An advanced integral PWR, SMART (System- Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is being developed in KAERI. It has compact size and a relatively small power rating compared to a conventional reactor. The main components such as the steam generators, main circulation pumps are located in the reactor vessel. Therefore they are damaged from neutron irradiations generated from nuclear fuel fissions during operation. The SMART SG tubes which are 17 mm in a diameter and 2.5 mm in a thickness will be made of Alloy 690. To ensure the operation safety the post irradiation examinations is necessary to evaluate the deterioration levels of various original properties. Specially the amount of mechanical properties change should be reflected and revised to design data. For that tensile, fracture, hardness test are planned and under preparations. In this paper the detailed plans are reviewed. Three kinds of materials having different heat treatment procedures are prepared to fabricate specimens. The capsules installed the specimens are going to be irradiated in HANARO. Finally the tests for them will be performed in IMEF, Irradiated Materials Examination Facility at KAERI

  4. Dominant root locus in state estimator design for material flow processes: A case study of hot strip rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Jaromír; Zítek, Pavel; Skopec, Pavel; Knobloch, Jan; Vyhlídal, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to achieve a constrained estimation of process state variables using the anisochronic state observer tuned by the dominant root locus technique. The anisochronic state observer is based on the state-space time delay model of the process. Moreover the process model is identified not only as delayed but also as non-linear. This model is developed to describe a material flow process. The root locus technique combined with the magnitude optimum method is utilized to investigate the estimation process. Resulting dominant roots location serves as a measure of estimation process performance. The higher the dominant (natural) frequency in the leftmost position of the complex plane the more enhanced performance with good robustness is achieved. Also the model based observer control methodology for material flow processes is provided by means of the separation principle. For demonstration purposes, the computer-based anisochronic state observer is applied to the strip temperatures estimation in the hot strip finishing mill composed of seven stands. This application was the original motivation to the presented research. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Fikret

    2013-09-01

    In contrast to past centuries, scientific researchers have been currently conducted systematically in all countries as part of an education strategy. As a consequence, scientists have published thousands of reports. Writing an effective article is generally a significant problem for researchers. All parts of an article, specifically the abstract, material and methods, results, discussion and references sections should contain certain features that should always be considered before sending a manuscript to a journal for publication. It is generally known that the material and methods section is a relatively easy section of an article to write. Therefore, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the materials and methods section, which is also a crucial part of an article. Because "reproducible results" are very important in science, a detailed account of the study should be given in this section. If the authors provide sufficient detail, other scientists can repeat their experiments to verify their findings. It is generally recommended that the materials and methods should be written in the past tense, either in active or passive voice. In this section, ethical approval, study dates, number of subjects, groups, evaluation criteria, exclusion criteria and statistical methods should be described sequentially. It should be noted that a well-written materials and methods section markedly enhances the chances of an article being published.

  6. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  7. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Thermoelectric Generators with Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposited Polysilicon as Thermoelement Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Tarazona, Antulio; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, fabrication, and evaluation of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with p-type polysilicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) as thermoelement material. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. Several test structures were fabricated to allow characterization of the boron-doped polysilicon material deposited by HWCVD. The film was found to be electrically active without any post-deposition annealing. Based on the tests performed on the test structures, it is determined that the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the HWCVD polysilicon are 113 μV/K, 126 W/mK, and 3.58 × 10-5 Ω m, respectively. Results from laser tests performed on the fabricated TEG are in good agreement with the thermal model. The temperature values derived from the thermal model are within 2.8% of the measured temperature values. For a 1-W laser input, an open-circuit voltage and output power of 247 mV and 347 nW, respectively, were generated. This translates to a temperature difference of 63°C across the thermoelements. This paper demonstrates that HWCVD, which is a cost-effective way of producing solar cells, can also be applied in the production of TEGs. By establishing that HWCVD polysilicon can be an effective thermoelectric material, further work on developing photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid microsystems that are cost-effective and better performing can be explored.

  8. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  9. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  10. Possibilities and prospects of investigation of irradiated structural and fuel materials using scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS XL 30 ESEM-TMP installed in the hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanov, V. N.; Novoselov, A.E.; Kuzmin, S.V.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope Philips XL 30 ESEM - TMP with X-ray microanalysis system INCA has been installed at SSC RF RIAR. The microscope is placed in the hot cell. Monitoring and control system is installed in the operator's room. Irradiated specimens are supplied to the hot cell through the transport terminal and installed into the microscope by manipulators. Direct contact of the personnel with radioactive materials is impossible. In addition it is developed the system of remote placement of the irradiated specimens into the specimen chamber of microscope. The system includes a stage with three seats, holders for different types of specimens and equipment for their remote loading in the holders. (Author)

  11. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  12. Depression, quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopause and hot flashes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose; Whiteley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of depression on health-related quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. The study included data from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 41,184), a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. Among women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, women who reported experiencing depression in the last year (n = 1,165) were compared with women who did not report experiencing depression in the last year (n = 2,467), controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-8]), work productivity within the past 7 days, self-reported health care resource use within the past 6 months, and indirect and direct costs. Women experiencing depression were significantly more likely to be white, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, to currently smoke, to not exercise, and to be obese (all P women experiencing depression reported significantly lower mental (39.66 vs 50.85, P work (5.31% vs 2.80%, P work (25.00% vs 14.32%, P women experiencing depression. The numbers of physician visits (2.47 vs 1.77, P women experiencing depression. Per woman per year indirect and direct costs were $3,066 and $1,075 higher, respectively, for women experiencing depression compared with those not experiencing depression. Approximately one-third of women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, also reported experiencing depression. These women reported significantly worse quality of life and significantly greater work productivity loss, health care resource use, and costs. Given the prevalence and burden, these findings suggest that proper assessment and management of depressive symptoms among women with menopause may have an important humanistic and economic benefit.

  13. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  14. Experimental performance evaluation of solid concrete and dry insulation materials for passive buildings in hot and humid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Hassam Ur

    2017-01-01

    average of 22–75% at south wall during summer. Similarly, free floating analysis was done during winter and the measurements showed the behaviour of the heat flux flow and the variations in room temperature due to the variation of thermal mass caused by the difference in heat capacities of the façade with and without insulation. Heat flux and temperature variations were minimal in cases of insulated buildings when compared against a reference building in the winter free flow tests. The temperature variation is limited to 2 °C in case of insulated buildings compared to 6 °C in the reference case caused by high thermal inertia. Thus, insulation is essential in summer as well as in winter for the buildings in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Overall, this paper provides a novel view on the most significant contributors to the thermal behaviour of the structure, and presents a methodology on the outdoor tests with various materials, that can significantly improve the thermal behaviour of the buildings in the extremely hot climate.

  15. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  16. UCN anomalous losses and the UCN capture cross section on material defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A.; Romanenko, N.; Zherebtsov, O.; Lasakov, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Fomin, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Krasnoshekova, I.; Kharitonov, A.; Varlamov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data shows anomalously large ultra cold neutrons (UCN) reflection losses and that the process of UCN reflection is not completely coherent. UCN anomalous losses under reflection cannot be explained in the context of neutron optics calculations. UCN losses by means of incoherent scattering on material defects are considered and cross-section values calculated. The UCN capture cross section on material defects is enhanced by a factor of 10 4 due to localization of UCN around defects. This phenomenon can explain anomalous losses of UCN

  17. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  18. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 100}Mo + {sup 116}Cd reaction -- energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In this experiment we tried to measure the evaporation residue cross section over a wide range of beam energies for the {sup 100}Mo + {sup 116}Cd reaction using the FMA. However, because of longer-than-estimated runs needed at each beam energy, and the difficulty of bending evaporation residues at the higher energies in the FMA, data were taken only at beam energies of E{sub beam} = 460, 490, and 521 MeV, which correspond to excitation energies of E{sub exc} = 62, 78, and 95 MeV, respectively. By comparing to results for the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reactions measured recently, we expect to demonstrate a strong entrance channel effect related to the hindrance of complete fusion in near-symmetric heavy systems (a fusion hindrance factor of the order 7-10 is expected on the basis of the Extra-Push Model). The data are being analyzed.

  19. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  20. Effect of Tooling Material on the Internal Surface Quality of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao; Song, Bo; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Wu; Xue, Pengju; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    For the net-shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process, control of the internal surface roughness of as-HIPped parts remains a challenge for practical engineering. To reveal the evolution mechanism of the internal surface of the parts during the HIP process, the effect of different tooling materials (H13, T8, Cr12 steel, and graphite) as internal cores on the interfacial diffusion and surface roughness was systematically studied.

  1. STRENGTHENING CONCRETE HOLLOW SECTION GIRDER BRIDGE USING POLYURETHANE-CEMENT MATERIAL (PART B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental study to retrofitted reinforced concrete Hollow Section Bridge. The study was carried out on the White River Bridge structure (Bai xi da Qiao / China. The effect of retrofitting on stress and strain of beams at the critical section was studied. Evaluating the bridges girder after strengthening using new material called PolyurethaneCement material (PUC as an external material .This study present the strain and deflection before and after strengthening the bridge girders. The results has shown that the overall state of the bridge structural strengthening is in good condition. The enhancement was significant in stiffness of the bridge structure. Regarding to the results of static load test, the experimental values strain and deflection are less than theoretical values, indicating that the stiffness of the structure, overall deformation and integrity satisfy the designed and standard requirements and the working performance are in good condition, and flexure capacity has a certain surplus.

  2. JSD1000: multi-group cross section sets for shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki

    1984-03-01

    A multi-group cross section library for shielding safety analysis has been produced by using ENDF/B-IV. The library consists of ultra-fine group cross sections, fine-group cross sections, secondary gamma-ray production cross sections and effective macroscopic cross sections for typical shielding materials. Temperature dependent data at 300, 560 and 900 K have been also provided. Angular distributions of the group to group transfer cross section are defined by a new method of ''Direct Angular Representation'' (DAR) instead of the method of finite Legendre expansion. The library designated JSD1000 are stored in a direct access data base named DATA-POOL and data manipulations are available by using the DATA-POOL access package. The 3824 neutron group data of the ultra-fine group cross sections and the 100 neutron, 20 photon group cross sections are applicable to shielding safety analyses of nuclear facilities. This report provides detailed specifications and the access method for the JSD1000 library. (author)

  3. Activity of safety review for the facilities using nuclear material (2). Safety review results and maintenance experiences for hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Tomio; Fujishima, Tadatsune; Mizukoshi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Naoki; Ohmori, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the site of O-arai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), five hot laboratories for post-irradiation examination and development of plutonium fuels are operated more than 30 years. A safety review method for preventive maintenance on these hot laboratories includes test facilities and devices are established in 2003. After that, the safety review of these facilities and devices are done and taken the necessary maintenance based on the results in each year. In 2008, 372 test facilities and devices in these hot laboratories were checked and reviewed by this method. As a results of the safety review, repair issues of 38 facilities of above 372 facilities were resolved. This report shows the review results and maintenance experiences based on the results. (author)

  4. Energy-averaged neutron cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; McKnight, R.; Smith, D.

    1978-02-01

    The status of energy-averaged cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials is outlined with emphasis on U.S. data programs in the neutron-energy range 1-10 MeV. Areas of outstanding accomplishment and significant uncertainty are noted with recommendations for future efforts. Attention is primarily given to the main constituents of stainless steel (e.g., Fe, Ni, and Cr) and, secondarily, to alternate structural materials (e.g., V, Ti, Nb, Mo, Zr). Generally, the mass regions of interest are A approximately 50 to 60 and A approximately 90 to 100. Neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections are discussed with the implication on the non-elastic-cross sections. Cross sections governing discrete-inelastic-neutron-energy transfers are examined in detail. Cross sections for the reactions (n;p), (n;n',p), (n;α), (n;n',α) and (n;2n') are reviewed in the context of fast-reactor performance and/or diagnostics. The primary orientation of the discussion is experimental with some additional attention to the applications of theory, the problems of evaluation and the data sensitivity of representative fast-reactor systems

  5. A model for construction of efficiency and stability maps of hot working processes in polycrystalline metallic materials using the Garofalo's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieiro, I.; Fernandez, A.; Martinez, A.; Casi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Has been developed a fast and easy method for to evaluate the efficiency of the process and some or possible stabilities situations in the hot working process for the polycrystalline metallic materials (p.m.m.), by the obtained dates in the Garofalo's equation resolution for the steady state creep and for wide ranges of the work variables, stress, strain rate and temperature. These method use the fitting parameters obtained for the equation mentioned and of their physical meaning. Has been developed the numerical treatment from our previously developed software for the analysis of creep and we can obtained the efficiency energetic maps for the creep and the more generally advises areas for the hot working. Further more has been obtained maps for parameters of great physical significance; f.e. the effective activation energy for different areas of the materials hot working, and in addition has been developed a method for obtained the values of {n P L} for the different ranges of power-law application, when has been obtained the value of { n G } in the Garofalo's equation. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Cross-section of single-crystal materials used as thermal neutron filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission properties of several single crystal materials important for neutron scattering instrumentation are presented. A computer codes are developed which permit the calculation of thermal diffuse and Bragg-scattering cross-sections of silicon., and sapphire as a function of material's constants, temperature and neutron energy, E, in the range 0.1 MeV .A discussion of the use of their single-crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons is given

  7. Some recent results from European sounding rocket and satellite observations of the hot magnetospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1979-03-01

    A brief summary of some recent results from European studies of the hot magnetospheric plasma is presented. The material is organized in four main sections: 1) Observations of keV auroral electrons. 2) Observation of the hot ion component of the magnetospheric plasma. 3) Sudden changes of the distribution of the hot plasma in the dayside magnetosphere. 4) Banded electron cyclotron harmonic instability in the magnetosphere - a first comparison of theory and experiment. (E.R.)

  8. Comparative evaluation of photon cross section libraries for materials of interest in PET Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1999-01-01

    the many applications of Monte Carlo modelling in nuclear medicine imaging make it desirable to increase the accuracy and computational speed of Monte Carlo codes. The accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations strongly depends on the accuracy in the probability functions and thus on the cross section libraries used for photon transport calculations. A comparison between different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations implemented in Monte Carlo simulation packages developed for positron emission tomography and the most recent Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL97) developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed for several human tissues and common detector materials for energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV. Different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations show quite large variations as compared to the EPDL97 coefficients. This latter library is more accurate and was carefully designed in the form of look-up tables providing efficient data storage, access, and management. Toge...

  9. {pi}{pi}-correlations in hot and dense matter; {pi}{pi}-Korrelationen in heisser und dichter Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhorst, C.

    2006-07-01

    Properties of the {pi}{pi}-interactions in hot and dense matter are studied within a nonperturbative and symmetry conserving approach. The pion and its chiral partner, the {sigma}-meson, are described within the linear {sigma} model and special attention is given to the conservation of the underlying chiral symmetry. The first part deals with the properties of pion and {sigma} in the vacuum, the further being the ''Goldstone''-boson of the theory, while the latter is a broad resonance. The results in the vacuum are tested against experimental results like {pi}{pi}-phase shifts as well as the mass and the width of the {sigma}-meson. Besides the propagator of the {sigma}-meson, the preservation of the chiral symmetry is explicitly examined and chiral Ward identities for the n-point functions of the theory are fulfilled. Furthermore the {pi}{pi}-scattering matrix is calculated and shown to be consistent with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. In the second part of this work the model is extended to finite temperature with special emphasis on the chiral phase transition. The transition temperature and the critical exponent {beta} are determined, and the influence of the temperature on the propagator of the s-meson as well as on the {pi}{pi}-scattering matrix is examined. The third part deals with the properties of pion and {sigma} in dense matter. Additional couplings like the ones to particle-hole excitations and short range repulsion have to be included to ensure stability at nuclear matter density. At zero three momentum one observes a strong downward shift of the {sigma}-mass accompanied by an accumulation of strength near the two-pion threshhold in the spectral function. Taking into account a finite three momentum for the {pi}{pi}-pair, respectively the {sigma}-meson, one observes a weakening of the aforementioned effect. Having thus developed a model for the {pi}{pi}-interaction at finite temperature and density, we try to describe

  10. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, A.; Gutsmiedl, E.

    1999-01-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examined in the temperature range between -256 deg. C and 250 deg. C. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was take into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-V samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256 deg. C and 150 deg. C to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to take into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of ∼ 1x10 22 n/cm 2 was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As an additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studies. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfill the leak before rupture

  11. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsmiedl, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examined in the temperature range between -256degC and 250degC. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was taken into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-V samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256degC and 150degC to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to taken into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of ∼1·10 22 n/cm 2 was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As an additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studies. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfill the leak before rupture criteria of

  12. Improvement of the including sink material for around steel pot hot water department; Yokoka yuataribuyo nagashikomizai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakiwara, R.

    1999-02-01

    As for life of steel pot, there are many rates which a place hit part occupies even in some copies. How to construct the castable which was different from other parts was examined, and it worked for high durability performance only around the hot water hit city for that. It worked for the life extension by this report to prevent spool for which to be a main damage factor thunder big fault grains were increased it was added .20% of the durability improvement could be confirmed so far more than goods as that result by adding big fault grain 40%. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Application of carbon fiber composite materials for the collision sections of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betzold, H.; Lippmann, G.

    1991-01-01

    Components made of carbon fiber composite material (CFCM) with Epoxy or BMI matrix were designed for various applications such as vacuum tubes, vertex chambers or support structures. The outstanding properties of CFCM which in many aspects are superior to metal structures especially qualify CFCM components for use in the collision sections of particle accelerators. A total of some 50 m of CFCM beam-tubes and of around 20 different CFCM structures and support elements of various configurations were produced following the specific needs and requirements of high energy particle physics at CERN, DESY and several other research institutes

  14. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  15. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  16. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  17. Thermal performance of circular convective–radiative porous fins with different section shapes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LSM is an accurate technique for simulating heat transfer in circular porous fins. • Rectangular, convex, triangular and exponential variable sections are considered. • Radiation and convection from porous fin are considered. • Effects of material and geometry on heat transfer from fins are studied. - Abstract: In this study, heat transfer and temperature distribution equations for circular convective–radiative porous fins are presented. It’s assumed that the thickness of circular fins varies with radius so four different shapes, rectangular, convex, triangular and exponential, are considered. The heat transfer through porous media is simulated using passage velocity from the Darcy’s model. After deriving equation for each geometry, Least Square Method (LSM) and fourth order Runge–Kutta method (NUM) are applied for predicting the temperature distribution in the porous fins. The selected porous fin’s materials are Al, SiC, Cu and Si 3 N 4 . Results reveal that LSM has very effective and accurate in comparison with the numerical results. As a main outcome, Si 3 N 4 -exponential section fin has the maximum amount of transferred heat among other fins

  18. The strength of compressed structures with CFRP materials reinforcement when exceeding the cross-section size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polskoy, Petr; Mailyan, Dmitry; Georgiev, Sergey; Muradyan, Viktor

    2018-03-01

    The increase of high-rise construction volume or «High-Rise Construction» requires the use of high-strength concrete and that leads to the reduction in section size of structures and to the decrease in material consumption. First of all, it refers to the compressed elements for which, when the transverse dimensions are reduced, their flexibility and deformation increase but the load bearing capacity decreases. Growth in construction also leads to the increase of repair and restoration works or to the strengthening of structures. The most effective method of their strengthening in buildings of «High-Rise Construction» is the use of composite materials which reduces the weight of reinforcement elements and labour costs on execution of works. In this article the results of experimental research on strength and deformation of short compressed reinforced concrete structures, reinforced with external carbon fiber reinforcement, are presented. Their flexibility is λh=10, and the cross-section dimensions ratio b/h is 2, that is 1,5 times more, than recommended by standards in Russia. The following research was being done for three kinds of strained and deformed conditions with different variants of composite reinforcement. The results of the experiment proved the real efficiency of composite reinforcement of the compressed elements with sides ratio equal to 2, increasing the bearing capacity of pillars till 1,5 times. These results can be used for designing the buildings of different number of storeys.

  19. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  20. Direct investigation of (sub-) surface preparation artifacts in GaAs based materials by FIB sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, Jürgen; Beyer, Andreas; Torunski, Torsten; Stolz, Wolfgang; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of preparation artifacts is almost inevitable when producing samples for (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). These artifacts can be divided in extrinsic artifacts like damage processes and intrinsic artifacts caused by the deviations from the volume strain state in thin elastically strained material systems. The reduction and estimation of those effects is of great importance for the quantitative analysis of (S)TEM images. Thus, optimized ion beam preparation conditions are investigated for high quality samples. Therefore, the surface topology is investigated directly with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the actual TEM samples. Additionally, the sectioning of those samples by a focused ion beam (FIB) is used to investigate the damage depth profile directly in the TEM. The AFM measurements show good quantitative agreement of sample height modulation due to strain relaxation to finite elements simulations. Strong indications of (sub-) surface damage by ion beams are observed. Their influence on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging is estimated with focus on thickness determination by absolute intensity methods. Data consolidation of AFM and TEM measurements reveals a 3.5 nm surface amorphization, negligible surface roughness on the scale of angstroms and a sub-surface damage profile in the range of up to 8.0 nm in crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) and GaAs-based ternary alloys. A correction scheme for thickness evaluation of absolute HAADF intensities is proposed and applied for GaAs based materials. - Highlights: • The damage by Ar-ion milling during TEM sample preparation is investigated directly. • After FIB sectioning damage and deep disorder of c-GaAs is seen in cross-section. • The influence of such disorder on conventional ADF measurements is estimated. • A correction for HAADF measurements is proposed with focus on thickness estimations.

  1. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  2. Photoprompted Hot Electrons from Bulk Cross-Linked Graphene Materials and Their Efficient Catalysis for Atmospheric Ammonia Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tengfei; Ge, Zhen; Chang, Huicong; Xiao, Peishuang; Xie, Yuanyuan; Hua, Lei; Li, Qingyun; Li, Haiyang; Ma, Bo; Guan, Naijia; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-11-22

    Ammonia synthesis is the single most important chemical process in industry and has used the successful heterogeneous Haber-Bosch catalyst for over 100 years and requires processing under both high temperature (300-500 °C) and pressure (200-300 atm); thus, it has huge energy costs accounting for about 1-3% of human's energy consumption. Therefore, there has been a long and vigorous exploration to find a milder alternative process. Here, we demonstrate that by using an iron- and graphene-based catalyst, Fe@3DGraphene, hot (ejected) electrons from this composite catalyst induced by visible light in a wide range of wavelength up to red could efficiently facilitate the activation of N 2 and generate ammonia with H 2 directly at ambient pressure using light (including simulated sun light) illumination directly. No external voltage or electrochemical or any other agent is needed. The production rate increases with increasing light frequency under the same power and with increasing power under the same frequency. The mechanism is confirmed by the detection of the intermediate N 2 H 4 and also with a measured apparent activation energy only ∼1/4 of the iron based Haber-Bosch catalyst. Combined with the morphology control using alumina as the structural promoter, the catalyst retains its activity in a 50 h test.

  3. Improvement of nuclear reactor component materials by application of hot isostatic processing (HIP). Survey report on Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.

    1975-12-01

    The report summarizes the results of an EPRI-sponsored state-of-the-art survey of hot isostatic processing (HIP). The purpose of the study was to identify potential nuclear plant applications of HIP with high pay-off through improvement in component quality and reliability. The survey shows that HIP will reduce cost and manufacturing time and improve quality and ease of nondestructive examination of all castings for which porosity is a problem. Nuclear valves are a prime example. Tubing, pipe, and sheet and bar present other possibilities of somewhat less immediate promise. This report includes a review of some of the EPRI motivations for undertaking this research; a brief explanation of HIP, the survey methodology exployed; the basic operations in the processes studied; a review of the historical applications of HIP to problem areas consistent with those addressed in the survey; the results of the survey and associated analyses of the problems; and the recommendations and justifications for the Phase II program

  4. Microstructure and High-temperature Wear Behavior of Hot-dipped Aluminized Coating on Different Substrate Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU De-qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminized 45 and H13 steel were prepared via hot-dipped aluminizing and subsequently high-temperature diffusion treatment. The phase, morphology and composition of aluminized coating were characterized by XRD,SEM and EDS methods. Comparative study was performed on unlubricated sliding wear behavior of plating under different substrates on a pin-on-disc wear tester, and the wear mechanism was explored. The results show that the coating is composed of ductile phases FeAl and Fe3Al. Kikendall porosity parallel to the surface exists around the interface of the two phases; because of the carbide particles agglomeration, the bond between the coating and H13 steel is apparently inferior to that in the case of 45 steel; the aluminized 45 steel possesses an excellent wear resistance under 50-200N at 400℃, whereas mild-to-severe wear transition occurs when the temperature increases to 600℃. The wear rate of the aluminized H13 steel reaches the lowest at 400℃, then slightly increases at 600℃. The wear mechanisms of Fe-Al coating are mainly predominated by oxidative mild wear, whereas the extrusion wear prevails in the process for aluminized 45 steel at 600℃.

  5. Measurements and calculations of integral capture cross-sections of structural materials in fast reactor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, S.; Brunson, G.; Gmuer, K.; Jermann, M.; McCombie, C.; Richmond, R.; Schmocker, U.

    1979-01-01

    This paper relates the checking of integral data of steel and iron in fast reactor lattices. The fully-rodded GCFR benchmark lattice of the zero-energy reactor PROTEUS was successively modified by replacing the PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods by steel-18/8 or steel-37 (iron) rods. The neutron spectra of the modified lattices in fact have median energies close to that of a typical LMFBR. The replacement of fuel by the structural material of interest was such that in each case the value of k(infinity) was reduced to near-unity. This allowed the measurement of the lattice-k(infinity) by the null-reactivity technique. In addition, the principal reaction rates (namely U238 capture and fission, relative to Pu239 fission) and the neutron spectrum were measured. These directly measured integral data which are particularly sensitive to the steel cross-sections can be used for the checking and systematic adjustment of data sets. The results may also be analysed so as to derive specific values for the integral capture cross-sections of steel and iron. Neutron balance equations were set-up for each of the lattices using the measured k(infinity) and reaction rates

  6. Trace elements with large activation cross section in concrete materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Iida, Takao; Moriizumi, Jun; Sakuma, Yoichi; Takada, Jitsuya; Yamasaki, Keizo; Yoshimoto, Takaaki

    2001-01-01

    Amounts of trace elements with large activation cross section in concrete materials were measured to offer the basic data for developing of low activation concrete. From the measurements, the quantities of the activated radioactivities in biological shielding concrete were measured and evaluated for the clearance level. The average concentrations of 60 Co, 152 Eu and 134 Cs formed in concrete were 21.9, 1.08 and 3.21 ppm, respectively. The combination of the concrete materials for the most lowering concentrations of 60 Co, 152 Eu and 134 Cs was the limestone as aggregate and the white Portland cement produced in specific places. The most lowering concentrations of this limestone concrete were 0.16, 0.049 and 0.060 ppm, respectively. The limestone concrete was excellent as biological shielding concrete, because the neutron shielding effect was excellent a little compared with ordinary concrete. If this concrete used for biological shielding concrete, concrete waste will be able to handle as follows. Usage of this limestone low-activated concrete makes almost all concretes satisfy the clearance level for 60 Co after 20 yr cooling from decommissioning. In respect of 152 Eu, radioactivation quantity in the biological shielding concrete is reduced up to a half of the average value or less. With regard to 134 Cs, all concrete satisfies the clearance level. (author)

  7. GORGON - a computer code for the calculation of energy deposition and the slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Moritz, N.; Tahir, N.A.

    1983-11-01

    The computer code GORGON, which calculates the energy deposition and slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot plasmas is described, and analyzed in this report. This code is in a state of continuous development but an intermediate stage has been reached where it is considered useful to document the 'state of the art' at the present time. The GORGON code is an improved version of a code developed by Zinamon et al. as part of a more complex program system for studying the hydrodynamic motion of plane metal targets irradiated by intense beams of protons. The improvements made in the code were necessary to improve its usefulness for problems related to the design and burn of heavy ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion targets. (orig./GG) [de

  8. Knowledge Based Cloud FE simulation - data-driven material characterization guidelines for the hot stamping of aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ailing; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Masen, Marc; Wang, Liliang

    2016-08-01

    The Knowledge Based Cloud FEA (KBC-FEA) simulation technique allows multiobjective FE simulations to be conducted on a cloud-computing environment, which effectively reduces computation time and expands the capability of FE simulation software. In this paper, a novel functional module was developed for the data mining of experimentally verified FE simulation results for metal forming processes obtained from KBC-FE. Through this functional module, the thermo-mechanical characteristics of a metal forming process were deduced, enabling a systematic and data-driven guideline for mechanical property characterization to be developed, which will directly guide the material tests for a metal forming process towards the most efficient and effective scheme. Successful application of this data-driven guideline would reduce the efforts for material characterization, leading to the development of more accurate material models, which in turn enhance the accuracy of FE simulations.

  9. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  10. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  11. Modeling of hot tensile and short-term creep strength for LWR piping materials under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Y.; Maruyama, Y.; Chino, E.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.; Hidaka, A.; Hashimoto, K.; Sugimoto, J.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical study on severe accident shows the possibility of the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping failure before reactor pressure vessel failure under the high primary pressure sequence at pressurized water reactors. The establishment of the high-temperature strength model of the realistic RCS piping materials is important in order to predict precisely the accident progression and to evaluate the piping behavior with small uncertainties. Based on material testing, the 0.2% proof stress and the ultimate tensile strength above 800degC were given by the equations of second degree as a function of the reciprocal absolute temperature considering the strength increase due to fine precipitates for the piping materials. The piping materials include type 316 stainless steel, type 316 stainless steel of nuclear grade, CF8M cast duplex stainless steel and STS410 carbon steel. Also the short-term creep rupture time and the minimum creep rate at high-temperature were given by the modified Norton's Law as a function of stress and temperature considering the effect of the precipitation formation and resolution on the creep strength. The present modified Norton's Law gives better results than the conventional Larson-Miller method. Correlating the creep data (the applied stress versus the minimum creep rate) with the tensile data (the 0.2% proof stress or the ultimate tensile strength versus the strain rate), it was found that the dynamic recrystallization significantly occurred at high-temperature. (author)

  12. Effect of ion-irradiation on the microstructure and microhardness of the W-2Y2O3 composite materials fabricated by sintering and hot forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battabyal, M.; Spätig, P.; Baluc, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • W-2Y 2 O 3 material is fabricated using sintering and hot forging method with 99.3 vol.% density. • Microstructure and microhardness of the material after heavy ion irradiation are almost similar irrespective of the sample holder heating temperatures. • Dislocation loops are found on the W grains of irradiated sample where as radiation induced fine voids are observed on yttria particles. • We also observe few radiation loops on yttria particles. • No surface crack at the grain boundary is observed and significant difference in radiation hardening is confirmed. -- Abstract: A W-2Y 2 O 3 material was developed in collaboration with the Plansee Company (Austria). An ingot of the material having approximate dimension of 95 mm × 20 mm was fabricated by mixing the elemental powders followed by pressing, sintering and hot forging. The microstructure of the W-2Y 2 O 3 composite was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microhardness was studied using nano-indentation technique. We observed that the W-grains having a mean size of about 1 μm already formed and these grains contain very low density of dislocations. The size of the yttria particles was between 300 nm and 1 μm and the Berkovich hardness was about 4.8 GPa. The specimens were irradiated/implanted with Fe and He ions at JANNuS facility located at Orsay/Saclay, France. The TEM disks kept were irradiated/implanted at 300 and 700 °C using Fe and He ions with an energy of 24 and 2 MeV, respectively. The calculated radiation dose was about 5 dpa produced by Fe ions and total He content is 75 appm at both 300 and 700 °C. From the TEM investigation of irradiated samples, few radiation loops are present on the W grains, whereas on yttria particles, the radiation induced damages appear as voids. Berkovich hardness of the irradiated sample is higher than that of the non-irradiated sample. Results on the microstructure and microhardness of the ion-irradiated W-2Y 2 O 3

  13. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Opening talk of the workshop 'Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' was given by Marin Ciocanescu with the communication 'Overview of R and D Program in Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research'. The works of the meeting were structured into three sections addressing the following items: Session 1. Hot cell facilities: Infrastructure, Refurbishment, Decommissioning; Session 2. Waste, transport, safety and remote handling issues; Session 3. Post-Irradiation examination techniques. In the frame of Section 1 the communication 'Overview of hot cell facilities in South Africa' by Wouter Klopper, Willie van Greunen et al, was presented. In the framework of the second session there were given the following four communications: 'The irradiated elements cell at PHENIX' by Laurent Breton et al., 'Development of remote equipment for DUPIC fuel fabrication at KAERI', by Jung Won Lee et al., 'Aspects of working with manipulators and small samples in an αβγ-box, by Robert Zubler et al., and 'The GIOCONDA experience of the Joint Research Centre Ispra: analysis of the experimental assemblies finalized to their safe recovery and dismantling', by Roberto Covini. Finally, in the framework of the third section the following five communications were presented: 'PIE of a CANDU fuel element irradiated for a load following test in the INR TRIGA reactor' by Marcel Parvan et al., 'Adaptation of the pole figure measurement to the irradiated items from zirconium alloys' by Yury Goncharenko et al., 'Fuel rod profilometry with a laser scan micrometer' by Daniel Kuster et al., 'Raman spectroscopy, a new facility at LECI laboratory to investigate neutron damage in irradiated materials' by Lionel Gosmain et al., and 'Analysis of complex nuclear materials with the PSI shielded analytical instruments' by Didier Gavillet. In addition, eleven more presentations were given as posters. Their titles were: 'Presentation of CETAMA activities (CEA analytic group)' by Alain Hanssens et al. 'Analysis of

  14. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  15. Determination of nitrogen in UO2 pellets by hot extraction-TCD method without using flux material and evaluation of associated measurement uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Zahida; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of non metallic impurity elements like nitrogen above the specified limit of 75 ppm (max.) in fuel pellets affects the sintered density of fuel and also effect the Zircaloy fuel clad by forming brittle nitride phase. Hence, estimation of nitrogen plays an important role in qualifying the fuel material. Conventionally, Kjeldahl steam distillation followed by UV-Visible Spectro-photometric method has been widely employed for the estimation of nitrogen in UO 2 pellets. However, inherent chemical treatment processes causes the blank variations and provides the scope for uncertainty in measurements apart from being time consuming method. This makes Kjeldahl method as an un-attractive choice for any industrial lab where high analytical loads usually exist to meet the production targets and also where urgency for quick analytical feedback is an issue. In view of this, a simple, rapid and reliable method using A LECO Model TN- 600 Nitrogen analyzer based on Hot Extraction (HT) without adding any flux material followed by Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD) has been developed for routine analysis. Several flux materials like Pt or Ni are used to bring down the temperature of extraction due to formation of stable uranium nitrides and temperatures of 2500°C is maintained for quantitative extraction. However usage of flux materials leads to several practical problems in analysis like deposition of uranium carbide dust onto the upper electrode requiring tedious cleaning and even sometimes causing the breakage of crucibles during the analysis. Thus an attempt has been made to increase the temperatures closer to 3000°C without using flux. Working temperature of 2900°C was arrived by plotting quantity of nitrogen extracted with temperature of extraction and flattening of plot took place at 2900°C

  16. Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

  17. Characterization of Material Properties at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada by Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Feigl, K. L.; Patterson, J.; Parker, L.; Reinisch, E. C.; Zeng, X.; Cardiff, M. A.; Fratta, D.; Lord, N. E.; Thurber, C. H.; Robertson, M.; Miller, D. E.; Akerley, J.; Kreemer, C.; Morency, C.; Davatzes, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    The PoroTomo project consists of poroelastic tomography by adjoint inverse modeling of data from seismology, geodesy, and hydrology. The goal of the PoroTomo project is to assess an integrated technology for characterizing and monitoring changes in the rock mechanical properties of an enhanced geothermal system in 3 dimensions with a spatial resolution better than 50 meters. In March 2016, we deployed the integrated technology in a 1500-by-500-by-400-meter volume at Brady. The 15-day deployment included 4 distinct time intervals with intentional manipulations of the pumping rates in injection and production wells. The data set includes: active seismic sources, fiber-optic cables for Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) arranged vertically in a borehole to 400 m depth and horizontally in a trench 8700 m in length and 0.5 m in depth; 244 seismometers on the surface, 3 pressure sensors in observation wells, continuous geodetic measurements at 3 GPS stations, and 7 InSAR acquisitions. To account for the mechanical behavior of both the rock and the fluids, we are developing numerical models for the 3-D distribution of the material properties. We present an overview of results, including:Tomographic images of P-wave velocity estimated from seismic body waves [Thurber et al., this meeting].Tomographic images of phase velocity estimated from ambient noise correlation functions [Zeng et al., this meeting].Models of volumetric contraction to account for subsidence observed by InSAR and GPS [Reinisch et al., this meeting].Interpretation of pressure and temperature data [Patterson et al., this meeting].Taken together, these results support a conceptual model of highly permeable conduits along faults channeling fluids from shallow aquifers to the deep geothermal reservoir tapped by the production wells. The PoroTomo project is funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Results of work in the hot cells of Laboratory Testing Materials Irradiated Areva of Carina project for the expansion of the database of mechanical characteristics of fractures in materials of RPV German irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmes, J.; Schabel, H.; Hein, H.; Kein, E.; Eiselt, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the already completed research projects CARINA and its predecessor CARISMA a data base was created for pre-irradiated original RPV steels of German PWRs which allowed to examine the consequences if the Master Curve (T 0 ) approach instead of the RT N OT concept is applied to the RPV safety assessment. Furthermore in CARINA different irradiation conditions with respect to the accumulated neutron fluences and specific impact parameters were investigated. Besides a brief introduction of the CARINA project and an overview of the main results an overview on the requirements of the hot laboratory work in terms of specimen manufacturing and material testing is given and examples for realization are shown. (Author)

  19. Enhancement in the microstructure and neutron shielding efficiency of sandwich type of 6061Al–B4C composite material via hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Hong, Sung-Mo; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rhee, Won-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 6061Al–B 4 C neutron shielding composites are fabricated by sintering and HIP. • HIP process improves the wettability of B 4 C particles into 6061Al matrix. • Neutron attenuation performance can be enhanced by application of HIP process. - Abstract: Sandwich type of 6061Al–B 4 C composite plates, which are used as a thermal neutron absorber for spent nuclear fuel pool storage rack, were fabricated using two different consolidation ways as sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) processes and their thermal neutron shielding efficiency was investigated as a function of B 4 C concentration ranging from 0 to 40 wt.%. For this purpose, two respective inner core compaction parts of sintered and HIPped neutron absorbing composite materials were first produced and then cladded them between two outer plates by HIP process. The application of HIP process provided not only a lead of excellent interfacial adhesion due to the improved wettability but also an enhancement of thermal neutron shielding efficiency owing to the more uniform dispersion of B 4 C particles

  20. Life prolongation of hot metal ladle by improved shape and material of the bricks; Renga keijo to zaishitsu kaizen ni yoru yosenka jumyo no encho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Toru.; Mori, Hajime.; Fukushima, Hironori.; Iiyama, Makoto. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Keihin Works, NKK, intended to extend life of a hot metal ladle and reduction of refractory cost by improving shapes and materials of bricks. The refractory composition of the ladle is a 4-layer structure constituted of a permanent lining comprising 3 layers of agalmatolite bricks and a 180 mm thick work lining. High alumina bricks are used for a free board part and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C bricks for the slag line part to the ground part. Elevation of the pore rate was observed from the working face to the back face in a brick after use. The former is considered caused by densification of structure and the latter by embrittlement by oxidation. Cracks parallel to the working face are considered caused by structural spalling by the difference of the physical properties. Since cracks vertical to the working face are observed, the finite element method (FEM) thermal stress analysis is applied to inspect the possibility of cracks by thermal stress. A brick whose degree of sintering was suppressed was tri allyl manufactured. It brought wide extension of life and reduction of refractory cost. (NEDO)

  1. 16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certain materials or products under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act. 1500.91... Safety Improvement Act. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act provides for specific lead limits..., flowers, bone, sea shell, coral, amber, feathers, fur, leather. (e) The following metals and alloys do not...

  2. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  3. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  4. 3D imaging of cement-based materials at submicron resolution by combining laser scanning confocal microscopy with serial sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yio, M H N; Mac, M J; Wong, H S; Buenfeld, N R

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to reconstruct large volumes of nontransparent porous materials at submicron resolution. The proposed method combines fluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy with serial sectioning to produce a series of overlapping confocal z-stacks, which are then aligned and stitched based on phase correlation. The method can be extended in the XY plane to further increase the overall image volume. Resolution of the reconstructed image volume does not degrade with increase in sample size. We have used the method to image cementitious materials, hardened cement paste and concrete and the results obtained show that the method is reliable. Possible applications of the method such as three-dimensional characterization of the pores and microcracks in hardened concrete, three-dimensional particle shape characterization of cementitious materials and three-dimensional characterization of other porous materials such as rocks and bioceramics are discussed. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Fusion reactor materials program plan. Section 2. Damage analysis and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The scope of this program includes: (1) Development of procedures for characterizing neutron environments of test facilities and fusion reactors, (2) Theoretical and experimental investigations of the influence of irradiation environment on damage production, damage microstructure evolution, and mechanical and physical property changes, (3) Identification and, where appropriate, development of essential nuclear and materials data, and (4) Development of a methodology, based on damage mechanisms, for correlating the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to diverse test environments and projecting this behavior to magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) environments. Some major problem areas are addressed

  6. Removal cross section for 14 MeV neutrons in constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    Using flight time difference the direct and scattered neutrons and gammas produced in the target head and samples were separated. With this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head has been studied. Thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete was also measured. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections. (author)

  7. The effects of composition and thermal path on hot ductility of forging steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brendan M.

    This work examines the effects of composition and thermal path on the hot ductility of several forging steels with varied aluminum and nitrogen content. The primary mechanisms and controlling factors related to hot ductility are identified with a focus on the role of precipitates and segregation. The unique thermal paths and solidification structures of large cross-section forging ingots are discussed. Hot ductility testing is performed in a manner that approximates industrial conditions experienced by large cross-section forging ingots. A computer model for precipitation of aluminum nitride and vanadium nitride in austenite is presented. Industrial material is examined for comparison to experimental findings. It is found that increased aluminum and nitrogen content coarsens the as-solidified structure. The combined effects of microsegregation and uphill diffusion during deformation allow for carbide precipitation at prior austenite grain boundaries which reduces the hot ductility.

  8. A new hot pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcey, J.

    1975-01-01

    An original hot pressing method which may be applied to ceramics, metals, and refractory powders is described. The products obtained are fine grained polycristalline materials, with homogeneous structure, very high density, unstrained and of very large dimensions (several square meters). This process equally applies to composite materials including powders, fibers, etc.. [fr

  9. Quantification of Material Fluorescence and Light Scattering Cross Sections Using Ratiometric Bandwidth-Varied Polarized Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Joanna Xiuzhu; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Dongmao

    2018-05-25

    Presented herein is the ratiometric bandwidth-varied polarized resonance synchronous spectroscopy (BVPRS2) method for quantification of material optical activity spectra. These include the sample light absorption and scattering cross-section spectrum, the scattering depolarization spectrum, and the fluorescence emission cross-section and depolarization spectrum in the wavelength region where the sample both absorbs and emits. This ratiometric BVPRS2 spectroscopic method is a self-contained technique capable of quantitatively decoupling material fluorescence and light scattering signal contribution to its ratiometric BVPRS2 spectra through the linear curve-fitting of the ratiometric BVPRS2 signal as a function of the wavelength bandwidth used in the PRS2 measurements. Example applications of this new spectroscopic method are demonstrated with materials that can be approximated as pure scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers/emitters, simultaneous photon absorbers/scatterers, and finally simultaneous photon absorbers/scatterers/emitters. Because the only instruments needed for this ratiometric BVPRS2 technique are the conventional UV-vis spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, this work should open doors for routine decomposition of material UV-vis extinction spectrum into its absorption and scattering component spectra. The methodology and insights provided in this work should be of broad significance to all chemical research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  10. Is ambient heat exposure levels associated with miscarriage or stillbirths in hot regions? A cross-sectional study using survey data from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Benedict; Kjellstrom, Tord; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2018-03-01

    It is well established that high ambient heat could cause congenital abnormalities resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth among certain species of mammals. However, this has not been systematically studied in real field settings among humans, despite the potential value of such knowledge for estimating the impact of global warming on the human species. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maternal heat exposure during pregnancy in hot regions is associated with increased prevalence of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths and to develop an analytical strategy to use existing data from maternal health surveys and existing data on historical heat levels at a geographic grid cell level. A subsample of the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 was used in this study. This study sample consisted of 1136 women with pregnancy experiences between 2004 and 2007, out of which 141 women had a pregnancy that terminated in miscarriage or stillbirth. Induced-abortion cases were excluded. The linkage between ambient heat exposure and pregnancy outcome followed the epidemiological time-place-person principle, by linking timing of pregnancy outcome with historical data of local area heat levels for each month, as estimated in an international database. Maternal heat exposure level was estimated using calculated levels of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), which takes into account temperature, humidity, heat radiation, and air movement over the skin (wind speed). The values we used applied to exposure in the shade or in buildings without cooling (no solar heat radiation) and a standard air movement of 1 m/s. We applied two exposure durations: yearly average and monthly average for second month of pregnancy. In one analysis, we restricted the sample to four regions with time-homogeneous ambient heat. Analysis was made using logistic regression. About 12% of the latest pregnancies ended in either miscarriage (9.6%) or stillbirth (2.8%). The odds ratios indicated 12 to 15

  11. Neutron cross sections of cryogenic materials: a synthetic kernel for molecular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.; Gillette, V.H.; Petriw, S.; Cantargi, F.; Pepe, M.E.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new synthetic scattering function aimed at the description of the interaction of thermal neutrons with molecular solids has been developed. At low incident neutron energies, both lattice modes and molecular rotations are specifically accounted for, through an expansion of the scattering law in few phonon terms. Simple representations of the molecular dynamical modes are used, in order to produce a fairly accurate description of neutron scattering kernels and cross sections with a minimum set of input data. As the neutron energies become much larger than that corresponding to the characteristic Debye temperature and to the rotational energies of the molecular solid, the 'phonon formulation' transforms into the traditional description for molecular gases. (orig.)

  12. Development of space heating and domestic hot water systems with compact thermal energy storage. Compact thermal energy storage: Material development for System Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, J.H.; Quinnell, J.; Burch, J.; Zondag, H.A.; Boer, R. de; Finck, C.J.; Cuypers, R.; Cabeza, L.F.; Heinz, A.; Jahnig, D.; Furbo, S.; Bertsch, F.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term, compact thermal energy storage (TES) is essential to the development of cost-effective solar and passive building-integrated space heating systems and may enhance the annual technical and economic performance of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Systems should provide high energy

  13. Reexamination of cross-sections for fast neutrons by computational checking of single material integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriewer, J.; Hehn, G.; Mattes, M.

    1976-06-01

    Transmission experiments for fast neutrons and pure materials offer the possibility to check the accuracy of nuclear data compilations by recalculating the measured discharge spectra. In this paper the calculations were mainly based on two Benchmark experiments with pure iron carried out at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. One of the experiments employed a 252 Cf fission source and spherically symmetric arrangement; the other was based on transmission of an iron cylinder by 14-MeV neutrons from a D+T source. The checking calculations were based on the data compilation ENDF/B-IV (occasionally also ENDF/B-III) and on the transport codes ANISN (1D) and DOT-2 (2D) with lined up ESTOQ (for calculating the first-collision source). The calculations with the Cf source showed good agreement with the results of measurement, whereas the checking of the arrangement with 14 MeV neutrons yielded a marked underestimation of the neutron flux density in the range of 2 MeV up to 14 MeV. The discussion of the results including the choice of codes was done on the basis of a literature review on the Benchmark experiments for iron with fast neutrons carried out until now. (orig.) [de

  14. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The standard is to be applied to rooms (hot cells) which are enclosed by a concrete shield and in which radioactive material is handled by remote control. The rooms may be in facilities for experimental purposes (e.g. development of fuel elements and materials or of chemical processes) or in facilities for production purposes (e.g. reprocessing of nuclear fuel or treatment of radioactive wastes). The standard is to give a design hasis for concrete hot cells and their installations which is to be applied by designers, constructors, future users and competent authorities as well as independent experts. (orig.) [de

  15. Construction of concrete hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The standard is to be applied to rooms (hot cells) which are enclosed by a concrete shield and in which radioactive material is handled by remote control. The rooms may be in facilities for experimental purposes (e.g. development of fuel elements and materials or of chemical processes) or in facilities for production purposes (e.g. reprocessing of nuclear fuel or treatment of radioactive wastes). The standard is to give a design basis for concrete hot cells and their installations which is to be applied by designers, constructors, future users and competent authorities as well as independent experts. (orig.) [de

  16. Integral test of neutron cross section data for future reactor materials through measurement and analysis of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takamasa

    1985-05-01

    In order to assess the cross section data for future reactor materials, such as molybdenum, niobium, titanium, lithium and fluorine, the angular neutron spectra in test piles of these materials or their chemical compounds have been measured in the energy range from a few keV to a few MeV by the linac time-of-flight method. The results have been compared with those theoretically calculated from the evaluated cross section data in such as JENDL-2 (or JENDL-1, JENDL-3PR1) and ENDF/B-IV. For both of molybdenum and niobium, it has been found that the energy distribution of inelastically scattered neutrons plays an important role in the analysis, and the JENDL library gives better predictions of spectrum shapes than ENDF/B-IV for both cases. In the case of niobium, however, it appears that the values of inelastic scattering cross section in JENDL-2 are too small around 2 MeV. It has been also found for niobium that the cross section data below 100 keV in ENDF/B-IV are inadequate. In a titanium pile, a discrepancy between the measured spectrum and the calculated one from ENDF/B-IV has been found in the energy range from about 60 keV to a few 100 keV. In order to investigate the cause of this discrepancy, the total cross sections for titanium have been measured by the transmission method. In the case of lithium, the discrepancy between the measured and calculated spectra is considerably reduced by adopting the angular distribution for 7 Li from ENDF/B-IV above about 500 keV. In the case of fluorine, spatial distributions of neutrons and X-rays have been also measured in both piles by the activation method to estimate the influence of photoneutrons generated in the sample material on the neutron distribution, and it has been found that their influence below 1 MeV is not so large as is necessary to be taken into account for the present assessment. (J.P.N)

  17. Heavy section steel technology program technical report No. 38. Fracture toughness characterization of HSST intermediate pressure vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.R.; Yanichko, S.E.; Singer, L.R.

    1974-12-01

    The primary objective of the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop pertinent fracture technology to demonstrate the structural reliability of present and contemplated water-cooled nuclear reactor pressure vessels. In order to demonstrate the ability to predict failure of large, heavy-walled pressure vessels under service type loading conditions, the fracture toughness properties of the vessel's materials must be characterized. The sampling procedure and test results are presented for vessel material supplied by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that were used to characterize the fracture toughness of the HSST Intermediate Test Vessels. The metallurgical condition and heat treatment of the test material was representative of the vessel simulated service test condition. Test specimen locations and orientations were selected by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and are representative of flaw orientations incorporated in the test vessels. The fracture toughness is documented for the materials from each of the eight HSST Intermediate Pressure Vessels tested to date. 7 references. (U.S.)

  18. Progress in hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodhag, C.; Thevenot, F.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental technique is described to study hot pressing of ceramics under conditions of controlled temperature and pressure during both the heating and final sintering stages. This method gives a better control of the final microstructure of the material. Transformation mechanisms can be studied during initial heating stage (impurity degasing, reaction, phase transformation, mechanical behavior of intergranular phase...) using computer control and graphical data representations. Some examples will be given for different systems studied in our laboratory: B (α, β, amorphous), B 12 O 2 (reaction of B + B 2 O 3 ), Si 3 N 4 ( + additives), TiN, Al 2 O 3 + AlON,ZrC

  19. Analysis of Proton Induced Material Damage Using the DPA Cross-sections Based on NRT and BCA-MD Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-O; Roh, Gyuhong; Lee, Byungchul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The level of radiation induced material damage is mainly quantified by using the unit of Displacements Per Atom (DPA), and particularly, the displacement cross-section is used for characterizing/analyzing the radiation damage from incident neutrons and charged particles. Not long ago, the standard Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model had been applied to produce the nuclear data due to its simplicity and implementation in commonly used codes, such as NJOY and MCNP codes. However, the evaluations based on NRT model represent the severe disagreement with experimental data and more accurate calculations. Hence, the evaluations with existing and new nuclear data are performed/compared in this study. It is assumed that a high energy proton beam is directly moved to the target, and a series of calculations are performed by using MCNPX code. The proton induced material damage is evaluated by using the displacement cross-sections, and the effect of nuclear data on the evaluation is specifically analyzed with MCNPX code. First, there is significant difference between the nuclear data from existing and new models, and the new evaluated data is generally lower than the existing one. Second, the position of maximum DPA is slightly differed with the position of maximum energy deposition, and the evaluation using new evaluated data is lower about 2 times than the other.

  20. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program on irradiation effects in light-water reactor pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.; Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The safety of commercial light-water nuclear plants is highly dependent on the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the absence of radiation damage to the RPV, fracture of the vessel is difficult to postulate. Exposure to high energy neutrons can result in embrittlement of radiation-sensitive RPV materials. The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is assessing the effects of neutron irradiation on RPV material behavior, especially fracture toughness. The results of these and other studies are used by the USNRC in the evaluation of RPV integrity and regulation of overall nuclear plant safety. In assessing the effects of irradiation, prototypic RPV materials are characterized in the unirradiated condition and exposed to radiation under varying conditions. Mechanical property tests are conducted to provide data which can be used in the development of guidelines for structural integrity evaluations, while metallurgical examinations and mechanistic modeling are performed to improve understanding of the mechanisms responsible for embrittlement. The results of these investigations, in conjunction with results from commercial reactor surveillance programs, are used to develop a methodology for the prediction of radiation effects on RPV materials. This irradiation-induced degradation of the materials can be mitigated by thermal annealing, i.e., heating the RPV to a temperature above that of normal operation. Thus, thermal annealing and evaluation of reirradiation behavior are major tasks of the HSSI Program. This paper describes the HSSI Program activities by summarizing some past and recent results, as well as current and planned studies. 30 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Optimization analysis of convective–radiative longitudinal fins with temperature-dependent properties and different section shapes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosayebidorcheh, S.; Hatami, M.; Mosayebidorcheh, T.; Ganji, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature distribution along the fins obtained for different material and section shapes. - Highlights: • The steady state thermal analysis of longitudinal fins is presented. • The properties of fins are assumed as a function of temperature. • The rectangular, convex, triangular and concave profiles are considered for fin shape. • Least Square Method (LSM) is used for solving the governing equation. • Thermal optimization of fin geometry is presented based on maximum value of heat transfer. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to obtain an optimum design point for fin geometry, so that heat transfer rate reaches to a maximum value in a constant fin volume. Effect of fin thicknesses ratio (τ), convection coefficient power index (m), profile power parameter (n), base thickness (δ) and fin material are evaluated in the fin optimization point for heat transfer rate, effectiveness and efficiency. It’s assumed that the thickness of longitudinal fins varies with length in a special profile, so four different shapes (rectangular, convex, triangular and concave) are considered. In present study, temperature-dependent heat generation, convection and radiation are considered and an analytical technique based on the least square method is proposed for the solution methodology. Results show that by increasing the fin thicknesses ratio, maximum heat transfer rate decreases and Copper among the other materials has the most heat transfer rate in a constant volume.

  2. Estimation of the Thickness and the Material Combination of the Thermal Stress Control Layer (TSCL) for the Stellite21 Hardfaced STD61 Hot Working Tool Steel Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Na-Ra; Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The research on a thermal stress control layer (TSCL) begins to undertake to reduce residual stress and strain in the vicinity of the joined region between the hardfacing layer and the base part. The goal of this paper is to estimate the material combination and the thickness of TSCL for the Stellite21 hardfaced STD61 hot working tool steel via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). TSCL is created by the combination of Stellite21 and STD61. The thickness of TSCL ranges from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The influence of the material combination and the thickness of TSCL on temperature, thermal stress and thermal strain distributions of the hardfaced part have been investigated. The results of the investigation have been revealed that a proper material combination of TSCL is Stellite21 of 50 % and STD61 of 50 %, and its appropriate thickness is 1.0 mm

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate is prepared by successive sol-gel process. • The higher irradiation dose induces the better dimensional stability for EVA system. • The higher irradiation, the more MCAPP immobilized in EVA crosslinked structure. • The higher irradiation dose enhances the flame retardancy of EVA composites. • The microencapsulated composites demonstrate stable flame retardancy in ageing test.

  4. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  5. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  6. Calculations of radiation defect formation cross sections in reactor materials in (n,p) and (n,α) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupchishin, A.A.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Omarbekova, Zh.

    2001-01-01

    In the work an experimental data analysis by integral σ(E 1 ) and differential [dσ(E 1 ,E 2 )]/dE 2 neutron interaction cross sections with reactor materials with the secondary protons and alpha particles generation as well as with the primarily knock-on atoms production in such reactions are carried out. It is shown, that in the (n,p) and (n',α) reactions the recoil nuclei receive essential energy portion and they are the patriarchs for atom-atom cascades in the substance. Nuclear reactions with formation of the secondary α-particles and and recoil nuclei are considered. It is shown, that these reactions are effectively proceeding within neutrons energy range 0.3-15 MeV. The nuclear reactions kinematics of above mentioned processes is studied. Energy conservation law for these reaction is applied. Deferential cross section conservation and transformation law for radiation defect formation in the (n,α) reaction are considered as well

  7. Hot-cell verification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) was established as the test facility for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) examination equipment. HCVF provides a prototypic hot cell environment to check the equipment for functional and remote operation. It also provides actual hands-on training for future FMEF Operators. In its two years of operation, HCVF has already provided data to make significant changes in items prior to final fabrication. It will also shorten the startup time in FMEF since the examination equipment will have been debugged and operated in HCVF

  8. Proposed residual stress model for roller bent wide flange sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process of structural wide flange steel sections introduces residual stresses in the material. These stresses due to hot-rolling or welding influence the inelastic buckling response of structural steel members and need to be taken into account in the design. Based on experimental

  9. Cross section for calculating the helium formation rate in construction materials irradiated by nucleons at energies to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konobeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, effects related to the formation of helium in irradiated construction materials have been studied extensively. Data on the nuclear cross sections for producing helium in these materials form the initial information necessary for such investigations. If the spectrum of the incoming particles is known, the value of the helium production cross section makes it possible to calculate the helium generation rate. In recent years, plans and simulating experiments on radiating materials with high-energy particles made it necessary to determine the helium production cross sections in constructionmaterials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons with energies to 800 MeV. Helium-formation cross sections have been calculated at these energies. However, a correct description of the experimental data for various construction materials does not yet exist. For example, the calculated helium-formation cross sections turned out to overestimate the experimental data, and to underestimate the experimental data. The objective here is to calculate the helium-formation cross sections for various construction materials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons to energies from 20 to 800 MeV, and to analyze the probable causes of deviations between experimental and earlier calculated cross sections

  10. Thermoelectric properties of I-doped n-type Bi2Te3-based material prepared by hydrothermal and subsequent hot pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available I-doped Bi2Te3−xIx (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 flower-like nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal method through a careful adjustment of the amount of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid surfactant. The nanopowders of flower-like nanoparticles were hot-pressed into bulk pellets and the thermoelectric properties of the pellets were investigated. The results showed that I-doping decreased the electrical resistivity effectively, and the thermal conductivitives of the Bi2Te3−xIx bulk samples was lower because of the closer atomic mass of I compared to Te. As a result, a ZT value of 1.1 was attained at 448 K for the Bi2Te2.9I0.1 sample.

  11. An Integrated Hot-Stage Microscope-Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry System for Studying the Thermal Behavior of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Gage P; Harding, Lindsay P; Parkes, Gareth M B

    2017-12-19

    This paper describes a new analytical instrument that combines a precisely temperature-controlled hot-stage with digital microscopy and Direct Analysis in Real Time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) detection. The novelty of the instrument lies in its ability to monitor processes as a function of temperature through the simultaneous recording of images, quantitative color changes, and mass spectra. The capability of the instrument was demonstrated through successful application to four very varied systems including profiling an organic reaction, decomposition of silicone polymers, and the desorption of rhodamine B from an alumina surface. The multidimensional, real-time analytical data provided by this instrument allow for a much greater insight into thermal processes than could be achieved previously.

  12. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  13. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongwei [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  15. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  16. Demographic factors, social problems and material amenities as predictors of psychological distress: a cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Rubeena

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown high prevalence rates for stress and psychiatric morbidity in rural areas of Pakistan, but prevalence findings from urban areas vary widely (between 18 and 70%). Many of these studies have focused on special populations and may not be representative of the general population in urban settings. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain prevalence and predictors of psychological distress in a representative sample of community dwelling adults from mid-low to low-income urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken utilizing probability-based sampling from five mid-low to low-income communities of Karachi. Measures included the twelve-item Urdu version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), a demographic questionnaire, and questions about financial, health-related and family problems and about access to services and material amenities owned. Seventeen per cent of respondents (N = 1,188) were positive for psychological distress. More females were distressed than males and migrant groups had higher prevalence of distress as compared with natives of the city. Although other studies have shown low education or income to be associated with emotional distress and non-psychotic psychiatric morbidity, our study suggested that having limited income or education may make one more vulnerable to social problems that in turn may be associated with greater distress. An access to services and material amenities had a small but significant association with decreased distress. The overall national prevalence rates may not reveal the influence of gender, region (rural v. urban) and migration on psychological distress. Further research is needed to address mental health of migrant groups in urban centers of Pakistan.

  17. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  18. Metallurgical phenomena in laser finishing: Interdependences between solidification morphologies and hot cracking in laser welding of mostly austenitic materials. Final reportc; Metallkundliche Phaenomene der Laserstrahlmaterialbearbeitung. Teilvorhaben: Zusammenhaenge zwischen Erstarrungsmorphologien und Heissrissentstehung beim Laserschweissen von vornehmlich austenitischen Werkstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobbert, H.

    2000-06-01

    Austentic stainless steels are widely used in safety relevant applications such as chemical plant industry or off-shore industry. Due to the rapid development of laser welding processes, the economical efficiency increases and leads to a growing interest in industry for the production of, for example, straight bead welded pipes. A specific problem of laser welding is the economically desirable high welding speed, which leads in austenitic stainless steels to a change of solidification mode and thus, to a restricted hot cracking resistance. Thus, the solidification morphologies of austenitic stainless steels near the eutectic trough during laser welding were investigated. Thereby, the main aspect was the evaluation of a short-term metallurgical kinetic effects under rapid solidification conditions. It was proven that three widely used stainless steels (1.4828, 1.4306, and 1.4404) show a transition of primary solidifcation mode from primary ferritic to primary austenitic solidification depending on the solidification rate. The approximate value of the critical soldification rate can be determined using a newly developed model by analyzing the geometric structures of solidification. The critical solidification rate for the transition of the solidification mode depends on the chemical composition of the base metal. It was shown that austenitic stainless steels have a critical solidification rate of approximately 1 m/min. As a main result, it was proven that a transition of the solidification mode to primary austenitic solidification promotes the predicted susceptibiliyy of hot cracking. For this, a hot cracking test assembly has been developed in order to determine the hot cracking behavior under laser beam conditions. In contrast to existing hot crack tests, a critical strain rate for hot crack initiation could be measured. A classification of the materials with respect to their hot cracking susceptibility under the solidification conditions during laser welding can

  19. A study on technical issues of materials and design bases in ASME section III subsection NH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Yoo, Bong

    2000-12-01

    In this study, an analysis of evaluation report by ORNL on the technical issues of elevated temperatures design guide line, ASME Code Section III Subsection NH was conducted and a brief evaluation procedure of the creep-fatigue damage was presented. ORNL published the report in 1993 and reviewed the issue areas where code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure safe operation over the expected life cycles for liquid metal reactor systems. From historical viewpoint of the ASME NH code development, ASME Code Case 47 was changed much in 1989 edition, which includes the stress relaxation behavior in creep damage evaluation. Afterwards the 1992 version of CC N-47 was upgraded to Subsection NH in 1995 edition, which is the same with that of CC N-47 1992 edition except few material data. This report brings up the technical and regulatory issues that can not guarantee the safe and reliable operation of the ALMR which got the conceptual design certification from NRC. Twenty three technical issues were raised and settlement methodology were proposed. Additionally, the status of items approved by ASME code subgroup of elevated temperature design committee for the revision of the most recent 1998 edition of ASME NH was described

  20. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. David Swank

    2007-01-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant's absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500 C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed

  1. Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb pressure tube material using hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Komal Chandra, E-mail: komal@barc.gov.in [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kulkarni, A.S.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sunil, Saurav [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Saxena, M.K. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.N. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb alloy were measured in the temperature range 523 to 673 K, employing hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HVE-QMS). One end of the Zr–2.5%Nb alloy specimens was charged electrolytically with the desired hydrogen isotope. After annealing at different temperatures for a predetermined time, the specimens were cut into thin slices, which were analyzed for their H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} content using the HVE-QMS technique. The depth profile data were fitted into the equation representing the solution of Fick’s second law of diffusion. The activation energy of hydrogen/deuterium diffusion was obtained from the Arrhenius relation between the diffusion coefficient and temperature. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient can be represented as D{sub H} = 1.41 × 10{sup −7} exp(−36,000/RT) and D{sub D} = 6.16 × 10{sup −8} exp(−35,262/RT) for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively.

  2. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.; Blanc, J.Y.; Duwe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Working Group on ' Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' is firmly established as the major contact forum for the nuclear R and D facilities at the European scale. The yearly plenary meetings intend to: - Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research; - Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling; - Promote normalization and co-operation, e.g., by looking at mutual complementarities; - Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The 41. plenary meeting was held in CEA Saclay from September 22 to 24, 2003 in the premises and with the technical support of the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). The Nuclear Energy Division of CEA sponsored it. The Saclay meeting was divided in three topical oral sessions covering: - Post irradiation examination: new analysis methods and methodologies, small specimen technology, programmes and results; - Hot laboratory infrastructure: decommissioning, refurbishment, waste, safety, nuclear transports; - Prospective research on materials for future applications: innovative fuels (Generation IV, HTR, transmutation, ADS), spallation source materials, and candidate materials for fusion reactor. A poster session was opened to transport companies and laboratory suppliers. The meeting addressed in three sessions the following items: Session 1 - Post Irradiation Examinations. Out of 12 papers (including 1 poster) 7 dealt with surface and solid state micro analysis, another one with an equally complex wet chemical instrumental analytical technique, while the other four papers (including the poster) presented new concepts for digital x-ray image analysis; Session 2 - Hot laboratory infrastructure (including waste theme) which was

  3. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  5. Identification of non-volatile compounds and their migration from hot melt adhesives used in food packaging materials characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Paula; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The identification of unknown non-volatile migrant compounds from adhesives used in food contact materials is a very challenging task because of the number of possible compounds involved, given that adhesives are complex mixtures of chemicals. The use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/QTOF) is shown to be a successful tool for identifying non-targeted migrant compounds from two hot melt adhesives used in food packaging laminates. Out of the seven migrants identified and quantified, five were amides and one was a compound classified in Class II of the Cramer toxicity. None of the migration values exceeded the recommended Cramer exposure values.

  6. An Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials (CPC-30R/Charcoal from Sugarcane Bagasse Using the Hot Insulated Plate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of new thermally insulating composite materials from solid residues such as charcoal from sugarcane bagasse (CSB is of great importance because it takes advantage of materials that might otherwise pollute the environment. Therefore, for this study, we obtained composite materials based on a portland cement (CPC-30R matrix and CSB particles with a 4 : 1 water-cement ratio and CSB concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight. The thermal conductivities of these materials were characterized following ASTM guideline C177, their CSB morphological properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their compositions were determined using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The results show that the composite materials have reduced thermal conductivities. The metallic oxide percentage composition of the CSB was also determined. It was observed that there was a reduction in thermal conductivity when CSB was used as compared to 100% CPC-30R, and the influence of the CSB concentration on thermal conductivity was measured.

  7. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  8. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  9. SECTIONAL AREA CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BLANK WHILE FORMING SPACE BETWEEN TWO TEETH OF SATELLITE GEAR OF PLANETARY PIN TOOTH REDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  10. 78 FR 79363 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... practices, improved materials, advances in welding, examination and testing. Notably, fracture mechanics did... materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and over-pressure protection. \\2\\ ``Continued service'' is an all-inclusive term referring to inspection, testing, repair...

  11. The impact of hot melt extrusion and spray drying on mechanical properties and tableting indices of materials used in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Raman; Hegde, Shridhar; Zhang, Yu-E; Dinunzio, James; Singhal, Dharmendra; Malick, A; Amidon, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    The impact of melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying (SD) on mechanical properties of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), copovidone, and their formulated blends was studied and compared with that of reference excipients. Tensile strength (TS), compression pressure (CP), elastic modulus (E), and dynamic hardness (Hd ) were determined along with Hiestand indices using compacts prepared at a solid fraction of ∼0.85. HPMCAS and copovidone exhibited lower Hd , lower CP, and lower E than the reference excipients and moderate TS. HPMCAS was found to be highly brittle based on brittle fracture index values. The CP was 24% and 61% higher for HPMCAS after SD and HME, respectively, than for unprocessed material along with a higher Hd . Furthermore, the TS of HPMCAS and copovidone decreased upon HME. Upon blending melt-extruded HPMCAS with plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose, the TS increased. These results suggest that SD and HME could impact reworkability by reducing deformation of materials and in case of HME, likely by increasing density due to heating and shear stress in a screw extruder. A somewhat similar effect was observed for the dynamic binding index (BId ) of the excipients and formulated blends. Such data can be used to quantitate the impact of processing on mechanical properties of materials during tablet formulation development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. The design of hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The need for specialized laboratories to handle radioactive substances of high activity has increased greatly due to the expansion of the nuclear power industry and the widespread use of radioisotopes in scientific research and technology. Such laboratories, which are called hot laboratories, are specially designed and equipped to handle radioactive materials of high activity, including plutonium and transplutonium elements. The handling of plutonium and transplutonium elements presents special radiation-protection and safety problems because of their high specific activity and high radiotoxicity. Therefore, the planning, design, construction and operation of hot laboratories must meet the stringent safety, containment, ventilation, shielding, criticality control and fire-protection requirements. The IAEA has published two manuals in its Safety Series, one on the safety aspects of design and equipment of hot laboratories (SS No.30) and the other on the safe handling of plutonium (SS No.39). The purpose of the symposium in Otaniemi was to collect information on recent developments in the safety features of hot laboratories and to review the present state of knowledge. A number of new developments have taken place as the result of growing sophistication in the philosophy of radiation protection as given in the ICRP recommendations (Report No.22) and in the Agency's basic safety standards (No.9). The topics discussed were safety features of planning and design, air cleaning, transfer and transport systems, criticality control, fire protection, radiological protection, waste management, administrative arrangements and operating experience

  13. Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, E. V. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chaikovsky, S. A. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics, UD, RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Artyomov, A. P. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  14. Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  15. Using Cementitious Materials Such as Fly Ash to Replace a Part of Cement in Producing High Strength Concrete in Hot Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuallo, Gidion; Mallisa, Harun

    2018-03-01

    The use of waste materials in concrete gave many advantages to prove the properties of concrete such as its workability, strength and durability; as well to support sustaianable development programs. Fly ash was a waste material produced from coal combustion. This research was conducted to find out the effect of fly ash as a part replacement of cement to produce high strength concrete. The fly ash, which was used in this research, was taken from PLTU Mpanau Palu, Central Sulawesi. The water-binder ratio used in this research was 0.3 selected from trial mixes done before. The results of this research showed that the strength of fly ash concretes were higher than concrete with PCC only. The replacement of cement with fly ash concrete could be up to 20% to produce high strength concrete.

  16. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  17. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  18. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Table of cross section (n,p), (n,α) and (n, 2n) reactions in steel components and other nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.

    1972-01-01

    Reactions (n,p) and (n, α ) produce in the materials large amount of hydrogen and helium atoms. The presence, specially of helium, changes the physical properties of materials and particularly reduce the ductility of irradiated stainless steel cladding above 500 degree centigree. Cross sections of all isotopes which constitute the S.S. and other clad materials, have been completed. Experimental available data were obtained from BNL (1956, 64 and 68), and the rest, from J.C, ROY and J . J . HAWTON calculations in a fission neutron spectrum (1960). (Author)

  20. Experimental determination of neutron capture cross sections of fast reactor structure materials integrated in intermediate energy spectra. Vol. 2: description of experimental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1978-01-01

    A selection of technical documents is given concerning the experimental determination of the neutron capture cross-sections of fast reactor structural materials (Fe, Cr, Ni...) integrated over the intermediate energy spectra. The experimental structure project and modifications of the reactor RB2 for this experiment, together with criticality and safety calculations, are presented

  1. Differential cross sections for gamma-ray production by 14 MeV neutrons with several elements in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1988-01-01

    Energy differential cross sections for the gamma-rays produced from the (n,xγ) reactions by 14 MeV neutrons were measured in the gamma-ray energy range from 700 keV to 10 MeV using an NaI spectrometer. Results were obtained for the 8 natural elements; C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Mo. For prominent discrete gamma-rays in the differential cross sections, the production cross sections were determined by measuring angular distributions with a Ge detector. The gamma-ray energy covered the range between 500 and 3000 keV. The energy distributions have been compared with the differential cross sections evaluated in the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T, ENDL and ENDF/B-IV. The evaluations in JENDL-3T agreed fairly well with the measurements concerning the continuum energy spectra for secondary photons. Discrepancies appeared, however, for Si, Cr and Ni at the energies where the discrete gamma-rays were dominant. The ENDL evaluations were largely deviated from the experimental data. The production cross sections for the discrete gamma-rays in ENDL and ENDF/B-IV were available for the comparison with some of the measured cross sections. Results are presented for C, Al and Si. (author)

  2. Introduction of hot cell facility in research center Rez - Poster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrickova, A.; Srba, O.; Miklos, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the hot cell facility which is being constructed as part of the SUSEN project at the Rez research center (Czech Republic). Within this project a new complex of 10 hot cells and one semi-hot cell will be built. There will be 8 gamma hot cells and 2 alpha hot cells. In each hot cell a hermetic, removable box made of stainless steel will home different type of devices. The hot cells and semi hot cell will be equipped with devices for processing samples (cutting, welding, drilling, machining) as well as equipment for testing (sample preparation area, stress testing machine, fatigue machine, electromechanical creep machine, high frequency resonance pulsator...) and equipment for studying material microstructure (nano-indenter with nano-scratch tester and scanning electron microscope). An autoclave with water loop, installed in a cell will allow mechanical testing in control environment of water, pressure and temperature. A scheme shows the equipment of each cell. This hot laboratory will be able to cover all the process to study radioactive materials: receiving the material, the preparation of the samples, mechanical testing and microstructure observation. Our hot cells will be close to the research nuclear reactor LVR-15 and new irradiation facility (high irradiation by cobalt source) is planned to be built within the SUSEN project

  3. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  4. Some elevated temperature tensile and strain-controlled fatigue properties for a 9%Cr1Mo steel heat treated to simulate thick section material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Jacques, S.

    Current interest has been expressed in the usage of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel, particularly for UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) steam generator tubeplates. This paper presents the results of some preliminary mechanical property test work on a single cast of the steel, heat treated to simulate heavy ruling sections encompassing thicknesses likely to be met in the CDFR context. The microstructures of the simulated thick section material were found to remain predominantly as tempered martensite even at the slowest transformation cooling rates used (50 deg. C/h). The effect of microstructure is reflected in the elevated temperature proof stress, tensile strength and strain-controlled fatigue endurance which were found to be comparable with the properties established for thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These results are extremely encouraging and, taken in conjunction with the results from other simulation work on this material, further demonstrate the potential of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel. (author)

  5. Calculated neutron-activation cross sections for E/sub n/ /le/ 100 MeV for a range of accelerator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoian, M.; Arthur, E.D.; Perry, R.T.; Wilson, W.B.; Young, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Activation problems associated with particle accelerators are commonly dominated by reactions of secondary neutrons produced in reactions of beam particles with accelerator or beam stop materials. Measured values of neutron-activation cross sections above a few MeV are sparse. Calculations with the GNASH code have been made for neutrons incident on all stable nuclides of a range of elements common to accelerator materials. These elements include B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ar, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Nd, and Sm. Calculations were made for a grid of incident neutron energies extending to 100 MeV. Cross sections leading to the direct production of as many as 87 activation products for each of 84 target nuclide were tabulated on this grid of neutron energies, each beginning with the threshold for the product nuclide's formation. Multigrouped values of these cross sections have been calculated and are being integrated into the cross-section library of the REAC-2 neutron activation code. Illustrative cross sections are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Exercise in Experimental Plastics Technology: Hot Embossing of Polymers with surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2004-01-01

    Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages such as relati......Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages...... such as relatively low cost for embossing tools, simple operation and high replication accuracy for small features. Two different plastic materials will be used to replicate surface microstructures by hot embossing. The hot embossing will be done in a hydraulic press where it is easy to control temperature...

  7. Effect of new cross-section evaluations on criticality and neutron energy spectrum of a typical material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Ahmad, Nasir; Aslam

    2004-01-01

    Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the k eff obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries

  8. Hot working alkali halides for laser window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, B.G.; Anderson, R.H.; Stokes, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques used to hot work alkali halide crystals into laser window blanks are reviewed. From the point of view of high power laser window applications one of the materials with a high figure of merit is KCl. Thus the materials examined are KCl and alloys of KCl-KBr containing 5 mole percent KBr. The fabrication techniques include conventional and constrained press forging, isostatic press forging and hot rolling. Optical properties are paramount to the ultimate usefulness of these materials. Results on the optical properties of the hot worked material are included together with mechanical properties and microstructural data

  9. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., documents, charts, posters, presentations (such as Microsoft PowerPoint), or video material that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project... standards, and resolve any related issues. (c) Based on those discussions, the Project Officer shall provide...

  10. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  11. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  12. A national cross-sectional study in the Danish wood and furniture industry on working postures and manual materials handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H; Pedersen, M B; Sjøgaard, G

    1995-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders constitute a major problem in the wood and furniture industry and identification of risk factors is needed urgently. Therefore, exposures to different work tasks and variation in the job were recorded based on an observation survey in combination with an interview among 281 employees working in wood working and painting departments. A questionnaire survey confirmed high frequencies of symptoms from the musculoskeletal system: The one-year prevalence of symptoms from the low back was 42% and symptoms from the neck/shoulder was 40%. The exposure was evaluated based on: (1) classification of work tasks, (2) work cycle time, (3) manual materials handling, (4) working postures, and (5) variation in the job. Among the employees 47% performed feeding or clearing of machines, 35% performed wood working or painting materials, and 18% performed various other operations. Among the employees 20% had no variation in their job while 44% had little variation. Manual materials handling of 375 different burdens was observed, which most often occurred during feeding or clearing of machines. The weight of burdens lifted was 0.5-87.0 kg, where 2% had a weight of more than 50 kg. Among the lifting conditions 30% were evaluated as implying a risk of injury. An additional risk factor was the high total tonnage lifted per day, which was estimated to range from 132 kg to 58,800 kg. Working postures implied a risk of injury due to prolonged forward and lateral flexions of the neck, which was seen most frequently during wood working or painting materials. These data substantiate the finding that work tasks mainly during feeding or clearing of machines imply a risk of injury to the low back and a risk of injury to the neck and shoulder area mainly during wood working or painting materials. Optimal strategies for job redesign may be worked out by using these data in order to prevent occupational musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  14. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  15. Hot Ductility Behavior of a Peritectic Steel during Continuous Casting

    OpenAIRE

    Arıkan, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Hot ductility properties of a peritectic steel for welded gas cylinders during continuous casting were studied by performing hot tensile tests at certain temperatures ranging from 1200 to 700 °C for some cooling rates by using Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical test and simulation machine in this study. The effects of cooling rate and strain rate on hot ductility were investigated and continuous casting process map (time-temperature-ductility) were plotted for this material. Reduction of area ...

  16. Neutron radiation damage studies in the structural materials of a 500 MWe fast breeder reactor using DPA cross-sections from ENDF / B-VII.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Uttiyoarnab; Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Pandikumar, G.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation damage in the structural materials of a 500 MWe Indian prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is re-assessed by computing the neutron displacement per atom (dpa) cross-sections from the recent nuclear data library evaluated by the USA, ENDF / B-VII.1, wherein revisions were taken place in the new evaluations of basic nuclear data because of using the state-of-the-art neutron cross-section experiments, nuclear model-based predictions and modern data evaluation techniques. An indigenous computer code, computation of radiation damage (CRaD), is developed at our centre to compute primary-knock-on atom (PKA) spectra and displacement cross-sections of materials both in point-wise and any chosen group structure from the evaluated nuclear data libraries. The new radiation damage model, athermal recombination-corrected displacement per atom (arc-dpa), developed based on molecular dynamics simulations is also incorporated in our study. This work is the result of our earlier initiatives to overcome some of the limitations experienced while using codes like RECOIL, SPECTER and NJOY 2016, to estimate radiation damage. Agreement of CRaD results with other codes and ASTM standard for Fe dpa cross-section is found good. The present estimate of total dpa in D-9 steel of PFBR necessitates renormalisation of experimental correlations of dpa and radiation damage to ensure consistency of damage prediction with ENDF / B-VII.1 library.

  17. Use of Modulus Mapping Technique to Investigate Cross-sectional Material Properties of Extracted Single Human Trabeculae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Doktor, Tomáš; Šepitka, J.; Lukeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 442-445 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : modulus mapping * trabecular bone * nanoindentation * micromechanical testing Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012 http://www.chemicke-listy.cz/common/content-issue_s3-volume_106-year_2012.html

  18. Improved Sectional Image Analysis Technique for Evaluating Fiber Orientations in Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang Yeon; Kang, Su-Tae; Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-01-12

    The distribution of fiber orientation is an important factor in determining the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete. This study proposes a new image analysis technique for improving the evaluation accuracy of fiber orientation distribution in the sectional image of fiber-reinforced concrete. A series of tests on the accuracy of fiber detection and the estimation performance of fiber orientation was performed on artificial fiber images to assess the validity of the proposed technique. The validation test results showed that the proposed technique estimates the distribution of fiber orientation more accurately than the direct measurement of fiber orientation by image analysis.

  19. Preliminary Feasibility Study on the Construction of Steel Hot Cell Facility for Precise Manipulated Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kwon, Hyungmun; Kim, Heemoon; Kim, Dosik; Min, Duckkee; Hong, Kwonpyo

    2006-01-01

    Hot laboratory is essential facility to research and develop in the nuclear industries to examine radioactive materials. The post irradiation examinations for irradiated fuels and materials should be mainly conducted in the hot cell facility to protect radiations to operators. Hot cells are divided into a concrete hot cell and a steel hot cell according to the wall materials. Usually a concrete hot cell is applied to test for high level radioactive materials like as a fuel assembly, rods, and large structure specimens, and a steel hot cell for comparatively lower level activity materials in fuel fragments, and small structural materials. A steel hot cell has many benefits in a specimen manipulation, construction and maintenance costs. In recent the test for the irradiated materials is more frequently required a small and precise manipulating examination for higher degree tests of research and developments. Unfortunately hot laboratory facilities in domestics have mainly constituted of concrete hot cells, and not ready for techniques in steel hot cells. In this paper the construction feasibility of steel hot cell facility is preliminary reviewed in the points of the status of domestic facilities, the test demand prospect and detailed plans

  20. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  1. 16 CFR 1505.51 - Hot surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot surfaces. 1505.51 Section 1505.51 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... into any opening in the toy. Unless the probe contacts a surface within 3 inches of the plane of the...

  2. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section B, Renovation calculations/supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part V, Section B - Structural/Seismic Information provides a description of the seismic and structural analyses performed on the NMSF and their results

  3. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by § 93.116... make a categorical hot-spot finding that (93.116(a) is met without further hot-spot analysis for any...

  4. Manufacture and qualification of hot roll-clad composites with nickel base cladding material for use in flue gas desulphurization plants. Final report; Herstellung und Qualifizierung warmwalzplattierter Verbundwerkstoffe mit Nickelbasisauflagen fuer den Einsatz in Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlagen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, R.; Stenner, F.

    1992-03-16

    Flue gas desulphurization plants (FGD), which have been required by law since 1983, mainly apply wet scrubbing techniques. The chemical reactions taking place in those plants lead to extremely corrosive situations. Unprotected carbon steel surfaces or organic based anticorrosive systems are extremely affected after being in operation for only a few years. NiCrM alloys applied by the chemical industry in comparable situations have proved their efficiency for decades. When such massive components are newly built in FDGs, economic aspects require the use of those NiCrMo alloys in clad form. Within the frame of this project tests included the manufacture of hot roll-clad composites comprising cladding materials of the type NiMo16Cr15W (2.4819) and NiCr21Mo14W (2.4602) on the base steel RST 37-2. Large-sized sheets (10000 x 2000 x 10+2 mm) were made by means of an optimized cladding technique. The behaviour of the cladding material in case of uniform and local corrosion exposure was examined in standard laboratory tests. An increased susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion was not detected, according to the excellent microstructure. Further laboratory tests under simulated FGD conditions and exposure tests in FGDs in operation permitted the transfer of those positive test results to practical work. The same applies without limitation to the joint-welded state with similar filler material of clad a comparable chemical composition. With respect to their technological behaviour the new hot roll-clad composites correspond to that of solid sheets of NiCrMo alloys; therefore they are qualified for use in flue gas desulphurization plants. (orig./BBR) With 32 refs., 13 tabs., 29 figs. [Deutsch] In den seit 1983 gesetzlich vorgeschriebenen Anlagen zur Rauchgasentschwefelung (REA) werden ueberwiegend nasse Waschverfahren eingesetzt. Die in diesen Anlagen ablaufenden chemischen Reaktionen fuehren zu extrem korrosiven Bedingungen. Ungeschuetzte C-Stahl-Oberflaechen bzw

  5. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, M.; McArthur, R.; Kim, B.G.; Kim, S.M.; Seo, H.-B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  6. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  7. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  8. Reaction Cross Section Calculations in Neutron Induced Reactions and GEANT4 Simulation of Hadronic Interactions for the Reactor Moderator Material BeO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli ÇAPALI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BeO is one of the most common moderator material for neutron moderation; due to its high density, neutron capture cross section and physical-chemical properties that provides usage at elevated temperatures. As it’s known, for various applications in the field of reactor design and neutron capture, reaction cross–section data are required. The cross–sections of (n,α, (n,2n, (n,t, (n,EL and (n,TOT reactions for 9Be and 16O nuclei have been calculated by using TALYS 1.6 Two Component Exciton model and EMPIRE 3.2 Exciton model in this study. Hadronic interactions of low energetic neutrons and generated isotopes–particles have been investigated for a situation in which BeO was used as a neutron moderator by using GEANT4, which is a powerful simulation software. In addition, energy deposition along BeO material has been obtained. Results from performed calculations were compared with the experimental nuclear reaction data exist in EXFOR.

  9. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  10. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  11. Auxiliary equipment and special techniques used for hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.B.; Odebo, U.

    1977-01-01

    The largest use for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in production is in the consolidation of powder. In principle, powder is filled into a capsule of metal or glass, and the capsule is evacuated, sealed and loaded into the hot isostatic press. Consolidation takes place in the hot isostatic press, at which time the consolidated capsule is removed from the press and the encapsulation material is removed from the consolidated powder body. In both densification and defect healing, HIP is carried out without encapsulating the material. This is possible as the materials that lend themselves to HIP healing initially have a high density without communicating pores; therefore, the material acts as its own capsule. Considerations outside of the hot isostatic press that must be taken into account are examined. Information is included on powder manufacture, fabrication of capsules, powder handling, capsule sealing, and loading and unloading the press

  12. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  13. Utilizing hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2018-03-01

    In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.

  14. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  15. Measurements of D-T neutron induced radioactivity in plasma-facing materials and their role in qualification of activation cross-section libraries and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    The D-T neutron-induced radioactivity constitutes one of the foremost issues in fusion reactor design. The validation of activation cross-sections and decay data libraries is one of the important requirements for validating ITER design from safety and waste disposal viewpoints. An elaborate, experimental program was initiated in 1988, under USDOE-JAERI collaborative program, to validate the radioactivity codes/libraries. The measurements of decay-γ spectra from irradiated, high purity samples of Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn-Cu alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, stainless steel 316 (AISI 316), Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, Ta, W, and Pb, among others, were conducted under D-T neutron fluences varying from 1.6 x 10 10 ncm -2 to 6.1 x 10 13 ncm -2 . As many as 14 neutron energy spectra were covered for a number of materials. The analysis of isotopic activities of the irradiated materials using activation cross-section libraries of four leading radioactivity codes, i.e. ACT4/THIDA-2, REAC-3, DKR-ICF, and RACC, has shown large discrepancies among the calculations, on the one hand, and between the calculations and the measurements, on the other. A discussion is also presented on definition and obtention of safety cum quality factors for various activation libraries. (orig.)

  16. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  17. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  18. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  19. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  20. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  1. Hot subluminous star: HDE 283048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, M.; Vuillemin, A.; Parsons, S.B.; Henize, K.G.; Wray, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The star HDE 283048, located at α = 3/sup h/50/sup m/.3, delta = +25 0 36', shows a strong ultraviolet continuum. Ground-based observations indicate a hot-dominated composite spectrum. Several lines of evidence suggest that the hot component is a hot subdwarf. 2 figures

  2. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  3. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  4. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  5. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  6. The ''hot'' patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed

  7. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  8. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  9. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  10. Hot ductility testing and weld simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Schick, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the project was to enhance the insight into the causes of intergranular cracks detected in austenitic circumferential welds at BWR pipes. The susceptibility of a variety of austenitic pipe materials to hot cracking during welding and in-service intergranular crack corrosion was examined. The assumption was cracking in the root area of the HAZ of a multiple-layer weld. Hot-ductility tests and weld simulation tests specifically designed for the project were performed with the austenitic LWR pipe materials 1.4553 (X6 CrNiNb 18 10 S), 1.4550 (X10 CrNiNb 18 9), 1.4533 (X6 CrNiTi 18 9, two weld pools), and a non-stabilized TP 304 (X5 CrNi 18 10). (orig./CB) [de

  11. Preparation of biological samples for transmission X-ray microanalysis: a review of alternative procedures to the use of sectioned material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigee, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Although transmission X-ray microanalysis of biological material has traditionally been carried out mainly on sectioned preparations, a number of alternative procedures exist. These are considered under three major headings - whole cell preparations, analysis of cell homogenates and biological fluids, and applications of the technique to microsamples of purified biochemicals. These three aspects provide a continuous range of investigative level - from the cellular to the molecular. The use of X-ray microanalysis with whole cell preparations is considered in reference to eukaryote (animal) cells and prokaryotes - where it has particular potential in environmental studies on bacteria. In the case of cell homogenates and biological fluids, the technique has been used mainly with microdroplets of animal material. The use of X-ray microanalysis with purified biochemicals is considered in relation to both particulate and non-particulate samples. In the latter category, the application of this technique for analysis of thin films of metalloprotein is particularly emphasised. It is concluded that wider use could be made of the range of preparative techniques available - both within a particular investigation, and in diverse fields of study. Transmission X-ray microanalysis has implications for environmental, physiological and molecular biology as well as cell biology

  12. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1991-08-01

    Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, removal and decontamination of large cell internals, and of large equipment such as glove boxes and steel boxes, in addition to dose commitments, are explained. Tables illustrating the analysis of smear tests, constants for contamination level examination, contamination and radiation levels after cleaning and total contamination versus measured radiation are included. (AB)

  13. Selection of low activation materials for fusion power plants using ACAB system: the effect of computational methods and cross section uncertainties on waste management assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M.; Sanz, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Falquina, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Dept. of Power Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O.; Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (UPM) (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of nuclear fusion as a realistic option for energy generation depends on its radioactive waste management assessment. In this respect, the production of high level waste is to be avoided and the reduction of low level waste volumes is to be enhanced. Three different waste management options are commonly regarded in fusion plants: Hands-on Recycling, Remote Recycling and Shallow Land Burial (SLB). Therefore, important research work has been undertaken to find low activation structural materials. In performing this task, a major issue is to compute the concentration limits (CLs) for all natural elements, which will be used to select the intended constituent elements of a particular Low Activation Material (LAM) and assess how much the impurities can deteriorate the waste management properties. Nevertheless, the reliable computation of CLs depends on the accuracy of nuclear data (mainly activation cross-sections) and the suitability of the computational method both for inertial and magnetic fusion environments. In this paper the importance of nuclear data uncertainties and mathematical algorithms used in different activation calculations for waste management purposes will be studied. Our work is centred on the study of {sup 186}W activation under first structural wall conditions of Hylife-II inertial fusion reactor design. The importance of the dominant transmutation/decay sequence has been documented in several publications. From a practical point of view, W is used in low activation materials for fusion applications: Cr-W ferritic/martensitic steels, and the need to better compute its activation has been assessed, in particular in relation to the cross-section uncertainties for reactions leading to Ir isotopes. {sup 192n}Ir and {sup 192}Ir reach a secular equilibrium, and {sup 192n}Ir is the critical one for waste management, with a half life of 241 years. From a theoretical point of view, this is one of the most complex chains appearing in

  14. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  15. Multipurpose reprocessing hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A multipurpose hot cell is being designed for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant for handling future scheduled fuels that cannot be adequately handled by the existing facilities and equipment. In addition to providing considerable flexibility to handle a wide variety of fuel sizes up to 2,500 lb in weight the design will provide for remote maintenance or replacement of the in-cell equipment with a minimum of exposure to personnel and also provide process piping connections for custom processing of small quantities of fuel. (auth)

  16. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  17. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  18. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive

  19. Analysis of hot rolling and hot forging effects on mechanical properties and microstructure of ZrNbMoGe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AH Ismoyo; Parikin; Bandriyana

    2014-01-01

    Research on formation technique by a combined method of rolling and forging has been carried out in order to improve the mechanical properties of ZrNbMoGe alloy to be used as fuel cladding in NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) application. The effects of rolling and forging were analyzed several tests. The tests were conducted for zirconium alloy specimen with a composition of (in % wt.) 97% Zr, 0,5% Mo, 2% Nb and 0,5% Ge, where the specimen was melted with an arc-furnace. The hot rolling and forging were conducted at 900 °C and 950 °C respectively. Hardness test was carried out by using a microhardness testing machine, while microstructure examination and crystal structure analysis were conducted with an optical microscope and an X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the hardness of the alloy increase from 141.21 HV (starting material) to 210.47 HV (hot rolled material) and 365.75 HV (hot forged material). Texturing phenomenon is clearly figured on the microstructure due to hot rolling and forging process. Analysis by diffractogram also indicates that the hot rolling and forging process has influence on the crystal orientation of dominant preferred direction in the reflection plane of (10ī1), recorded from the rise of intensity counting from about 2500 to 3000. In summary, hot forging and rolling process can change the mechanical properties (hardness and texture) and microstructure of materials. (author)

  20. Fabrication and properties of hot pressed bismuth tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 is a synthetic polar material that is a possible candidate for energy conversion and detection systems. Previous research on this material has been concerned with crystal growth and sintering characteristics of polycrystalline compacts. This study involves itself with the fabrication of polycrystalline compacts by hot pressing techniques. Densities approaching theoretical crystal density were achieved by hot pressing at 850 0 C for one hour with pressures exceeding 35 MPa. Before hot pressing, the sintering range was determined by high temperature dilatometry of unfired Bi 2 WO 6 ceramics. Hot pressed discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by dc resistivity, capacitance, and conductance measurements, ac poling, dc poling, and current-voltage measurements

  1. Hot cell design in the vitrification plant China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yubo; Wang Guangkai; Zhang Wei; Liang Runan; Dou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In the area of reprocessing and radioactive waste management, gloveboxes and cells are a kind of non-standard equipments providing an isolated room to operate radioactive material inside, while the operator outside with essential biological shield and protection. The hot cell is a typical one, which could handle high radioactive material with various operating means and tight enclosure. The dissertation is based on Vitrification Plant China, a cooperation project between China and Germany. For the sino-western difference in design philosophy, it was presented how to draft an acceptable design proposal of applicable huge hot cells by analysing the design requirements, such as radioprotection, observation, illumination, remote handling, transportation, maintenance and decontamination. The construction feasibility of hot cells was also approved. Thanks to 3D software Autodesk Inventor, digital hot cell was built to integrate all the interfaces inside, which validated the design by checking the mechanical interference. (author)

  2. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  3. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  4. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  5. Hot Embossing for Whole Teflon Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a simple fabrication process of whole Teflon superhydrophobic surfaces, featuring high-aspect-ratio (>20 nanowire structures, using a hot embossing process. An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane is used as the embossing mold for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanowires directly on a Teflon substrate. First, high-aspect-ratio nanowire structures of Teflon are formed by pressing a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP sheet onto a heated AAO membrane at 340 °C, which is above the melting point of FEP. Experimental results show that the heating time and aspect ratios of nanopores in the AAO mold are critical to the fidelity of the hot embossed nanowire structures. It has also been found that during the de-molding step, a large adhesive force between the AAO mold and the molded FEP greatly prolongs the length of nanowires. Contact angle measurements indicate that Teflon nanowires make the surface superhydrophobic. The reliability and robustness of superhydrophobicity is verified by a long-term (~6.5 h underwater turbulent channel flow test. After the first step of hot-embossing the Teflon nanowires, microstructures are further superimposed by repeating the hot embossing process, but this time with microstructured silicon substrates as micromolds and at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the FEP. The results indicate that the hot embossing process is also an effective way to fabricate hierarchical micro/nanostructures of whole Teflon, which can be useful for applications of Teflon material, such as superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  7. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-08-17

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  8. MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED AL-SIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th. De; Sargent, M.A.; Alsem, W.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The difference between extruded and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Al6061 both with a T6 final heat treatment and with a 30 wt.% SiC particulate reinforcement is one of densification. The higher density of the HIP material is not translated into a stronger material. The Mg2Si precipitation is

  9. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  10. From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? Game of chess of the world power between preventive war and futurable raw material politics in the age of the greenhouse; Von kalten Energiestrategien zu heissen Rohstoffkriegen? Schachspiel der Weltmaechte zwischen Praeventivkrieg und zukunftsfaehiger Rohstoffpolitik im Zeitalter des globalen Treibhauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roithner, T. (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    The 24th international summer academy, held in Stadtschlaining (Burgenland, Austria) between 8th July and 13th July, 2007, is engaged with the reasons to the conflicts and military conflicts at the end of the fossil energy age. The following lectures are held: (a) From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? (Thomas Roithner); (b) Inauguration of the 24th international summer academy 2007 (Gerald Mader); (c) A change of consciousness also changes unconsciously the being (Hans Lukits); (d) Oil in fire - Conflicts of resources as a fuel for global discord (Wolfgang Sachs); (e) Safety discourses on both sides of the Atlantic - in times o peak oil and climatic change (Elmar Altvater); (f) From energy security to the war of resources: the resource politics of China, Russia and India (Andreas Zumach); (g) Why is there no alternative to the retreat from Afghanistan? (Peter Strutynski); (h) Do ''Peak Oil'' and nuclear energy solve the climate problem? (Helga Kromp-Kolb, Wolfgang kromp); (i) Water - the material from that conflicts consist? (Juerg Staudenmann, Karin Scheurer); (j) US strategy for the regions of Middle East and Caucasus in the unipolar world order (Matin Baraki); (k) What are the influences of oil on the conflict with Iran? (Udo Steinbach); (l) Geopolicy and resources: The grasp of the USA at Africa (Werner Ruf); (m) New colonization of Africa: China, USA and Europe in the struggle for resources (Karin Kneissl); (n) Securing resources and energy politics in Latin America: US politics, EU politics or independent world politics (Peter Stania); (o) More scarcely becoming raw materials - a source for armament and war planning? (Luehr Henken); (p) Battle groups - intervening groups for securing resources (Gunther Hauser); (q) Organization of the globalization as fateful question - which future lies before us? (Franz-Josef Radermacher); (r) No peace without change of renewable resources (Hermann Scheer); (s) Peaceable, forced or

  11. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  12. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical calculation of hot channel factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a conventional practice in the design of nuclear reactors to introduce hot channel factors to allow for spatial variations of power generation and flow distribution. Consequently, it is not enough to be able to calculate the nominal temperature distributions of fuel element, cladding, coolant, and central fuel. Indeed, one must be able to calculate the probability that the imposed temperature or heat flux limits in the entire core is not exceeded. In this paper, statistical methods are used to calculate hot channel factors for a particular case of a heterogeneous, Material Testing Reactor (MTR) and compare the results obtained from different statistical methods. It is shown that among the statistical methods available, the semi-statistical method is the most reliable one

  14. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). 53.05-2 Section 53.05-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers...

  15. Hot cell verification facility update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Moffett, S.D.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) provides a prototypic hot cell mockup to check equipment for functional and remote operation, and provides actual hands-on training for operators. The facility arrangement is flexible and assists in solving potential problems in a nonradioactive environment. HCVF has been in operation for six years, and the facility is a part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  16. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  17. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on metal system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. Study was made on cathodic protection of a roll bond heat collection board promising as Al plane collector. The protection is dependent on sacrificial anode materials. Al-Zn system alloy including minute amounts of In and Sn was effective in protection by transferring natural electrode potential to a base side largely, however, excess addition of In and Sn increased self-corrosion, remaining some issues to be solved. The prototype water flow corrosion test equipment was prepared for corrosion analysis of an Al roll bond collector natural circulation hot water supplier. Preliminary study was made to give selective absorption power (large short-wave absorption and small long-wave radiation from collector surfaces) to a collector. Deposition of Cu, Ni, Co and Sn oxides as black semiconductors into Al anodic oxidation film porous layers by secondary electrolysis was invalid as well as a painting method. Glossy Ni plating onto Al and black Cr and Ni plating onto the surface more elevated solar exposure surface temperature by more than 20% than black painting. (NEDO)

  18. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  19. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  20. Plan and reports of coupled irradiation (JRR-3 and JOYO of research reactors) and hot facilities work (WASTEF, JMTR-HL, MMF and FMF). R and D project on irradiation damage management technology for structural materials of long-life nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Masaya; Yoshitake, Tsunemitsu; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Yamagata, Ichiro; Soga, Tomonori; Yonekawa, Minoru; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Miyake, Osamu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuyoshi; Kikuchi, Taiji; Usami, Koji; Endo, Shinya; Ichise, Kenichi; Numata, Masami; Onozawa, Atsushi; Aizawa, Masao; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Masahito; Abe, Kazuyuki; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takaya, Shigeru; Nagae, Yuji; Wakai, Eiichi; Aoto, Kazumi

    2010-03-01

    'R and D Project on Irradiation Damage Management Technology for Structural Materials of Long-life Nuclear Plant' was carried out from FY2006 in a fund of a trust enterprise of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The coupled irradiations or single irradiation by JOYO fast reactor and JRR-3 thermal reactor were performed for about two years. The irradiation specimens are very important materials to establish of 'Evaluation of Irradiation Damage Indicator' in this research. For the acquisition of the examination specimens irradiated by the JOYO and JRR-3, we summarized about the overall plan, the work process and the results for the study to utilize these reactors and some facilities of hot laboratory (WASTEF, JMTR-HL, MMF and FMF) of the Oarai Research and Development Center and the Nuclear Science Research Institute in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  1. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  2. Decree of 8 October 1969, Stb. 471, concerning the implementation of Sections 13 and 14 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Fissionable Materials and Ores (Registration))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Decree lays down the system for registration and notification of fissionable materials and ores in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The register must list the quantities of fissionable materials and ores available in the Netherlands and their location. This procedure applies only to materials and ores subject to licensing. (NEA) [fr

  3. Hot testing of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balon, I D

    1976-07-01

    Earlier investigations failed to take full account of the factors affecting coke behavior within the blast furnace. An apparatus was accordingly developed for testing coke, based on a cyclone furnace where the sample could be held in a flow of hot oxidizing gases, simulating conditions in the blast furnace hearth. The results are said to be suitable for comprehensive assessment of the coke, including abrasive strength and its rate of gasification in a flow of carbon dioxide. Coke of size 6-10 mm tested at 1,100/sup 0/C in an atmosphere of oxidizing gases close to those obtaining in the blast furnace hearth, indicated that destruction and total gasification of the coke occurs after 5 minutes for a weak coke and 8 minutes for strong coke, depending on the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties of the particular coke. When samples were treated for a fixed period (3 minutes), the amount of coke remaining, and the percentage over 6 mm varied between 22 and 40 and between 4 and 7 percent respectively.

  4. Inhibition of turbulence in inertial-confinement-fusion hot spots by viscous dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C R; Clark, D S; Cook, A W; Busby, L E; Robey, H F

    2014-05-01

    Achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires the formation of a high-temperature (>10 keV) central hot spot. Turbulence has been suggested as a mechanism for degrading the hot-spot conditions by altering transport properties, introducing colder, mixed material, or reducing the conversion of radially directed kinetic energy to hot-spot heating. We show, however, that the hot spot is very viscous, and the assumption of turbulent conditions in the hot spot is incorrect. This work presents the first high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments using detailed knowledge of implosion dynamics and instability seeds and including an accurate model of physical viscosity. We find that when viscous effects are neglected, the hot spot can exhibit a turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Viscous effects, however, are significant and strongly damp small-scale velocity structures, with a hot-spot Reynolds number in the range of only 10-100.

  5. Faults in Paleozoic basement and their participation in Alpine deformation of Greater Caucasus – evidences from materials of restored (balanced) sections in folded sedimentary cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Method. As each fold has information about strain, numerous folds (0.1-1 km width) inside of hinterland (stripe about 1000 x 50 km) of Greater Caucasus (GC) allow to restore structure for whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used for restoration of structure. These sections were split on 505 domains as associations of 2-5 folds. Three parameters of morphology were measured in these domains: dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. Because these parameters correlate with ellipsoid (ellipse) of strain for domain, sequence of three kinematic operations allow to restore actual state of domain to pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle): rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and vertical flattening (pure shear). Aggregation of chain of pre-folded domains is forming a pre-folded state of whole section, and it allows to calculate of shortening value. For correct detailing of strain study, 78 "structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell. Some additional observations and calculations allow to find initial and post-folded thickness of sedimentary cover, depth of cover bottom, virtual position of cover top (amplitude of erosion) for all tectonic cells. The received result for 78 cells allowed to understand the main features of GC structure, to see a distribution of basement top depth, to give behavior pattern of the basement and to find a role of faults in shortening of the basement and of sedimentary cover. Results. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan Zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for structural cells were found as 49% in average for ShZ (with deviations 37÷62%), 55% for TZ (36÷67%), 57% for ChZ (46÷67%) and

  6. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  7. HOT STARS WITH HOT JUPITERS HAVE HIGH OBLIQUITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Fabrycky, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher

    2010-01-01

    We show that stars with transiting planets for which the stellar obliquity is large are preferentially hot (T eff > 6250 K). This could explain why small obliquities were observed in the earliest measurements, which focused on relatively cool stars drawn from Doppler surveys, as opposed to hotter stars that emerged more recently from transit surveys. The observed trend could be due to differences in planet formation and migration around stars of varying mass. Alternatively, we speculate that hot-Jupiter systems begin with a wide range of obliquities, but the photospheres of cool stars realign with the orbits due to tidal dissipation in their convective zones, while hot stars cannot realign because of their thinner convective zones. This in turn would suggest that hot Jupiters originate from few-body gravitational dynamics and that disk migration plays at most a supporting role.

  8. Amendment of the regulations on the physical protection of nuclear materials (section 18c) made by Royal Decree no. 1809 of 2 november 1984 pursuant to Act no. 28 of 12 may 1972 on atomic energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    These Regulations were made by Royal Decree of 25 August 1989 and entered into force on 20 October 1989. They insert a new Section in the 1984 Decree on physical protection of nuclear materials providing that in accordance with the 1979 Regulations on the transport of dangerous goods by air as amended, nuclear materials shall be transported in compliance with the relevant Technical Instructions of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) [fr

  9. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  10. Hot forming of composite prepreg : Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Xavier; Duthille, Bertrand; Bechtel, Stephane; le Pinru, Louis; Campagne, Benjamin; Destombes, Gautier; Deshors, Antoine; Marchand, Christophe; Azzouzi, Khalid El; Moro, Tanguy

    2017-10-01

    The hot forming of thermoset prepreg consists in bending an uncured composite part by applying a mechanical constrain on the hot laminate. Most of the time, the mold is inserted in a vacuum box and the mechanical constrain is applied on the composite laminate by a single membrane or a double-membrane. But the performance improvement products resulted in forming increasingly complex parts with advanced materials having a less formability. These new complex parts require a finer comprehension of the process and an optimization of the key parameters to get acceptable quality. In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to identify the process conditions that do not lead to unacceptable defaults: undulations of fibers. In the present study, downward-bending has been evaluated with an original light mechanical forming concept, for a given stacking sequence. The influence of the part's temperature and the part's bending speed are investigated. To carry this study out, a hot forming test bench has been designed and manufactured to have a precise supervision of the process conditions. It is able to bend parts of 1500 mm length x 600 mm width x 20 mm thick.

  11. Theory of hot particle stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.; Tsang, K.T.

    1986-10-01

    The investigation of stabilization of hot particle drift reversed systems to low frequency modes has been extended to arbitrary hot beta, β/sub H/ for systems that have unfavorable field line curvature. We consider steep profile equilibria where the thickness of the pressure drop, Δ, is less than plasma radius, r/sub p/. The analysis describes layer modes which have mΔ/r/sub p/ 2/3. When robust stability conditions are fulfilled, the hot particles will have their axial bounce frequency less than their grad-B drift frequency. This allows for a low bounce frequency expansion to describe the axial dependence of the magnetic compressional response

  12. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  13. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diff...

  14. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Chad L.; Scates, Wade W.; Taylor, J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  15. Effect of gas release in hot molding on flexural strength of composite friction brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdja, Andy Permana; Surojo, Eko; Muhayat, Nurul; Raharjo, Wijang Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    Composite friction brake is a vital part of braking system which serves to reduce the speed of vehicle. To fulfill the requirement of brake performance, composite friction brake must have friction and mechanical characteristic as required. The characteristics of composite friction brake are affected by brake material formulation and manufacturing parameter. In the beginning of hot molding, intermittent hot pressing was carried out to release the gases that consist of ammonia gas and water vapor. In composite friction brake, phenolic resin containing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is often used as a binder. During hot molding, the reaction of phenolic resin and HMTA forms ammonia gas. Hot molding also generates water vapor because raw materials absorb moisture from environment when they are placed in storage. The gas release in hot molding is supposed affecting mechanical properties because it avoid entrapped gas in composite, so that this research investigated effect of gas release on flexural strength. Manufacturing of composite specimen was carried out as follow: mixing of raw materials, cold molding, and hot molding. In this research, duration of intermittent hot pressing and number of gas release were varied. The flexural strength of specimen was measured using three point bending test. The results showed that flexural strength specimens that were manufactured without gas release, using 4 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 5 and 10 seconds were not remarkably different. Conversely, hot molding using 4 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 15 seconds decreased flexural strength of composite. Hot molding using 2, 4, and 8 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 10 seconds also had no effect on increasing flexural strength. Increasing of flexural strength of composite was obtained only by using 6 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 10 seconds.

  16. An almost knowledge-free approach to XPS intensity evaluation where use of atomic photoemission cross sections suffices for yielding material-specific inelastic background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Masatoshi, E-mail: m-jo@aist.go.jp

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Self-contained XPS background optimization based on the Tougaard’s formula. • Consistent core and Auger intensities for Cu metal. • Determination of intractable solid-state effects not required. • Realistic result restorable without using sample’s characteristic properties. • Estimation of IMFP from peak intensities and cross sections. - Abstract: A general procedure for peak intensity evaluation on the inelastic background of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) has been developed, which is made up of tasks in three nested levels, level I, II and III. The task in level I is a simple background optimization for the case when the inelastic mean free path (IMFP, denoted λ(E)) and other constraints are given in advance [M. Jo, Surf. Interface Anal., 2003, 35, 729–737]. In order to find appropriate constraints, a batch job, which is a series of single jobs with systematically varied constraints, is constructed and iteratively solved in level II by improving the constraints from the viewpoint of how successfully the background is subtracted. It is found that, by the task in level II, for polycrystal Cu metal, the spectrum after inelastic background subtraction still contains a baseline component proportional to E{sup −k}, where E (>50 eV) is the electron kinetic energy and the exponent k around 2.4. This baseline is attributed to the high-energy tail of primary excitation spectrum of true secondary electron emission. The relative core intensities thus determined are in good agreement with the Scofield’s photoexcitation cross sections. The relation of core and Auger peak intensities is consistent as demonstrated by the fact that the sum of Cu 2p and 2s equals that of all Cu LMM peaks. The level III calculation is designed for the general case where λ is not available before the analysis. The relative energy dependence of λ except for the absolute value can be estimated by iterating the level II tasks with updated λ(E), based on the

  17. Effect of Liquid Phase Content on Thermal Conductivity of Hot-Pressed Silicon Carbide Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kwang-Young; Jang, Hun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for Particle-Based Accident Tolerant (PBAT) fuel, fission, and fusion power applications due to its superior physical and thermal properties such as low specific mass, low neutron cross section, excellent radiation stability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity of PBAT fuel is one of very important factors for plant safety and energy efficiency of nuclear reactors. In the present work, the effect of Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 content on the microstructure and thermal properties of the hot pressed SiC ceramics have been investigated. Suppressing the β to α phase transformation of SiC ceramics is beneficial in increasing the thermal conductivity of liquid-phase sintered SiC ceramics. Developed SiC ceramics with Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 additives are very useful for thermal conductivity on matrix material of the PBAT fuel

  18. Decree of 4 September 1969, Stb. 405, concerning the implementation of Sections 16, 19, paragraph 1, 21, 29, 30, paragraph 2 and 32 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Fissionable Materials, Ores and Radioactive Materials (Transport))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The regulations governing the transport of fissionable materials, ores and radioactive materials are embodied in this Decree, together with the regulations concerning operations involving their movements into and out of the Netherlands and their storage incidental to transport. (NEA) [fr

  19. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a  hot hydrogen heat source that would produce  a high temperature hydrogen flow which would be comparable to that produced...

  20. The decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs

  1. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  2. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  3. KINETICS PROCESSES OF DEHYDRATION AND HEATING FISH DURING FRYING, DURING SEMI HOT AND HOT SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokholchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Calculated methods of graphing of curves for kinetics of dehydration and fish heating during the processes of frying, semi hot smoking and hot smoking have been developed. The offered methods of calculating are based on the basic regularities of heat and mass exchanges of these processes. Based on the research of the regularities of dehydration on the kinetic curves, critical points were identified, that characterize the transition from the moisture removal with lower energy of its bond with material to the removal of one with higher energy bond, also the influence of the product shrinkage on the velocity of the moisture removal. These points are characteristic for the temperature curves as well. It’s suggested for the temperature curve to be replaced by broken line that consists of three straight lines that are crossing in points, corresponded with the critical moistures and critical temperatures. Significant amount of the experimental material of the research of the kinetics of dehydration and fish heating under different modes is shown by authors in the form of generalized dependencies. The method allows modeling the processes of heating and dehydrating of fish and choosing the most rational modes based on the calculated data. The proposed technique makes it possible to construct the curves of the kinetics of heating and dehydration kinetics in processes of roasting, semi hot and hot smoked fish, which allows to optimize a particular process, design more efficient in terms of consumption of raw materials and energy technology, as well as to create better machines or upgrade existing equipment into account the relationship of heat and mass transfer processes.

  4. Hot topics in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, Eric W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The expert coverage of the eight chapters in this book reflects the diverse nature of the field of biomaterials science and encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields, highlighting key classes of novel materials and exploring the underlying science and potential applications.

  5. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  6. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation

  7. Experimental study of multipurpose solar hot box at Freiburg, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, S.S. [Iowa State University, Ames (United States). International Inst. of Theoretical and Applied Physics; Steinhart, J.; Henning, H.M.; Rommel, M.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    With the aim to test an compare some properties of materials and common geometries that are used for designing solar cookers, water heaters, etc. we have made a solar hot box with two similar compartments. In the present study this hot box has been used for, (a) comparing the behavior of a metallic slab filled with a phase change material for short term heat storage, with a conventional absorbing sheet, (b) the use of a selectively coated, as compared to a normal black painted, cooking pot, and (c) for finding the overall heat loss coefficient and thermal capacity of the box. Experiments with the solar hot box will yield valuable information on solar systems that are to be constructed. Besides its use for research this multi-purpose device has been used both to pasteurize up to 14-16 l of water and for cooking. (author)

  8. Decree of 10 September 1969, Stb. 404, concerning the implementation of Sections 28-32 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Radioactive Materials)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Decree concerns the production, use and disposal of radioactive materials except during the course of a transport operation. It lays down the activity limits for radioactive materials, in excess of which a licence is required, as well as the licensing procedure. The Minister for Social Affairs and Public Health is the competent authority for licensing. (NEA) [fr

  9. 21 CFR 175.230 - Hot-melt strippable food coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., white For use only as a component of hot-melt strippable food coatings applied to frozen meats and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hot-melt strippable food coatings. 175.230 Section 175.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. Steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In September 1994, steel slag test and control sections were constructed in Oregon to evaluate the use of steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC). This report covers the construction and five-year performance of a pavement constructed with 30% ...

  11. Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit

    2015-09-14

    According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, youths aged 15-24 years were more than 15.2 million which contributes to 20.6% of the whole population. These very large and productive groups of the population are exposed to various sexual and reproductive health risks. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials (SEM) and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school students in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institution based study involving 770 randomly selected youth students of preparatory schools at Hawassa city. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select study subjects. Data was collected using pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered by EPI INFO version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software packages. The result was displayed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical association was done for independent predictors (at p students were participated in this study with a response rate of 97.4%. Among this, about 77.3% of students knew about the presence of SEM and most of the respondents 566(75.5%) were watched SEM films/movies and 554(73.9%) were exposed to SE texts. The overall exposure to SEM in school youths was 579(77.2%). Among the total respondents, about 522(70.4%) claimed as having no open discussion on sexual issues with in their family. Furthermore, About 450 (60.0%) respondents complained for having no sexual and reproductive health education at their school. Male students had faced almost two times higher exposure to SEM than female students (95 % CI: AOR 1.84(C.I = 1.22, 2.78). Students who attended private school were more than two times more likely exposed to SEM than public schools (95 % CI: AOR 2.07(C.I = 1.29, 3.30). Students who drink alcohol and labelled as 'sometimes' were two times more likely exposed to SEM than those who never drink alcohol (95 % CI = AOR 2.33(C.I = 1.26, 4.30). Khat

  12. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of structural materials for fusion reactor. Extraction of discrete and continuum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Nishio, Takashi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    A new method to deal with measured spectrum of secondary gamma-rays induced by D-T neutrons with Ge detector is proposed. Subtracting background components and discrete peaks from the raw secondary gamma-ray spectrum, the continuum component of secondary gamma-ray was successfully extracted. By using unfolding process, the continuum component of the secondary gamma-ray production cross section was derived. The measured cross section data obtained by this method are very useful for precise evaluation of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. (author)

  13. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  14. Results of work in the hot cells of Laboratory Testing Materials Irradiated Areva of Carina project for the expansion of the database of mechanical characteristics of fractures in materials of RPV German irradiated; Resultados del trabajo en las celdas calientes del Laboratorio de Ensayos de Materiales Irradiados de Areva del proyecto Carina para la ampliacion de la base de datos de caracteristicas mecanicas de las fracturas en materiales de RPV alemanas irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmes, J.; Schabel, H.; Hein, H.; Kein, E.; Eiselt, C.

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of the already completed research projects CARINA and its predecessor CARISMA a data base was created for pre-irradiated original RPV steels of German PWRs which allowed to examine the consequences if the Master Curve (T{sub 0}) approach instead of the RT{sub N}OT concept is applied to the RPV safety assessment. Furthermore in CARINA different irradiation conditions with respect to the accumulated neutron fluences and specific impact parameters were investigated. Besides a brief introduction of the CARINA project and an overview of the main results an overview on the requirements of the hot laboratory work in terms of specimen manufacturing and material testing is given and examples for realization are shown. (Author)

  15. Pengembangan Modul Mata Kuliah Penilaian Pembelajaran Sosiologi Berorientasi HOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerwanti Hadi Pratiwi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan modul matakuliah Penilaian Pembelajaran Sosiologi berorientasi HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills. Penelitian menggunakan metode Research and Development (R&D yang dikembangkan oleh Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel yang meliputi tahap pendefinisian, tahap perancangan, dan tahap pengembangan. Data dikumpulkan dari penilaian dua orang pakar melalui lembar validasi ahli dan respon dari 75 mahasiswa melalui angket respon mahasiswa. Analisis data menggunakan teknik deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modul layak digunakan sebagai bahan ajar dalam praktik penyusunan instrumen penilaian HOTS. Hal ini didasarkan pada penilaian ahli materi sebesar 83,33 (sangat baik dan hasil respon mahasiswa dengan rata-rata skor sebesar 83,89 (sangat baik. Beberapa saran dari ahli meliputi aspek struktur modul, organisasi penulisan materi, dan bahasa. Saran dari mahasiswa agar contoh-contoh soal HOTS lebih diperbanyak. DEVELOPING HOTS MODULES FOR SOCIOLOGY LEARNING ASSESSMENT COURSE. Abstract: This study was aimed at developing HOTS modules for sociology learning assessment course. This research used Research and Development (R & D design by Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel, includes: define, design, and develop. The data collected from 2 experts through expert validation sheets and 75 questionnaires from students. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative. The results of this study indicate that module is feasible the learning materials used as a practice instrument for drafting assessment HOTS. It is based on the 83.33% expert validation and83.89% of the students respond positively toward the modules. Some advices from experts includes: the structure module, the organization of writing material, and language. Students have recommendations to make examples of HOTS’s questions many more.

  16. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  17. Uncertainty analysis for hot channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panka, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The fulfillment of the safety analysis acceptance criteria is usually evaluated by separate hot channel calculations using the results of neutronic or/and thermo hydraulic system calculations. In case of an ATWS event (inadvertent withdrawal of control assembly), according to the analysis, a number of fuel rods are experiencing DNB for a longer time and must be regarded as failed. Their number must be determined for a further evaluation of the radiological consequences. In the deterministic approach, the global power history must be multiplied by different hot channel factors (kx) taking into account the radial power peaking factors for each fuel pin. If DNB occurs it is necessary to perform a few number of hot channel calculations to determine the limiting kx leading just to DNB and fuel failure (the conservative DNBR limit is 1.33). Knowing the pin power distribution from the core design calculation, the number of failed fuel pins can be calculated. The above procedure can be performed by conservative assumptions (e.g. conservative input parameters in the hot channel calculations), as well. In case of hot channel uncertainty analysis, the relevant input parameters (k x, mass flow, inlet temperature of the coolant, pin average burnup, initial gap size, selection of power history influencing the gap conductance value) of hot channel calculations and the DNBR limit are varied considering the respective uncertainties. An uncertainty analysis methodology was elaborated combining the response surface method with the one sided tolerance limit method of Wilks. The results of deterministic and uncertainty hot channel calculations are compared regarding to the number of failed fuel rods, max. temperature of the clad surface and max. temperature of the fuel (Authors)

  18. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  19. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  20. Hot deformation behavior of AA5383 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rou; Giraud, Eliane; Mareau, Charles; Ayed, Yessine; Santo, Philippe Dal

    2018-05-01

    Hot forming processes are widely used in deep drawing applications due to the ability of metallic materials to sustain large deformations. The optimization of such forming processes often requires the mechanical behavior to be accurately described. In this study, the hot temperature behavior of a 5383 aluminum alloy is investigated. In this perspective, different uniaxial tension tests have been carried out on dog-bone shaped specimens using a specific experimental device. The temperature and strain rate ranges of interest are 623˜723 K and 0.0001˜0.1 s-1, respectively. An inverse method has been used to determine the flow curves from the experimental force-displacement data. The material exhibits a slight flow stress increase beyond the yield point for most configurations. Softening phenomenon exists at high strain rates and high temperatures. A new model based on the modification of a modified Zerilli-Armstrong model is proposed to describe the stress-strain responses. Genetic algorithm optimization method is used for the identification of parameters for the new model. It is found that the new model has a good predictability under the experimental conditions. The application of this model is validated by shear and notched tension tests.

  1. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1993-10-01

    A concise description of the current status of the decommissioning of the hot cell capacity at Risoe National Laboratory is given in this 6th periodic report covering January 1st to June 30th, 1993. All registered and safeguarded fissile material has been removed and the task of cutting and packing scrap material and experimental equipment from the concrete cell line has been completed. Concrete cells 5 and 6 have been finally cleaned and the master slave manipulators removed from them. The major part of the contamination on the shutters and shutter houses were on their horizontal planes and the main contaminant was 137 Cs. Here the surfaces were cleaned by wiping with wet cloths. The method is described. Tables illustrating the resulting contamination levels are included, the density is now low on the shutters. The method of final inn-cell cleaning is explained, and here again tables represent the resulting contamination levels. The work on ''hot spot'' removal and remote cleaning by vacuuming continues on the remaining cells. A collective dose of ca. 16.3 man-mSv was ascribed to 18 persons in the first half of 1993, arising mainly from in-cell work and waste handling. To sum up, the main results from this period are successful removal of last waste from the cells, remote cleaning of cells 2 and 3, final condition for all shutters and shutter housings and final condition for cells 5 and 6. Tables illustrate measured dose rates in detail. (AB)

  2. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  3. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth after a C-section, called a VBAC ) Emergency C-Sections Some C-sections are unexpected emergency ... side to nurse or using the clutch (or football) hold can take the pressure off your abdomen. ...

  4. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... In this paper, a systematic analysis of different methods of d-ferrite estimation is carried out based ... Keywords. d-Ferrite; hot cracking; prediction methods; stringency levels; decision tool. 1. .... prediction of d-ferrite content using a system of multi- ..... support the selection of some materials according to their.

  5. Density and field effect on electron-ion collision cross-sections in hot dense plasma; Etude de l'influence de l'environnement plasma sur les sections efficaces d'excitation collisionnelle electron-ion dans un plasma chaud et dense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2003-03-15

    Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening.

  6. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  7. Reactivating Catalytic Surface: Insights into the Role of Hot Holes in Plasmonic Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianhuan; Miao, Junjian; Gao, Zhaoshuai; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yi; Fan, Chunhai; Li, Di

    2018-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance of coinage metal nanoparticles is extensively exploited to promote catalytic reactions via harvesting solar energy. Previous efforts on elucidating the mechanisms of enhanced catalysis are devoted to hot electron-induced photothermal conversion and direct charge transfer to the adsorbed reactants. However, little attention is paid to roles of hot holes that are generated concomitantly with hot electrons. In this work, 13 nm spherical Au nanoparticles with small absorption cross-section are employed to catalyze a well-studied glucose oxidation reaction. Density functional theory calculation and X-ray absorption spectrum analysis reveal that hot holes energetically favor transferring catalytic intermediates to product molecules and then desorbing from the surface of plasmonic catalysts, resulting in the recovery of their catalytic activities. The studies shed new light on the use of the synergy of hot holes and hot electrons for plasmon-promoted catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  9. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on synthetic resin system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gosei jushikei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on synthetic resin system materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In fiscal 1976, study was made on evaluation of the practical performance of photo-selective transmissive films, photo-selective absorptive films, reflective films and collector materials. In the study on photo-selective transmissive films, study was mainly promoted on indium oxide film, and a solar radiation transmissivity of 78% and an IR reflectance of 78% were obtained at 4000(angstrom)/min in deposition rate by reactive sputtering under the existence of oxygen gas mixture. In the study on photo-selective absorptive films, study was made on conditions for the basic prescription of paints for semiconductor dispersing coated films. The exposure test result of CuO and CuO-MnO{sub 2} system materials showed excellent heat resistances with less change in optical property after 720h at 140 degreesC and 350h at 180 degreesC. In the study on reflective films, evaluation was made on the durability of reflective films obtained by vacuum deposition of Ag and Al onto synthetic resin films through outdoor exposure. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on metal system materials); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on high-efficiency high-durability inexpensive metallic collectors, equipment and materials for solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. In the study on metal materials for heat collector plates, corrosion-proofing experiment was made on Al-Zn, Al-Zn-In and Al-Zn-Fe-In alloys treated by bainite under 7 kinds of environmental conditions, resulting in no formation of any through hole. Study was also made on water flow corrosion test of A1100 material, and water- corrosion retardant for Al. In the study on selective absorption films, study was made on secondary electrochemically coated film and vacuum deposition film. Fabrication, test operation and preliminary experiment were made on the large secondary electrolysis facility for full- scale solar panels. The selective absorptivity of secondary electrochemically coated films was a maximum of 0.95 in absorptivity and 0.10 in emissivity, showing the favorable selective absorptivity of both Ni and Co. The durability test result showed favorable heat resistance, light resistance and moisture resistance. (NEDO)

  11. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on metallic materials ); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kinzokukei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-31

    The following technologies were developed for the purpose of materializing various methods of a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system using aluminum and other metallic materials: (1) research on improving corrosion resistance of metallic materials for a heat collector plate and (2) research on a selective absorbing film. The results in fiscal 1979 were as follows. (1) A practicality running test for a solar panel, which started in fiscal 1977, was continuously carried out at eight places in the nation. After approximately two years and a half passed, each panel was cut open and analyzed. As a result, despite a difference in the degree of corrosion by the regions, an Al-Zn-Fe-In alloy had a larger corrosion area than two other alloys, but the corrosion depth was shallower, with the corrosion remained only in the clad layer, which seemed to eliminate the fear that it might grow to be a through-hole for the time being. This research was completed. (2) Research for the selective absorbing film was carried out in fiscal 1979 on a chrome black membrane by a high frequency excited ion plating method and on a carbide and nitride membranes. In addition, a durability test and an Auger analysis were performed for a titanium nitride selective absorbing film that was obtained by a DC bipolar reactive ion plating method. (NEDO)

  12. NORTH PORTAL - HOT WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY NO.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540. The method used for the calculations is based on Section 4.4.1. The first step is to determine the maximum pressure drop between the most remote plumbing fixture and the main supply. The pressure drop for the hot water system is based on the total length of the supply piping from the cold water supply source through the water heater to the most remote hot water outlet. Equivalent fixture units are then assigned using Section 4.4.1. For hot water, the values are reduced by 25 percent in accordance with the UPC. The demand load in gpm is then determined based on the number of fixture units. The demand load and the pressure drop between the source and the most remote fixture is used to determine the pipe size and the corresponding friction losses for a given flow velocity not to exceed 10 feet/second

  13. Contaminated Metal Components in Dismantling by Hot Cutting Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, Franco G.; Conforti, Gianmario; Rogante, Massimo; Giostri, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    During the preparatory dismantling activities of Caorso's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), an experimental campaign using plasma and oxyacetylene metal cutting processes has been performed and applied to plates and tubes exposed to the coolant steam of the reactor. The plant (Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe) was designed and built in the 70's, and it was fully operating by 1981 to 1986 being shut down after 1987 Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power based on U235 fission. The campaign concerns no activated materials, even if the analyses have been performed of by use contaminated components under the free release level, not yet taking into account radioactivity. In this paper, the parameters related to inhalable aerosol, solid and volatile residuals production have been, studied during hot processes which applies the same characteristics of the cutting in field for the dismantling programs of Caorso NPP. The technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter/thickness/schedule or plate thickness for ferritic alloys and the emissions composition coming from the sectioning are also reported. The results underline the sort of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on the effects comparison between the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of powders captured by filtering the gaseous emission. Some preliminary considerations on methodology to be used during the dismantling have been presented. (authors)

  14. Hot Jupiters around M dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgas F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS is a near-infrared transit survey running on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT. We conduct Monte Carlo transit injection and detection simulations for short period (<10 day Jupiter-sized planets to characterize the sensitivity of the survey. We investigate the recovery rate as a function of period and magnitude in 2 hypothetical star-planet cases: M0–2 + hot Jupiter, M2–4 + hot Jupiter. We find that the WTS lightcurves are very sensitive to the presence of Jupiter-sized short-period transiting planets around M dwarfs. The non-detection of a hot-Jupiter around an M dwarf by the WFCAM Transit Survey allows us to place a firm upper limit of 1.9 per cent (at 95 per cent confidence on the planet occurrence rate.

  15. Hot-pressing steatite bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio Arroyo, E.

    1967-01-01

    Requirements for some special nuclear engineering ceramic shapes are: big size, impervious, dimensional accuracy and good mechanical and dielectric properties. Limitations of te conventional methods and advantages of te hot pressing techniques for the manufacturing of these shapes are discussed. Hot pressing characteristics of a certain steatite powder are studied. Occurrence of an optimum densification temperature just above the tale decomposition range is found. Experimental data show that the height/diameter ratio of the specimen has no effect on the sintering conditions. Increasing darkness from the graphite mould is detected above the optimum temperature. The hot-pressed steatite is compared with a fired dry-pressed sample of the same composition. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Shield wall evaluation of hot cell facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I. J.; Kuk, D. H.; Ko, J. H.; Jung, W. M.; Yoo, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    The future hot cell is located in the Irradiated Material Experiment Facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is β-γ type hot cell that was constructed on the base floor in IMEF building for irradiated material testing. And this hot cell will be used for carrying out the Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). The radiation shielding capability of hot cell should be sufficient to meet the radiation dose requirements in the related regulations. Because the radioactive sources of ACP are expected to be higher than radioactive sources of IMEF design criteria, the future hot cell in current status is unsatisfactory to hot test of ACP. So the shielding analysis of the future hot cell is performed to evaluate shielding ability of concrete shield wall. The shielding analysis included (a) identification of ACP source term; (b) photon source spectrum; (c) shielding analysis by QADS and MCNP-4C; and (d) enhancement of concrete shield wall. In this research, dose rates are obtained according to ACP source, geometry and hot cell shield wall thickness. And the evaluation and reinforcement thickness of the shield wall about future hot cell are concluded

  17. Simulative testing of friction in warm/hot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    The objective of sub-task 3.2 is to determine the friction values for different work piece materials, tool materials and lubricants as a function of the main process parameters under conditions reflecting those which are present in typical warm/hot forming operations i.e. surface expansion, work...... piece and tool temperature. Based on this experimental work establish mathematical formulations of friction as a function of the basic parameters....

  18. Safety evaluation report of hot cell facilities for demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Park, S. W.; Bek, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.

    2004-10-01

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process(ACP) proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel. In the next phase(2004∼2006), the hot test will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For the hot test, the hot cell facilities of α- type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of β- type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. Up to now, the detail design of hot cell facilities and process were completed, and the safety analysis was performed to substantiate secure of conservative safety. The design data were submitted for licensing which was necessary for construction and operation of hot cell facilities. The safety investigation of KINS on hot cell facilities was completed, and the license for construction and operation of hot cell facilities was acquired already from MOST. In this report, the safety analysis report submitted to KINS was summarized. And also, the questionnaires issued from KINS and answers of KAERI in process of safety investigation were described in detail

  19. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  20. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL's ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002

  1. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  2. Vacuum hot pressing of titanium-alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Full or nearly full dense products of wrought-metal properties have been obtained by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) of several prealloyed Ti--6Al--4V powders including hydride, hydride/dehydride, and rotating electrode process (REP) spherical powder. The properties of billets VHP from Ti--6Al--4V hydride powder and from hydride/dehydride powders have been shown to be equivalent. The REP spherical powder billets processed by VHP or by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) resulted in equivalent tensile properties. The potential of VHP for fabrication of near net aircraft parts such as complex fittings and engine disks offers considerable cost savings due to reduced material and machining requirements

  3. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  4. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  5. Hot atom chemistry of sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, D. S.; Koleva, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt to cover all papers dealing with the hot atom chemistry of sulpphur is made. Publications which: a) only touch the problem, b) contain some data, indirectly connected with sulphur hot atom chemistry, c) deal with 35 S-production from a chloride matrix, are included as well. The author's name and literature source are given in the original language, transcribed, when it is necessary, in latine. A number of primery and secondary documents have been used including Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex, the bibliographies of A. Siuda and J.-P. Adloff for 1973 - 77, etc. (authors)

  6. Bibliography Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1983-01-01

    This annotated listing describes materials dealing with nuclear warfare, including annotated bibliographies, nonfiction, fiction, organizations, journals, newsletters, and curriculum materials for elementary and secondary schools. (RM)

  7. LECI Department of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The LECI is a 'hot' laboratory dedicated mostly to the characterization of irradiated materials. It has, however, limited activities on fuel, as a back up to the LECA STAR in Cadarache. The LECI belongs to the Section of Research on Irradiated Materials (Department of Nuclear Materials). The Department for Nuclear Materials (DMN) has for its missions: - to contribute, through theoretical and experimental investigations, to the development of knowledge in materials science in order to be able to predict the evolution of the material physical and mechanical properties under service conditions (irradiation, thermomechanical solicitations, influence of the environment,..); - to characterize the properties of the materials used in the nuclear industry in order to determine their performance and to be able to predict their life expectancy, in particular via modelling. These materials can be irradiated or not, and originate from surveillance programs, experimental neutron irradiations or simulated irradiations with charged particles; - to establish, maintain and make use of the databases generated by these data; - to propose new or optimized materials, satisfying future service conditions and extend the life or the competitiveness of the associated systems; - to establish constitutive laws and models for the materials in service, incidental, accidental and storage conditions, and contribute to the development of the associated design codes in order to support the safety argumentation of utilities and vendors; - to provide expertise on industrial components, in particular to investigate strain or rupture mechanisms and to offer leads for improvement. This document presents, first, the purpose of the LECI (Historical data, Strategy, I and K shielded cell lines (building 605), M shielded cell line (building 625), Authorized materials). Then, it presents the microscopy and irradiation damage studies laboratory of the Saclay centre (Building 605) Which belongs to the Nuclear

  8. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  9. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage

  10. In the hot seat…

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    Members of the CERN Fire and Rescue Service and the Swiss fire services* have been taking part in a series of experiments organised by the Federation of Swiss Fire Services (FSSP), designed to test out new materials for fire-fighters’ clothing. Today’s exercise -  being locked inside a burning chamber.   The fire-fighters sit patiently in the test chamber with fire raging around them... Friday, 5 July. 9.15 a.m. at the Prévessin training site. The fire is building nicely and the flames are starting to lick across the floor of the CERN fire-fighters’ simulation chamber. Five fire-fighters wearing prototype under-garments and heat and flame-resistant coveralls prepare to enter this inferno. One by one they take their seats in the blaze where they must remain for 15 minutes. Under their clothes they are wired up to an array of sensors which measure their heart rates, humidity levels and body temperatures. Inside the chamber, temperatures begin ...

  11. Novel, Functionally Graded PIP Coating System for Hot Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses some of the most challenging materials issues with respect to Hot Structures, very high temperature, up to 4000 degrees F, applications. The...

  12. Microstructure origin of hot spots in textured laser zone melting Bi-2212 monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lera, F; Angurel, L A; Rojo, J A; Mora, M; Recuero, S; Arroyo, M P; Andres, N

    2005-01-01

    Hot spots are one of the main limitations in the development of large-scale high-power applications with superconducting materials. The application of digital speckle interferometry to detect inhomogeneous heating on ceramic superconductors allows the determining of a hot spot location in these materials before any damage is caused to the material. The technique detects deformations that are induced in the material due to dilatation, attaining a resolution of 0.45 μm /fringe. In this paper this technique has been applied to analyse the heating generation in Bi-2212 superconducting monoliths at room temperature and in operation conditions. In the first case a homogeneous heating is obtained, leading to a parallel fringe pattern. In the second case, a situation with an inhomogeneous heating origin has been detected. Once the position of this hot spot is determined, microstructure studies have been performed to determine which defects are responsible for hot spot generation

  13. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  14. Evaluation of hot forming effects mapping for CAE analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerr, L.; Faath, T.; Dykeman, J.; Malcolm, S.

    2016-08-01

    Hot forming has grown significantly in the manufacturing of structural components within the vehicle Body-In-White construction. The superior strength of press hardened steels not only guarantee high resistance to deformation, it also brings a significant weight saving compared to conventional cold formed products. However, the benefit of achieving ultrahigh strength with hot stamping, comes with a reduction in ductility of the press hardened part. This will require advanced material modeling to capture the predicted performances accurately. A technique to optically measure and map the thinning distribution after hot stamping has shown to improve numerical analysis for fracture prediction. The proposed method to determine the forming effects and mapping to CAE models can be integrated into the Vehicle Development Process to shorten the time to production.

  15. In situ stabilization wall for containment and hot spot retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a full scale field demonstration of a in situ stabilization technology applicable to buried transuranic waste. The technology involves creating a jet grouted wall around selected regions or hot spots within a buried waste site. The resulting wall provides a barrier against further horizontal migration of the contaminants and allows vertical digging of material inside the wall, thus minimizing waste during a hot spot removal action. The demonstration involved creating a open-quotes Uclose quotes shaped wall in the interior of a full sized, simulated waste pit. The wall simulated the main features of a four sided wall. The demonstration also involved a destructive examination and a stability test for a hot spot retrieval scenario

  16. Estudo do Processo TIG Hot-Wire com Material de Adição AISI-316L Analisando o Efeito do Sopro Magnético do Arco sobre a Diluição do Cordão de Solda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Alejandro González Olivares

    Full Text Available Resumo: O processo TIG com adição de arame quente (HotWire é considerado um processo altamente produtivo em comparação ao processo TIG convencional com arame frio (ColdWire, sendo possível alcançar grandes taxas de deposição e baixas porcentagens de diluição, características essas que permitem ao processo ser uma ótima alternativa para aplicações de revestimentos. Existem variadas opções em configurações de circuitos elétricos para aquecer o arame de adição no processo TIG Hot-Wire, entre elas podemos destacar a utilização da corrente contínua pulsada e a corrente alternada. No presente trabalho foi utilizada a corrente contínua constante e foram estudadas duas configurações do circuito elétrico para aquecer o material de adição, as quais em teoria provocam diferentes comportamentos no arco voltaico e, portanto, nas propriedades geométricas do cordão de solda. Uma primeira análise realizada sobre o arco voltaico demonstra que se forma um sopro mágnetico constante ao se aquecer o arame com corrente contínua constante. Segundo os ensaios realizados, a direção do sopro magnético depende da polaridade da corrente para aquecer o arame. Uma análise macrográfica dos cordões de solda obtidos demonstraram que os melhores resultados foram para os ensaios feitos com Hot-Wire, conseguindo diluições de até um 2% aproximadamente para uma velocidade de arame de 7,5 m/min, 1 kW de potência de aquecimento do arame e usando uma velocidade de soldagem de 30 cm/min.

  17. Solar Technician Program Blows Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Peg Moran

    1977-01-01

    A training program for solar heating technicians was initiated at Sonoma State College's School of Environmental Studies for CETA applicants. Among the projects designed and built were a solar alternative energy center, a solar hot water system, and a solar greenhouse. (MF)

  18. Interfaces in hot gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bronoff, S.

    1996-01-01

    The string tension at low T and the free energy of domain walls at high T can be computed from one and the same observable. We show by explicit calculation that domain walls in hot Z(2) gauge theory have good thermodynamical behaviour. This is due to roughening of the wall, which expresses the restoration of translational symmetry.

  19. Was the big bang hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers experiments to confirm the substantial deviations from a Planck curve in the Woody and Richards spectrum of the microwave background, and search for conducting needles in our galaxy. Spectral deviations and needle-shaped grains are expected for a cold Big Bang, but are not required by a hot Big Bang. (Auth.)

  20. Hot atom chemistry of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemistry of energetic carbon atoms is discussed. The experimental approach to studies that have been carried out is described and the mechanistic framework of hot carbon atom reactions is considered in some detail. Finally, the direction that future work might take is examined, including the relationship of experimental to theoretical work. (author)

  1. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  2. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  3. Hot corrosion of low cobalt alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The hot corrosion attack susceptibility of various alloys as a function of strategic materials content are investigated. Preliminary results were obtained for two commercial alloys, UDIMET 700 and Mar-M 247, that were modified by varying the cobalt content. For both alloys the cobalt content was reduced in steps to zero. Nickel content was increased accordingly to make up for the reduced cobalt but all other constituents were held constant. Wedge bar test samples were produced by casting. The hot corrosion test consisted of cyclically exposing samples to the high velocity flow of combustion products from an air-fuel burner fueled with jet A-1 and seeded with a sodium chloride aqueous solution. The flow velocity was Mach 0.5 and the sodium level was maintained at 0.5 ppm in terms of fuel plus air. The test cycle consisted of holding the test samples at 900 C for 1 hour followed by 3 minutes in which the sample could cool to room temperature in an ambient temperature air stream.

  4. Hot carrier dynamics in plasmonic transition metal nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Adela; Florio, Fred; Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2018-06-01

    Extraction of non-equilibrium hot carriers generated by plasmon decay in metallic nano-structures is an increasingly exciting prospect for utilizing plasmonic losses, but the search for optimum plasmonic materials with long-lived carriers is ongoing. Transition metal nitrides are an exciting class of new plasmonic materials with superior thermal and mechanical properties compared to conventional noble metals, but their suitability for plasmonic hot carrier applications remains unknown. Here, we present fully first principles calculations of the plasmonic response, hot carrier generation and subsequent thermalization of all group IV, V and VI transition metal nitrides, fully accounting for direct and phonon-assisted transitions as well as electron–electron and electron–phonon scattering. We find the largest frequency ranges for plasmonic response in ZrN, HfN and WN, between those of gold and silver, while we predict strongest absorption in the visible spectrum for the VN, NbN and TaN. Hot carrier generation is dominated by direct transitions for most of the relevant energy range in all these nitrides, while phonon-assisted processes dominate only below 1 eV plasmon energies primarily for the group IV nitrides. Finally, we predict the maximum hot carrier lifetimes to be around 10 fs for group IV and VI nitrides, a factor of 3–4 smaller than noble metals, due to strong electron–phonon scattering. However, we find longer carrier lifetimes for group V nitrides, comparable to silver for NbN and TaN, while exceeding 100 fs (twice that of silver) for VN, making them promising candidates for efficient hot carrier extraction.

  5. Control of microstructure during hot working of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, J.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2005-01-01

    Hot working is considered to be the most important step involved in the fabrication of zirconium alloys for nuclear reactor applications for two reasons: i) the scale of the microstructure and texture of the final product is decided at this stage and ii) the hot deformed microstructure provides a suitable starting microstructure for the subsequent fabrication steps. The resultant microstructure in turn controls the properties of the final product. In order to obtain final product with a suitable microstructure and with specified mechanical properties on a repeatable basis the control of microstructure during hot working is of paramount importance. This is usually done by studying the constitutive behaviour of the material under hot working conditions and by constructing processing maps. In the latter method, strain rate sensitivity is mapped as a function of temperature and strain rate to delineate domains within the bounds of which a specific deformation mechanism dominates. Detail microstructural analysis is then carried out on the samples deformed within the domains. Using this methodology, processing maps have been constructed for various zirconium alloys. These maps have been found to be very useful for optimizing the hot workability and control of microstructure of zirconium alloys. (author)

  6. Directive of The Minister of Economic Affairs and the State Secretary for Social Affairs and Public Health of 5 December 1969, Stcrt. 240 in implementation of Section 2 and other Sections of the Fissionable Materials, Ores and Radioactive Materials (Transport) Decree (Designation of Countries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Directive designates the countries which are parties to the same international transport agreements as the Netherlands and which may therefore transport fissionable materials, ores and radioactive materials over Netherlands territory and territorial waters. (NEA) [fr

  7. The study of hard microporous material using the ultrafine section technique (1961); Etude des materiaux microporeux durs par la technique des coupes ultraminces (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Th [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The conventional replica techniques for the examination of surfaces or fractures with the electron microscope are unsuitable for refractories or microporous bodies. The method of cutting ultrafine sections with a diamond cutter, the sample being impregnated with methyl methacrylate, has the advantage of making possible the direct examination by transmission of the sample. (author) [French] Les techniques classiques de repliques pour l'examen de surfaces ou de fractures au microscope electronique sont difficilement applicables aux refractaires et aux microporeux. Les coupes ultraminces au couteau de diamant d'echantillons enrobes dans le methyl-methacrylate ont l'avantage de permettre l'examen direct par transmission des corps etudies. (auteur)

  8. Experimental and numerical approaches to studying hot cracking in stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Minh

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns experimental and numerical approaches to studying hot cracking in welds in stainless steel. Metallurgical weldability of two filler products used for the welding of an AISI-316L(N) austenitic stainless steel grade is evaluated. These filler metals are distinguished by their solidification microstructures: austeno-ferritic for the 19Cr-12Ni-2Mo grade and austenitic for the 19-15H Thermanit grade. The study of weldability concerns the assessment of the susceptibility to hot cracking of these three alloys, the proposition of a hot cracking criterion, and the evaluation of its transferability to structure-scale tests. Hot cracks are material separations occurring at high temperatures along the grain boundaries (dendrite boundaries), when the level of strain and the strain rate exceed a certain level. The hot cracks studied are formed during solidification from the liquid phase of weld metals. The bibliography study brings to the fore the complexity of initiation and propagation mechanisms of these material separations. Three types of tests are studied in this work: hot cracking tests, such as trapezoidal and Varestraint tests, allowing to initiate the phenomenon in controlled experimental conditions, and tests on the Gleeble thermomechanical simulator for thermomechanical (materials behavior laws, fracture properties) and metallurgical (brittle temperature range (BTR), evolution of delta ferrite) characterizations of the alloys. All these tests on the three materials were analyzed via numerical modeling and simulations implemented in the Cast3M finite element code in order to bring out a thermomechanical hot cracking criterion. (author) [fr

  9. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  10. Measurement of double differential cross sections of charged particle emission reactions by incident DT neutrons. Correction for energy loss of charged particle in sample materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Terada, Yasuaki; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    In the measurement of charged particle emission spectrum induced by neutrons, correcting the energy loss of charged particle in sample materials becomes a very important inverse problem. To deal with this inverse problem, we have applied the Bayesian unfolding method to correct the energy loss, and tested the performance of the method. Although this method is very simple, it was confirmed from the test that the performance was not inferior to other methods at all, and therefore the method could be a powerful tool for charged particle spectrum measurement. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the material in creep-exposed critical 12Cr-1Mo-V ferritic steel components of the pressure section of power plant steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Metallographic examinations were carried out on ferritic 12Cr-1Mo-V steel with tempered martensite structure after 68,000 - 145,000 hr service in creep conditions. Structural evolution related to the form of martensite, carbide precipitation and internal damage due to long-term action of thermally activated processes was discussed. A generalised scheme of structural evolution and progress of the internal damage was developed in correlation with the life exhaustion ratio. Principles of the classification for ferritic 12Cr-1Mo-V steel after long-term-service were proposed together with the method for evolution of the state of the material for the industrial practice. (author)

  12. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  13. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  14. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  15. Decommissioning of the Risoe hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1992-02-01

    Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, of large contaminated equipment from the concrete cell line and a separate shielded storage facility, and the removal of large contaminated facilities such as out cell parts of a tube transport system between a concrete cell and a lead shielded steel box and a remotely operated Reichert Telatom microscope housed in a lead shielded glove box is described in addition to the initial mapping of radiation levels related to the decontamination of concrete cells. The dose commitment of 17.7 mSv was ascribed to 12 persons in the 2nd half of 1991. The work resulting in these doses was mainly handling of waste together with the frogman entrances in order to repair the in-cell crane and power manipulator. The overall time schedule for the project still appears to be applicable. (AB)

  16. Dynamic simulation for hot gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppi, C.; Berg, H.; Vitolo, S.; Tartarelli, R.; Tonini, D.; Zaccagnini, M. (ENEL CRTN, Pisa (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    Removal of sulfur compounds from hot coal gas is a necessary step during power generation operations. Metal oxides such as zinc ferrite, zinc titanate and tin oxide have been identified as promising adsorbent materials. A mathematical model capable of describing the sulfidation phase in fixed-, moving- and fluidized-bed reactors has been developed. Equations selected are sufficiently simple and numerical solutions can be obtained in a reasonable time using available computer equipment. At the same time the equations produce satisfactory agreement with experimental results. This paper presents kinetic models of spherical sorbent-particles applicable to all reactor configurations and a mathematical model limited to the moving-bed reactor. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Stress Analysis for Mobile Hot Cell Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hannan Bahrin; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2015-01-01

    Prototype and Plant Development Centre (PDC) is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS), such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. At present, there are two units of MHC in the world, one in South Africa and the other one in China. Malaysian Mobile MHC is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design to fulfill the safety requirement in MHC operation. This paper discusses the loading effect analysis from the radiation shielding materials to the MHC wall structure, roof supporting column and window structure. (author)

  18. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  19. Recent trend of administration on hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Shigeru [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Agency exercises jurisdiction over Hot Spring Act, and plans to protect the source of the hot spring and to utilize it appropriately. From the aspect of utilization, hot springs are widely used as a means to remedy chronic diseases and tourist spots besides places for recuperation and repose. Statistics on Japanese hot springs showed that the number of hot spring spots and utilized-fountainhead increased in 1987, compared with the number in 1986. Considering the utilized-headspring, the number of naturally well-out springs has stabilized for 10 years while power-operated springs have increased. This is because the demand of hot springs has grown as the number of users has increased. Another reason is to keep the amount of hot water by setting up the power facility as the welled-out amount has decreased. Major point of recent administration on the hot spring is to permit excavation and utilization of hot springs. Designation of National hot spring health resorts started in 1954 in order to ensure the effective and original use of hot springs and to promote the public use of them, for the purpose of arranging the sound circumstances of hot springs. By 1988, 76 places were designated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  1. FOREWORD: Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Montemerie, Thierry

    1984-01-01

    A Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas" was held in Nice, France, on 8-10 November 1982. Dedicated mostly to theoretical, observational, and experimental aspects of X-ray astronomy and related atomic physics, it was the first of its kind to be held in France. The Workshop was "European" in the sense that one of its goals (apart from pure science) was to gather the European astronomical community in view of the forthcoming presentation of the "X-80" project for final selection to be the next scientific satellite of the European Space Agency. We now know that the Infrared Space Observatory has been chosen instead, but the recent successful launch of EXOSAT still keeps X-ray astronomy alive, and should be able to transfer, at least for a time, the leadership in this field from the U.S. to Europe, keeping in mind the competitive level of our Japanese colleagues. (With respect to the selection of ISO, one should also keep in mind that observations in the infrared often bring material relevant to the study of X-ray sources!) On a longer time scale, the Workshop also put emphasis on several interesting projects for the late eighties-early nineties, showing the vitality of the field in Europe. Some proposals have already taken a good start, like XMM, the X-ray Multi-Mirror project, selected by ESA last December for an assessment study in 1983. The present proceedings contain most of the papers that were presented at the Workshop. Only the invited papers were presented orally, contributed papers being presented in the form of posters but summarized orally by rapporteurs. To make up this volume, the written versions of these papers were either cross-reviewed by the Invited Speakers, or refereed by the Rapporteurs (for contributed papers) and edited by us, when necessary. Note, however, that the conclusions of the Workshop, which were kindly presented by Richard McCray, have already appeared in the "News and Views" section of Nature (301, 372, 1983). Altogether, the

  2. Reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system (R and D on synthetic resin materials); 1979 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gosei jushikei zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    Research has been carried out on various collector members using synthetic resins for a solar cooling/heating and hot-water supply system. In the research on a light selective transmitting film, a technology was established in which an In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} film was processed on a polyester film at a spatter speed of 4,000 (angstrom)/min by using a conventional spattering device and a method of running the film while it was cooled. In the research on transparent heat insulating materials, a plastic heat insulator molding test device was used, molding and evaluating the straight groove type bent molded product of various plastic films, with the best results obtained using a polyester film. The selective absorbing film proved that the synthesizing time of Co{sub 3}O{sub 3} was reduced by about 30% and that no performance was lowered by the mixture of inexpensive metallic oxides, which enabled a prospect of the cost reduction. The base material for the heat collecting body was produced using a three-layer film containing a metallic foil and a water channel of a molded sheet structure by a heat joining method, but no improvement was seen in the pressure resistance. In the general evaluation of the practicality of a high performance collector, the selective transmitting film was found insufficient in the contributing effect to the improvement of heat collecting efficiency. The transparent heat insulating material contributed to the efficiency increase through the improvement of the light transmissivity. (NEDO)

  3. Arrangement of furnaces and retorts for the distillation of shale, etc. [injection of hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahore, M

    1846-01-31

    The patent is concerned with the distillation of dried materials, the distillation being facilitated by injection of hot air into the retorts. Figures show apparatus for heating the air, consisting of a series of pipes, connected together and placed horizontally in the interior of the furnace on bricks arranged in such a way that the flames and smoke circulate, as shown, around each pipe, touching first all the surface of the large one placed in the center. The air enters this tube, and from it passes into the others which it runs through successively, coming finally into the last pipe, being heated in this journey to a very high temperature. The last tube ends in a bell from which different branches start, each supplied with stop-cocks, to lead this hot air into the different sections of the retort. With the stop-cocks the quantity of air can be regulated at will, in the compartment of the retort, for accelerating the operation more or less.

  4. Models of hot stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Albada, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Elliptical galaxies consist almost entirely of stars. Sites of recent star formation are rare, and most stars are believed to be several billion years old, perhaps as old as the Universe itself (--10/sup 10/ yrs). Stellar motions in ellipticals show a modest amount of circulation about the center of the system, but most support against the force of gravity is provided by random motions; for this reason ellipticals are called 'hot' stellar systems. Spiral galaxies usually also contain an appreciable amount of gas (--10%, mainly atomic hydrogen) and new stars are continually being formed out of this gas, especially in the spiral arms. In contrast to ellipticals, support against gravity in spiral galaxies comes almost entirely from rotation; random motions of the stars with respect to rotation are small. Consequently, spiral galaxies are called 'cold' stellar systems. Other than in hot systems, in cold systems the collective response of stars to variations in the force field is an essential part of the dynamics. The present overview is limited to mathematical models of hot systems. Computational methods are also discussed

  5. Measurement of deuteron-induced activation cross section for IFMIF accelerator structural materials in 22-40 MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Makoto; Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Ishioka, Noriko S.

    2004-01-01

    The activation cross-sections for the deuteron-induced reactions have been obtained for Al, Cu and W in 22-40 MeV regions and compared with previous experimental ones and the data in ACSELAM library. For 27 Mg, ACSELAM were smaller than the present result by a factor of 1.3-2.0. For 24 Na, ACSELAM resembled experimental values in shape but were lower than these by about 1 order. For 61 Cu, 64 Cu, 62 Zn and 63 Zn, the present results resembled other experimental data and ACSELAM in shape. In the case of 61 Cu and 62 Zn, ACSELAM became higher than the present results by a factor of 2-4. In the case of 64 Cu and 63 Zn, ACSELAM and the present results were in agreement within 40%. For 181 Re, 182m+g Re and 183 Re, the present data and the data in ACSELAM were about same shapes and in agreement within 30%. For 184m+g Re, 186 Re and 187 W, the data in ACSELAM were different from the present data about 1.5-7 times. (author)

  6. A temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for hot work tool steel including particle coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.

  7. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  8. Exterior Companions to Hot Jupiters Orbiting Cool Stars Are Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Bryan, Marta

    2017-12-01

    The existence of hot Jupiters has challenged theories of planetary formation since the first extrasolar planets were detected. Giant planets are generally believed to form far from their host stars, where volatile materials like water exist in their solid phase, making it easier for giant planet cores to accumulate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how giant planets can migrate inward from their birth sites to short-period orbits. One such mechanism, called Kozai-Lidov migration, requires the presence of distant companions in orbits inclined by more than ˜40° with respect to the plane of the hot Jupiter’s orbit. The high occurrence rate of wide companions in hot-Jupiter systems lends support to this theory for migration. However, the exact orbital inclinations of these detected planetary and stellar companions is not known, so it is not clear whether the mutual inclination of these companions is large enough for the Kozai-Lidov process to operate. This paper shows that in systems orbiting cool stars with convective outer layers, the orbits of most wide planetary companions to hot Jupiters must be well aligned with the orbits of the hot Jupiters and the spins of the host stars. For a variety of possible distributions for the inclination of the companion, the width of the distribution must be less than ˜20° to recreate the observations with good fidelity. As a result, the companion orbits are likely well aligned with those of the hot Jupiters, and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism does not enforce migration in these systems.

  9. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  10. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  11. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January-March 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies.

  12. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  13. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  14. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Habibolah Dehghan; Seyed Bagher Mortazavi; Mohammad J Jafari; Mohammad R Maracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI) as the gold standard. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart...

  15. Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) vitrification of radwaste concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemer, D.D.; Scheetz, B.; Gougar, M.L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Properly formulated and properly ''canned'' radwaste concretes can be readily hot-isostatically-pressed (HIPed) into materials that exhibit performance equivalent to typical radwaste-type glasses. The HIPing conditions (temperature/pressure) required to turn a concrete waste form into a ''vitrified'' waste form are quite mild and therefore consistent with both safety and high productivity. This paper describes the process and its products with reference to its potential application to Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) reprocessing wastes

  16. Remote waste handling at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughn, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes, some of which are combustible, are generated during disassembly and examination of irradiated fast-reactor fuel and material experiments at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). These wastes are remotely segregated and packaged in doubly contained, high-integrity, clean, retrievable waste packages for shipment to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper describes the equipment and techniques used to perform these operations

  17. Ballooning test equipment for use in hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broendsted, P.; Adrian, F.

    1979-12-01

    An equipment for testing the LOCA behaviour of irradiated cladding materials is described. The details of the construction and of the installation in the Hot Cells are reported. Pilot tests carried out showed that the performance of the system fulfills the basic experimental prerequisites, which were: heating rate of 2-3degC/s, final temperature 1150degC/s, internal pressure max. 30 atm, external pressure max. 1 atm, test atmosphere either air or steam. (author)

  18. Spot Ignition of Natural Fuels by Hot Metal Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, James Linwood

    2017-01-01

    The spot ignition of combustible material by hot metal particles is an important pathway by which wildland and urban spot fires and smolders are started. Upon impact with a fuel, such as dry grass, duff, or saw dust, these particles can initiate spot fires by direct flaming or smoldering which can transition to a flame. These particles can be produced by processes such as welding, powerline interactions, fragments from bullet impacts, abrasive cutting, and pyrotechnics. There is little publi...

  19. Mechanical and thermophysical properties of hot-pressed SYNROC B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Otto, R.A.; Brady, R.L.; Brown, A.E.; Ulrich, A.R.; Lum, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The optimal SYNROC compositons for use with commercial waste are reviewed. Large amounts of powder (about 2.5 kg) were prepared by convention al ceramic operations to test the SYNROC concept on a processing scale. Samples, 15.2 cm in diameter, were hot pressed in graphite, and representative samples were cut for microstructural evaluations. Measured mechanical and thermophysical properties did not vary significantly as a function of sample location and were typical of titanate ceramic materials

  20. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Hot structures made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for space reentry vehicles play a key role regarding feasibility of advanced and reusable future space transportation systems. Thus realization of applicable flight hardware concerning hot primary structures like a nose cap or body flaps and thermal protection systems (TPS) requires system competence w.r.t. sophisticated know how in material processing, manufacturing and qualification of structural components and in all aspects from process control, use of NDI techniques, arc jet testing, hot structure testing to flight concept validation. This goal has been achieved so far by DLR while following a dedicated development road map since more than a decade culminating at present in the supply of the nose cap system for NASA's X-38; the flight hardware has been installed successfully in October 2001. A number of unique hardware development milestones had to be achieved in the past to finally reach this level of system competence. It is the intention of this paper to highlight the most important technical issues and achievements from the essential projects and developments to finally provide a comprehensive insight into DLR's past and future development road map w.r.t. CMC hot structures for space reentry vehicles. Based on DLR's C/C-SiC material which is produced with the inhouse developed liquid silicon infiltration process (LSI) the development strategy first concentrated on basic material properties evaluation in various arc jet testing facilities. As soon as a basic understanding of oxidation and erosion mechanisms had been achieved further efforts concentrated on inflight verification of both materials and design concepts for hot structures. Consequently coated and uncoated C/C-SiC specimens were integrated into the ablative heat shield of Russian FOTON capsules and they were tested during two missions in 1992 and 1994. Following on, a hot structure experiment called CETEX which principally was a kind of a

  1. 3-D thermal stress analysis of hot spots in reactor piping using BEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, R.S.; Sugimoto, Jun

    1994-08-01

    A three-dimensional steady state thermoelastic analysis has been conducted on the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor(PWR) containing localized hot spots resulting from fission product aerosol deposition occurring during a hypothetical severe accident. The boundary element method (BEM) of numerical solution was successfully employed to investigate the structural response of the hot leg. Convergence of solution can be realized provided sufficiently large number of elements are employed and correct modelling of the temperature transition region (TTR) adjacent to the hot spot on the inner surface is conducted. The only correct temperature field across the TTR is that which can be represented by the interpolation functions employed in the BEM code. Further, incorrect solutions can also be generated if the TTR is too thin. The nature of the deformation at the hot spot location depends on whether the thermal boundary condition on the outer surface of the hot leg is one of constant temperature or adiabatic. The analysis shows that at the location of the hot spot on the inner surface large compressive stresses can be established. On the outer surface at the same location, large tensile stresses can be established. The presence of these large stress elevations in the vicinity of the hot spot could be detrimental to the integrity of the hot leg. The tensile stresses are extremely important since they can act as sites of crack initiation and subsequent propagation. Once a crack propagates through the thickness, leak worthiness of the hot leg comes into question. Consequently, additional analysis incorporating the effects of plasticity and temperature dependence of the material properties must be conducted to ascertain the integrity of the hot leg. (J.P.N.)

  2. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  3. Fatigue Performance of SFPSC under Hot-Wet Environments and Cyclic Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structural material named “steel fiber polymer structural concrete (SFPSC” with features of both high strength and high toughness was developed by this research group and applied to the bridge superstructures in the hot-wet environments. In order to investigate the fatigue performance and durability of SFPSC under hot-wet environments, the environment and fatigue load uncoupling method and the coupling action of environment and fatigue load were used or developed. Three-point bending fatigue experiments with uncoupling action of environments and cyclic loads were carried out for SFPSC specimens which were pretreated under hot-wet environments, and the experiments with the coupling action of environments and cyclic loads for SFPSC specimens were carried out under hot-wet environments. Then, the effects of hot-wet environments and the experimental methods on the fatigue mechanism of SFPSC material were discussed, and the environmental fatigue equations of SFPSC material under coupling and uncoupling action of hot-wet environments and cyclic bending loads were established. The research results show that the fatigue limits of SFPSC under the coupling action of the environments and cyclic loads were lower about 15%. The proposed fatigue equations could be used to estimate the fatigue lives and fatigue limits of SFPSC material.

  4. A low temperature aluminizing treatment of hot work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matijevic, B., E-mail: bozidar.matijevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to hot tool steel H13. The aluminizing treating temperature was from 550 to 620°C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the aluminized layer thickness and the oxide layer were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) were applied to observe the cross-sections and the distribution of elements. (author)

  5. A low temperature aluminizing treatment of hot work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to hot tool steel H13. The aluminizing treating temperature was from 550 to 620°C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the aluminized layer thickness and the oxide layer were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) were applied to observe the cross-sections and the distribution of elements. (author)

  6. Hot flashes and sleep in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen E

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disturbances during menopause are often attributed to nocturnal hot flashes and 'sweats' associated with changing hormone patterns. This paper is a comprehensive critical review of the research on the relationship between sleep disturbance and hot flashes in women. Numerous studies have found a relationship between self-reported hot flashes and sleep complaints. However, hot flash studies using objective sleep assessment techniques such as polysomnography, actigraphy, or quantitative analysis of the sleep EEG are surprisingly scarce and have yielded somewhat mixed results. Much of this limited evidence suggests that hot flashes are associated with objectively identified sleep disruption in at least some women. At least some of the negative data may be due to methodological issues such as reliance upon problematic self-reports of nocturnal hot flashes and a lack of concurrent measures of hot flashes and sleep. The recent development of a reliable and non-intrusive method for objectively identifying hot flashes during the night should help address the need for substantial additional research in this area. Several areas of clinical relevance are described, including the effects of discontinuing combined hormone therapy (estrogen plus progesterone) or estrogen-only therapy, the possibility of hot flashes continuing for many years after menopause, and the link between hot flashes and depression.

  7. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  8. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  9. Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaka, Ronald; Derry, Trevor E.; Sigalas, Iakovos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The load-displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B 6 O is measured and analysed. → The nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide is reported. → An approach is developed to simulate multi-cycling loading load-displacement curves. → A comprehensive model inter-comparison study of the ISE in hot-pressed B 6 O is also presented. → The fractal dimension is a better measure of ISE than the Meyer's index. - Abstract: The existence of the indentation size effect implies the absence of a single hardness value for the material under investigation especially at low applied loads. In this paper we present an investigation of the indentation size dependence behaviour of nanoindentation hardness in boron suboxide ceramic compacts prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing. Berkovich nanohardness indentations were conducted and analyzed accordingly. In addition to the ordinary Oliver and Pharr method of nanoindentation data analysis, a quantitative approach for the loading curve analysis is proposed. Using the proposed approach, the description and characterization of the observed indentation size effect through the application of the Meyer's law, and the classical and the modified proportional specimen resistance models as well as the multi-fractal scaling law was conducted and is reported. The load-independent hardness values deduced from our quantitative approach are comparable to the results calculated with conventional methods, especially with the multi-fractal scaling law.

  10. Remote Robotic Cleaning System for Contaminated Hot-Cell Floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Jang Jin; Yang, Myung S.; Kwon, Hyo Kjo

    2005-01-01

    The M6 hot-cell of the Irradiated Material Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been contaminated with spent fuel debris and other radioactive waste due to the DUPIC nuclear fuel development processes. As the hot-cell is active, direct human workers' access, even with protection, to the in-cell is not possible because of the nature of the high radiation level of the spent PWR fuel. A remote robotic cleaning system has been developed for use in a highly radioactive environment of the M6 hot-cell. The remote robotic cleaning system was designed to completely eliminate human interaction with hazardous radioactive contaminants. This robotic cleaning system was also designed to remove contaminants or contaminated smears placed or fixed on the floor of the M6 hot-cell by mopping it in a remote manner. The environmental, functional and mechanical design considerations, control system and capabilities of the developed remote robotic cleaning system are presented

  11. Status of the FRM-II hot neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Gutsmiedl, E.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II will be equipped with a hot neutron source. This secondary source will shift a part of the thermal neutron energy spectrum in the D 2 O moderator to energies from 0.1 to 1 eV. The hot neutron source consists of a graphite cylinder (200 mm diameter, 300 mm high), which is heated by gamma radiation up to a maximum temperature of about 2400 C. The graphite cylinder is surrounded by a high-temperature insulation of carbon fiber, to achieve this high temperature. We have accomplished mock-up tests of the carbon fiber in a high temperature furnace, to investigate the insulation properties of the material. The graphite cylinder and the insulation are covered with two vessels made out of Zircaloy 4. The space between the vessels is filled with helium. The hot neutron source is permanent under control by pressure and temperature measurements. The temperature inside the graphite cylinder will be measured by a purpose-built noise thermometer due to the extremely harsh environment conditions (temperature and nuclear radiation). The hot neutron source is designed and manufactured according to the general specification basic safety and to the German nuclear atomic rules (KTA). The source will be installed in year 2001. (orig.)

  12. Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaka, Ronald, E-mail: Ronald.Machaka@wits.ac.za [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Derry, Trevor E. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sigalas, Iakovos [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} The load-displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B{sub 6}O is measured and analysed. {yields} The nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide is reported. {yields} An approach is developed to simulate multi-cycling loading load-displacement curves. {yields} A comprehensive model inter-comparison study of the ISE in hot-pressed B{sub 6}O is also presented. {yields} The fractal dimension is a better measure of ISE than the Meyer's index. - Abstract: The existence of the indentation size effect implies the absence of a single hardness value for the material under investigation especially at low applied loads. In this paper we present an investigation of the indentation size dependence behaviour of nanoindentation hardness in boron suboxide ceramic compacts prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing. Berkovich nanohardness indentations were conducted and analyzed accordingly. In addition to the ordinary Oliver and Pharr method of nanoindentation data analysis, a quantitative approach for the loading curve analysis is proposed. Using the proposed approach, the description and characterization of the observed indentation size effect through the application of the Meyer's law, and the classical and the modified proportional specimen resistance models as well as the multi-fractal scaling law was conducted and is reported. The load-independent hardness values deduced from our quantitative approach are comparable to the results calculated with conventional methods, especially with the multi-fractal scaling law.

  13. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  14. Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, H.

    1993-02-01

    A concise description of the current status (December 31st, 1992) regarding the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory is given in this periodic report. During the second half of the year 1992, all remaining fissile material and a large amount of contaminated material were removed, major repair work was carried out on the in-cell crane, the shielded storage facility was decontaminated and sealed, iodine filters in the cell ventilation system were removed, remote cleaning was carried out on three concrete cells to radiation levels acceptable for final cleaning by frogmen, and the remaining work schedule was planned. These processes are briefly described. Some breakdowns of older, but vital equipment (i.e. the in-cell crane and the power manipulator) that was taken into extensive use led to a certain amount of delay. The collective radiation doses during this half-year were no higher than under normal operation of the facility, and amounted to 12 man-mSv ascribed to 14 persons. It was concluded that, when removing old epoxy paint in the cells using paint strippers applied by hand, personnel can wear polythene oversuits, although a technique for remote handling has been developed. Tables illustrate measured radiation levels in cells number 1,4,5 and 6, and a diagram describes the shielded storage facility. (AB)

  15. Sensitivity of hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages in several gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.

    1972-01-01

    Four hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages were calibrated in 12 gases. The relative sensitivities of these gages were compared to several gas properties. Ionization cross section was the physical property which correlated best with gage sensitivity. The effects of gage accelerating voltage and ionization-cross-section energy level were analyzed. Recommendations for predicting gage sensitivity according to gage type were made.

  16. Thermal performance assessment and improvement of a solar domestic hot water tank with PCM in the mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Furbo, Simon; Kong, Weiqiang

    2018-01-01

    To develop an appropriate solar DHW (Domestic Hot Water) tank for residential dwellings and put it into the European solar thermal market for promotion, thermal performance tests of PCM (Phase Change Material) hot water storage tanks of both a prototype and an improved version with a water volume...

  17. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  18. The ATLAS3D project - XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  19. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  20. Study of the microstructure evolution of ferritic stainless ODS steels during hot working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karch, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    The production of ODS steels involves a powder consolidation step usually using the hot extrusion (HE) process. The anisotropic properties of extruded materials, especially in the ODS ferritic grades (≥wt%12Cr), need a better understanding of the metallurgical phenomena which may occur during HE and lead to the observed microstructure. The hot working behavior of these materials is of particular interest. The methodology of this work includes the microstructure analysis after interrupted hot extrusion, hot torsion and hot compression (1000-1200 C) tests of ferritic steels with 14%Cr and different amounts in Ti and Y 2 O 3 . The microstructure evolution during hot extrusion process is associated with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX). It leads to the creation of new grains by the formation of low angle boundaries, and then the increase of their misorientation under plastic deformation. The investigations highlight also the role of precipitation on the kinetics of this mechanism; it remains incomplete in the presence of fine and dense nano-precipitates. After hot deformation in torsion and compression, it is noticed that both precipitates and temperature deformation have a significant impact on the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution. Indeed, the CDRX is dominant when temperature and amount of reinforcement are limited. However, when they are increased, limited microstructure evolution is observed. In this case, the results are interpreted through a mechanism of strain accommodation at grain boundaries, with low dislocation activity in the bulk of the grains. (author) [fr

  1. Development status of post irradiation examination techniques at the JMTR Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, M.; Ohsawa, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Umino, A.; Shimizu, M.; Satoh, H.; Oyamada, R.

    1992-01-01

    Hot laboratory at Oarai Research Establishment was founded to examine the objects mainly irradiated at JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and has been operated since 1971. A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) is available using the hot laboratory. Continuous efforts are made to develop new PIE techniques to accommodate the user's requirements. The following are main techniques recently developed in the hot laboratory; 1. Remote capsule assembly including remote weld of irradiated objects for reirradiation in JMTR. 2. Fracture toughness tests of reactor component materials. 3. Creep tests of heat resistance alloys in high temperature conditions. 4. Tests of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). 5. Examination techniques of miniaturized test specimens. This report describes an outline of the hot laboratory with main emphasis on the new PIE techniques. (author)

  2. MAAP4 hot leg and lower head failure benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Henry, R.E.; Paik, C.Y.; Conzen, J.; Luangdilok, W.

    2009-01-01

    The MAAP4 material creep calculation was compared with the experiments reported by Maile, et al., for a 0.7 m diameter hot leg, with a thickness of 47 mm, which is pressurized to 16.3 MPa and heated to temperatures in excess of 700degC. These experiments showed that the carbon steel hot leg would undergo material creep to a failure state in approximately 1,100 seconds. In addition, the MAAP4 creep calculation was compared with the lower head failure tests performed at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These experiments were performed using scaled models of a typical Reactor Pressure Vessel lower head. The test vessel was fabricated from SA533B1 steel with an inner diameter of 0.91 m and a nominal thickness of 30 mm. The experiments were performed at around 10 MPa internal pressure with various imposed heat flux distributions. The onset of creep was observed to occur between 660degC and 705degC. The MAAP4 model provides a good characterization of the material creep behavior. For the hot leg test benchmark, the key is determining the correct equivalent stress when the stress is multi-axial. A good agreement was obtained when a multiplier of 1.09 to the hoop stress was used. For the lower head failure benchmark, using correct creep properties is important. The SNL test vessel material was fabricated as SA533B1 steel. However, when the experimental vessel material was tested for creep properties it turned out to be significantly weaker than the reactor vessel steel which has the same identification. Also, the material undergoing phase transition and becoming stronger at high temperatures has to be considered for accurate prediction of the failure time. A good agreement was obtained when the creep data of Jeong, et al., was used. (author)

  3. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  4. Hot Deformation Behavior and Pulse Current Auxiliary Isothermal Forging of Hot Pressing Sintering TiAl Based Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengcheng; Jiang, Shaosong; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2017-12-16

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of as-forged Ti46.5Al2Cr1.8Nb-(W, B) alloy via pulse current auxiliary isothermal forging (PCIF). The starting material composed of near gamma (NG) microstructure was fabricated by adopting pre-alloyed powders via hot pressing sintering (HPS) at 1300 °C. Isothermal compression tests were conducted at a strain rate range of 0.001-0.1 s -1 and a temperature range of 1125-1275 °C to establish the constitutive model and processing map. The optimal hot deformation parameters were successfully determined (in a strain rate range of 10 -3 -2.5 × 10 -3 s -1 and temperature range of 1130-1180 °C) based on the hot processing map and microstructure observation. Accordingly, an as-forged TiAl based alloy without cracks was successfully fabricated by PCIF processing at 1175 °C with a nominal strain rate of 10 -3 s -1 . Microstructure observation indicated that complete dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase transformation of γ→α₂ occurred during the PCIF process. The elongation of as-forged alloy was 136%, possessing a good secondary hot workability, while the sintered alloy was only 66% when tested at 900 °C with a strain rate of 2 × 10 -4 s -1 .

  5. Current status of JAERI Tokai hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Hiroharu; Morozumi, Minoru; Yamahara, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    JAERI has 4 hot cell facilities in order to examine high radioactive materials. Three of them, the Research Hot Laboratory, the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility and the Waste Safety Testing Facility are located in the JAERI Tokai site, and the rest is the JMTR Hot Laboratory in the Oarai site. The Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) was constructed for post-irradiation examination (PIE), especially nuclear related basic research experiment, such as metallurgical, chemical and mechanical examination on fuels and materials irradiated in research and test reactors. This facility has 10 large dimension concrete and 38 lead cells. At present the RHL is used for various kinds of examinations of high radioactive samples such as fuels of research and test reactors, power reactors and high temperature testing reactor (HTTR), and structural materials. The Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) was designed and constructed for carrying out PIE of irradiated full-size fuel assemblies of light water reactors (LWRs). This facility has a storage pool, 8 concrete and 5 lead cells. They are currently used for safety evaluation on high burnup and advanced lWR fuels as part of the national program. The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was designed and constructed for safety research on long-term storage and disposal of high level radioactive wastes, generated by fuel reprocessing. The WASTEF has 5 concrete cells and 1 lead cell. Examinations on the behavior of various long-lived fission products in a glass form and in a canister and, releasing behavior of them out of a canister are carrying out under the condition at storage. (author)

  6. Upgrades of Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, R.L.; DesChane, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory operates the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PITL) and the 324 Shielded Materials Facility (SMF). These hot cell facilities provide diverse capabilities for the postirradiation examination and testing of irradiated reactor fuels and materials. The primary function of these facilities is to determine failure mechanisms and effects of irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of reactor components. The purpose of this paper is to review major equipment and facility upgrades that enhance customer satisfaction and broaden the engineering capabilities for more diversified programs. These facility and system upgrades are providing higher quality remote nondestructive and destructive examination services with increased productivity, operator comfort, and customer satisfaction

  7. Documentation for WIMSD-formatted libraries based on ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated nuclear data files with extended actinide burn-up chains and cross section data up to 2000 K for fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Aldama, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    In the frame of WIMS Library Update Project the WIMSD-IAEA-69 and WIMSD-IAEA-172 libraries were prepared and made available at the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The main libraries were prepared from different sources of evaluated nuclear data that were available before December 2003. Also others WIMSD libraries were prepared from the major evaluated nuclear data libraries and made available at http://www-nds.iaea.org/wimsd. During the last ten years new libraries have been prepared every time that a major version of an evaluated nuclear data library has been released, namely JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0. Recently, end-users have requested to extend the temperature ranges of fuel materials included in the libraries and also to extend the burn-up chains to higher actinides up to Cf-254. The inclusion of new structural materials, like bismuth, has been also considered. Therefore, new WIMSD-formatted libraries in the 69- and 172-energy structure have been prepared with more materials, extended actinides burn-up chains and higher temperatures in thermal and resonance range

  8. Report on operation utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1980 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  9. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1978 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  10. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of Research Reactors and Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1981 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  11. Menopausal Hot Flashes and White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes are the classic menopausal symptom. Emerging data links hot flashes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet how hot flashes are related to brain health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between hot flashes - measured via physiologic monitor and self-report - and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) among midlife women. Methods Twenty midlife women ages 40-60 without clinical CVD, with their uterus and both ovaries, and not taking hormone therapy were recruited. Women underwent 24 hours of ambulatory physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring to quantify hot flashes; magnetic resonance imaging to assess WMH burden; 72 hours of actigraphy and questionnaires to quantify sleep; and a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures to quantify demographics and CVD risk factors. Test of a priori hypotheses regarding relations between physiologically-monitored and self-reported wake and sleep hot flashes and WMH were conducted in linear regression models. Results More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH, controlling for age, race, and body mass index [beta(standard error)=.0002 (.0001), p=.03]. Findings persisted controlling for sleep characteristics and additional CVD risk factors. No relations were observed for self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH burden among midlife women free of clinical CVD. Results suggest that relations between hot flashes and CVD risk observed in the periphery may extend to the brain. Future work should consider the unique role of sleep hot flashes in brain health. PMID:26057822

  12. Microplasticity in hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plane, D.C.; Bonfield, W.

    1977-01-01

    Closed hysteresis loops measured in the microstrain region of hot pressed, commercially pure, polycrystalline beryllium are correlated with a dislocation - impurity atom, energy dissipating mechanism. (author)

  13. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  14. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  15. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  16. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J.

    1959-01-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  17. Recent developments in the hot dry rock geothermal energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, P.R.; Nunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, most of the Hot Dry Rock Programs effort has been focused on the extraction technology development effort at the Fenton Hill test site. The pair of approximately 4000 m wells for the Phase II Engineering System of the Fenton Hill Project have been completed. During the past two years, hydraulic fracture operations have been carried out to develop the geothermal reservoir. Impressive advances have been made in fracture identification techniques and instrumentation. To develop a satisfactory interwellbore flow connection the next step is to redrill the lower section of one of the wells into the fractured region. Chemically reactive tracer techniques are being developed to determine the effective size of the reservoir area. A new estimate has been made of the US hot dry rock resource, based upon the latest geothermal gradiant data. 3 figs.

  18. Hot Ductility Behavior of a Peritectic Steel during Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Merih Arıkan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot ductility properties of a peritectic steel for welded gas cylinders during continuous casting were studied by performing hot tensile tests at certain temperatures ranging from 1200 to 700 °C for some cooling rates by using Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical test and simulation machine in this study. The effects of cooling rate and strain rate on hot ductility were investigated and continuous casting process map (time-temperature-ductility were plotted for this material. Reduction of area (RA decreases and cracking susceptibility increases during cooling from solidification between certain temperatures depending on the cooling rate. Although the temperatures which fracture behavior change upon cooling during continuous casting may vary for different materials, it was found that the type of fracture was ductile at 1100 and 1050 °C; semi-ductile at 1000 °C, and brittle at 800 °C for the steel P245NB. There is a ductility trough between 1000 and 725 °C. The ductility trough gets slightly narrower as the cooling rate decreases.

  19. Microstructural characterization of Zr1Nb alloy after hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), MS (Brazil); Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tsakiropoulos, P. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ceoni, F.C.; Grandini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The different research lines within the scope in engineering and materials science have developed new materials that can be used in different industrial sectors, such as, energy, health and transportation. For the nuclear industry, for example, the Zr alloys, are of great interest due to its good mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and above all, the high permeability to thermal neutrons. In the health sector, the zirconium poses one of the lowest Young's modulus when compared to other metallic biomaterials, e.g., pure Zr is 68 GPa, bone mineral hydroxyapatite is 80 GPa, for Ti alloys is 90 GPa and above, for Nb is 105 GPa and stainless steels above 189 GPa. This is particularly important for implants in bones, whose elasticity modulus can reach 30 GPa and it is desirable an as close match as possible. However, the zirconium alloys, have great chemical affinity with oxygen and nitrogen. Moreover, oxides and nitrides may form during the melting process, heat treatment and hot rolling, changing the physic-chemical properties of the alloy. This experimental work shows the results of the evolution of the microstructure after hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. It was possible to confirm the absence of formation of oxides and nitrides, thus confirming the of the experimental method of melting and hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. (author)

  20. Distilling oils and bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutz, H

    1925-08-25

    In the distillation of bituminous materials such as coal, brown coal, peat, or mineral and tar oils or tar, in the presence of hot neutral gases such as hydrogen, illuminating gas, or water-gas, sulfur dioxide is also fed into the above-mentioned materials or into the vapors evolved therefrom. By this treatment better products are obtained.

  1. Lower-Conductivity Ceramic Materials for Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming

    2006-01-01

    Doped pyrochlore oxides of a type described below are under consideration as alternative materials for high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). In comparison with partially-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the state-of-the-art TBC material now in commercial use, these doped pyrochlore oxides exhibit lower thermal conductivities, which could be exploited to obtain the following advantages: For a given difference in temperature between an outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface, the coating could be thinner. Reductions in coating thicknesses could translate to reductions in weight of hot-section components of turbine engines (e.g., combustor liners, blades, and vanes) to which TBCs are typically applied. For a given coating thickness, the difference in temperature between the outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface could be greater. For turbine engines, this could translate to higher operating temperatures, with consequent increases in efficiency and reductions in polluting emissions. TBCs are needed because the temperatures in some turbine-engine hot sections exceed the maximum temperatures that the substrate materials (superalloys, Si-based ceramics, and others) can withstand. YSZ TBCs are applied to engine components as thin layers by plasma spraying or electron-beam physical vapor deposition. During operation at higher temperatures, YSZ layers undergo sintering, which increases their thermal conductivities and thereby renders them less effective as TBCs. Moreover, the sintered YSZ TBCs are less tolerant of stress and strain and, hence, are less durable.

  2. Handbook of hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.; Matsuura, Tatsuo; Yoshihara, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry is an increasingly important field, which has contributed significantly to our understanding of many fundamental processes and reactions. Its techniques have become firmly entrenched in numerous disciplines, such as applied physics, biomedical research, and all fields of chemistry. Written by leading experts, this comprehensive handbook encompasses a broad range of topics. Each chapter comprises a collection of stimulating essays, given an in-depth account of the state-of-the-art of the field, and stressing opportunities for future work. An extensive introduction to the whole area, this book provides unique insight into a vast subject, and a clear delineation of its goals, techniques, and recent findings. It also contains detailed discussions of applications in fields as diverse as nuclear medicine, geochemistry, reactor technology, and the chemistry of comets and interstellar grains. (orig.)

  3. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  4. "Wonderful" Star Reveals its Hot Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    For the first time an X-ray image of a pair of interacting stars has been made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ability to distinguish between the interacting stars - one a highly evolved giant star and the other likely a white dwarf - allowed a team of scientists to observe an X-ray outburst from the giant star and find evidence that a bridge of hot matter is streaming between the two stars. "Before this observation it was assumed that all the X-rays came from a hot disk surrounding a white dwarf, so the detection of an X-ray outburst from the giant star came as a surprise," said Margarita Karovska of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and lead author article in the latest Astrophysical Journal Letters describing this work. An ultraviolet image made by the Hubble Space Telescope was a key to identifying the location of the X-ray outburst with the giant star. X-ray studies of this system, called Mira AB, may also provide better understanding of interactions between other binary systems consisting of a "normal" star and a collapsed star such as a white dwarf, black hole or a neutron star, where the stellar objects and gas flow cannot be distinguished in an image. HST Ultraviolet Image of Mira HST Ultraviolet Image of Mira The separation of the X-rays from the giant star and the white dwarf was made possible by the superb angular resolution of Chandra, and the relative proximity of the star system at about 420 light years from Earth. The stars in Mira AB are about 6.5 billion miles apart, or almost twice the distance of Pluto from the Sun. Mira A (Mira) was named "The Wonderful" star in the 17th century because its brightness was observed to wax and wane over a period of about 330 days. Because it is in the advanced, red giant phase of a star's life, it has swollen to about 600 times that of the Sun and it is pulsating. Mira A is now approaching the stage where its nuclear fuel supply will be exhausted, and it will collapse

  5. Hot pressing, strength, and fracture of calcium hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Fracture behavior and strength of hot-pressed CaB 6 were studied. The modulus of elasticity determined by attaching strain gages to the tensile surface of the bend bars to measure strain, was 55 +- 3 x 10 6 psi. The results are compared with values for other low density ceramic materials (B 4 C, SiB 6 , Be 4 B, AlB 12 ) in a table. The fracture mode was observed for both modulus of rupture and impact test specimens. Predominantly transgranular fracture, associated with distinct step cleavages is evident. Fracture origins were examined in an effort to understand the strength limiting features in hot-pressed CaB 6 specimens. Surface defects, large grain agglomerations, and isolated pore pockets were observed and varied from bar to bar; these were similar to those found in B 4 C. (U.S.)

  6. Hot corrosion of pack cementation aluminized carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.F.; Mohamed, K.E.; Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Soliman, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low carbon steel was aluminized by the pack cementation technique at various aluminizing temperatures and times in or der to have different aluminide coatings. The aluminized specimens were sprayed at the beginning of the hot corrosion experiments with Na C 1+Na 2 SO 4 solution. The hot corrosion tests were carried out by thermal cycling at 850 degree C in air. The results were evaluated by, corrosion kinetics based on weight change measurements, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that the maximum corrosion resistance to this corrosive environment is achieved by aluminizing at 900 degree C for 19 h or 950 degree C for >4 h. These aliminizing conditions lead to formation of thick aluminide coatings with sufficient aluminium concentration (>15 wt%) at their outer surface necessary for continuous formation of protective Al 2 O 3 scale. The tested materials are used in protection of some components used in electric power stations (conventional or nuclear)

  7. Hot mechanical behaviour of dispersion strengthened Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, Jose; Espinoza G, Rodrigo; Palma H, Rodrigo; Sepulveda O, Aquiles

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a research project which objective is the improvement of the high-temperature mechanical properties of copper, without an important decrease of the electrical or thermal conduction properties. The general hypothesis is that this will be done by the incorporation of nanometric ceramic dispersoids for hindering the dislocation and grain boundaries movement. In this context, the object of the present work is the study of the resistance to hot deformation of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys which have prepared by reactive milling. Two different alloys, Cu-2,39wt.%Ti-0.56wt.%C and Cu-1.18wt.%Al, were prepared so as obtain a copper matrix reinforced with nanometric TiC y Al 2 O 3 particles with a nominal total amount of 5 vol.%. The particles were developed by an in-situ formation process during milling. The materials were prepared in an attritor mill, and consolidated by extrusion at 750 o C, with an area reduction rate of 10:1. The resistance to hot deformation was evaluated by hot compression tests at 500 and 850 o C, at initial strain rates of 10 -3 and 10 -4 s-1. To evaluate the material softening due temperature, annealing at 400, 650 y 900 o C during 1h were applied; after that, hardness was measured at room temperature. Both studies alloys presented a higher resistance to hot deformation than pure copper, with or without milling. Moreover, the Cu-Ti-C alloy presented a mechanical resistance higher than that of the Cu-Al one. Both alloys presented strain-stress compression curves with a typical hot-work shape: an initial maximum followed by a stationary plateau. The Cu-Ti-C alloy had a higher hardness and did not present a hardness decay even after annealings at the higher temperature imposed (900 o C), while the Cu-Al alloy did exhibit a strong decay of hardness after the annealing at 900 o C. The best behaviour exhibited by the Cu-Ti C alloy, was attributed to the formation of a major quantity of dispersoids that in the Cu-Al alloy. In

  8. Weak interactions in hot nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction rates for electron capture, neutrino absorption, and neutrino scattering in hot asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated with two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces by use of correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and the one-quasiparticle quasi-hole response functions are calculated with a large microcanonical sample and the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Results for matter at a temperature of 10 MeV, proton fraction 0.4, and densities ρ=(1/2),1,(3/2)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the equilibrium density of symmetric nuclear matter, are presented to illustrate the method. In general, the strength of the response is shifted to higher-energy transfers when compared with that of a noninteracting Fermi gas. The shift in the response and the weakness of effective operators as compared with the bare operators significantly reduce the cross sections for electron capture and neutrino scattering by factors of ∼2.5-3.5. In contrast, the symmetry energy enhances the neutrino absorption reaction rate relative to the Fermi gas. However, this reaction rate is still quite small because of Pauli blocking

  9. Application of processing maps in the optimization of the parameters of a hot working process. Part 1. Theoretical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Omar, A.; Prado, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The hot working processes constitute an important step in the manufacture of components for engineering applications. In the past, the mechanical processing have been used to impart a shape to the engineering materials. More recently, however, the hot working processes are used not only to achieve the required shape but also to impart desirable mechanical and microstructural characteristics by an adequate design of the thermomechanical process. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the general characteristics of the Dynamic Materials Model. In this model, the work piece material under hot working conditions is considered to be a dissipator of power. Also, the extreme principles of irreversible thermodynamics applied to large plastic flow are described to develop a continuum criterion capable to predict the metallurgical instabilities in a hot worked material. (Author) 22 refs

  10. User's Manual and Final Report for Hot-SMAC GUI Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington, Phil

    2001-01-01

    A new software package called Higher Order Theory-Structural/Micro Analysis Code (HOT-SMAC) has been developed as an effective alternative to the finite element approach for Functionally Graded Material (FGM) modeling. HOT-SMAC is a self-contained package including pre- and post-processing through an intuitive graphical user interface, along with the well-established Higher Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials (HOTFGM) thermomechanical analysis engine. This document represents a Getting Started/User's Manual for HOT-SMAC and a final report for its development. First, the features of the software are presented in a simple step-by-step example where a HOT-SMAC model representing a functionally graded material is created, mechanical and thermal boundary conditions are applied, the model is analyzed and results are reviewed. In a second step-by-step example, a HOT-SMAC model of an actively cooled metallic channel with ceramic thermal barrier coating is built and analyzed. HOT-SMAC results from this model are compared to recently published results (NASA/TM-2001-210702) for two grid densities. Finally, a prototype integration of HOTSMAC with the commercially available HyperSizer(R) structural analysis and sizing software is presented. In this integration, local strain results from HyperSizer's structural analysis are fed to a detailed HOT-SMAC model of the flange-to-facesheet bond region of a stiffened panel. HOT-SMAC is then used to determine the peak shear and peel (normal) stresses between the facesheet and bonded flange of the panel and determine the "free edge" effects.

  11. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    . The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  12. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  13. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  14. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  15. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  16. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  17. Static and dynamical properties of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1990-01-01

    We briefly review our understanding of the formation of excited/hot nuclei in heavy-ion collisions at some tens of MeV/A. We recall the major theoretical frameworks used for describing as well the entrance channel of the reaction as the structure properties of hot nuclei. We finally focus on multifragmentation within insisting upon the theoretical challenge it does represent

  18. Investigation of using steel slag in hot mix asphalt for the surface course of flexible pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Q.; Lu, Dai X.; Le, Son D.

    2018-04-01

    The rapid development of heavy industry in Vietnam leads to the establishments of steel industry. Steel slag, a by-product of steelwork industry, under Vietnamese’s law, was considered as a deleterious solid waste which needed to be processed and landfilled. However, this has changed recently, and steel slag is now seen as a normal or non-deleterious solid waste, and has been studied for reuse in the construction industry. In this study, steel slag was used, as a replacement for mineral aggregate, in hot mix asphalt. Two hot mix asphalt mixtures with an equivalent nominal aggregate size of 12.5 (C12.5) and 19 mm (C19) were produced using steel slag. In addition, one conventional hot mix asphalt mixture of C19 was produced using mineral aggregate for comparison purpose. Investigation in laboratory condition and trial sections was carried out on Marshall tests, surface roughness, skid resistance, and modulus of the pavement before and after applying a new surface course of hot mix asphalt. The study showed that all steel slag asphalt mixtures passed the Marshall stability and flow test requirements. The skid resistance of steel slag hot mix asphalt mixtures for the surface course satisfied the Vietnamese specification for asphalt. Moreover, the pavement sections with the surface course of steel slag hot mix asphalt showed a considerable higher modulus than that of the conventional one. Only the roughness of the surface course paved with C19 did not pass the requirement of the specification.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section of a multi-section cathode air heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-17

    The multi-section cathode air heat exchanger (102) includes at least a first heat exchanger section (104), and a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section (126) secured adjacent each other in a stack association. Cool cathode inlet air flows through cool air channels (110) of the at least first (104) and oxidation catalyzed sections (126). Hot anode exhaust flows through hot air channels (124) of the oxidation catalyzed section (126) and is combusted therein. The combusted anode exhaust then flows through hot air channels (112) of the first section (104) of the cathode air heat exchanger (102). The cool and hot air channels (110, 112) are secured in direct heat exchange relationship with each other so that temperatures of the heat exchanger (102) do not exceed 800.degree. C. to minimize requirements for using expensive, high-temperature alloys.

  20. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  1. 'Hot' particles in the atmosphere (Vilnius, 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujanas, V.; Shpirkauskaite, N.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in the atmosphere above Vilnius the alpha-and beta- 'hot' particles were discovered. The amount of particles and their size were measured by the alpha-radiography. After the exposition of nuclear plates the 'auroras' of the beta hot particles were of the size 0.37-22.2 μm. The change in time of the beta- 'hot' particles amount in the ground level air from the 25th of April to the 9th of May, 1986 was given. The amount of this particles deposited in the adult man respiratory tract was calculated. The energy of the discovered 8 'hot' alpha-particles ranged from 4.2 to 6.6 MeV. All the samples in which alpha- 'hot' particles found were taken in anticyclone conditions. (author). 1 tab., 1 ref

  2. Suppression of sawtooth oscillations due to hot electrons and hot ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Berk, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of m = 1 kink mode stabilization is discussed in the presence of either magnetically trapped hot electrons or hot ions. For instability hot ion requires particles peaked inside the q = 1 surface, while hot electrons require that its pressure profile be increasing at the q = 1 surface. Experimentally observed sawtooth stabilization usually occurs with off-axis heating with ECRH and near axis heating with ICRH. Such heating may produce the magnetically trapped hot particle pressure profiles that are consistent with theory. 17 refs., 2 figs

  3. Formation of Neutral Disk-Like Zone Around the Active Hot Stars in Symbiotic Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariková Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present the ionization structure in the enhanced wind from the hot star in symbiotic binaries during active phases. Rotation of the hot star leads to the compression of the outflowing material towards its equatorial plane. As a result, a neutral disk-like zone around the active hot star near the orbital plane is created. We modeled the compression of the wind and calculated the neutral disk-like zone in the enhanced wind from the hot star using the equation of the photoionization equilibrium. the presence of such neutral disk-like zones was also suggested on the basis of the modeling the spectral energy distribution of symbiotic binaries. We confront the calculated ionization structures in the enhanced wind from the hot star with the observations. the calculated column density of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the neutral disk-like zone and the emission measure of the ionized part of the wind from the hot star are in a good agreement with the quantities derived from observations during active phases. the presence of such neutral disk-like zones is transient, being connected with the active phases of symbiotic binaries. During quiescent phases, such neutral disk-like zones cannot be created because of insufficient mass-loss rate from the hot star.

  4. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  5. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  6. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  7. "Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

  8. X(3872 production and absorption in a hot hadron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Abreu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the time evolution of the X(3872 abundance in the hot hadron gas produced in the late stage of heavy ion collisions. We use effective field Lagrangians to obtain the production and dissociation cross sections of X(3872. In this evaluation we include diagrams involving the anomalous couplings πD⁎D¯⁎ and XD¯⁎D⁎ and also the couplings of the X(3872 with charged D and D⁎ mesons. With these new terms the X(3872 interaction cross sections are much larger than those found in previous works. Using these cross sections as input in rate equations, we conclude that during the expansion and cooling of the hadronic gas, the number of X(3872, originally produced at the end of the mixed QGP/hadron gas phase, is reduced by a factor of 4.

  9. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report

  10. Manual on Safety Aspects of the Design and Equipment of Hot Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    With the development of atomic energy application and research, hot laboratories are now being constructed in a number of countries. The present publication describes and discusses experience in several countries in designing equipment for these laboratories. The safe handling of highly radioactive substances is the main purpose of hot laboratory design and equipment. The manual aims at helping those persons, particularly in the developing countries, who plan to design and construct a new hot laboratory or modify an existing one. It does not deal in great detail with the engineering design of protective and handling equipment; these matters can be found in the comprehensive list of references. The manual itself covers only basic ideas and different approaches in the design of laboratory building, hot cells, shielded and glove boxes, fume cupboards, and handling and viewing equipment. Systems for transferring materials and main services are also discussed.

  11. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  12. Effects of Hot-Spot Geometry on Backscattering and Down-Scattering Neutron Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Z. L.; Mannion, O. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, K. S.; Radha, P. B.

    2017-10-01

    The measured neutron spectrum produced by a fusion experiment plays a key role in inferring observable quantities. One important observable is the areal density of an implosion, which is inferred by measuring the scattering of neutrons. This project seeks to use particle-transport simulations to model the effects of hot-spot geometry on backscattering and down-scattering neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Implosions similar to those conducted at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics are modeled by neutron transport through a DT plasma and a DT ice shell using the particle transport codes MCNP and IRIS. Effects of hot-spot geometry are obtained by ``detecting'' scattered neutrons along different lines of sight. This process is repeated for various hot-spot geometries representing known shape distortions between the hot spot and the shell. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  13. Comparison the machinability of Inconel 718, Inconel 625 and Monel 400 in hot turning operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Parida

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three nickel base alloys (Inconel 718, Inconel 625 and Monel-400 have been studied for chip formation in the hot turning process using flame heating. Cutting force, tool life, chip morphology, tool wear, and surface integrity (surface roughness and microhardness beneath the machined surface have been determined in both room and hot temperature conditions (300 °C and 600 °C. Flame heating (Liquefied petroleum gas and oxygen along with turning operation has been utilized for machining of three materials. It was observed that significant reduction of cutting force, tool wear, chatter formation, surface roughness and increase tool life, chip tool contact length, etc., for all three nickel base alloys in hot machining compared to room temperature machining. Keywords: Hot turning, Nickel base alloys, Machinability, Cutting forces, Tool wear

  14. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S P; Epstein, R; Hammel, B A; Suter, L J; Scott, H A; Barrios, M A; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C; Collins, G W; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Farley, D R; Fournier, K B; Glenn, S; Glenzer, S H; Golovkin, I E; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hicks, D G; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; MacFarlane, J J; MacKinnon, A J; Mancini, R C; McCrory, R L; Meezan, N B; Meyerhofer, D D; Nikroo, A; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Sangster, T C; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Town, R P J

    2013-07-26

    Mixing of plastic ablator material, doped with Cu and Ge dopants, deep into the hot spot of ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion implosions by hydrodynamic instabilities is diagnosed with x-ray spectroscopy on the National Ignition Facility. The amount of hot-spot mix mass is determined from the absolute brightness of the emergent Cu and Ge K-shell emission. The Cu and Ge dopants placed at different radial locations in the plastic ablator show the ablation-front hydrodynamic instability is primarily responsible for hot-spot mix. Low neutron yields and hot-spot mix mass between 34(-13,+50)  ng and 4000(-2970,+17 160)  ng are observed.

  15. The crabs that live where hot and cold collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Andrew R

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of Kiwa tyleri with the large male individual in the high-temperature flow (right hand side - fluid flow indicated by shimmering water) and the mixed sex assemblage (left). Note the heavy coat of epibiotic bacteria (grey colouring) on the individual in the hottest section of the vent, as expected from being closest to the sulphide needed to sustain the epibiotic bacteria that this species harvests for its food. Image courtesy of Dr. L. Marsh (Credit: NERC ChEsSo Consortium). In Focus: Marsh, L., Copley, J.T., Tyler, P.A. & Thatje, S. (2015) In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 898-913. Southern Ocean hydrothermal vents juxtapose two extremes - intense food-poor cold and scalding food-rich oases. At these vents, Marsh et al. (2015) found a community of Kiwa (Yeti) crabs that separated themselves along this gradient with the largest males sitting in hot, food-rich waters, while smaller males and females co-occur in an intermediate zone of warmth. However, as their eggs start to develop, females embark away from the vent to the food-poor yet stable cold of the Southern Ocean. This species has found an intriguing way to balance foraging risk and population persistence at the interface of hot and cold. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  16. Hot laboratory design on the basis of standardized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadrot, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the principal effects on hot laboratory design brought about over the last 15 years by the use of standardized components developed jointly with the CEA and the industrial associates of AFINE. After a rapid survey of the various advantages of standardization, the author turns to the specific case of a laboratory producing mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuels, giving a brief description of the glove-boxes and ancillary equipment. He then deals with the design of an isotope production laboratory. The basic component is the DR 200 standard cell, which permits the civil engineering work to be effected on modular principles. Use of a safety-flow pressure regulating valve makes possible pneumatic automation of the production-cell internals. A substantial gain in output is the result. In the next section the paper refers to a pilot facility for irradiated fuel studies, and describes the components used, which require taking into account the high activities and intense radiations encountered in studies of this type. The author then demonstrates the flexibility with which standardized components can be adapted to different uses, thus solving many distinct problems, an example of which is represented by a semi-hot box for handling up to 100g of americium-241. Finally, the paper offers a rapid summary of the effects of standardization at the various stages concerned, from initial design to the commissioning of a hot laboratory. (author)

  17. Evolution of hot galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Mathews, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The time-dependent equations describing galactic flows, including detailed models for the evolving source terms, are integrated over a Hubble time for two elliptical galaxies with total masses of 3.1 x 10 to the 12th and 8.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, 90 percent of which resides in extended, nonluminous halos. The standard supernova rate of Tammann and a rate 4 times smaller are considered for each galaxy model. The combination of the extended gravitational potential of the dark halo and the time-dependent source terms generally lead to the development of massive, quasi-hydrostatic, nearly isothermal distributions of gas at about 10 to the 7th K with cooling inflows inside their galactic cores. For the less massive galaxy with the higher supernova rate, however, a low-luminosity supersonic galactic wind develops. The effects of a lowered metal abundance, thermal conduction, and the absence of a massive halo are explored separately for one of the present models. The X-ray luminosities of the hot gas in the models with dark halos and the lower supernova rate are in good agreement with Einstein observations of early-type galaxies. 42 references

  18. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  19. A LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINIZING TREATMENT OF HOT WORK TOOL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Matijević, Božidar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to the X40CrMoV5-1 hot tool steel. The aluminizing temperature was from 550 °C to 620 °C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the alumini...

  20. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.