Dissociation of 1P states in hot QCD Medium Using Quasi-Particle Model
Nilima, Indrani; Agotiya, Vineet Kumar
2018-03-01
We extend the analysis of a very recent work [1] to study the dissociation phenomenon of 1P states of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra (χc and χb) in a hot QCD medium using Quasi-Particle Model. This study employed a medium modified heavy quark potential which has quite different form in the sense that it has a lomg range Coulombic tail in addition to the Yukawa term even above the deconfinement temperature. Then we study the flavor dependence of their binding energies and explore the nature of dissociation temperatures by employing the Quasi-Particle debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case. Interestingly, the dissociation temperatures obtained by employing EoS1 and EoS2 with the Γ criterion, is closer to the upper bound of the dissociation temperatures which are obtained by the dissolution of a given quarkonia state by the mean thermal energy of the quasi-partons in the hot QCD/QGP medium.
Drag and diffusion of heavy quarks in a hot and anisotropic QCD medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.K.; Patra, Binoy Krishna
2017-01-01
The propagation of heavy quarks (HQs) in a medium was quite often modeled by the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Since the transport coefficients, related to drag and diffusion processes, are the main ingredients in the FP equation, the evolution of HQs is thus effectively controlled by them. At the initial stage of the relativistic heavy-ion collisions, asymptotic weak-coupling causes the free-streaming motions of partons in the beam direction and the expansions in transverse directions are almost frozen, hence an anisotropy in the momentum space sets in. Since HQs are too produced in the same time, the study of the effect of momentum anisotropy on the drag and diffusion coefficients becomes highly desirable. In this article we have thus studied the drag and diffusion of HQs in the anisotropic medium and found that the presence of the anisotropy reduces both drag and diffusion coefficients. In addition, the anisotropy introduces an angular dependence to both the drag and diffusion coefficients, as a result both coefficients get more inflated when the partons are moving transversely to the direction of anisotropy than when moving parallel to the direction of anisotropy. (orig.)
Drag and diffusion of heavy quarks in a hot and anisotropic QCD medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srivastava, P.K.; Patra, Binoy Krishna [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)
2017-06-15
The propagation of heavy quarks (HQs) in a medium was quite often modeled by the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Since the transport coefficients, related to drag and diffusion processes, are the main ingredients in the FP equation, the evolution of HQs is thus effectively controlled by them. At the initial stage of the relativistic heavy-ion collisions, asymptotic weak-coupling causes the free-streaming motions of partons in the beam direction and the expansions in transverse directions are almost frozen, hence an anisotropy in the momentum space sets in. Since HQs are too produced in the same time, the study of the effect of momentum anisotropy on the drag and diffusion coefficients becomes highly desirable. In this article we have thus studied the drag and diffusion of HQs in the anisotropic medium and found that the presence of the anisotropy reduces both drag and diffusion coefficients. In addition, the anisotropy introduces an angular dependence to both the drag and diffusion coefficients, as a result both coefficients get more inflated when the partons are moving transversely to the direction of anisotropy than when moving parallel to the direction of anisotropy. (orig.)
Two particle correlations with photon triggers to study hot QCD medium in ALICE at LHC
Yaxian, Mao; Shou, Daicui; Schutz, Yves
2011-01-01
With the advent of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)at the end of 2009, the new accelerator at CERN collides protons and heavy-ions at unprecedented high energies. ALICE , one of the major experiment installed at LHC, is dedicated to the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of energy density with the opportunity of creating a partonic medium called the Quark- Gluon-Plasma (QGP). This new experimental facility opens new avenues for the understanding of fundamental properties of the strong interaction and its vacuum. To reach the objectives of this scientific program, it is required to select a set of appropriate probes carrying relevant information on the properties of the medium created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Based on the information delivered by all the observables and guided by modelization of the fundamental principles in action, a coherent picture will emerge to interpret the observed phenomena. In the first part of the present document I describe the context of the scientif...
Transport at ''NLO'' in hot QCD
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
The study of QCD kinetics is driven by a vast array of the experimental measurements of transport at the LHC, ranging from heavy quark energy loss, jet suppression, and hydrodynamics. I first review the fundamental elements of QCD kinetic theory, i.e. plasma screening, 2to2 scattering, and medium modified collinear bremsstrahlung. Then I will summarize recent progress in calculating these elements and their interplay at "NLO" -- "NLO" refers to an order $\\sqrt{\\alpha_s}$ correction to the plasma processes arising from the statistical fluctuations of soft gluons. These "NLO" calculations suggest a computational strategy where the influence of the Debye sector on the real time dynamics of the hard lightlike modes can be incorporated into a few medium coefficients (such as the drag coefficient and $\\hat{q}$), which can be simulated with a Euclidean 3D dimensionally reduced theory.
Study of QCD medium by sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)
1998-08-01
Though it has no analogue in condensed matter physics, the thermal QCD sum rules can, nevertheless, answer questions of condensed matter type about the QCD medium. The ingredients needed to write such sum rules, viz. the operator product expansion and the spectral representation at finite temperature, are reviewed in detail. The sum rules are then actually written for the case of correlation function of two vector currents. Collecting information on the thermal average of the higher dimension operators from other sources, we evaluate these sum rules for the temperature dependent {rho}-meson parameters. Possibility of extracting more information from the combined set of all sum rules from different correlation functions is also discussed. (author) 30 refs., 2 figs.
Jet evolution in hot and cold QCD matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domdey, Svend Oliver
2010-07-23
In this thesis, we study the evolution of energetic partons in hot and cold QCD matter. In both cases, interactions with the medium lead to energy loss of the parton and its transverse momentum broadens. The propagation of partons in cold nuclear matter can be investigated experimentally in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on nuclei. We use the dipole model to calculate transverse momentum broadening in DIS on nuclei and compare to experimental data from HERMES. In hot matter, the evolution of the parton shower is strongly modified. To calculate this modification, we construct an additional scattering term in the QCD evolution equations which accounts for scattering of partons in the quark-gluon plasma. With this scattering term, we compute the modified gluon distribution in the shower at small momentum fractions. Furthermore, we calculate the modified fragmentation function of gluons into pions. The scattering term causes energy loss of the parton shower which leads to a suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum. In the third part of this thesis, we study double dijet production in hadron collisions. This process contains information about the transverse parton distribution of hadrons. As main result, we find that double dijet production will allow for a study of the transverse growth of hadronic wave functions at the LHC. (orig.)
Hydrodynamic excitations in hot QCD plasma
Abbasi, Navid; Allahbakhshi, Davood; Davody, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid
2017-12-01
We study the long wavelength excitations in rotating QCD fluid in the presence of an external magnetic field at finite vector and axial charge densities. We consider the fluctuations of vector and axial charge currents coupled to energy and momentum fluctuations and compute the S O (3 ) covariant dispersion relations of the six corresponding hydrodynamic modes. Among them, there are always two scalar chiral-magnetic-vortical-heat (CMVH) waves; in the absence of a magnetic field (vorticity) these waves reduce to chiral-vortical-heat (CVH) [chiral-magnetic-heat (CMH)] waves. While CMVH waves are a mixture of CMH and CVH waves, they have generally different velocities compared to the sum of velocities of the latter waves. The other four modes, which are made out of scalar-vector fluctuations, are mixed sound-Alfvén waves. We show that when the magnetic field is parallel with the vorticity, these four modes are the two ordinary sound modes together with two chiral Alfvén waves propagating along the common direction of the magnetic field and vorticity.
On the collinear singularity problem of hot QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelpergher, B.; Grandou, T.
2002-01-01
The collinear singularity problem of hot QCD is revisited within a perturbative resummation scheme (PR) of the leading thermal fluctuations. On the basis of actual calculations, new aspects are discovered concerning the origin of the singularity plaguing the soft real photon emission rate out of a quark-gluon plasma at thermal equilibrium, when the latter is calculated by means of the Resummation Program (RP)
QCD sum rules for D mesons. In-medium effects, chiral symmetry aspects and higher orders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchheim, Thomas
2017-04-11
Heavy open flavor mesons can serve as probes of hot and dense, strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions suitable to mimic the extreme conditions shortly after the big-bang or in compact stars. Thus, the thorough theoretical investigation of medium modifications of D mesons is of utmost importance for the interpretation of the experimental data. Even at finite thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature and density, the non-perturbative framework of QCD sum rules allows for the determination of hadronic properties which are not accessible in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). By virtue of the separation of scales, long-range effects of hadrons are related to quark and gluon degrees of freedom, where features of the hadron spectrum are linked to condensates parameterizing the complex QCD ground state. This thesis furnishes the conception and calculus of QCD sum rules with emphasis on in-medium effects which are inevitable when addressing such effects in higher order contributions. In this regard, the notion and implications of medium-specific condensates are elucidated. Motivated by the significant numerical impact of four-quark condensates to the ρ meson sum rule we evaluate, for the first time, the corresponding in-medium mass-dimension 6 terms for D mesons tentatively employing the factorization hypothesis. Four-quark condensates containing heavy-quark operators may be included into the sum rule analysis utilizing the in-medium heavy-quark expansion made available here. Particular quark condensates are potential order parameters of chiral symmetry breaking, which is the mass generating mechanism of QCD giving the essential mass fraction to light hadrons. The interplay of altered spectral properties with changing in-medium QCD condensates, i. e. the chiral order parameters, can be studied with chiral partner sum rules. Although, introduced for light spin-1 mesons we foster their generalization to spin-0 open charm mesons demonstrating their
QCD sum rules for D mesons. In-medium effects, chiral symmetry aspects and higher orders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchheim, Thomas
2017-01-01
Heavy open flavor mesons can serve as probes of hot and dense, strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions suitable to mimic the extreme conditions shortly after the big-bang or in compact stars. Thus, the thorough theoretical investigation of medium modifications of D mesons is of utmost importance for the interpretation of the experimental data. Even at finite thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature and density, the non-perturbative framework of QCD sum rules allows for the determination of hadronic properties which are not accessible in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). By virtue of the separation of scales, long-range effects of hadrons are related to quark and gluon degrees of freedom, where features of the hadron spectrum are linked to condensates parameterizing the complex QCD ground state. This thesis furnishes the conception and calculus of QCD sum rules with emphasis on in-medium effects which are inevitable when addressing such effects in higher order contributions. In this regard, the notion and implications of medium-specific condensates are elucidated. Motivated by the significant numerical impact of four-quark condensates to the ρ meson sum rule we evaluate, for the first time, the corresponding in-medium mass-dimension 6 terms for D mesons tentatively employing the factorization hypothesis. Four-quark condensates containing heavy-quark operators may be included into the sum rule analysis utilizing the in-medium heavy-quark expansion made available here. Particular quark condensates are potential order parameters of chiral symmetry breaking, which is the mass generating mechanism of QCD giving the essential mass fraction to light hadrons. The interplay of altered spectral properties with changing in-medium QCD condensates, i. e. the chiral order parameters, can be studied with chiral partner sum rules. Although, introduced for light spin-1 mesons we foster their generalization to spin-0 open charm mesons demonstrating their
Overlap between Lattice QCD and HRG with in-medium effects and parity doubling*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morita Kenji
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the fluctuations and correlations involving baryon number in hot hadronic matter with modified masses of negative-parity baryons, in the context of the hadron resonance gas. Temperature-dependent masses are adopted from the recent lattice QCD results and from a chiral effective model which implements the parity doubling structure with respect to the chiral symmetry. Confronting the baryon number susceptibility, baryon-charge correlation, and baryon-strangeness correlation and their ratios with the lattice QCD data, we show that the strong downward mass shift in hyperons can accidentally reproduce some correlation ratios, however it also tends to overshoot the individual fluctuations and correlations. This indicates, that in order to correctly account for the influence of the chiral symmetry restoration on the fluctuation observables, a consistent framework of in-medium effects beyond hadron mass shifts is required.
Spectral representation and QCD sum rules in hot nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2009-01-01
We construct the spectral representation of spinsor two-point functions in medium, that is, at finite temperature and chemical potential. We first deal with the free spinor two-point function. Then we construct the same for interacting fields leading to the Kaellen-Lehmann representation. It is emphasised that although these two point functions have the structure of 2 x 2 matrices in the real time formulation of field theory, any one component actually suffices to describe the dynamics of the system. Our construction is then applied to write the QCD sum rules for two-point function of nucleon currents in medium. We discuss a subtracted version to increase the sensitivity of such a sum rule and point out how it differs from a conventional one. (author)
Jet formation and interference in a thin QCD medium
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2016-11-29
In heavy-ion collisions, an abundant production of high-energy QCD jets allows to study how these multiparticle sprays are modified as they pass through the quark-gluon plasma. In order to shed new light on this process, we compute the inclusive two-gluon rate off a hard quark propagating through a color deconfined medium at first order in medium opacity. We explicitly impose an energy ordering of the two emitted gluons, such that the "hard" gluon can be thought of as belonging to the jet substructure while the other is a "soft" emission (which can be collinear or medium-induced). Our analysis focusses on two specific limits that clarify the modification of the additional angle- and formation time-ordering of splittings. In one limit, the formation time of the "hard" gluon is short compared to the "soft" gluon formation time, leading to a probabilistic formula for production of and subsequent radiation off a quark-gluon antenna. In the other limit, the ordering of formation is reverted, which automatically le...
Effective Field Theories for heavy probes in a hot QCD plasma and in the early universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Escobedo Miguel A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available There are many interesting problems in heavy-ion collisions and in cosmology that involve the interaction of a heavy particle with a medium. An example is the dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions. This was believed to be due to the screening of chromoelectric fields that prevents the heavy quarks from binding, however in the last years several perturbative and lattice computations have pointed out to the possibility that dissociation is due to the finite lifetime of a quarkonium state inside the medium. Regarding cosmology, the study of the behavior of heavy Majorana neutrinos in a hot medium is important to understand if this model can explain the origin of dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. A very convenient way of studying these problems is with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. In this proceedings I will review the most important results obtained by applying the EFT formalism to the study of quarkonium suppression and Majorana neutrinos, I will also discuss how combining an EFT called potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD with concepts coming from the field of open quantum systems it is possible to understand how the population of the different quarkonium states evolve with time inside a thermal medium.
QCD sum rules in medium and the Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatsuda, T.; Hogaasen, H.; Prakash, M.
1991-01-01
The QCD sum-rule approach for a nuclear medium is developed. The medium dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference calculated from this approach gives effects in nuclei which have direct relevance for the resolution of the Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly
Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2011-01-01
Over the last decade, both experimental and theoretical advances have brought the need for strong coupling techniques in the analysis of deconfined QCD matter and heavy ion collisions to the forefront. As a consequence, a fruitful interplay has developed between analyses of strongly-coupled non-abelian plasmas via the gauge/string duality (also referred to as the AdS/CFT correspondence) and the phenomenology of heavy ion collisions. We review some of the main insights gained from this interplay to date. To establish a common language, we start with an introduction to heavy ion phenomenology and finite-temperature QCD, and a corresponding introduction to important concepts and techniques in the gauge/string duality. These introductory sections are written for nonspecialists, with the goal of bringing readers ranging from beginning graduate students to experienced practitioners of either QCD or gauge/string duality to the point that they understand enough about both fields that they can then appreciate their in...
Towards 4-loop NSPT result for a 3-dimensional condensate-contribution to hot QCD pressure
Torrero, C.; Schroder, Y.; Di Renzo, F.; Miccio, V.
2007-01-01
Thanks to dimensional reduction, the contributions to the hot QCD pressure coming from so-called soft modes can be studied via an effective three-dimensional theory named Electrostatic QCD (spatial Yang-Mills fields plus an adjoint Higgs scalar). The poor convergence of the perturbative series within EQCD suggests to perform lattice measurements of some of the associated gluon condensates. These turn out, however, to be plagued by large discretization artifacts. We discuss how Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory can be exploited to determine the full lattice spacing dependence of one of these condensates up to 4-loop order, and sharpen our tools on a concrete 2-loop example.
From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze, Robert
2011-02-22
A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)
From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, Robert
2011-01-01
A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)
Hot QCD equations of state and relativistic heavy ion collisions
Chandra, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Ravishankar, V.
2007-11-01
We study two recently proposed equations of state obtained from high-temperature QCD and show how they can be adapted to use them for making predictions for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The method involves extracting equilibrium distribution functions for quarks and gluons from the equation of state (EOS), which in turn will allow a determination of the transport and other bulk properties of the quark gluon-plasma. Simultaneously, the method also yields a quasiparticle description of interacting quarks and gluons. The first EOS is perturbative in the QCD coupling constant and has contributions of O(g5). The second EOS is an improvement over the first, with contributions up to O[g6ln(1/g)]; it incorporates the nonperturbative hard thermal contributions. The interaction effects are shown to be captured entirely by the effective chemical potentials for the gluons and the quarks, in both cases. The chemical potential is seen to be highly sensitive to the EOS. As an application, we determine the screening lengths, which are, indeed, the most important diagnostics for QGP. The screening lengths are seen to behave drastically differently depending on the EOS considered and therefore yield a way to distinguish the two equations of state in heavy ion collisions.
Catani, S; Soper, Davison Eugene; Stirling, William James; Tapprogge, Stefan; Alekhin, S I; Aurenche, Patrick; Balázs, C; Ball, R D; Battistoni, G; Berger, E L; Binoth, T; Brock, R L; Casey, D; Corcella, Gennaro; Del Duca, V; Fabbro, A D; de Roeck, A; Ewerz, C; de Florian, D; Fontannaz, M; Frixione, Stefano; Giele, W T; Grazzini, Massimiliano; Guillet, J P; Marlen-Heinrich, G; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Kataev, A L; Kato, K; Keller, S; Klasen, M; Kosower, D A; Kulesza, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Kupco, A; Ilyin, V A; Magnea, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Martin, A D; Mazumdar, K; Miné, P; Moretti, M; van Neerven, W L; Parente, G; Perret-Gallix, D; Pilon, E; Pukhov, A E; Puljak, I; Pumplin, Jon; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Roberts, R G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Skachkov, N B; Sidorov, A V; Stenzel, H; Stump, D R; Thorne, R S; Treleani, D; Tung, W K; Vogt, A; Webber, Bryan R; Werlen, M; Zmouchko, S; Mine, Ph.
2000-01-01
We discuss issues of QCD at the LHC including parton distributions, Monte Carlo event generators, the available next-to-leading order calculations, resummation, photon production, small x physics, double parton scattering, and backgrounds to Higgs production.
Hadrons in hot and dense medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.
2004-01-01
We review chiral perturbation theory in some detail and construct interaction terms involving the Goldstone and the different non-Goldstone fields, in presence of external (classical) fields coupled to currents. The ensemble average of the two-point functions of the currents can now be expanded in terms of Feynman diagrams. We evaluate the one-loop diagrams in the neighbourhood of the respective poles to find the effective couplings and masses of the particles in medium. We also describe the virial formula for the self-energy of a particle in medium, giving its pole position. It proves useful if the scattering amplitude of the particle with particles in medium is known experimentally. (author)
Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masood, Samina S. [University of Houston Clear Lake, Department of Physical and Applied Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)
2017-12-15
Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe. (orig.)
Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium
Masood, Samina S.
2017-12-01
Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe.
1999-01-01
Basic Properties of QCD: the Lagrangian, the running coupling, asymptotic freedom and colour confinement. Examples of perturbative calculations in electron- positron physics (total cross sections and event) Parton branching approach will be used to derive the evolution equations for hadron structure functions Comarison with data on deep inelastic scattering and jet production will be for hadron structure functions and jet fragmentation functions
Hot ductility of medium carbon steel with vanadium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Chang-Hoon; Park, Jun-Young; Chung, JunHo; Park, Dae-Bum; Jang, Jin-Young; Huh, Sungyul; Ju Kim, Sung; Kang, Jun-Yun; Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Tae-Ho
2016-01-01
Hot ductility of medium carbon steel containing 0.52 wt% of carbon and 0.11 wt% of vanadium was investigated using a hot tensile test performed up to fracture. The hot ductility was evaluated by measuring the reduction of area of the fractured specimens, which were strained at a variety of test temperatures in a range of 600–1100 °C at a strain rate of 2×10"−"3/s. The hot ductility was excellent in a temperature range of 950–1100 °C, followed by a decrease of the hot ductility below 950 °C. The hot ductility continued to drop as the temperature was lowered to 600 °C. The loss of hot ductility in a temperature range of 800–950 °C, which is above the Ae_3 temperature, was due to V(C,N) precipitation at austenite grain boundaries. The further decline of hot ductility between 700 °C and 750 °C resulted from the transformation of ferrite films decorating austenite grain boundaries. The hot ductility continued to decrease at 650 °C or less, owing to ferrite films and the pearlite matrix, which is harder than ferrite. The pearlite was transformed from austenite due to relatively high carbon content.
QCD equation of state of hot deconfined matter at finite baryon density. A quasiparticle perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Marcus
2008-01-01
The quasiparticle model, based on quark and gluon degrees of freedom, has been developed for the description of the thermodynamics of a hot plasma of strongly interacting matter which is of enormous relevance in astrophysics, cosmology and for relativistic heavy-ion collisions as well. In the present work, this phenomenological model is extended into the realm of imaginary chemical potential and towards including, in general, different and independent quark flavour chemical potentials. In this way, nonzero net baryon-density effects in the equation of state are selfconsistently attainable. Furthermore, a chain of approximations based on formal mathematical manipulations is presented which outlines the connection of the quasiparticle model with the underlying gauge field theory of strong interactions, QCD, putting the model on firmer ground. The applicability of the model to extrapolate the equation of state known from lattice QCD at zero baryon density to nonzero baryon densities is shown. In addition, the ability of the model to extrapolate results to the chiral limit and to asymptotically large temperatures is illustrated by confrontation with available first-principle lattice QCD results. Basing on these successful comparisons supporting the idea that the hot deconfined phase can be described in a consistent picture by dressed quark and gluon degrees of freedom, a reliable QCD equation of state is constructed and baryon-density effects are examined, also along isentropic evolutionary paths. Scaling properties of the equation of state with fundamental QCD parameters such as the number of active quark flavour degrees of freedom, the entering quark mass parameters or the numerical value of the deconfinement transition temperature are discussed, and the robustness of the equation of state in the regions of small and large energy densities is shown. Uncertainties arising in the transition region are taken into account by constructing a family of equations of state
In-medium QCD sum rules for {omega} meson, nucleon and D meson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Ronny
2008-07-01
The modifications of hadronic properties caused by an ambient nuclear medium are investigated within the scope of QCD sum rules. This is exemplified for the cases of the {omega} meson, the nucleon and the D meson. By virtue of the sum rules, integrated spectral densities of these hadrons are linked to properties of the QCD ground state, quantified in condensates. For the cases of the {omega} meson and the nucleon it is discussed how the sum rules allow a restriction of the parameter range of poorly known four-quark condensates by a comparison of experimental and theoretical knowledge. The catalog of independent four-quark condensates is covered and relations among these condensates are revealed. The behavior of four-quark condensates under the chiral symmetry group and the relation to order parameters of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are outlined. In this respect, also the QCD condensates appearing in differences of sum rules of chiral partners are investigated. Finally, the effects of an ambient nuclear medium on the D meson are discussed and relevant condensates are identified. (orig.)
Interference between initial and final state radiation in a QCD medium
Armesto, Nestor; Martinez, Mauricio; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Salgado, Carlos A.
2012-01-01
We investigate the color coherence pattern between initial and final state radiation in the presence of a QCD medium. We derive the medium-induced gluon spectrum of an "asymptotic" parton which suffers a hard scattering and subsequently crosses the medium. The angular distribution of the induced gluon spectrum is modified when one includes interference terms between the incoming and the outgoing parton at finite angle between them. The coherent, incoherent and soft limits of the medium-induced gluon spectrum are studied. In the soft limit, we provide a simple and intuitive probabilistic picture which could be of interest for Monte Carlo implementations. The configuration studied here may have phenomenological consequences in high energy nuclear collisions.
Subtracted Dispersion Relations for In-medium Meson Correlators in QCD Sum Rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florkowski, W; Broniowski, W [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1999-01-01
We analyze subtracted dispersion relations for meson correlators at finite baryon density and temperature. Such relations are needed for QCD sum rules. We point out that importance of scattering terms, as well as finite, well-defined subtraction constants. Both are necessary for consistency, in particular for the equality of the longitudinal and transverse correlators in the limit of the vanishing three-momentum of mesons relative to the medium. We present detailed calculations in various mesonic channels of the Fermi gas of nucleons. (author)
THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY NGC 4490
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richings, A. J.; Fabbiano, G.; Wang Junfeng; Roberts, T. P.
2010-01-01
We present an analysis of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in the spiral galaxy NGC 4490, which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485, using ∼100 ks of Chandra ACIS-S observations. The high angular resolution of Chandra enables us to remove discrete sources and perform spatially resolved spectroscopy for the star-forming regions and associated outflows, allowing us to look at how the physical properties of the hot ISM such as temperature, hydrogen column density, and metal abundances vary throughout these galaxies. We find temperatures of >0.41 keV and 0.85 +0.59 -0.12 keV, electron densities of >1.87η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 and 0.21 +0.03 -0.04 η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 , and hot gas masses of >1.1η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun and ∼3.7η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun in the plane and halo of NGC 4490, respectively, where η is the filling factor of the hot gas. The abundance ratios of Ne, Mg, and Si with respect to Fe are found to be consistent with those predicted by theoretical models of type II supernovae (SNe). The thermal energy in the hot ISM is ∼5% of the total mechanical energy input from SNe, so it is likely that the hot ISM has been enriched and heated by type II SNe. The X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the Hα and mid-infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas is bounded by filaments of cooler ionized hydrogen mixed with warm dust.
Phase structure of hot and/or dense QCD with the Schwinger-Dyson equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takagi, Satoshi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)
2002-09-01
We investigate the phase structure of the hot and/or dense QCD using the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) with the improved ladder approximation in the Landau gauge. We solve the coupled SDE for the Majorana masses of the quark and antiquark (separately from the SDE for the Dirac mass) in the finite temperature and/or chemical potential region. The resultant phase structure is rather different from those by other analyses. In addition to this analysis we investigate the phase structure with the different two types of the SDE, in one of which the Majorana mass gap of the antiquark is neglected, while in the other of which the Majorana mass gap of the quark and that of the antiquark are set to be equal. The effect of the Debye mass of the gluon on the phase structure is also investigated. (author)
Two-gluon emission and interference in a thin QCD medium: insights into jet formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Pablos, Daniel; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2016-01-01
In heavy-ion collisions, an abundant production of high-energy QCD jets allows to study how these multiparticle sprays are modified as they pass through the quark-gluon plasma. In order to shed new light on this process, we compute the inclusive two-gluon rate off a hard quark propagating through a color deconfined medium at first order in medium opacity. We explicitly impose an energy ordering of the two emitted gluons, such that the “hard” gluon can be thought of as belonging to the jet substructure while the other is a “soft” emission (which can be collinear or medium-induced). Our analysis focusses on two specific limits that clarify the modification of the additional angle- and formation time-ordering of splittings. In one limit, the formation time of the “hard” gluon is short compared to the “soft” gluon formation time, leading to a probabilistic formula for production of and subsequent radiation off a quark-gluon antenna. In the other limit, the ordering of formation is reverted, which automatically leads to the fact that the jet substructure is resolved by the medium. We observe in this case a characteristic delay: the jet radiates as one color current (quark) up to the formation of the “hard” gluon, at which point we observe the onset of radiation of the new color current (gluon). Within our kinematic constraints, our computation supports a picture in which the in-medium jet dynamics are described as a collection of subsequent antennas which are resolved by the medium according to their transverse extent.
In-medium P-wave quarkonium from the complex lattice QCD potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander
2016-01-01
We extend our lattice QCD potential based study http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)101 of the in-medium properties of heavy quark bound states to P-wave bottomonium and charmonium. Similar to the behavior found in the S-wave channel their spectra show a characteristic broadening, as well as mass shifts to lower energy with increasing temperature. In contrast to the S-wave states, finite angular momentum leads to the survival of spectral peaks even at temperatures, where the continuum threshold reaches below the bound state remnant mass. We elaborate on the ensuing challenges in defining quarkonium dissolution and present estimates of melting temperatures for the spin averaged χ b and χ c states. As an application to heavy-ion collisions we further estimate the contribution of feed down to S-wave quarkonium through the P-wave states after freezeout.
In-medium P-wave quarkonium from the complex lattice QCD potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnier, Yannis [Institute of Theoretical Physics, EPFL,CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaczmarek, Olaf [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld,D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-10-07
We extend our lattice QCD potential based study http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)101 of the in-medium properties of heavy quark bound states to P-wave bottomonium and charmonium. Similar to the behavior found in the S-wave channel their spectra show a characteristic broadening, as well as mass shifts to lower energy with increasing temperature. In contrast to the S-wave states, finite angular momentum leads to the survival of spectral peaks even at temperatures, where the continuum threshold reaches below the bound state remnant mass. We elaborate on the ensuing challenges in defining quarkonium dissolution and present estimates of melting temperatures for the spin averaged χ{sub b} and χ{sub c} states. As an application to heavy-ion collisions we further estimate the contribution of feed down to S-wave quarkonium through the P-wave states after freezeout.
Widespread rotationally hot hydronium ion in the galactic interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Higgins, R.
2014-01-01
We present new Herschel observations of the (6,6) and (9,9) inversion transitions of the hydronium ion toward Sagittarius B2(N) and W31C. Sensitive observations toward Sagittarius B2(N) show that the high, ∼500 K, rotational temperatures characterizing the population of the highly excited metastable H 3 O + rotational levels are present over a wide range of velocities corresponding to the Sagittarius B2 envelope, as well as the foreground gas clouds between the Sun and the source. Observations of the same lines toward W31C, a line of sight that does not intersect the Central Molecular Zone but instead traces quiescent gas in the Galactic disk, also imply a high rotational temperature of ∼380 K, well in excess of the kinetic temperature of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium. While it is plausible that some fraction of the molecular gas may be heated to such high temperatures in the active environment of the Galactic center, characterized by high X-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes, shocks, and high degree of turbulence, this is unlikely in the largely quiescent environment of the Galactic disk clouds. We suggest instead that the highly excited states of the hydronium ion are populated mainly by exoergic chemical formation processes and the temperature describing the rotational level population does not represent the physical temperature of the medium. The same arguments may be applicable to other symmetric top rotors, such as ammonia. This offers a simple explanation of the long-standing puzzle of the presence of a pervasive, hot molecular gas component in the central region of the Milky Way. Moreover, our observations suggest that this is a universal process not limited to the active environments associated with galactic nuclei.
Confinement-deconfinement phase transition in hot and dense QCD at large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2008-01-01
We conjecture that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition in QCD at large number of colors N and N f c where θ dependence experiences a sudden change in behavior [A. Parnachev, A. Zhitnitsky, (arXiv: 0806.1736 [hep-ph])]. The conjecture is also supported by quantum field theory arguments when the instanton calculations (which trigger the θ dependence) are under complete theoretical control for T>T c , suddenly break down immediately below T c with sharp changes in the θ dependence. Finally, the conjecture is supported by a number of numerical lattice results. We employ this conjecture to study confinement-deconfinement phase transition of dense QCD at large μ in large N limit by analyzing the θ dependence. We find that the confinement-deconfinement phase transition at N f c ∼√(N)Λ QCD . This result agrees with recent findings by McLerran and Pisarski [L. McLerran, R.D. Pisarski, Nucl. Phys. A 796 (2007) 83]. We also speculate on case when N f ∼N
Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander
2016-01-01
We report recent results of a non-perturbative determination of the static heavy-quark potential in quenched and dynamical lattice QCD at finite temperature. The real and imaginary part of this complex quantity are extracted from the spectral function of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge. To obtain spectral information from Euclidean time numerical data, our study relies on a novel Bayesian prescription that differs from the Maximum Entropy Method. We perform simulations on quenched 323 × Nτ (β = 7.0, ξ = 3.5) lattices with Nτ = 24, …, 96, which cover 839MeV ≥ T ≥ 210MeV. To investigate the potential in a quark-gluon plasma with light u,d and s quarks we utilize Nf = 2 + 1 ASQTAD lattices with ml = ms/20 by the HotQCD collaboration, giving access to temperatures between 286MeV ≥ T ≥ 148MeV. The real part of the potential exhibits a clean transition from a linear, confining behavior in the hadronic phase to a Debye screened form above deconfinement. Interestingly its values lie close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge at all temperatures. We estimate the imaginary part on quenched lattices and find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop perturbation theory. From among all the systematic checks carried out in our study, we discuss explicitly the dependence of the result on the default model and the number of datapoints.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilger, Thomas Uwe
2012-04-11
The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Heavy Scalar, Vector, and Axial-Vector Mesons in Hot and Dense Nuclear Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arvind Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we shall investigate the mass modifications of scalar mesons (D0; B0, vector mesons (D*; B*, and axial-vector mesons (D1; B1 at finite density and temperature of the nuclear medium. The above mesons are modified in the nuclear medium through the modification of quark and gluon condensates. We will find the medium modification of quark and gluon condensates within chiral SU(3 model through the medium modification of scalar-isoscalar fields σ and ζ at finite density and temperature. These medium modified quark and gluon condensates will further be used through QCD sum rules for the evaluation of in-medium properties of the above mentioned scalar, vector, and axial vector mesons. We will also discuss the effects of density and temperature of the nuclear medium on the scattering lengths of the above scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons. The study of the medium modifications of the above mesons may be helpful for understanding their production rates in heavy-ion collision experiments. The results of present investigations of medium modifications of scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons at finite density and temperature can be verified in the compressed baryonic matter (CBM experiment of FAIR facility at GSI, Germany.
The pressure of hot QCD up to $g^{6}$ ln(1/g)
Kajantie, Keijou; Rummukainen, K; Schröder, Y
2003-01-01
The free energy density, or pressure, of QCD has at high temperatures an expansion in the coupling constant g, known so far up to order g^5. We compute here the last contribution which can be determined perturbatively, g^6 ln(1/g), by summing together results for the 4-loop vacuum energy densities of two different three-dimensional effective field theories. We also demonstrate that the inclusion of the new perturbative g^6 ln(1/g) terms, together with the so far unknown perturbative and non-perturbative g^6 terms, could potentially extend the applicability of the resummed coupling constant series down to surprisingly low temperatures.
The $N_f^3 g^6$ term in the pressure of hot QCD
Gynther, A; Vuorinen, A
2009-01-01
We determine the first independent part of the g^6 coefficient in the weak coupling expansion of the QCD pressure at high temperatures, the one proportional to the maximal power of the number of quark flavors N_f. In addition to introducing and developing computational methods that can be used in evaluating other parts of the expansion, our calculation provides a result that becomes dominant in the limit of large N_f and a fixed effective coupling g_{eff}^2 = g^2 N_f/2.
Exploring QCD dynamics in medium energy γA semiexclusive collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.B. Larionov
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that studies of the semiexclusive large angle photon–nucleus reactions: γ+A→h1+h2+(A−1⁎ with tagged photon beams of energies 6÷10 GeV which can be performed in Hall D at Thomas Jefferson National Acceleration Facility (TJNAF would allow to probe several aspects of the QCD dynamics: establish the t-range in which transition from soft to hard dynamics occurs, compare the strength of the interaction of various mesons and baryons with nucleons at the energies of few GeV, as well as look for the color transparency effects.
Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)
2016-02-15
We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wissel, S.
2006-10-15
In this thesis we investigate thermal in-medium modifications of various mesonic correlation functions by lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics for light valence quark masses and vanishing chemical potential. Mesonic properties are typically extracted from spatial correlation functions. The results presented are based on quenched gauge field configurations generated with the standard Wilson plaquette gauge action. Concerning the fermionic part of the action, we use the non-perturbative O(a) improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert as well as the truncated hypercube perfect action. Furthermore we utilize the maximum entropy method in order to determine physically relevant pole masses and to investigate thermal modifications of physical states and possible lattice artefacts in the interacting case. The analyses of pole and screening masses, dispersion relations, wave functions, decay constants and spectral functions essentially yield no significant modifications of the zero-temperature behavior up to 0.55 T{sub c}. Close to the phase transition in-medium effects seem to appear, which lead inter alia to significant differences between pole and screening masses. The decay constants are in good agreement with the experimental values. We have simulated above T{sub c} at nearly zero quark masses. At 1.24 T{sub c}, the occurrence of topological effects, a sign for the presence of a still broken U(1){sub A} symmetry, prevent a more thorough analyses close to the phase transition. A complete continuum and infinite volume extrapolation of screening masses, guided by free lattice effective masses is done. It shows that the presence of collective phenomena at 1.5 and 3 T{sub c} cannot be explained by pure lattice artefacts. Unlike the vector meson the pion is far from being considered an unbound state. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wissel, S.
2006-10-01
In this thesis we investigate thermal in-medium modifications of various mesonic correlation functions by lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics for light valence quark masses and vanishing chemical potential. Mesonic properties are typically extracted from spatial correlation functions. The results presented are based on quenched gauge field configurations generated with the standard Wilson plaquette gauge action. Concerning the fermionic part of the action, we use the non-perturbative O(a) improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert as well as the truncated hypercube perfect action. Furthermore we utilize the maximum entropy method in order to determine physically relevant pole masses and to investigate thermal modifications of physical states and possible lattice artefacts in the interacting case. The analyses of pole and screening masses, dispersion relations, wave functions, decay constants and spectral functions essentially yield no significant modifications of the zero-temperature behavior up to 0.55 T c . Close to the phase transition in-medium effects seem to appear, which lead inter alia to significant differences between pole and screening masses. The decay constants are in good agreement with the experimental values. We have simulated above T c at nearly zero quark masses. At 1.24 T c , the occurrence of topological effects, a sign for the presence of a still broken U(1) A symmetry, prevent a more thorough analyses close to the phase transition. A complete continuum and infinite volume extrapolation of screening masses, guided by free lattice effective masses is done. It shows that the presence of collective phenomena at 1.5 and 3 T c cannot be explained by pure lattice artefacts. Unlike the vector meson the pion is far from being considered an unbound state. (orig.)
Interstellar depletions and the filling factor of the hot interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwek, E.; Scalo, J.M.
1979-01-01
We have examined theoretically the evolution of refractory interstellar grain abundances and corresponding metal deplections in the solar neighborhood. The calculations include a self-consistent treatment of red-giant winds, planetary nebulae, protostellar nebulae, and suprnovae as sources of grains and star formation, and of encounters with supernova blast waves as sinks. We find that in the standard two-phase model for the interstellar medium (ISM), grain destruction is very efficient, and the abundance of refractory grains should be negligible, contrary to observations. In a cloudy three-phase ISM most grains reside in the warm and cold phases of the medium. Supernova blast waves expand predominantly in the hot and tenuous phase of the medium and are showed down as they propagate through a cloud. In order to obtain significant (approx.3) depletions of metals presubably locked up in refractory grain cores, the destruction of grains that reside in the clouds must be minimal. This requires that (a) the density contrast between the cloud and intercloud medium be sufficiently high, and (b) the filling factor of the hot and tenuous gas of the interstellar medium, which presumably gives rise to the O VI absorption and soft X-ray emission, be nearly unity. Much larger depletions (> or approx. =10) must reflect accretion of mantles within interstellar clouds
The dynamics of the water droplet impacting onto hot solid surfaces at medium Weber numbers
Mitrakusuma, Windy H.; Kamal, Samsul; Indarto; Dyan Susila, M.; Hermawan; Deendarlianto
2017-10-01
The effects of the wettability of a droplet impacting onto a hot solid surface under medium Weber numbers were studied experimentally. The Weber numbers used in the present experiment were 52.1, 57.6, and 63.1. Three kinds of solid surfaces with different wettability were used. These were normal stainless steel (NSS), TiO2 coated NSS, and TiO2 coated NSS radiated with ultraviolet rays. The surface temperatures were varied from 60 to 200 °C. The image of side the view and 30° from horizontal were taken to explain the spreading and the interfacial behavior of a single droplet during impact the hot solid surfaces. It was found that under medium Weber numbers, the surface wettability plays an important role on the droplet spreading and evaporation time during the impact on the hot solid surfaces. The higher the wettability, the larger the droplet spreading on the hot surface, and the lower the evaporation time.
Large scale features of the hot component of the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garmire, G.P.
1983-01-01
The interstellar medium contains identifiable hot plasma clouds occupying up to about 35% of the volume of the local galactic disc. The temperature of these clouds is not uniform but ranges from 10 5 up to 4 x 10 6 K. Besides the high temperature which places the emission spectrum in the soft X-ray band, the implied pressure of the hot plasma compared to the cooler gas reveals the importance of this component in determining the motions and evolution of the cooler gas in the disc, as well as providing a source of hot gas which may extend above the galactic disc to form a corona. The author presents data from the A-2 soft X-ray experiment on the HEAO-1 spacecraft concerning the large scale features of this gas. These features are interpreted in terms of the late phases of supernovae expansion, multiple supernovae and the possible creation of a hot halo surrounding the region of the galactic nucleus. (Auth.)
Hot gas in the interstellar medium, from supernova remnants to the diffuse coronal phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballet, Jean
1988-01-01
This research thesis addresses the study of the hot interstellar medium and of its main component, supernovae remnants. The author studied the hypothesis according to which ions observed in the interstellar medium are produced during the evaporation of cold clouds in the coronal phase. He shows that effects of ionisation delay are important and modify by a factor 10 the total quantity of ions predicted by the model. The study of the influence on ionisation of hot electrons penetrating cold layers revealed that this effect is rather weak. Then, based on the observation of the Kepler supernovae remnants by means of EXOSAT, and on the use of a hydrodynamics code coupled with a step-by-step calculation of ionisation of elements, the author studied the evolution of young supernovae remnants: propagation of the main shock in the interstellar medium, and of the backlash in the matter ejected by the star. The author also studied the X emission of an older supernovae remnant (the Cygnus Loop) by analysing three EXOSAT observations of this remnant. Results of Fabry-Perot spectrophotometry have been used to study optic lines [fr
Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nouicer Rachid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quarkantiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT, for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.
Study on the behavior of medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel by hot compression test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meysami, Majid [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4653, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyed Ali Asghar Akbari, E-mail: akbarimusavi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4653, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-03-25
Research highlights: {yields} At low Z parameter, the multi peak dynamic recrystallization behavior was observed. {yields} At high Z, the stress-strain curves were exhibited with a single peak stress. {yields} The hyperbolic sine law was found to provide the best fit for calculation of Q. {yields} The average value of n was obtained as 4.687. {yields} The peak stress and of the studied material was obtained. - Abstract: This article investigates the hot working behavior of medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel by hot compression tests over the temperature range of 850-1100 deg. C and strain rate range of 0.001-0.5 s{sup -1} to strain of 0.8. In this study, the general constitutive equations were used to determine the hot working constants. The peak stress ({sigma}{sub P}) and strain ({epsilon}{sub P}) for initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) at different temperatures and strain rates were calculated. The power law, exponential and hyperbolic sinusoidal types of Zener-Hollomon equations were used to determine the hot deformation activation energy (Q). The results suggested that the highest correlation coefficient was achieved for the hyperbolic sine law for the studied material. The magnitude of hot deformation activation energy (Q) was obtained as 319.910 kJ/mol. The classical single peak DRX was observed in most of temperatures and strain rates. However, for temperature of 1100 deg. C and strain rates of 0.001 s{sup -1}, 0.01 s{sup -1}, and also for temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.001 s{sup -1} the multiple peak dynamic recrystallization (MDRX) was observed, which showed that the 'recrystallization' was an observed strain rate behavior.
Baryon Budget of the Hot Circumgalactic Medium of Massive Spiral Galaxies
Li, Jiang-Tao; Bregman, Joel N.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Crain, Robert A.; Anderson, Michael E.
2018-03-01
The baryon content around local galaxies is observed to be much less than is needed in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Simulations indicate that a significant fraction of these “missing baryons” may be stored in a hot tenuous circumgalactic medium (CGM) around massive galaxies extending to or even beyond the virial radius of their dark matter halos. Previous observations in X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) signals claimed that ∼(1–50)% of the expected baryons are stored in a hot CGM within the virial radius. The large scatter is mainly caused by the very uncertain extrapolation of the hot gas density profile based on the detection in a small radial range (typically within 10%–20% of the virial radius). Here, we report stacking X-ray observations of six local isolated massive spiral galaxies from the CGM-MASS sample. We find that the mean density profile can be characterized by a single power law out to a galactocentric radius of ≈200 kpc (or ≈130 kpc above the 1σ background uncertainty), about half the virial radius of the dark matter halo. We can now estimate that the hot CGM within the virial radius accounts for (8 ± 4)% of the baryonic mass expected for the halos. Including the stars, the baryon fraction is (27 ± 16)%, or (39 ± 20)% by assuming a flattened density profile at r ≳ 130 kpc. We conclude that the hot baryons within the virial radius of massive galaxy halos are insufficient to explain the “missing baryons.”
Study on the behavior of medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel by hot compression test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meysami, Majid; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Asghar Akbari
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → At low Z parameter, the multi peak dynamic recrystallization behavior was observed. → At high Z, the stress-strain curves were exhibited with a single peak stress. → The hyperbolic sine law was found to provide the best fit for calculation of Q. → The average value of n was obtained as 4.687. → The peak stress and of the studied material was obtained. - Abstract: This article investigates the hot working behavior of medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel by hot compression tests over the temperature range of 850-1100 deg. C and strain rate range of 0.001-0.5 s -1 to strain of 0.8. In this study, the general constitutive equations were used to determine the hot working constants. The peak stress (σ P ) and strain (ε P ) for initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) at different temperatures and strain rates were calculated. The power law, exponential and hyperbolic sinusoidal types of Zener-Hollomon equations were used to determine the hot deformation activation energy (Q). The results suggested that the highest correlation coefficient was achieved for the hyperbolic sine law for the studied material. The magnitude of hot deformation activation energy (Q) was obtained as 319.910 kJ/mol. The classical single peak DRX was observed in most of temperatures and strain rates. However, for temperature of 1100 deg. C and strain rates of 0.001 s -1 , 0.01 s -1 , and also for temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.001 s -1 the multiple peak dynamic recrystallization (MDRX) was observed, which showed that the 'recrystallization' was an observed strain rate behavior.
Cosmic-ray self-confinement in the hot phase of the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesarsky, C.J.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1981-01-01
Until a few years ago, it was believed that the interstellar medium was mostly filled by a neutral gas, of density approximately 0.1 cm -3 and a temperature of several thousand degrees. Kulsrud and Cesarsky (1971) showed that, in such a medium, cosmic rays of energy >approximately100 GeV are not confined at all, because the waves are damped very rapidly by the effect of the collisions between the neutral and the charged particles in the medium. The case of streaming in HII regions was considered by Wentzel (1974) and Skilling (1975), and did not lead either to a satisfactory solution. At present, the authors think that a substantial fraction of the interstellar medium is filled with a hot (approximately 10 6 K) and diffuse 'coronal gas' (10 -3 cm -3 ). The strength of the magnetic field in such regions is unknown; it is probably lower than the normal interstellar value, 2.5 μG, by a factor which may be in the range 3-30. (Auth.)
Numerical simulation of springback of medium-thick plates in local hot rolling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XIE Dong
2017-10-01
Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to understand the factors of springback in the local hot rolling of medium-thick steel plates,[Methods] a 3D thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is conducted to investigate the factors affecting the amount of springback. Through a series of numerical analyses,the influence of deformation temperature,temperature field distribution,plate size and local loading are examined. [Results] The results show that when the deformation temperature exceeds a certain level at which material yield stress begins to decrease significantly,the springback will reduce markedly with the increase in temperature. Due to the distribution characteristics of the deformation area,the influence of temperature distribution on springback where the local deformation scale is larger is dominated by the three dimensions of temperature field distribution. Changes in the length and width of the plate have a certain influence on the springback,in which changes to the length of a plate where the local deformation scale is larger have a more obvious influence on springback. The springback of the plate decreases with the increase of local loading. [Conclusions] The results of this study can assist in the optimization of parameters in the automatic hot rolling of thick plates,while also having a basic guiding effect on the further study of springback in the local hot rolling of thick plates.
POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS OF HOT DUST STARS AND THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marshall, J. P.; Cotton, D. V.; Bott, K.; Bailey, J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, High Street, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia); Ertel, S. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Burgo, C. del [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Absil, O. [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, University of Liège, 19c allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)
2016-07-10
Debris discs are typically revealed through the presence of excess emission at infrared wavelengths. Most discs exhibit excess at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths, analogous to the solar system’s Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Recently, stars with strong (∼1%) excess at near-infrared wavelengths were identified through interferometric measurements. Using the HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument, we examined a sub-sample of these hot dust stars (and appropriate controls) at parts-per-million sensitivity in SDSS g ′ (green) and r ′ (red) filters for evidence of scattered light. No detection of strongly polarized emission from the hot dust stars is seen. We, therefore, rule out scattered light from a normal debris disk as the origin of this emission. A wavelength-dependent contribution from multiple dust components for hot dust stars is inferred from the dispersion (the difference in polarization angle in red and green) of southern stars. Contributions of 17 ppm (green) and 30 ppm (red) are calculated, with strict 3- σ upper limits of 76 and 68 ppm, respectively. This suggests weak hot dust excesses consistent with thermal emission, although we cannot rule out contrived scenarios, e.g., dust in a spherical shell or face-on discs. We also report on the nature of the local interstellar medium (ISM), obtained as a byproduct of the control measurements. Highlights include the first measurements of the polarimetric color of the local ISM and the discovery of a southern sky region with a polarization per distance thrice the previous maximum. The data suggest that λ {sub max}, the wavelength of maximum polarization, is bluer than typical.
Hot granules medium pressure forming process of AA7075 conical parts
Dong, Guojiang; Zhao, Changcai; Peng, Yaxin; Li, Ying
2015-05-01
High strength aluminum alloy plate has a low elongation at room temperature, which leads to the forming of its components need a high temperature. Liquid or gas is used as the pressure-transfer medium in the existing flexible mould forming process, the heat resistance of the medium and pressurizing device makes the application of aluminum alloy plate thermoforming restricted. To solve this problem, the existing medium is replaced by the heat-resisting solid granules and the general pressure equipments are applied. Based on the pressure-transfer performance test of the solid granules medium, the feasibility that the assumption of the extended Drucker-Prager linear model can be used in the finite element analysis is proved. The constitutive equation, the yield function and the theoretical forming limit diagram(FLD) of AA7075 sheet are established. Through the finite element numerical simulation of hot granules medium pressure forming(HGMF) process, not only the influence laws of the process parameters, such as forming temperature, the blank-holder gap and the diameter of the slab, on sheet metal forming performance are discussed, but also the broken area of the forming process is analyzed and predicted, which are coincided with the technological test. The conical part whose half cone angle is 15° and relative height H/d 0 is 0.57, is formed in one process at 250°C. The HGMF process solves the problems of loading and seal in the existing flexible mould forming process and provides a novel technology for thermoforming of light alloy plate, such as magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and titanium alloy.
UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.
Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas
2018-01-01
The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.
DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster; Wang, Q. Daniel
2012-01-01
The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10 5 -10 7 K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance (∼ Ovii ∼10 15 cm -2 (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mÅ for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s –1 ) at ∼> 3σ significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N Ovii at ≥4σ from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of ∼0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 × 10 –8 erg s –1 cm –2 at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R ∼ 4000 and effective area A ≥ 100 cm 2 to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of ∼2 Ms and would require ∼11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux ∼> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2009-01-01
We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lippert, Matthew
2009-01-01
We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.
Non-Metallic Inclusions and Hot-Working Behaviour of Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grajcar A.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The work addresses the production of medium-Mn steels with an increased Al content. The special attention is focused on the identification of non-metallic inclusions and their modification using rare earth elements. The conditions of the thermomechanical treatment using the metallurgical Gleeble simulator and the semi-industrial hot rolling line were designed for steels containing 3 and 5% Mn. Hot-working conditions and controlled cooling strategies with the isothermal holding of steel at 400°C were selected. The effect of Mn content on the hot-working behaviour and microstructure of steel was addressed. The force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were determined. The identification of structural constituents was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The addition of rare earth elements led to the total modification of non-metallic inclusions, i.e., they replaced Mn and Al forming complex oxysulphides. The Mn content in a range between 3 and 5% does not affect the inclusion type and the hot-working behaviour. In contrast, it was found that Mn has a significant effect on a microstructure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Vega, H.J.; Boyanovsky, D. [and others
2000-07-17
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation {approximately}2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DE VEGA,H.J.; BOYANOVSKY,D. [and others
2000-07-17
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation {approximately}2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Vega, H.J.; Boyanovsky, D.
2000-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven, beginning operation this year, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, beginning operation ∼2005, will provide an unprecedented range of energies and luminosities that will allow us to probe the Gluon-Quark plasma. At RHIC and LHC, at central rapidity typical estimates of energy densities and temperatures are e * 1-10 GeV/fm3 and T0 * 300 - 900 MeV. Such energies are well above current estimates for the GQ plasma. Initially, this hot, dense plasma is far from local thermal equilibrium, making the theoretical study of transport phenomena, kinetic and chemical equilibration in dense and hot plasmas, and related issues a matter of fundamental importance. During the last few years a consistent framework to study collective effects in the Gluon-Quark plasma, and a microscopic description of transport in terms of the hard thermal (and dense) loops resummation program has emerged. This approach has the potential of providing a microscopic formulation of transport, in the regime of temperatures and densities to be achieved at RHIC and LHC. A parallel development over the last few years has provided a consistent formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory that provides a real-time description of phenomena out of equilibrium. Novel techniques including non-perturbative approaches and the dynamical renormalization group techniques lead to new insights into transport and relaxation. A deeper understanding of collective.excitations and transport phenomena in the GQ plasma could lead to recognize novel potential experimental signatures. New insights into small-c physics reveals a striking similarity between small-c and hard thermal loops, and novel real-time numerical simulations have recently studied the parton distributions and their thermalizations in the initial stages of a heavy ion collision
DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wang, Q. Daniel, E-mail: yaoys@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2012-02-20
The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance ({approx}< 3{sigma}) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of {approx}90 and 190 per 50 mA spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N{sub Ovii}{approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mA for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s{sup -1}) at {approx}> 3{sigma} significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N{sub Ovii} at {>=}4{sigma} from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of {approx}0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R {approx} 4000 and effective area A {>=} 100 cm{sup 2} to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of {approx}2 Ms and would require {approx}11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux {approx}> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.
One-loop QCD thermodynamics in a strong homogeneous and static magnetic field
Rath, Shubhalaxmi; Patra, Binoy Krishna
2017-12-01
We have studied how the equation of state of thermal QCD with two light flavors is modified in a strong magnetic field. We calculate the thermodynamic observables of hot QCD matter up to one-loop, where the magnetic field affects mainly the quark contribution and the gluon part is largely unaffected except for the softening of the screening mass. We have first calculated the pressure of a thermal QCD medium in a strong magnetic field, where the pressure at fixed temperature increases with the magnetic field faster than the increase with the temperature at constant magnetic field. This can be understood from the dominant scale of thermal medium in the strong magnetic field, being the magnetic field, in the same way that the temperature dominates in a thermal medium in the absence of magnetic field. Thus although the presence of a strong magnetic field makes the pressure of hot QCD medium larger, the dependence of pressure on the temperature becomes less steep. Consistent with the above observations, the entropy density is found to decrease with the temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field which is again consistent with the fact that the strong magnetic field restricts the dynamics of quarks to two dimensions, hence the phase space becomes squeezed resulting in the reduction of number of microstates. Moreover the energy density is seen to decrease and the speed of sound of thermal QCD medium increases in the presence of a strong magnetic field. These findings could have phenomenological implications in heavy ion collisions because the expansion dynamics of the medium produced in non-central ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is effectively controlled by both the energy density and the speed of sound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, J.M.; Al Omar, A.; Prado, J.M.
1997-01-01
According to the part 1 of this work, in this second part the dynamic recrystallization of a commercial medium carbon microalloyed steel is characterized from the point of view of its onset and kinetics. For this purpose uniaxial hot compression tests were carried out over a range of five orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 degree centigree of temperature. Experimental results are compared with those reported in the literature and the possible effect of dynamic precipitation is also analyzed. It is verified that the kinetics of dynamics recrystallization can balefully be described by the classical Avrami equation. (Author) 42 refs
Knyazyuk, T. V.; Petrov, S. N.; Ryabov, V. V.; Khlusova, E. I.
2018-01-01
The structure of model specimens and articles fabricated from medium-carbon high-strength steels is studied for developing modes of forming of working members of tilling machines with cutting edges thinned without the expensive operation of electromachining. The effect of the temperature of heating of billets on the grain size of austenite is determined. The kinetics of recrystallization is studied in the temperature, rate and strain ranges typical for hot forming. A quantitative crystallographic analysis of the microstructure is performed by the EBSD technique. The degrees of distortion of the crystal lattices of structural components and the mean sizes of martensite blocks are determined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharzeev, D.
2004-01-01
In this talk I discuss recent advances in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics, in particular the progress in understanding the collective dynamics of the theory. I emphasise the significance of the RHIC program for establishing the properties of hot and dense QCD matter and for understanding the dynamics of the theory at the high parton density, strong color field frontier. Hopes and expectations for the future are discussed as well
Zhao, Zheng-zhi; Cao, Rong-hua; Liang, Ju-hua; Li, Feng; Li, Cheng; Yang, Shu-feng
2018-02-01
The deformation and fracture behavior of hot-rolled medium manganese lightweight (0.32C-3.85Mn-4.18Al-1.53Si) steel was revealed by an in situ tensile test. Deformed δ-ferrite with plenty of cross-parallel deformation bands during in situ tensile tests provides δ-ferrite of good plasticity and ductility, although it is finally featured by the cleavage fracture. The soft and ductile δ-ferrite and high-volume fraction of austenite contribute to the superior mechanical properties of medium manganese lightweight steel heated at 800°C, with a tensile strength of 924 MPa, total elongation of 35.2% and product of the strength and elongation of 32.5 GPa %.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
1989-01-01
Recent results concerning the small x limit of parton distributions in perturbative QCD are reviewed. This includes in particular discussion of the bare Pomeron in perturbative QCD and of shadowing corrections. The minijet production processes and possible manifestation of semihard interactions in high energy pp-bar elastic scattering are also discussed. 46 refs., 8 figs. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1979-01-01
Selected topics in QCD phenomenology are reviewed: the development of an effective jet perturbation series with applications to factorization, energy flow analysis and photon physics; implications of non-perturbative phenomena for hard scattering processes and the pseudoscalar mass spectrum; resonance properties as extracted from the combined technologies of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. (orig.)
Simulation of the hot flow behaviour of a medium carbon microalloyed steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, J.M.; Al Omar, A.; Prado, J.M.
1997-01-01
According to the part 1 of this work the constitutive equations of the hot flow behaviour of a commercial microalloyed steel have been obtained. For this purpose, the uniaxial hot compression tests described in the part 2 were employed. Tests were carried out over a range of 5 orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 degree centigree of temperature. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical model introduced in the first part of this study. It is concluded that deviations between experimental and theoretical curves are lower than 10%. It is shown that the classical hyperbolic sine constitutive equation described accurately the experimental behaviour provided that stresses are normalized by the Young's modulus and strain rates by the self-diffusion coefficient. An internal stress must also be introduced in the latter equation when the initial grain size is fine enough. (Author) 24 refs
AN IN-DEPTH STUDY OF THE ABUNDANCE PATTERN IN THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NGC 4649
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loewenstein, Michael; Davis, David S.
2012-01-01
We present our X-ray imaging spectroscopic analysis of data from deep Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observatory exposures of the Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), focusing on the abundance pattern in the hot interstellar medium (ISM). All measured elements show a radial decline in abundance, with the possible exception of O. We construct steady-state solutions to the chemical evolution equations that include infall in addition to stellar mass return and Type Ia supernova (SNIa) enrichment, and consider recently published SNIa yields. By adjusting a single model parameter to obtain a match to the global abundance pattern in NGC 4649, we infer that introduction of subsolar metallicity external gas has reduced the overall ISM metallicity and diluted the effectiveness of SNIa to skew the pattern toward low α/Fe ratios, and estimate the combination of SNIa rate and level of dilution. Evidently, newly introduced gas is heated as it is integrated into, and interacts with, the hot gas that is already present. These results indicate a complex flow and enrichment history for NGC 4649, reflecting the continual evolution of elliptical galaxies beyond the formation epoch. The heating and circulation of accreted gas may help reconcile this dynamic history with the mostly passive evolution of elliptical stellar populations. In an Appendix, we examine the effects of the recent updated atomic database AtomDB in spectral fitting of thermal plasmas with hot ISM temperatures in the elliptical galaxy range.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
2016-05-25
The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.
1997-01-01
The constitutive equations to model the hot flow behaviour of metallic materials in general, and of microalloyed steels in particular (see part 2 of this work) are established in this work. Special emphasis is done on the dynamic softening mechanisms, i.e., dynamic recovery and recrystallization phenomena. The equations developed are physic-based, not empirical, and the modelling allows an easy implementation in an analysis by numerical methods. The resulting equations are even able to predict the final grain size. (Author) 39 refs
QCD sum rule studies at finite density and temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Youngshin
2010-01-21
In-medium modifications of hadronic properties have a strong connection to the restoration of chiral symmetry in hot and/or dense medium. The in-medium spectral functions for vector and axial-vector mesons are of particular interest in this context, considering the experimental dilepton production data which signal the in-medium meson properties. In this thesis, finite energy sum rules are employed to set constraints for the in-medium spectral functions of vector and axial-vector mesons. Finite energy sum rules for the first two moments of the spectral functions are investigated with emphasis on the role of a scale parameter related to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. It is demonstrated that these lowest moments of vector current spectral functions do permit an accurate sum rule analysis with controlled inputs, such as the QCD condensates of lowest dimensions. In contrast, the higher moments contain uncertainties from the higher dimensional condensates. It turns out that the factorization approximation for the four-quark condensate is not applicable in any of the cases studied in this work. The accurate sum rules for the lowest two moments of the spectral functions are used to clarify and classify the properties of vector meson spectral functions in a nuclear medium. Possible connections with the Brown-Rho scaling hypothesis are also discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, P.
1983-01-01
The author presents a general introduction to lattice gauge theories and discusses non-perturbative methods in the gauge sector. He then shows how the lattice works in obtaining the string tension in SU(2). Lattice QCD at finite physical temperature is discussed. Universality tests in SU(2) lattice QCD are presented. SU(3) pure gauge theory is briefly dealt with. Finally, fermions on the lattice are considered. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.
1991-01-01
We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han
2017-01-01
The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiaodong [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chang, Ying, E-mail: yingc@dlut.edu.cn [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Cunyu [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Ping [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, Han [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China)
2017-01-02
The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M{sub s} temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.
13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations
13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2006-07-01
This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radyushkin, A.V.; Slepchenko, L.A.
1983-01-01
Analysis of experimental status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been carried out. A short introduction into QCD is given. QCD sum rules are considered. Jets in e + e - annihilation and inclusive processes of lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering are considered. Effect of QCD corrections to perturbation theory on quark count is analyzed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechi, Jacopo
2009-01-01
This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....
Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Bowen, David V.; Jenkins, Edward B.
2018-04-01
We analyse the intracluster medium (ICM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM) in seven X-ray-detected galaxy clusters using spectra of background quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) (HST-COS/STIS), optical spectroscopy of the cluster galaxies (MMT/Hectospec and SDSS), and X-ray imaging/spectroscopy (XMM-Newton and Chandra). First, we report a very low covering fraction of H I absorption in the CGM of these cluster galaxies, f_c = 25^{+25}_{-15} {per cent}, to stringent detection limits (N(H I) detect O VI in any cluster, and we only detect BLA features in the QSO spectrum probing one cluster. We estimate that the total column density of warm-hot gas along this line of sight totals to ˜ 3 per cent of that contained in the hot T > 107 K X-ray emitting phase. Residing at high relative velocities, these features may trace pre-shocked material outside the cluster. Comparing gaseous galaxy haloes from the low-density `field' to galaxy groups and high-density clusters, we find that the CGM is progressively depleted of H I with increasing environmental density, and the CGM is most severely transformed in galaxy clusters. This CGM transformation may play a key role in environmental galaxy quenching.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso
2007-01-01
Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1990-01-01
This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)
Jets with ALICE: from vacuum to high-temperature QCD
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
ALICE measures jets in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions to study modifications of the jet fragmentation due to cold nuclear and hot QCD matter. In pp collisions ALICE has measured inclusive jet yields, the ratio of yields with different resolution R, a variety of jet shapes and the semi-inclusive rate of jets recoiling against a high transverse momentum hadron trigger. These measurements are compared to NLO calculations including hadronization corrections and to MC models. Jets in pp are primarily conceived as a vacuum reference for jet observables in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. In p-Pb collisions ALICE explores cold nuclear matter effects on jet yields, jet fragmentation and dijet acoplanarity. The hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions is expected to modify the fragmentation of high energy partonic projectiles leading to changes in the energy and structure of the reconstructed jets with respect to pp jets. The study of modified jets aims at understanding the detailed mechanisms of in-medium energy...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leman, Steven W.; Brink, Paul L.; Cabrera, Blas; Castle, Joseph P.; Chakraborty, Sudeepto; Deiker, Steve; Kahn, Steve; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Tomada, Astrid
2006-01-01
We are developing a novel phonon-mediated distributed-TES X-ray detector in which X-rays are absorbed in a large germanium or silicon crystal, and the energy is read out by four distributed TESs. This design takes advantage of existing TES technology while overcoming the difficulties of designing spatially large arrays. The sum of the four TES signals will yield energy resolution of E/δE∼1000 and the partitioning of energy between the four will yield position resolution of X/δX and Y/δY∼100. These macropixels, with advances in multiplexing, could be close-packed into 30x30 arrays equivalent to imaging instruments of 10 megapixels or more. We report on our progress to date and discuss its application to galaxy cluster searches and studies of the Warm-Hot Interstellar Medium
Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blaschke D.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The ﬁrst one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum ﬁeld theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanﬁeld approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian ﬂuctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott eﬀect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the inﬂuence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the ﬁnite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to ﬁnite temperatures. The eﬀect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to eﬀects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanﬁeld description.
Jets with ALICE. From vacuum to QCD at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leticia, Cunqueiro [University of Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions is expected to modify the yield and radiation pattern of jets relative to proton proton collisions. The study of medium-induced modifications in jets aims at the understanding of the detailed mechanisms of in medium energy loss of partons and of fundamental properties of QCD at high temperatures. ALICE measures jets in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions, where pp and p-Pb are conceived primarily as a reference for vacuum and cold nuclear effects respectively. The jet program comprises measurements like yields for different resolution R, intra-jet and inter-jet modifications via jet shapes and hadron-jet correlations, path length dependence of energy loss via jet flow v{sub 2}, hadrochemistry via jet constituent identification, flavour/mass hierarchy of energy loss via heavy flavour tagging etc. Several of the latest ALICE jet physics results are presented and discussed with emphasis on new studies on jet substructure and jet shapes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.
1998-01-01
We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define
PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.
1998-04-16
We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.
Explaining jet quenching with perturbative QCD alone
Zapp, Korinna C; Wiedemann, Urs A
2011-01-01
We present a new formulation of jet quenching in perturbative QCD beyond the eikonal approximation. Multiple scattering in the medium is modelled through infra-red-continued (2 -> 2) scattering matrix elements in QCD and the parton shower describing further emissions. The interplay between these processes is arranged in terms of a formation time constraint such that coherent emissions can be treated consistently. Emerging partons are hadronised by the Lund string model, tuned to describe LEP data in conjunction with the parton shower. Based on this picture we obtain a good description of the nuclear modification factor R_AA at RHIC and LHC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1979-10-15
Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu.A.
1989-01-01
To apply QCD to nuclear physics one needs methods of long-distance QCD. A new method, method of Confining Background Fields, CBF, which incorporates confinement, is presented with applications to heavy and light quarks, both in mesons and baryons. Spin-dependent forces are calculated for light and heavy quarks. The quark potential model in some limiting case is derived. 25 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yun-bo; Hu, Zhi-ping; Zou, Ying; Tan, Xiao-dong; Han, Ding-ting; Chen, Shu-qing; Ma, De-gang; Misra, R.D.K.
2017-01-01
The microstructure-properties relationship, work-hardening behavior and retained austenite stability have been systematically investigated in a hot-rolled medium manganese transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing δ-ferrite subjected to one-step and two-step intercritical annealing. The steel exhibited tensile strength of 752 MPa and total elongation of 52.7% for one-step intercritical annealing at 740 °C, tensile strength of 954 MPa and total elongation of 39.2% in the case of intercritical quenching at 800 °C and annealing at 740 °C. The austenite obtained by two-step annealing mostly consists of refined lath structures and increased fraction of block-type particles existing at various kinds of sites, which is highly distinguished from those characterized by long lath morphology and small amounts of granular shape in one-step annealed samples. In spite of a higher C and Mn content in austenite and finer austenite laths, two-step annealing can lead to an active and continuous TRIP effect provided by a mixed blocky and lath-type austenitic structure with lower stability, contributing to a higher UTS. In contrast, one-step annealing gave rise to a less active but sustained TRIP effect given by the dominant lath-like austenite having higher stability, leading to a very high elongation. The further precipitation of vanadium carbides and the presence of both dislocation substructure and fine equiaxed grain in ferrite matrix facilitate the increase of yield strength after double annealing. - Highlights: • A novel two-step process was applied to a hot-rolled Fe-0.2C-6.5Mn-3Al steel. • The interplay between different microstructures and mechanical properties was studied. • Two-step annealing led to an active and continuous TRIP. • An outstanding combination of strength of 954 MPa and elongation of 39.2% was obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Yun-bo [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, People' s Republic China (China); Hu, Zhi-ping, E-mail: huzhiping900401@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, People' s Republic China (China); Zou, Ying; Tan, Xiao-dong; Han, Ding-ting; Chen, Shu-qing [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, People' s Republic China (China); Ma, De-gang [Tangshan Iron and Steel Company, Tangshan 063000, People' s Republic China (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)
2017-03-14
The microstructure-properties relationship, work-hardening behavior and retained austenite stability have been systematically investigated in a hot-rolled medium manganese transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing δ-ferrite subjected to one-step and two-step intercritical annealing. The steel exhibited tensile strength of 752 MPa and total elongation of 52.7% for one-step intercritical annealing at 740 °C, tensile strength of 954 MPa and total elongation of 39.2% in the case of intercritical quenching at 800 °C and annealing at 740 °C. The austenite obtained by two-step annealing mostly consists of refined lath structures and increased fraction of block-type particles existing at various kinds of sites, which is highly distinguished from those characterized by long lath morphology and small amounts of granular shape in one-step annealed samples. In spite of a higher C and Mn content in austenite and finer austenite laths, two-step annealing can lead to an active and continuous TRIP effect provided by a mixed blocky and lath-type austenitic structure with lower stability, contributing to a higher UTS. In contrast, one-step annealing gave rise to a less active but sustained TRIP effect given by the dominant lath-like austenite having higher stability, leading to a very high elongation. The further precipitation of vanadium carbides and the presence of both dislocation substructure and fine equiaxed grain in ferrite matrix facilitate the increase of yield strength after double annealing. - Highlights: • A novel two-step process was applied to a hot-rolled Fe-0.2C-6.5Mn-3Al steel. • The interplay between different microstructures and mechanical properties was studied. • Two-step annealing led to an active and continuous TRIP. • An outstanding combination of strength of 954 MPa and elongation of 39.2% was obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cen Renyue
2012-01-01
With high-resolution (0.46 h –1 kpc), large-scale, adaptive mesh-refinement Eulerian cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we compute properties of O VI and O VII absorbers from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at z = 0. Our new simulations are in broad agreement with previous simulations with ∼40% of the intergalactic medium being in the WHIM. Our simulations are in agreement with observed properties of O VI absorbers with respect to the line incidence rate and Doppler-width-column-density relation. It is found that the amount of gas in the WHIM below and above 10 6 K is roughly equal. Strong O VI absorbers are found to be predominantly collisionally ionized. It is found that (61%, 57%, 39%) of O VI absorbers of log N(O VI) cm 2 = (12.5-13, 13-14, > 14) have T 5 K. Cross correlations between galaxies and strong [N(O VI) > 10 14 cm –2 ] O VI absorbers on ∼100-300 kpc scales are suggested as a potential differentiator between collisional ionization and photoionization models. Quantitative prediction is made for the presence of broad and shallow O VI lines that are largely missed by current observations but will be detectable by Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations. The reported 3σ upper limit on the mean column density of coincidental O VII lines at the location of detected O VI lines by Yao et al. is above our predicted value by a factor of 2.5-4. The claimed observational detection of O VII lines by Nicastro et al., if true, is 2σ above what our simulations predict.
Chiral models of low energy QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ripka, G.
1993-01-01
Two processes may be distinguished when a hadron propagates in a dense baryonic medium. The polarization of the medium and the change in the quark structure of the hadron. The polarization of the medium is better described in terms of colorless mesons and nucleons while the intrinsic change of the hadron is better described by quark models. It is shown how to couple the two processes. The scaling of effective Lagrangians, is related to changes in the quark constituent masses, based on the QCD scale anomaly. (author) 62 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, Fabio; Marquet, C.; Mueller, A.H.; Wu Bin; Xiao, Bo-Wen
2008-01-01
We compare medium induced energy loss and p perpendicular -broadening in perturbative QCD with that of the trailing string picture of SYM theory. We consider finite and infinite extent matter as well as relativistic heavy quarks which correspond to those being produced in the medium or external to it. When expressed in terms of the appropriate saturation momentum, we find identical parametric forms for energy loss in perturbative QCD and SYM theory. We find simple correspondences between p perpendicular -broadening in QCD and in SYM theory although p perpendicular -broadening is radiation dominated in SYM theory and multiple scattering dominated in perturbative QCD
2017-01-01
This edition is the ninth in a series of workshops that had been previously organised in Poland (2009), Slovakia (2010 and 2015), France (2011), Portugal (2012 and 2016) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013 and 2014). In the year 2017 the workshop goes to the beautiful Sintra near Lisbon, Portugal. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, new resonances, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-gluon plasma, holography, colour-glass condensate, compact stars, applications to astrophysics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kronfeld, Andreas
2005-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory describing the strong interactions of quarks bound inside hadrons. It is marvelous theory, which works (mathematically) at all distance scales. Indeed, for thirty years, theorists have known how to calculate short-distance properties of QCD, thanks to the (Nobel-worthy) idea of asymptotic freedom. More recently, numerical techniques applied to the strong-coupling regime of QCD have enabled us to compute long-distance bound-state properties. In this colloquium, we review these achievements and show how the new-found methods of calculation will influence high-energy physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingelman, Gunnar
1994-01-01
The traditional annual DESY Theory Workshop highlights a topical theory sector. The most recent was under the motto 'Quantum Chromo-Dynamics' - QCD, the field theory of quarks and gluons. The organizers had arranged a programme covering most aspects of current QCD research. This time the workshop was followed by a topical meeting on 'QCD at HERA' to look at the electron-proton scattering experiments now in operation at DESY's new HERA collider
Aurenche , P; Guillet , J.-Ph; Pilon , E
2016-01-01
3rd cycle; Ces notes sont une introduction à l'application de l'électrodynamique quantique (QED) et de la chromodynamiques quantique (QCD) aux réactions de diffusion à hautes énergies. Le premier thème abordé est celui des divergences ultraviolettes et de la renormalisation à une boucle, avec comme conséquence pour QCD la liberté asymptotique. Le deuxième thème est celui des divergences infrarouges et colinéaires qui dans QCD sont traitées dans le cadre du modèle des partons avec l'introducti...
QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, T.D.; Xuemin, J.
1994-12-01
Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, D.B.
1995-01-01
I give a brief and selective overview of QCD as it pertains to determining hadron structure, and the relevant directions in this field for nuclear theory. This document is intended to start discussion about priorities, not end it
Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C.A.
1987-02-01
The scalar (0 ++ ) and the tensor (2 ++ ) gluonium spectrum is analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules. Stable eigenvalue solutions, consistent with duality and low energy theorems, are obtained for the mass and width of these glueballs. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram
2016-04-01
We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, A.H.
1986-03-01
A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, Norman H
2000-01-01
The architecture and capabilities of the computers currently in use for large-scale lattice QCD calculations are described and compared. Based on this present experience, possible future directions are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1983-01-01
The varidity of the perturbation method in the high temperature QCD is discussed. The skeleton expansion method takes account of plasmon effects and eliminates the electric infrared singularity but not the magnetic one. A possibility of eliminating the latter, which was recently proposed, is examined by a gauge invariant skeleton expansion. The magnetic singularity is unable to be eliminated by the perturbation method. This implies that some non-perturbative approaches must be incorporated in the high temperature QCD. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neubert, Matthias
2001-01-01
The QCD factorization approach provides the theoretical basis for a systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes of B mesons in the heavy-quark limit. After recalling the basic ideas underlying this formalism, several tests of QCD factorization in the decays B→D (*) L, B→K * γ, and B→πK, ππ are discussed. It is then illustrated how factorization can be used to obtain new constraints on the parameters of the unitarity triangle
Schuster, Theodor
2013-01-01
We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivers, D.
1979-10-01
Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments
Skands, Peter
2011-01-01
These lectures are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as it is used in collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into four main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) perturbative QCD, ...
Bulk viscous corrections to screening and damping in QCD at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Qianqian [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Dumitru, Adrian [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY,17 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Guo, Yun [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Strickland, Michael [Department of Physics, Kent State University,206B Smith Hall, Kent, OH 44240 (United States)
2017-01-27
Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the “hard thermal loops” (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. The screening and damping mass scales are sensitive to the bulk pressure and hence to (pseudo-) critical dynamical scaling of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second-order critical point. This could be reflected in the properties of quarkonium bound states in the deconfined phase and in the dynamics of soft gluon fields.
Bulk viscous corrections to screening and damping in QCD at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Qianqian; Dumitru, Adrian; Guo, Yun; Strickland, Michael
2017-01-01
Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the “hard thermal loops” (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. The screening and damping mass scales are sensitive to the bulk pressure and hence to (pseudo-) critical dynamical scaling of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second-order critical point. This could be reflected in the properties of quarkonium bound states in the deconfined phase and in the dynamics of soft gluon fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roessner, Simon
2009-04-09
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roessner, Simon
2009-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
QCD machines - present and future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, N.H.
1991-01-01
The present status of the currently working and nearly working dedicated QCD machines is reviewed and proposals for future machines are discussed with particular emphasis on the QCD Teraflop Project in the US. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest
2016-06-01
We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lutz, Matthias F.M., E-mail: m.lutz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lange, Jens Sören, E-mail: Soeren.Lange@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Pennington, Michael, E-mail: michaelp@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bettoni, Diego [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Brambilla, Nora [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Crede, Volker [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Eidelman, Simon [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Budker Istitute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gillitzer, Albrecht [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lang, Christian B. [Institut für Physik, Universität Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Metag, Volker [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Nakano, Takashi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); and others
2016-04-15
We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting ‘Resonances in QCD’, which took place at GSI October 12–14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: • What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? • Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? • What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy–light and heavy–heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, L.P.; Zhang, P.M.; Pak, D.G.
2013-01-01
We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP 1 model in Euclidean space–time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space–time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP 1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satz, Helmut
1998-01-01
The aim of high energy nuclear collisions is to study strong interaction thermodynamics in the laboratory; we want to explore colour deconfinement and the resulting new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. Phenomenological models have done much to form the concepts of the field, but today QCD provides the theoretical basis for our understanding of hot and dense matter and for the tools to probe it. I will therefore begin by summarizing recent results from finite temperature lattice QCD and then turn to the study of colour deconfinement using hard probes; here the recently reported anomalous J/ψ suppression represents a particularly promising signal. Similarly, the observed low mass dilepton enhancement has focussed our attention on the properties of hadrons near chiral symmetry restoration. The hadrosynthesis at freeze-out is yet another region of much present activity to be addressed in the final part of this summary. All aspects were covered here in a variety of excellent plenary talks and contributions; I hope the speakers will forgive me for concentrating on the progress in physics as I see it, rather than on individual talks. The field of high energy nuclear collisions is very many-faceted, and moreover I had to select what I could coherently summarize in the given time. I therefore also apologize to all those whose contributions to this meeting are covered insufficiently or not at all. In particular, I shall review neither the developments in astrophysics nor the search for disoriented chiral condensates, simply because of my lack of competence in these areas. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC
2007-01-01
I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisovich, V.V.
1989-06-01
Using the language of the quarks and gluons for description of the soft hadron physics it is necessary to take into account two characteristic phenomena which prevent one from usage of QCD Lagrangian in the straightforward way, chiral symmetry breaking, and confinement of colour particles. The topics discussed in this context are: QCD in the domain of soft processes, phenomenological Lagrangian for soft processes and exotic mesons, spectroscopy of low-lying hadrons (mesons, baryons and mesons with heavy quarks - c,b -), confinement forces, spectral integration over quark masses. (author) 3 refs.; 19 figs.; 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindler, A.
2007-07-01
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansl-Kozanecka, T.
1992-01-01
The phenomenological aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) are examined which are relevant for lepton-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-hadron collisions. In deep inelastic scattering the virtual γ or W/Z is used as a probe of the nucleon structure. The strong coupling constant (α s ) measurements via deep inelastic scattering and e + e - annihilation are discussed. Parton-parton collisions (e.g., hard hadron-hadron collisions) are examined as the third regime for QCD tests. (K.A.) 122 refs., 84 figs., 4 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Introduction to finite temperature and finite density QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo
2014-01-01
It has been pointed out that QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in the circumstances of medium at finite temperature and density shows numbers of phenomena similar to the characteristics of solid state physics, e.g. phase transitions. In the past ten years, the very high temperature and density matter came to be observed experimentally at the heavy ion collisions. At the same time, the numerical QCD analysis at finite temperature and density attained quantitative level analysis possible owing to the remarkable progress of computers. In this summer school lecture, it has been set out to give not only the recent results, but also the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, the fundamental theory of finite temperature and further expositions as in the following four sections. The first section is titled as 'Introduction to Finite Temperature and Density QCD' with subsections of 1.1 standard model and QCD, 1.2 phase transition and phase structure of QCD, 1.3 lattice QCD and thermodynamic quantity, 1.4 heavy ion collision experiments, and 1.5 neutron stars. The second one is 'Equilibrium State' with subsections of 2.1 chiral symmetry, 2.2 vacuum state: BCS theory, 2.3 NJL (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model, and 2.4 color superconductivity. The third one is 'Static fluctuations' with subsections of 3.1 fluctuations, 3.2 moment and cumulant, 3.3 increase of fluctuations at critical points, 3.4 analysis of fluctuations by lattice QCD and Taylor expansion, and 3.5 experimental exploration of QCD phase structure. The fourth one is 'Dynamical Structure' with 4.1 linear response theory, 4.2 spectral functions, 4.3 Matsubara function, and 4.4 analyses of dynamical structure by lattice QCD. (S. Funahashi)
Nonperturbative QCD and quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E V [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook (United States)
2002-09-15
This is a brief written version of 5 lectures made at 2001 ICTP Summer School on High Energy Physics in Trieste. The lectures provide an overview of what we have learned about QCD vacuum, hadrons and hot / dense hadronic matter during the last 2 decades. Last two lectures contain discussion of heavy ion physics. We focus on the first surprising results from new heavy ion collider, RHIC, as well as recent development toward understanding of the old problem of 'soft pomeron' in high energy hadronic collisions and its connection to new heavy ion data. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.
2015-02-26
This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konishi, K.
1980-01-01
The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)
Stirling, William James
1991-12-01
1. Some basic theory. 2. Two important applications: - e+ e- annihilation (LEPSLS) ; deep inelastic scattering (HERA). 3. Other applications..., large Pt jets, W and Z, heavy quark production..., (pp- colliders). In this lecture: some basic theory. 1. QCD as a non abelian gauge field theory. 2. Asymptotic freedom. 3. Beyond leading order - renormalisation schemes. 4. MS.
Renormalization of Hamiltonian QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrasi, A.; Taylor, John C.
2009-01-01
We study to one-loop order the renormalization of QCD in the Coulomb gauge using the Hamiltonian formalism. Divergences occur which might require counter-terms outside the Hamiltonian formalism, but they can be cancelled by a redefinition of the Yang-Mills electric field.
Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD
Gupta, R.
2005-08-01
This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furmanski, W.
1981-08-01
The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahill, R.T.
1992-01-01
A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ρ, ω, .., anti N, N, ..], from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[anti q, q, A μ a ]. This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling. (orig.)
Observables of QCD diffraction
Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto
2017-03-01
A new combinatorial vector space measurement model is introduced for soft QCD diffraction. The model independent mathematical construction resolves experimental complications; the theoretical framework of the approach includes the Good-Walker view of diffraction, Regge phenomenology together with AGK cutting rules and random fluctuations.
Metzger, W.J.
2003-01-01
Several preliminary QCD results from e+e- interactions at LEP are reported. These include studies of event shape variables, which are used to determine alpha_s and for studies of the validity of power corrections. Further, a study of color reconnection effects in 3-jet Z decays is reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nathan Isgur
1997-01-01
The author presents an idiosyncratic view of baryons which calls for a marriage between quark-based and hadronic models of QCD. He advocates a treatment based on valence quark plus glue dominance of hadron structure, with the sea of q pairs (in the form of virtual hadron pairs) as important corrections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S
2003-11-19
Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.
Parton fragmentation in the vacuum and in the medium
Albino, S.; Arleo, F.; Besson, Dave Z.; Brooks, William K.; Buschbeck, B.; Cacciari, M.; Christova, E.; Corcella, G.; D'Enterria, David G.; Dolejsi, Jiri; Domdey, S.; Estienne, M.; Hamacher, Klaus; Heinz, M.; Hicks, K.; Kettler, D.; Kumano, S.; Moch, S.O.; Muccifora, V.; Pacetti, S.; Perez-Ramos, R.; Pirner, H.J.; Pronko, Alexandre Pavlovich; Radici, M.; Rak, J.; Roland, C.; Rudolph, Gerald; Rurikova, Z.; Salgado, C.A.; Sapeta, S.; Saxon, David H.; Seidl, Ralf-Christian; Seuster, R.; Stratmann, M.; Tannenbaum, Michael J.; Tasevsky, M.; Trainor, T.; Traynor, D.; Werlen, M.; Zhou, C.
2008-01-01
We present the mini-proceedings of the workshop on ``Parton fragmentation in the vacuum and in the medium'' held at the European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*, Trento) in February 2008. The workshop gathered both theorists and experimentalists to discuss the current status of investigations of quark and gluon fragmentation into hadrons at different accelerator facilities (LEP, B-factories, JLab, HERA, RHIC, and Tevatron) as well as preparations for extension of these studies at the LHC. The main physics topics covered were: (i) light-quark and gluon fragmentation in the vacuum including theoretical (global fits analyses and MLLA) and experimental (data from e+e-, p-p, e-p collisions) aspects, (ii) strange and heavy-quark fragmentation, (iii) parton fragmentation in cold QCD matter (nuclear DIS), and (iv) medium-modified fragmentation in hot and dense QCD matter (high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions). These mini-proceedings consist of an introduction and short summ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacs, E.
1996-02-01
We present results for the inclusive jet cross section and the dijet mass distribution. The inclusive cross section and dijet mass both exhibit significant deviations from the predictions of NLO QCD for jets with E T >200 GeV, or dijet masses > 400 GeV/c 2 . We show that it is possible, within a global QCD analysis that includes the CDF inclusive jet data, to modify the gluon distribution at high x. The resulting increase in the jet cross-section predictions is 25-35%. Owing to the presence of k T smearing effects, the direct photon data does not provide as strong a constraint on the gluon distribution as previously thought. A comparison of the CDF and UA2 jet data, which have a common range in x, is plagued by theoretical and experimental uncertainties, and cannot at present confirm the CDF excess or the modified gluon distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
Axions as hot and cold dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa
2013-10-01
The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f a 10 ) GeV, if they are produced by the saxion decay and the domain wall annihilation. We also investigate the cases of thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nachtmann, O.
1992-01-01
The modern theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), where quarks and gluons carrying the 'colour' quantum number play the essential role, is twenty years old. This birthday was duly celebrated at RWTH Aachen from 9-13 June, where recurring themes were - what has been achieved in the past twenty years?, where do we stand?, and what are the perspectives for the future?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1996-10-01
New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.
1980-01-01
Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)
Skands, Peter
2012-01-01
These lectures were originally given at TASI and are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), focusing on collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into five main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) fixed-order pertu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gottlieb, S.
1992-01-01
Increased computer power is essential for future progress in lattice gauge theory and for other Grand challenge applications. We address the physics that can be done with a computer capable of sustaining 1 Teraflops for QCD and the technology that will make it possible to construct such a computer within the next three years. Our collaboration has proposed to build a computer based on the Thinking Machines CM5 communication network, but with nodes 10 times faster
QCD: Renormalization for the practitioner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascual, P.; Tarrach, R.
1984-01-01
These notes correspond to a GIFT (Grupo Interuniversitario de Fisica Teorica) course which was given by us in autumn 1983 at the University of Barcelona. Their main subject is renormalization in perturbative QCD and only the last chapter goes beyond perturbation theory. They are essentially self contained and their aim is to teach the student the techniques of perturbative QCD and the QCD sum rules. (orig./HSI)
Experimental application of QCD antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobrovskyi, Sergei
2010-02-01
A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)
Meyer, C; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of underlying event and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for high transverse momentum photons test theoretical predictions of perturbative QCD and constrain parton density functions. An overview of these results is given.
Experimental application of QCD antennas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobrovskyi, Sergei
2010-02-15
A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)
Renormalization of Extended QCD2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo
2015-01-01
Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N c , to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region
Hadron structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Andreas
2008-01-01
Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins
2011-08-12
I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of
QCD: Questions, challenges, and dilemmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.
1996-11-01
An introduction to some outstanding issues in QCD is presented, with emphasis on work by Diakonov and co-workers on the influence of the instanton vacuum on low-energy QCD observables. This includes the calculation of input valence-parton distributions for deep-inelastic scattering. 35 refs., 3 figs
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.
Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2007
Rolandi, Gigi
2007-01-01
More than 90 speakers gave a presentation at this years Moriond QCD conference and more than 60 talks reported the experimental status and perspectives on Standard Model, especially QCD, search for new physics, quark spectroscopy and Heavy Ions physics. I summarize what I consider the highlights of these presentations.
Nuclear properties from perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.; Roberts, R.G.; Ross, G.G.
1986-01-01
Two apparently different descriptions of quark distributions in a nucleus may in fact be connected. A ''duality'' between the QCD approach and the conventional model of nucleon binding leads to nuclear properties being simply related to the anomalous dimensions of QCD. (orig.)
Quarklei: nuclear physics from QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, T.
1985-01-01
The difficulties posed for nuclear physics by either recognizing or ignoring QCD, are discussed. A QCD model for nuclei is described. A crude approximation is shown to qualitatively reproduce saturation of nuclear binding energies and the EMC effect. The model is applied seriously to small nuclei, and to hypernuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S.
2004-11-30
In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonoda, Hidenori
1992-01-01
We give a formula for the derivatives of a correlation function of composite operators with respect to the parameters (i.e. the strong fine structure constant and the quark mass) of QCD in four- dimensional euclidean space. The formula is given as spatial integration of the operator conjugate to a parameter. The operator product of a composite operator and a conjugate operator has an unintegrable part, and the formula requires divergent subtractions. By imposing consistency conditions we drive a relation between the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators and the unintegrable part of the operator product coefficients. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reya, E.
1982-01-01
The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)
QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, T D [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Furnstahl, R J [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Griegel, D K [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Xuemin, J
1994-12-01
Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author). 153 refs., 8 figs.
The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color
Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration
2015-10-01
The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.
In-medium properties of pseudoscalar D_s and B_s mesons
Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind
2017-11-01
We calculate the shift in the masses and decay constants of D_s(1968) and B_s(5370) mesons in hot and dense asymmetric strange hadronic matter using QCD sum rules and chiral SU(3) model. In-medium strange quark condensates _{ρ _B}, and gluon condensates _{ρ _B}, to be used in the QCD sum rules for pseudoscalar D_s and B_s mesons, are calculated using a chiral SU(3) model. As an application of our present work, we calculate the in-medium decay widths of the excited (c\\bar{s}) states D_s^*(2715) and D_s^*(2860) decaying to (D_s(1968),η ) mesons. The medium effects in their decay widths are incorporated through the mass modification of the D_s(1968) and η mesons. The results of the present investigation may be helpful in understanding the possible outcomes of the future experiments like CBM and PANDA under the FAIR facility.
In-medium properties of pseudoscalar D{sub s} and B{sub s} mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind [Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar, Department of Physics, Jalandhar, Punjab (India)
2017-11-15
We calculate the shift in the masses and decay constants of D{sub s}(1968) and B{sub s}(5370) mesons in hot and dense asymmetric strange hadronic matter using QCD sum rules and chiral SU(3) model. In-medium strange quark condensates left angle anti ss right angle {sub ρB}, and gluon condensates left angle (α{sub s})/(π)G{sup a}{sub μν}G{sup aμν} right angle {sub ρB}, to be used in the QCD sum rules for pseudoscalar D{sub s} and B{sub s} mesons, are calculated using a chiral SU(3) model. As an application of our present work, we calculate the in-medium decay widths of the excited (c anti s) states D{sub s}{sup *}(2715) and D{sub s}{sup *}(2860) decaying to (D{sub s}(1968), η) mesons. The medium effects in their decay widths are incorporated through the mass modification of the D{sub s}(1968) and η mesons. The results of the present investigation may be helpful in understanding the possible outcomes of the future experiments like CBM and PANDA under the FAIR facility. (orig.)
Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.
Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun
2018-03-01
The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Kramer, G.
2010-12-01
The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-12-15
The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G
2007-01-01
The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Honarvar
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Drying of a cylindrical sample in a fluidized bed dryer containing inert particles was studied. For this purpose, a pilot-scaled fluidized bed dryer was constructed in which two different heat sources, hot air and infrared radiation were applied, and pieces of carrot were chosen as test samples. The heat transfer coefficient for cylindrical objects in a fluidized bed was also measured. The heat absorption coefficient for carrot was studied. The absorption coefficient can be computed by dividing the absorbed heat by the carrot to the heat absorbed for the water and black ink. In this regard, absorbed heat values by the carrot, water and black ink were used A mathematical model was proposed based on the mass and heat transfer phenomena within the drying sample. The results obtained by the proposed model were in favorable agreement with the experimental data.
Heavy flavor production in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyer, P.
1989-01-01
In this paper a brief survey is given of the status of heavy quark hadroproduction in QCD. The next-to-leading order calculation allows an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties to be made. They are manageable for top, but considerable for charm. The data on charm continues to show an excess of events at large x F , compared to QCD expectations. This may be linked to the measured anomalous A-dependence of the cross section on nuclear targets, also present at large x F . QCD models for the diffractive production of heavy quarks remain to be tested experimentally
Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannibal, Sara Stefansen
2016-01-01
HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2006-04-01
As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.
1979-01-01
An overview of QCD is given, and some of the dynamical issues that arise in attempts to solve this theory are discussed. In particular, attention is focused on the problems that appear in attempts to discuss the structure of low-lying hadrons, e.g. nucleons, on the basis of a color gauge theory of quarks. The picture of hadronic structure developed by Callan, Dashen, and Gross is reviewed; this picture maintains that it presents the qualitative features of hadronic structure emerging in a direct way from first principles. Finally, the relevance of the emerging understanding of the structure of hadrons to the question of what hadronic matter (nuclear or quark matter) might look like at high densities is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Omar, A.; Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.
1997-01-01
Part 1 of this work presents a revision of the general characteristics of the so called dynamic materials model on which processing maps are developed. In this part following the methodology described in part 1, processing maps of a microalloyed medium carbon steel are developed over a temperature range varying from 900 to 1.150 degree centigree at different true strain rates ranging from 10''-4 to 10s''-1. The analysis of these maps revealed a domain of dynamic recrystallization centred at about 1.1.50 degree centigree and strain rate 10 s''-1 and a domain of dynamic recovery centred at 900 degree centigree and 0,1 s''-1. (Author) 20 refs
International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014
Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis
2014-01-01
Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...
A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.; Katz, S.D.; Pappa, G.
2003-01-01
A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered (wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop
A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.
2002-09-01
A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negele, J.W.
1993-01-01
Architectural enhancements are described to increase the performance of the arithmetic accelerator and memory of the nodes in the CM-5 for QCD and a broad range of general problems while maintaining compatibility with existing software, compilers, communications network and I/O subsystems. A factor of 10 increase in performance is obtained by increasing the number of floating point processors by a factor of 4, extending the vector instruction set for dual execution of single-precision arithmetic, and increasing the clock rate from 32 to 40 MHz. The required memory bandwidth is obtained by using synchronous DRAMs and 4 floating point processors are packaged into a multichip module which occupies the same area as a present processor package. The proposed 2048 node machine will provide 2.6 Teraflops peak, 0.5 - 1.5 Teraflops sustained on lattices of 32 2 x 64 - 128 3 x 256, will have 256 Gigabytes of memory, 1 Terabyte of disk, an estimated cost of approximately $40 million, and can be built in 2.5 years. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2016-11-14
We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.
How Does the Medium Affect the Message?
Dommermuth, William P.
1974-01-01
This experimental comparison of the advertising effectiveness of television, movies, radio, and print finds no support for McLuhan's idea that television is a "cool" medium and movies are a "hot" medium. (RB)
Jets in QCD Media: Onset of Color Decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehtar-Tani, Y.; Salgado, C.A.; Tywoniuk, K.
2011-01-01
We report on recent studies of the phenomenon of color decoherence of jets in QCD media. The effect is most clearly observed in the radiation pattern of a quark-antiquark antenna, created in the same quantum state, traversing a dense color deconfined plasma. Multiple scattering with the medium color charges gradually destroys the coherence of the antenna. In the limit of opaque media this ultimately leads to independent radiation off the antenna constituents. Accordingly, radiation off the total charge vanishes implying a memory loss effect induced by the medium. (authors)
QCD evolution equations for high energy partons in nuclear matter
Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Geiger, Klaus; Mueller, Berndt
1994-01-01
We derive a generalized form of Altarelli-Parisi equations to decribe the time evolution of parton distributions in a nuclear medium. In the framework of the leading logarithmic approximation, we obtain a set of coupled integro- differential equations for the parton distribution functions and equations for the virtuality (``age'') distribution of partons. In addition to parton branching processes, we take into account fusion and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in medium. Detailed balance between gain and loss terms in the resulting evolution equations correctly accounts for both real and virtual contributions which yields a natural cancellation of infrared divergences.
Weak-interacting holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.
2008-06-01
We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)
Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caprini, Irinel
2002-01-01
We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and collider physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.K.; Stirling, W.J.
1990-01-01
This report discusses: fundamentals of perturbative QCD; QCD in e + e - → hadrons; deep inelastic scattering and parton distributions; the QCD parton model in hadron-hadron collisions; large p T jet production in hadron-hadron collisions; the production of vector bosons in hadronic collisions; and the production of heavy quarks
Theoretical summary talk of QCD 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, Rahul
2003-01-01
This is a summary of the talks on QCD, not including QCD at finite temperature or density (which are discussed elsewhere) presented at the QCD 2002 meeting held at IIT, Kanpur. I have attempted to give only an overview of the talks since the details may be found in the individual contributions. (author)
Modeling the thermodynamics of QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hell, Thomas
2010-07-26
Strongly interacting (QCD) matter is expected to exhibit a multifaceted phase structure: a hadron gas at low temperatures, a quark-gluon plasma at very high temperatures, nuclear matter in the low-temperature and high-density region, color superconductors at asymptotically high densities. Most of the conjectured phases cannot yet be scrutinized by experiments. Much of the present picture - particularly concerning the intermediate temperature and density area of the phase diagram of QCD matter - is based on model calculations. Further insights come from Lattice-QCD computations. The present thesis elaborates a nonlocal covariant extension of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with built-in constraints from the running coupling of QCD at high-momentum and instanton physics at low-momentum scales. We present this model for two and three quark flavors (in the latter case paying particular attention to the axial anomaly). At finite temperatures and densities, gluon dynamics is incorporated through a gluonic background field, expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop (P). The thermodynamics of this nonlocal PNJL model accounts for both chiral and deconfinement transitions. We obtain results in mean-field approximation and beyond, including additional pionic and kaonic contributions to the chiral condensate, the pressure and other thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the nonlocal PNJL model is applied to the finite-density region of the QCD phase diagram; for three quark flavors we investigate, in particular, the dependence of the critical point appearing in the models on the axial anomaly. The thesis closes with a derivation of the nonlocal PNJL model from first principles of QCD. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, J.C.
1990-01-01
In this paper we report recent QCD analysis with the new data taken from CDF detector. CDF recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.4 nb -1 during the 1988--1989 run at center of mass system (CMS) energy of 1.8 TeV. The major topics of this report are inclusive jet, dijet, trijet and direct photon analysis. These measurements are compared of QCD predictions. For the inclusive jet an dijet analysis, tests of quark compositeness are emphasized. 11 refs., 6 figs
The supercritical pomeron in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A. R.
1998-01-01
Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron, suggesting a single gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This talk outlines a derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, confining solution of QCD. The pomeron, in first approximation, is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory
Simulating QCD at finite density
de Forcrand, Philippe
2009-01-01
In this review, I recall the nature and the inevitability of the "sign problem" which plagues attempts to simulate lattice QCD at finite baryon density. I present the main approaches used to circumvent the sign problem at small chemical potential. I sketch how one can predict analytically the severity of the sign problem, as well as the numerically accessible range of baryon densities. I review progress towards the determination of the pseudo-critical temperature T_c(mu), and towards the identification of a possible QCD critical point. Some promising advances with non-standard approaches are reviewed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1980-07-01
The idea that quantum chromodynamics is Nature's choice for the theory of quark interactions and that desirable phenomena, such as quark confinement, are consequences of it are considered. The lecture is presented under the headings: (1) Why do we believe that quarks have colour. (2) A rapid summary of the parton model in deep inelastic scattering. (3) Non Abelian theories: the vertices. (4) Hyperfine splitting of hadrons: more evidence for colour. (5) Renormalisation. (6) Alpha(Q 2 ). (7) The renormalisation group equations. (8) QCD, the renormalisation group equation and deep inelastic data. (9) Higher order corrections in QCD. (U.K.)
Neutron star structure from QCD
Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-01-01
In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.
1982-01-01
In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range
Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukawa, Akira
2006-01-01
A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years
Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD
Briceño, R. A.
2016-11-01
The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.
Archeology and evolution of QCD
De Rújula, A.
2017-01-01
These are excerpts from the closing talk at the "XIIth Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum", which took place last Summer in Thessaloniki --an excellent place to enjoy an interest in archeology. A more complete personal view of the early days of QCD and the rest of the Standard Model is given in [1]. Here I discuss a few of the points which --to my judgement-- illustrate well the QCD evolution (in time), both from a scientific and a sociological point of view.
The dual description of long-distance QCD (Dual QCD)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, M.
1990-01-01
We construct and solve a local field theory which describes in terms of dual variables a system having an A μ propagator behaving like M 2 /q 4 in the infrared and discuss how this theory can be used as a starting point for describing long-distance QCD. 3 refs
Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas A.
2016-01-01
order by order in $\\Delta_f$. We then compute $\\gamma_*$ through $O(\\Delta_f^2)$ for supersymmetric QCD in the $\\overline{\\text{DR}}$ scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that $\\gamma_*$ is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level...
Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, K.F.; Dong, S.J.; Draper, T.; Sloan, J.; Leinweber, D.; Woloshyn, R.M.
1999-01-01
A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the Z graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new 'valence QCD' Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., F A /D A and F S /D S ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the Δ become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The π and ρ become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the C, P, T symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a U(2N F ) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to U q (N F )xU bar q (N F ). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate U q (2N F )xU bar q (2N F ) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of N, Δ,ρ,π,a 1 , and a 0 all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the disappearance of the 'constituent' quark mass which is dynamically generated through tadpole diagrams. The origin of the hyperfine splitting in the baryon is
Resumming Long-Distance Contributions to the QCD Pressure
Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, K; Schröder, Y
2001-01-01
The strict coupling constant expansion for the free energy of hot QCD plasma shows bad convergence at all reasonable temperatures, and does not agree well with its 4d lattice determination. This has recently lead to various refined resummations, whereby the agreement with the lattice result should improve, at the cost of a loss of a formal agreement with the coupling constant expansion and particularly with its large infrared sensitive ``long-distance'' contributions. We show here how to resum the dominant long-distance effects by using a 3d effective field theory, and determine their magnitude by simple lattice Monte Carlo simulations.
Experimental tests of the QCD symmetries with heavy-ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onderwaater, Jacobus [Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgrabenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration
2015-07-01
Not long after the discovery of parity violation in weak interactions it was realized that parity violation is not prohibited in strong interactions. Although experimental results put a very small upper limit on the amount of global parity violation, no such strong restrictions exist on spontaneous occurance of local parity symmetry breaking interactions in the QCD vacuum. It was suggested that local parity violating interactions in combination with the strong magnetic field in a heavy-ion collision may result in novel phenomena like the Chiral Magnetic Effect and the Chiral Separation Effect that survive during the evolution of the hot and dense medium and can be observed via charge-dependent correlations. Charge-dependent effects are observed at RHIC and LHC but may contain contributions from different sources, such as local charge conservation. In this report an overview of recent charge-dependent measurements with the ALICE detector is presented. Two particle correlations with respect to the event plane with one identified hadron, and two- and three-particles correlations with unidentified hadrons from Pb-Pb at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV are discussed.
Fate of ZN domain wall in hot holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yee, Ho-Ung
2009-01-01
We first study Z N -domain walls in a deconfined phase of Witten's D4-brane background of pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, motivated by a recent work in the case of N = 4 SYM. Similarly to it, we propose that for a large domain wall charge k ∼ N, it is described by k D2-branes blown up into a NS5-brane wrapping S 3 inside S 4 via Myers effect, and we calculate the tension by suitable U-duality. We find a precise Casimir scaling for the tension formula. We then study the fate of Z N -vacua in a presence of fundamental flavors in quenched approximation via gauge/gravity correspondence. In the case of D3/D7 system where one can vary the mass m q of flavors, we show that there is a phase transition at T c ∼ m q , below which the Z N -vacua survive while they are lifted above the critical temperature. We analytically calculate the energy lift of k'th vacua in the massless case, both in the D3/D7 system and in the Sakai-Sugimoto model. (author)
Resummation and the gluon damping rate in hot QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1990-08-01
At high temperature a consistent perturbative expansion requires the resummation of an infinite subset of loop corrections into an effective expansion. This effective exansion is used to compute the gluon damping rate at leading order. 25 refs
Spatial 't Hooft loop to cubic order in hot QCD
Giovannangeli, P.
2002-01-01
Spatial 't Hooft loops of strength k measure the qualitative change in the behaviour of electric colour flux in confined and deconfined phase of SU (N) gauge theory. They show an area law in the deconfined phase, known analytica lly to two loop order with a ``k-scaling'' law k(N-k). In this paper we comput e the O(g^3) correction to the tension. It is due to neutral gluon fields that get their mass through interaction with the wall. The simple k-scaling is lost in cubic order. The generic problem of non-convexity shows up in this order an d the cure is provided. The result for large N is explicitely given. We show tha t nonperturbative effects appear at O(g^5).
Playing with QCD I: effective field theories. Fourth lecture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraga, Eduardo S.
2009-01-01
Lattice QCD is just starting to explore the finite density region, still far away from the high-density low-temperature sector. pQCD at finite density seems to provide sensible results, even for not so large values of μ. Mass and gap effects provide important contributions to the EoS near the critical region. The phase diagram can be very rich in the high-μ sector, with different possibilities for pairing and color superconductivity. Astrophysical measurements are becoming increasingly precise, and will start killing models soon. Some signatures (for strange, quark or hybrid neutron stars) are still very similar, though. The interior of compact stars is a very rich and intricate medium, which may contain all sorts of condensates as well as deconfined quark matter. (author)
QCD Jets and particle correlations in heavy-ion collisions
Nguyen, Matthew
2017-01-01
Measurements of jets and particle correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are intended to probe QCD interactions in the high temperature phase, where matter is understood to behave as a quark-gluon plasma. Two probes are reviewed: jets which are used to study the energy loss of hard-scattered partons in this medium and particle correlations which are used to understand collective effects of the bulk matter. Whereas collisions of lighter systems, namely proton-ion and proton-proton, initially served primarily as control experiments, certain (but not all) effects first observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions have proven to be pervasive in these systems. Comparative measurements in these three systems have broadened our understanding of many-body QCD phenomena, and raised new questions. This talk reviewed these recent developments.
AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lo Presti, P.
1998-07-01
This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.
AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo Presti, P.
1998-07-01
This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments
Basics of QCD perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soper, D.E.
1997-01-01
This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs
Current issues in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliffe, I.
1994-12-01
This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets
New results in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.K.
1986-01-01
Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: 1. (2 → 2) jet phenomena calculated in O(αs 3 ). 2. New techniques for the calculation of tree graphs. 3. Color coherence in jet phenomena. 31 references, 6 figures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moch, S
2008-02-15
We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moch, S.
2008-02-01
We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W ± /Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)
Seven topics in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buras, A.J.
1980-09-01
The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e + e - annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics
Reggeon interactions in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirschner, R.
1994-08-01
We study the pairwise interaction of reggeized gluons and quarks in the Regge limit of perturbative QCD. The interactions are represented as integral kernels in the transverse momentum space and as operators in the impact parameter space. We observe conformal symmetry and holomorphic factorization in all cases. (orig.)
LHC physics: challenges for QCD
Frixione, S.
2003-01-01
I review the status of the comparisons between a few measurements at hadronic colliders and perturbative QCD predictions, which emphasize the need for improving the current computations. Such improvements will be mandatory for a satisfactory understanding of high-energy collisions at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woloshyn, R.M.
1988-03-01
The basic concepts of the Lagrangian formulation of lattice field theory are discussed. The Wilson and staggered schemes for dealing with fermions on the lattice are described. Some recent results for hadron masses and vector and axial vector current matrix elements in lattice QCD are reviewed. (Author) (118 refs., 16 figs.)
Basics of QCD perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science
1997-06-01
This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.
Two flavor QCD and Confinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio
2005-01-01
We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...
Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafson, G.
1992-03-01
Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions
Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trueman, T.L.
1979-04-01
The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preparata, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper the necessity of going beyond Quantum chromodynamics is argued, and a new theory of Isotropic Chromodynamics (ICD) is introduced. The basic theoretical notions behind QCD--quarks, colors, and gauge theory are retained, but the conclusion that QCD must be the theory of hadrions is questioned. Two points of QCD are reviewed, gluons (including glueballs), and asymptotic freedom. It is suggested that much of this theory is wishful thinking. Beyond QCD, aspects which are puzzling in hadrodynamics are well understood in two-dimensional gauge theories (confinement, freedom at short distances etc). Anisotropic chromodynamics is proposed in the attempt to conjugate the basic pillars of hadrodynamics with the peculiar characteristics of two-dimensional gauge dynamics. In order to construct a gauge dynamics for the color field which is isomorphic to a two-dimensional gauge-theory base space must be enlarged to a seven dimension space-time structure, to be called Anisotropic Space-Time (AST). The ideas and present achievements of ICD are then reviewed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriyasu, K.
1981-01-01
A basic primer for QCD is presented using a semiclassical approach to the colour Maxwell equations. The non-Abelian nature of colour symmetry and the violation of superposition by colour fields is compared with QED. A simple discussion of asymptotic freedom is also presented. (author)
Dual QCD thermodynamics and quark–gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandola, H.C.; Punetha, Garima; Dehnen, H.
2016-01-01
Using grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of dual QCD based on magnetic symmetry has been presented and analyzed for the quark–gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD based bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function, the energy density and plasma pressure have been derived and used to compute the critical temperatures for QGP–hadron phase transition along with its dynamics. A comparison of the values of critical temperatures for QGP–hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to either the relaxation of the system via a mixed phase of QGP and hot hadron gas or go through a crossover. The associated profiles of the normalized energy density and specific heat have been shown to lead to a large latent heat generation and indicate the onset of a first-order QGP phase transition which turns into a rapid crossover for the case of temperature dependent bag parameter. The squared speed of sound has been shown to act as a physical measure of large thermodynamical fluctuations near transition point. The possible implications of trace anomaly and conformal measure on QGP formation have also been discussed.
Axions as hot and cold dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS
2013-10-15
The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3{sigma} by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}
Fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD using closed-time path integral formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayak, Gouranga C.
2009-01-01
In this paper we implement the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD in accordance to the definition of the Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high-p T parton in QCD medium at initial time τ 0 with an arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(vector (p)) fragmenting to a hadron. We formulate the parton-to-hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final-state interactions with the medium via a modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to the study of hadron production from a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henriette Romme
Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henriette
Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henriette Romme
En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....
Kim, Seyong; Petreczky, Peter; Rothkopf, Alexander
2015-03-01
We investigate the properties of S - and P -wave bottomonium states in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition temperature. The light degrees of freedom are represented by dynamical lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) configurations of the HotQCD collaboration with Nf=2 +1 flavors. Bottomonium correlators are obtained from bottom quark propagators, computed in nonrelativistic QCD under the background of these gauge field configurations. The spectral functions for the 3S1 (ϒ ) and 3P1 (χb 1) channel are extracted from the Euclidean time correlators using a novel Bayesian approach in the temperature region 140 MeV ≤T ≤249 MeV and the results are contrasted to those from the standard maximum entropy method. We find that the new Bayesian approach is far superior to the maximum entropy method. It enables us to study reliably the presence or absence of the lowest state signal in the spectral function of a certain channel, even under the limitations present in the finite temperature setup. We find that χb 1 survives up to T =249 MeV , the highest temperature considered in our study, and put stringent constraints on the size of the medium modification of ϒ and χb 1 states.
Analytic solutions of QCD evolution equations for parton cascades inside nuclear matter at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geiger, K.
1994-01-01
An analytical method is presented to solve generalized QCD evolution equations for the time development of parton cascades in a nuclear environment. In addition to the usual parton branching processes in vacuum, these evolution equations provide a consistent description of interactions with the nuclear medium by accounting for stimulated branching processes, fusion, and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in a medium. Closed solutions for the spectra of produced partons with respect to the variables time, longitudinal momentum, and virtuality are obtained under some idealizing assumptions about the composition of the nuclear medium. Several characteristic features of the resulting parton distributions are discussed. One of the main conclusions is that the evolution of a parton shower in a medium is dilated as compared to free space and is accompanied by an enhancement of particle production. These effects become stronger with increasing nuclear density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, R.
1990-01-01
In this talk I give a brief introduction to the standard model of particle interactions and illustrate why analytical methods fail to solve QCD. I then give some details of our implementation of the high performance QCD code on the CM2 and highlight the important lessons learned. The sustained speed of the code at the time of this conference is 5.2 Gigaflops (scaled to a full 64K machine). Since this is a conference dedicated to computing in the 21st century, I will tailor my expectations (somewhat idiosyncratic) of the physics objectives to reflect what we will be able to do in 10 years time, extrapolating from where we stand today. This work is being done under a joint LANL-TMC collaboration consisting of C. Baillie, R. Brickner, D. Daniel, G. Kilcup, L. Johnson, A. Patel. S. Sharpe and myself. 5 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1992-09-01
The quantization of gauge theory at fixed light-cone time τ = t - z/c provides new perspectives for solving non-perturbative problems in quantum chromodynamics. The light-cone Fock state expansion provides both a precise definition of the relativistic wavefunctions of hadrons as bound-states of quarks and gluons and a general calculus for predicting QCD processes at the amplitude level. Applications to exclusive processes and weak decay amplitudes are discussed. The problem of computing the hadronic spectrum and the corresponding light-cone wavefunctions of QCD in one space and one time dimension has been successfully reduced to the diagonalization of a discrete representation of the light-cone Hamiltonian. The problems confronting the solution of gauge theories in 3 + 1 dimensions in the light-cone quantization formalism,, including zero modes and non-perturbative renormalization, are reviewed
Innovations in lattice QCD algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orginos, Konstantinos
2006-01-01
Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today
Baryon physics in holographic QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Pomarol
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In a simple holographic model for QCD in which the Chern–Simons term is incorporated to take into account the QCD chiral anomaly, we show that baryons arise as stable solitons which are the 5D analogs of 4D skyrmions. Contrary to 4D skyrmions and previously considered holographic scenarios, these solitons have sizes larger than the inverse cut-off of the model, and therefore they are predictable within our effective field theory approach. We perform a numerical determination of several static properties of the nucleons and find a satisfactory agreement with data. We also calculate the amplitudes of “anomalous” processes induced by the Chern–Simons term in the meson sector, such as ω→πγ and ω→3π. A combined fit to baryonic and mesonic observables leads to an agreement with experiments within 16%.
Testing QCD with current algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leutwyler, H.
1984-01-01
Spontaneously broken chiral symmetry fixes the low energy structure of QCD to a large extent. I show how to determine the Green's functions to first nonleading order in a simultaneous expansion in powers of the momenta and of the u- and d-quark masses. In particular, I discuss the corrections of order M π 2 to the low energy theorems for ππ scattering. 19 refs., 1 tab. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrand, T.
1997-01-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, Rainer
2014-02-01
The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.
The status of perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.K.
1988-10-01
The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant α/sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davier, M.
1999-12-01
Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinter, Simon
2012-11-13
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.
2007-01-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davier, M
1999-12-01
Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinter, Simon
2012-01-01
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2014-02-15
The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.
QCD contributions to vacuum polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinders, L.J.; Rubinstein, H.R.; Yazaki, S.
1980-01-01
We have computed to lowest non-trivial order the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization from all currents up to and including spin 2 ++ . These expressions are important, for example to evaluate QCD sum rules for heavy and light quark systems as shown by Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. Most of the known ones are verified, one slightly changed, and many new ones are displayed. (orig.)
Perturbative QCD at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altherr, T.
1989-03-01
We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks
Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.
1991-01-01
The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable
Narison, Stephan
2007-07-01
About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD
Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruber, Florian
2012-08-20
Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.
Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruber, Florian
2012-01-01
Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.
Volume dependence of light hadron masses in full lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orth, B.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K
2004-03-01
The aim of the GRAL project is to simulate full QCD with standard Wilson fermions at light quark masses on small to medium-sized lattices and to obtain infinite-volume results by extrapolation. In order to establish the functional form of the volume dependence we study systematically the finite-size effects in the light hadron spectrum. We give an update on the status of the GRAL project and show that our simulation data for the light hadron masses depend exponentially on the lattice size.
What do QCD sum rules tell us about dense matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, T.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA
1995-01-01
The QCD sum rule approach to the properties of hadrons in both the vacuum and in nuclear matter is discussed. The primary limitation for the nuclear matter case is the absence of reliable phenomenological information about the form of the spectral function and about the value of certain four quark condensates. The approach gives moderate evidence in support of the Dirac phenomenology picture of strong attractive Lorentz scalar and repulsive Lorentz vector optical potentials. The approach gives weak evidence for decreasing vector meson masses in medium. (orig.)
Volume dependence of light hadron masses in full lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orth, B.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.
2004-01-01
The aim of the GRAL project is to simulate full QCD with standard Wilson fermions at light quark masses on small to medium-sized lattices and to obtain infinite-volume results by extrapolation. In order to establish the functional form of the volume dependence we study systematically the finite-size effects in the light hadron spectrum. We give an update on the status of the GRAL project and show that our simulation data for the light hadron masses depend exponentially on the lattice size
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Gambhir, Arjun Singh
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D' Enterria, Valeria Muccifora
2009-12-01
We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.
Non-perturbative phenomena in QCD vacuum, hadrons, and quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1983-01-01
These lectures provide a brief review of recent progress in non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). They are intended for non specialists, mainly experimentalists. The main object of discussion, the QCD vacuum, is a rather complicated medium. It may be studied either by infinitesimal probes producing microscopic excitations (=hadrons), or by finite excitations (say, heating some volume to a given temperature T). In the latter case, some qualitative changes (phase transitions) should take place. A summary is given of the extent to which such phenomena can be observed in the laboratory by proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (orig.)
On AdS/QCD correspondence and the partonic picture of deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pire, B.; Roiesnel, C.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2008-01-01
We critically examine the question of scaling of the Deep Inelastic Scattering process in the medium Bjorken x region on a scalar boson in the framework of the AdS/QCD correspondence. To get the right polarization structure of the forward electroproduction amplitude, we show that one needs to add (at least) the scalar to scalar and scalar to vector hadronic amplitudes. This illustrates how the partonic picture may emerge from a simple scenario based on the AdS/QCD correspondence, provided one allows the conformal dimension of the hadronic field to equal 1 and use the concept of 'hadron-parton duality'
On AdS/QCD correspondence and the partonic picture of deep inelastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pire, B. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.fr; Roiesnel, C. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France)
2008-12-04
We critically examine the question of scaling of the Deep Inelastic Scattering process in the medium Bjorken x region on a scalar boson in the framework of the AdS/QCD correspondence. To get the right polarization structure of the forward electroproduction amplitude, we show that one needs to add (at least) the scalar to scalar and scalar to vector hadronic amplitudes. This illustrates how the partonic picture may emerge from a simple scenario based on the AdS/QCD correspondence, provided one allows the conformal dimension of the hadronic field to equal 1 and use the concept of 'hadron-parton duality'.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henriette Romme
En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Henriette Romme
En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....
Second-order Hydrodynamics in QCD at NLO arXiv
Ghiglieri, Jacopo; Teaney, Derek
We compute the hydrodynamic relaxation times $\\tau_\\pi$ and $\\tau_j$ for hot QCD at next-to-leading order in the coupling by using kinetic theory. We show that certain dimensionless ratios of second-order to first-order transport coefficients obey bounds which apply whenever a kinetic theory description is possible; the computed values lie somewhat above these bounds. Strongly coupled theories with holographic duals strongly violate these bounds, highlighting their distance from a quasiparticle description.
Lattice QCD. A critical status report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Karl
2008-10-15
The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)
Lattice QCD. A critical status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, Karl
2008-10-01
The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)
Fractal structures and intermittency in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafson, Goesta.
1990-04-01
New results are presented for fractal structures and intermittency in QCD parton showers. A geometrical interpretation of the anomalous dimension in QCD is given. It is shown that model predications for factorial moments in the PEP-PETRA energy range are increased. if the properties of directly produced pions are more carefully taken into account
HERA results on QCD and EW physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarnecki, A.F.
1997-01-01
Selected HERA results on QCD and EW interactions are presented. They include the measurement of the proton structure function and its analysis in terms of the QCD evolution, as well as results concerning deep inelastic scattering at very low and very high Q 2 . Selected HERA limits on new physics and parameters which extend the standard model are also presented. (author)
Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K
1980-03-01
In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.
Recent developments in QCD for LHC physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastasiou, C.
2006-01-01
We will review recent theoretical developments in QCD, attempting to assess the phenomenological impact of new theoretical results and to identify potentially useful directions for the future. A part of the talk will be devoted to new imaginative ideas which are rapidly changing the traditional approach to QCD computations, and surprising theoretical discoveries from perturbative calculations on the structure of gauge theories. (author)
Understanding of QCD through solvable models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, G.
1980-07-01
Various aspects of strong interaction physics are discussed. It is shown that several nontrivial features arise from non-perturbative 'solutions' of QCD-like models in (1+1) dimensions. An attempt is made to bring these features in (3+1) dimensional semiclassical treatments of QCD.
Academic Training Lectures - QCD for Postgraduates
Maureen Prola-Tessaur
2010-01-01
by Giulia Zanderighi (University of Oxford) Monday 12 to Friday 16 April 2010 From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Monday 12 - Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities. Tuesday 13 - Modern QCD - Lecture 2 We will start discussing the matter content of the theory and revisit the experimental measurements that led to the discovery of quarks. We will then consider a classic QCD observable, the R-ratio, and use it to illustrate the appearance of UV divergences and the need to renormalize the coupling constant of QCD. We will then discuss asymptotic freedom and confinement. Finally, we will examine a case where soft and collinear infrared divergences appear, will discuss the soft approximation in QCD ...
Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A. R.
1998-01-01
A high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD is outlined. Regge pole and single gluon properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. This solution, which corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory, may only be applicable to QCD with a very special quark content
Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Szczepaniak, A.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.
2010-01-01
We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.
How is the charmonium splitting in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.A.
1981-06-01
Using the SVZ moment procedure to predict resonance masses within QCD the author has calculated exponential moments as a limit of the QCD formulae given by Reinders, Rubinstein and Yazaki. Applied to charmonium their results (besides 3 P 0 ) are reproduced very well. (Auth.)
Quantum properties of QCD string fragmentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todorova-Nová Šárka
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A simple quantization concept for a 3-dim QCD string is used to derive properties of QCD flux tube from the mass spectrum of light mesons and to predict observable quantum effects in correlations between adjacent hadrons. The quantized fragmentation model is presented and compared with experimental observations.
QCD pairing in primordial nuggets
Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.
2003-08-01
We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.
Pasztor, Gabriella
2018-01-01
The rich proton-proton collision data of the LHC allow to study QCD processes in a previously unexplored region with ever improving precision. This paper summarises recent results of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Collaborations using primarily multi-jet and vector boson plus jet data collected at $\\sqrt s$ = 8 and 13 TeV. Comparisons to higher-order theoretical calculations and sophisticated Monte Carlo predictions are presented, as well as the impact of the data on the determination of the parton distribution functions and the measurement of the strong coupling constant, $\\alpha_s$.
Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsapalis, A.
2008-01-01
The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)
Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, M; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Distler, Jacques; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, Marcos
1996-01-01
We analyze the possible soft breaking of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with and without matter flavour preserving the analyticity properties of the Seiberg-Witten solution. For small supersymmetry breaking parameter with respect to the dynamical scale of the theory we obtain an exact expression for the effective potential. We describe in detail the onset of the confinement transition and some of the patterns of chiral symmetry breaking. If we extrapolate the results to the limit where supersymmetry decouples, we obtain hints indicating that perhaps a description of the QCD vacuum will require the use of Lagrangians containing simultaneously mutually non-local degrees of freedom (monopoles and dyons).
Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage
2011-01-01
We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.
Meson Spectroscopy from QCD - Project Results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2017-04-17
Highlights of the research include: the determination of the form of the lowest energy gluonic excitation within QCD and the spectrum of hybrid hadrons which follows; the first calculation of the spectrum of hybrid baryons within a first-principles approach to QCD; a detailed mapping out of the phase-shift of elastic ππ scattering featuring the ρ resonance at two values of the light quark mass within lattice QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of coupled-channel meson-meson scattering within first-principles QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of the radiative coupling of a resonant state, the ρ appearing in πγ→ππ; the first (and to date, only) determination of the properties of the broad σ resonance in elastic ππ scattering within QCD without unjustified approximations.
Medium dependence of multiplicity distributions in MLLA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
2009-06-15
We study the modification of the multiplicity distributions in MLLA due to the presence of a QCD medium. The medium is introduced through a multiplicative constant (f{sub med}) in the soft infrared parts of the kernels of the QCD evolution equations. Using the asymptotic ansatz for mean multiplicities of the quark and gluons, left angle n{sub G} right angle =e{sup {gamma}}{sup y} and left angle n{sub Q} right angle =r {sup -1}e{sup {gamma}}{sup y}, respectively, we study two cases: fixed {gamma} as previously considered in the literature, and fixed {alpha}{sub s}. We find opposite behaviors of the dispersion of the multiplicity distributions with increasing f{sub med} in both cases. For fixed {gamma} the dispersion decreases, while for fixed {alpha}{sub s} it increases. (orig.)
Medium dependence of multiplicity distributions in MLLA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma
2009-01-01
We study the modification of the multiplicity distributions in MLLA due to the presence of a QCD medium. The medium is introduced through a multiplicative constant (f med ) in the soft infrared parts of the kernels of the QCD evolution equations. Using the asymptotic ansatz for mean multiplicities of the quark and gluons, left angle n G right angle =e γy and left angle n Q right angle =r -1 e γy , respectively, we study two cases: fixed γ as previously considered in the literature, and fixed α s . We find opposite behaviors of the dispersion of the multiplicity distributions with increasing f med in both cases. For fixed γ the dispersion decreases, while for fixed α s it increases. (orig.)
Better than $1/Mflops substained: a scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.
2002-02-01
We study the feasibility of a PC-based parallel computer for medium to large scale lattice QCD simulations. Our cluster built at the Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes with 512 MB RDRAM. The 32-bit, single precision sustained performance for dynamical QCD without communication is 1510 Mflops/node with Wilson and 970 Mflops/node with staggered fermions. This gives a total performance of 208 Gflops for Wilson and 133 Gflops for staggered QCD, respectively (for 64-bit applications the performance is approximately halved). The novel feature of our system is its communication architecture. In order to have a scalable, cost-effective machine we use Gigabit Ethernet cards for nearest-neighbor communications in a two-dimensional mesh. This type of communication is cost effective (only 30% of the hardware costs is spent on the communication). According to our benchmark measurements this type of communication results in around 40% communication time fraction for lattices upto 48 3 . 96 in full QCD simulations. The price/sustained-perfomance ratio for full QCD is better than $1/Mflops for Wilson (and around $1.5/Mflops for staggered) quarks for practically any lattice size, which can fit in our parallel computer. (orig.)
Domain wall network as QCD vacuum: confinement, chiral symmetry, hadronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nedelko Sergei N.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An approach to QCD vacuum as a medium describable in terms of statistical ensemble of almost everywhere homogeneous Abelian (anti-self-dual gluon fields is reviewed. These fields play the role of the confining medium for color charged fields as well as underline the mechanism of realization of chiral SUL(Nf × SUR(Nf and UA(1 symmetries. Hadronization formalism based on this ensemble leads to manifestly defined quantum effective meson action. Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons are represented in the action in terms of nonlocal n-point interaction vertices given by the quark-gluon loops averaged over the background ensemble. Systematic results for the mass spectrum and decay constants of radially excited light, heavy-light mesons and heavy quarkonia are presented. Relationship of this approach to the results of functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations, and the picture of harmonic confinement is briefly outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, W.H.
1997-01-01
These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F 2 , which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q 2 regimes are discussed. The low Q 2 transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure α s , and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs
Hadron physics from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2016-11-01
Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.
1997-06-01
These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F{sub 2}, which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q{sup 2} regimes are discussed. The low Q{sup 2} transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure {alpha}{sub s}, and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs.
De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe
2006-01-01
We summarize our recent results on the phase diagram of QCD with N_f=2+1 quark flavors, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential \\mu. Using staggered fermions, lattices with temporal extent N_t=4, and the exact RHMC algorithm, we first determine the critical line in the quark mass plane (m_{u,d},m_s) where the finite temperature transition at \\mu=0 is second order. We confirm that the physical point lies on the crossover side of this line. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at (m_{u,d},m_s) = (0,\\sim 500) MeV. Then, using an imaginary chemical potential, we determine in which direction this second-order line moves as the chemical potential is turned on. Contrary to standard expectations, we find that the region of first-order transitions shrinks in the presence of a chemical potential, which is inconsistent with the presence of a QCD critical point at small chemical potential. The emphasis is put on clarifying the translation of our results from lattice to physical units, and ...
Theta dependence in holographic QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartolini, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bolognesi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Manenti, Andrea [Institute of Physics, EPFL,Rte de la Sorge, BSP 728, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2017-02-07
We study the effects of the CP-breaking topological θ-term in the large N{sub c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai and Sugimoto with N{sub f} degenerate light flavors. We first compute the ground state energy density, the topological susceptibility and the masses of the lowest lying mesons, finding agreement with expectations from the QCD chiral effective action. Then, focusing on the N{sub f}=2 case, we consider the baryonic sector and determine, to leading order in the small θ regime, the related holographic instantonic soliton solutions. We find that while the baryon spectrum does not receive O(θ) corrections, this is not the case for observables like the electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons. In particular, it exhibits a dipole term, which turns out to be vector-meson dominated. The resulting neutron electric dipole moment, which is exactly the opposite as that of the proton, is of the same order of magnitude of previous estimates in the literature. Finally, we compute the CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant ḡ{sub πNN}, finding that it is zero to leading order in the large N{sub c} limit.
Lattice QCD at finite density. An introductory review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muroya, Shin; Nakamura, Atushi; Nonaka, Chiho; Takaishi, Tetsuya
2003-01-01
This is a pedagogical review of the lattice study of finite density QCD. It is intended to provide the minimum necessary content, so that it may be used as an introduction for newcomers to the field and also for those working in nonlattice areas. After a brief introduction in which we discuss the reasons that finite density QCD is an active and important subject, we present the fundamental formulae that are necessary for the treatment given in the following sections. Next, we survey lattice QCD simulational studies of system with small chemical potentials, of which there have been several prominent works reported recently. Then, two-color QCD calculations are discussed, where we are free from the notorious phase problem and have a chance to consider many new features of finite density QCD. Of special note is the result of recent simulations indicating quark pair condensation and the in-medium effect. Tables of SU(3) and SU(2) lattice simulations at finite baryon density are given. In the next section, we survey several related works that may represent a starting point of future development, although some of these works have not attracted much attention yet. This material is described in a pedagogical manner. Starting from a simple 2-d model, we briefly discuss a lattice analysis of the NJL model. We describe a non-perturbative analytic approach, i.e., the strong coupling approximation method and some results. The canonical ensemble approach, instead of the usual canonical ensemble may be another route to reach high density. We examine the density of state method and show that this old idea includes the recently proposed factorization method. An alternative method, the complex Langevin equation, and an interesting model, the finite isospin model, are also discussed. We give brief comments on a partial sum with respect to Z 3 symmetry and the meron-cluster algorithm, which might solve the sign problem partially or completely. In the Appendix, we discuss several
The QCD phase transition. From the microscopic mechanism to signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1997-01-01
This talk consists of two very different parts: the first one deals with non-perturbative QCD and physics of the chiral restoration, the second with rather low-key (and still unfinished) work aiming at obtaining EOS and other properties of hot/dense hadronic matter from data on heavy ion collisions. The microscopic mechanism for chiral restoration phase transition is a transition from randomly placed tunneling events (instantons) at low T to a set of strongly correlated tunneling-anti-tunneling events (known as instanton-anti-instanton molecules) at high T. Many features of the transition can be explained in this simple picture, especially the critical line and its dependence on quark masses. This scenario predicts qualitative change of the basic quark-quark interactions around the phase transition line, with some states (such as pion-sigma ones) probably surviving event at T > T c . In the second half of the talk experimental data on collective flow in heavy ion collision are discussed its hydro-based description and relation to equation of state (EOS). A distinct feature of the QCD phase transition region is high degree of 'softness', (small ratio pressure/energy density). (author)
Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD
Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.
2018-04-01
The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lighter hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This article reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. The challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.
The QCD Critical Point and Related Observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahrgang, Marlene
2016-12-15
The search for the critical point of QCD in heavy-ion collision experiments has sparked enormous interest with the completion of phase I of the RHIC beam energy scan. Here, I review the basics of the thermodynamics of the QCD phase transition and its implications for experimental multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Several sources of noncritical fluctuations impact the observables and need to be understood in addition to the critical phenomena. Recent progress has been made in dynamical modeling of critical fluctuations, which ultimately is indispensable to understand potential signals of the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collision.
Towards the chiral limit in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shailesh Chandrasekharan
2006-01-01
Computing hadronic observables by solving QCD from first principles with realistic quark masses is an important challenge in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research. Although lattice QCD provides a rigorous framework for such calculations many difficulties arise. Firstly, there are no good algorithms to solve lattice QCD with realistically light quark masses. Secondly, due to critical slowing down, Monte Carlo algorithms are able to access only small lattice sizes on coarse lattices. Finally, due to sign problems it is almost impossible to study the physics of finite baryon density. Lattice QCD contains roughly three mass scales: the cutoff (or inverse lattice spacing) a -1 , the confinement scale Λ QCD , and the pion mass m π . Most conventional Monte Carlo algorithms for QCD become inefficient in two regimes: when Λ QCD becomes small compared to a -1 and when m π becomes small compared to Λ QCD . The former can be largely controlled by perturbation theory thanks to asymptotic freedom. The latter is more difficult since chiral extrapolations are typically non-analytic and can be unreliable if the calculations are not done at sufficiently small quark masses. For this reason it has been difficult to compute quantities close to the chiral limit. The essential goal behind this proposal was to develop a new approach towards understanding QCD and QCD-like theories with sufficiently light quarks. The proposal was based on a novel cluster algorithm discovered in the strong coupling limit with staggered fermions [1]. This algorithm allowed us to explore the physics of exactly massless quarks and as well as light quarks. Thus, the hope was that this discovery would lead to the complete solution of at least a few strongly coupled QCD-like theories. The solution would be far better than those achievable through conventional methods and thus would be able to shed light on the chiral physics from a new direction. By the end of the funding period, the project led
QCD Results from ATLAS and CMS
Leyton, M; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have performed a wide range of studies of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of the underlying event, double parton interactions and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for the determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated, inclusive and di-photon cross sections for high-pT photons test various theoretical predictions and further constrain PDFs. An overview of these results is given.
Dynamical effects of QCD vacuum structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, Erasmo
1994-01-01
The role of the QCD vacuum structure in the determination of the properties of states and processes occurring in the confinement regime of QCD is reviewed. The finite range of the vacuum correlations is discussed, and an analytical form is suggested for the correlation functions. The role of the vacuum quantum numbers in the phenomenology of high-energy scattering is reviewed. The vacuum correlation model of non-perturbative QCD is mentioned as a bridge between the fundamental theory and the description of the experiments. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig
Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing
2004-01-01
Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
The LHC energy regime poses a serious challenge to our capability of predicting QCD reactions to the level of accuracy necessary for a successful programme of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In these lectures, I'll introduce basic concepts in QCD, and present techniques based on perturbation theory, such as fixed-order and resummed computations, and Monte Carlo simulations. I'll discuss applications of these techniques to hadron-hadron processes, concentrating on recent trends in perturbative QCD aimed at improving our understanding of LHC phenomenology.
Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)
1994-04-01
The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.
Aoki, Sinya
2013-07-01
We review the potential method in lattice QCD, which has recently been proposed to extract nucleon-nucleon interactions via numerical simulations. We focus on the methodology of this approach by emphasizing the strategy of the potential method, the theoretical foundation behind it, and special numerical techniques. We compare the potential method with the standard finite volume method in lattice QCD, in order to make pros and cons of the approach clear. We also present several numerical results for nucleon-nucleon potentials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebed, R.F.
1999-01-01
These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when 'large' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard Lebed
1998-01-01
These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions
Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD
Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko
2016-01-01
We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.
Pion structure from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javadi Motaghi, Narjes
2015-05-12
In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.
Colour singlets in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassetto, A.
1979-01-01
In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)
2014-07-01
These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iancu, Edmond
2014-01-01
These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.
1997-01-01
The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed
Baryon structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.
2009-01-01
We present recent lattice results on the baryon spectrum, nucleon electromagnetic and axial form factors, nucleon to Δ transition form factors as well as the Δ electromagnetic form factors. The masses of the low lying baryons and the nucleon form factors are calculated using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions down to pion mass of about 270 MeV. We compare to the results of other collaborations. The nucleon to Δ transition and Δ form factors are calculated in a hybrid scheme, which uses staggered sea quarks and domain wall valence quarks. The dominant magnetic dipole nucleon to Δ transition form factor is also evaluated using dynamical domain wall fermions. The transverse density distributions of the Δ in the infinite momentum frame are extracted using the form factors determined from lattice QCD. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curci, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Greco, M; Srivastava, Y [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati
1979-11-19
A recently proposed approach to the problem of infrared and mass singularities in QCD based on the formalism of coherent states, is extended to discuss massless quark and gluon jets. The present results include all leading (ln delta) terms as well as finite terms in the energy loss epsilon, in addition to the usual ln epsilon associated with ln delta. The formulae agree with explicit perturbative calculations, whenever available. Explicit expressions for the total Ksub(T) distributions are given which take into account transverse-momentum conservation. Predictions are also made for the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the mean Ksub(T)/sup 2/ for quark and gluon jets. The jet ksub(T) distributions are extrapolated for low ksub(T) and shown to describe with good accuracy the data for eanti e..-->..qanti q..-->.. hadrons. Numerical predictions are also presented for the forthcoming PETRA, PEP and LEP machines.
Lattice QCD for nuclear physics
Meyer, Harvey
2015-01-01
With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities. The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics. A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...
Particle states of lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)
2017-11-15
We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, David
1999-01-01
We present selected results on strong interaction physics from the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. We report on several new studies of 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z 0 decays, in which jets are identified as quark, antiquark or gluon. The 3-jet Z 0 --> b anti-bg rate is sensitive to the b-quark mass; prospects for measuring m b are discussed. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous b anti-bg couplings. The parity violation in Z 0 --> b anti-bg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into b anti-b pairs yields g b anti-b = 0.0031 ± 0.0007 (stat.)± 0.0006 (syst.) (Preliminary). We also present a number of new results on jet fragmentation into identified hadrons. The B hadron energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range using a new, inclusive technique, allowing stringent tests of predictions for its shape and a precise measurement of (xB) = 0.714 ± 0.005(stat.) ± 0.007(syst.) (Preliminary). A detailed study of correlations in rapidity y between pairs of identified pi ± , K ± and p/anti-p confirms that strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally, and shows local charge conservation between meson-baryon and strange-nonstrange pairs. Flavor-dependent long-range correlations are observed for all combinations of these hadron species, yielding new information on leading particle production. The first study of correlations using rapidities signed such that y > 0 corresponds to the quark direction provides additional new insights into fragmentation, including the first direct observation of baryon number ordering along the q anti-q axis
Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Benr-Wei; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian
2003-01-01
Multiple scattering, modified fragmentation functions and radiative energy loss of a heavy quark propagating in a nuclear medium are investigated in perturbative QCD. Because of the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the medium size dependence of heavy quark energy loss is found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss is also significantly suppressed relative to a light quark due to the suppression of collinear gluon emission by a heavy quark
Strange Baryon Physics in Full Lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huey-Wen Lin
2007-01-01
Strange baryon spectra and form factors are key probes to study excited nuclear matter. The use of lattice QCD allows us to test the strength of the Standard Model by calculating strange baryon quantities from first principles
Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baer, Oliver
2010-01-01
The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)
A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2011-01-01
A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.
Two-color QCD via dimensional reduction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zhang, T.; Brauner, Tomáš; Kurkela, A.; Vuorinen, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 2012, č. 139 (2012), s. 1-16 ISSN 1126-6708 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thermal field theory * QCD * confinement Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012
QCD Effective Field Theories for Heavy Quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, Nora
2006-01-01
QCD nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT) are the modern and most suitable frame to describe heavy quarkonium properties. Here I summarize few relevant concepts and some of the interesting physical applications (spectrum, decays, production) of NREFT
Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.
2003-09-01
We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)
Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.; Wittig, H.
2004-01-01
We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E; Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC
The time development of QCD jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caneschi, L.
1979-01-01
The time development of jets in perturbative QCD is studied. In spite of the fact that the total time for the jet to develop increases indefinitely with increasing energy, quark antiquark pairs remain unscreened only an infinitesimal time. (author)
Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, Oliver
2010-07-21
The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)
Challenges for QCD theory: some personal reflections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjöstrand, T
2013-01-01
At the LHC all processes are QCD ones, whether ‘signal’ or ‘background’. In this review the frontiers of current QCD research are addressed, towards increased understanding, improved calculational precision, and role in potential future discoveries. Issues raised include: - the limits of perturbative QCD calculations and parton distribution usage,; - the nature of multiparton interactions,; - the impact of colour reconnection on physical observables,; - the need for progress on hadronization modelling,; - the improvements of parton showers and their combination with the matrix-element description,; - the use of QCD concepts in Beyond-the-Standard-Model scenarios and; - the key position of event generators and other software in the successful exploration of LHC physics. On the way, several questions are posed, where further studies are needed. (paper)
Opportunities, Challenges, and Fantasies in Lattice QCD
Wilczek, Frank
2002-01-01
Some important problems in quantitative QCD will certainly yield to hard work and adequate investment of resources, others appear difficult but may be accessible, and still others will require essentially new ideas. Here I identify several examples in each class.
Automated NLO QCD corrections with WHIZARD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Christian; Siegen Univ.; Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Reuter, Juergen; Kilian, Wolfgang
2015-10-01
We briefly discuss the current status of NLO QCD automation in the Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD. The functionality is presented for the explicit study of off-shell top quark production with associated backgrounds at a lepton collider.
Towards understanding Regge trajectories in holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cata, Oscar
2007-01-01
We reassess a work done by Migdal on the spectrum of low-energy vector mesons in QCD in the light of the anti-de Sitter (AdS)-QCD correspondence. Recently, a tantalizing parallelism was suggested between Migdal's work and a family of holographic duals of QCD. Despite the intriguing similarities, both approaches face a major drawback: the spectrum is in conflict with well-tested Regge scaling. However, it has recently been shown that holographic duals can be modified to accommodate Regge behavior. Therefore, it is interesting to understand whether Regge behavior can also be achieved in Migdal's approach. In this paper we investigate this issue. We find that Migdal's approach, which is based on a modified Pade approximant, is closely related to the issue of quark-hadron duality breakdown in QCD
The structure of gluon radiation in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parke, S.; Mangano, M.
1989-08-01
For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processes. Also, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Charge correlations as definitive tests of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxwell, C.J.
1981-07-01
Certain weighted charge correlations are defined and it is shown how they can be used to measure properties of the gluon jet in the e + e - 3-jet final state. Properties are suggested which are indicative of the form of the QCD matrix element, the running coupling constant and value of Λ, and hence constitute definitive tests of QCD. The recent near tenfold increase in luminosity at PETRA should make such experimental tests possible in the near future. (author)
Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-05-15
We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)
Some New/Old Approaches to QCD
Gross, D. J.
1992-11-01
In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.
Self-consistent areas law in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.
1980-01-01
The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution
Recent QCD Studies at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Group, Robert Craig
2008-04-01
Since the beginning of Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron the QCD physics groups of the CDF and D0 experiments have worked to reach unprecedented levels of precision for many QCD observables. Thanks to the large dataset--over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity recorded by each experiment--important new measurements have recently been made public and will be summarized in this paper.
QCD angular correlations for muon pair production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajantie, K.; Raitio, R.; Lindfors, J.
1978-01-01
Angular distributions of muons are discussed in the framework of a QCD treatment of muon pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. The predicted angular effects are independent of the infrared behavior of QCD. Measuring them will permit one to determine whether the origin of the large transverse momentum of the pair is in the quark transverse momenta or in a constituent-constituent subprocess. (author)
Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombardo, Maria Paola
2008-01-01
Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.
Understanding Theoretical Uncertainties in Perturbative QCD Computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jenniches, Laura Katharina
effective field theories and perturbative QCD to predict the effect of New Physics on measurements at the LHC and at other future colliders. We use heavy-quark, heavy-scalar and soft-collinear effective theory to calculate a three-body cascade decay at NLO QCD in the expansion-by-regions formalism...... discuss an extension of the Cacciari-Houdeau approach to observables with hadrons in the initial state....
The structure of gluon radiation in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parke, S.; Mangano, M.
1990-01-01
For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. Here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processess. Finally, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD
A new perturbative approach to QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervushin, V.N.; Kallies, W.; Sarikov, N.A.
1988-01-01
For the description of bound states in QED and QCD the physical perturbation theory on the spatial components of the vector over the exact solution, defined by the time one, is proposed. It is shown this perturbation theory in QCD can be redefined so that it reproduces the main elements of hadron physics: confinement, spectroscopy of light and heavy quarkonia, dual-resonance amplitudes, chiral Lagrangians and the parton model
Some new/old approaches to QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, D.J.
1992-11-01
In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornwall, J.M.
1986-01-01
The nonperturbative aspects of continuum QCD are so complex that one can only hope to approach them through well-motivated models. The author reviews the general properties that any such model must have, based on the understanding of the gluon condensate in the QCD vacuum. A specific, practical model is proposed motivated by a picture of the condensate as made of thick vortex sheets self-consistently constructed from dynamically massive gluons. (author)
Some new/old approaches to QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1992-11-01
In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD
QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrow, Michael G.; Fermilab
2005-01-01
As an introduction to QCD at the LHC I given an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q 2 frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors I discuss high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. I introduce the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420 m downstream of ATLAS and CMS
Search for the QCD ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.
1994-05-01
Within the Euclidean effective action approach we propose criteria for the ground state of QCD. Despite a nonvanishing field strength the ground state should be invariant with respect to modified Poincare transformations consisting of a combination of translations and rotations with suitable gauge transformations. We have found candidate states for QCD with four or more colours. The formation of gluon condensates shows similarities with the Higgs phenomenon. (orig.)
Unambiguity of renormalization group calculations in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, A.A.
1979-01-01
A detailed analysis of the reduction of ambiguities determined by an arbitrary renormalization scheme is presented for the renormalization group calculations of physical quantities in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Some basic formulas concerning the renormalization-scheme dependence of Green's and renormalization group functions are given. A massless asymptotically free theory with one coupling constant g is considered. In conclusion, several rules for renormalization group calculations in QCD are formulated
On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum
Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.
2018-05-01
We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannibal, Sara Stefansen
HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.
1989-01-01
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures
Method of analytic continuation by duality in QCD: Beyond QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, M.; Nasrallah, N.F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.
1986-01-01
We present the method of analytic continuation by duality which allows the approximate continuation of QCD amplitudes to small values of the momentum variables where direct perturbative calculations are not possible. This allows a substantial extension of the domain of applications of hadronic QCD phenomenology. The method is illustrated by a simple example which shows its essential features
Colour deconfinement in hot and dense matter
Satz, Helmut
1996-01-01
We first introduce the conceptual basis of critical behaviour in strongly interacting matter, with colour deconfinement as QCD analog of the insulator-conductor transition and chiral symmetry restoration as special case of the associated shift in the mass of the constituents. Next we summarize quark-gluon plasma formation in finite temperature lattice QCD. We consider the underlying symmetries and their spontaneous breaking/restoration in the transition, as well as the resulting changes in thermodynamic behaviour. Finally, we turn to the experimental study of strongly interacting matter by high energy nuclear collisions, using charmonium production to probe the confinement status of the produced primordial medium. Recent results from Pb-Pb collisions at CERN may provide first evidence for colour deconfinement.
Standard model group, QCD subgroup - dynamics isolating and testing the elementary QCD subprocess
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tannenbaum, M.J.
1982-01-01
QCD to an experimentalist is the theory of interactions of quarks and gluons. Experimentalists like QCD because QCD is analogous to QED. Thus, following Drell and others who have for many years studied the validity of QED, one has a ready-made menu for tests of QCD. There are the static and long distance tests. These topics are covered by Peter LePage in the static properties group. In this report, dynamic and short distance tests of QCD will be discussed, primarily via reactions with large transverse momenta. This report is an introduction and overview of the subject, to serve as a framework for other reports from the subgroup. In the last two sections, the author has taken the opportunity to discuss his own ideas and opinions
Hadronic and nuclear interactions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
Despite the evidence that QCD - or something close to it - gives a correct description of the structure of hadrons and their interactions, it seems paradoxical that the theory has thus far had very little impact in nuclear physics. One reason for this is that the application of QCD to distances larger than 1 fm involves coherent, non-perturbative dynamics which is beyond present calculational techniques. For example, in QCD the nuclear force can evidently be ascribed to quark interchange and gluon exchange processes. These, however, are as complicated to analyze from a fundamental point of view as is the analogous covalent bond in molecular physics. Since a detailed description of quark-quark interactions and the structure of hadronic wavefunctions is not yet well-understood in QCD, it is evident that a quantitative first-principle description of the nuclear force will require a great deal of theoretical effort. Another reason for the limited impact of QCD in nuclear physics has been the conventional assumption that nuclear interactions can for the most part be analyzed in terms of an effective meson-nucleon field theory or potential model in isolation from the details of short distance quark and gluon structure of hadrons. These lectures, argue that this view is untenable: in fact, there is no correspondence principle which yields traditional nuclear physics as a rigorous large-distance or non-relativistic limit of QCD dynamics. On the other hand, the distinctions between standard nuclear physics dynamics and QCD at nuclear dimensions are extremely interesting and illuminating for both particle and nuclear physics
QCD as a topologically ordered system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2013-01-01
We argue that QCD belongs to a topologically ordered phase similar to many well-known condensed matter systems with a gap such as topological insulators or superconductors. Our arguments are based on an analysis of the so-called “deformed QCD” which is a weakly coupled gauge theory, but nevertheless preserves all the crucial elements of strongly interacting QCD, including confinement, nontrivial θ dependence, degeneracy of the topological sectors, etc. Specifically, we construct the so-called topological “BF” action which reproduces the well known infrared features of the theory such as non-dispersive contribution to the topological susceptibility which cannot be associated with any propagating degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we interpret the well known resolution of the celebrated U(1) A problem where the would be η ′ Goldstone boson generates its mass as a result of mixing of the Goldstone field with a topological auxiliary field characterizing the system. We then identify the non-propagating auxiliary topological field of the BF formulation in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost (which plays the crucial role in resolution of the U(1) A problem). Finally, we elaborate on relation between “string-net” condensation in topologically ordered condensed matter systems and long range coherent configurations, the “skeletons”, studied in QCD lattice simulations. -- Highlights: •QCD may belong to a topologically ordered phase similar to condensed matter (CM) systems. •We identify the non-propagating topological field in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost. •Relation between “string-net” condensates in CM systems and the “skeletons” in QCD lattice simulations is studied
Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, W.C.
1984-01-01
Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing
2016-11-01
These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsson, Magnus.
1993-02-01
A model is proposed for the production of transverse jets from diffractively excited protons. We propose that transverse jets can be obtained from gluonic bremsstrahlung in a way similar to the emission in DIS. Qualitative agreement is obtained between the model and the uncorrected data published by the UA8 collaboration. Perturbative QCD in the MLLA approximation is applied to multiple jet production in e + e - -annihilation. We propose modified evolution equations for deriving the jet cross sections, defined in the 'k t ' or 'Durham' algorithm. The mean number of jets as a function of the jet resolution is studied, and analytical predictions are compared to the results of MC simulations. We also study a set of differential-difference equations for multiplicity distributions in e + e - -annihilations, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions. These equations take into account nonsingular terms in the GLAP splitting functions as well as kinematical constraints related to recoil effects. The presence of retarded terms imply that the cascade develops more slowly and reduces the fluctuations. The solutions agree well with MC simulations and experimental data. (authors)
QCD@LHC International Conference
2016-01-01
The particle physics groups of UZH and ETH will host the QCD@LHC2016 conference (22.8.-26.8., UZH downtown campus), which is part of an annual conference series bringing together theorists and experimentalists working on hard scattering processes at the CERN LHC, ranging from precision studies of Standard Model processes to searches for new particles and phenomena. The format of the conference is a combination of plenary review talks and parallel sessions, with the latter providing a particularly good opportunity for junior researchers to present their results. The conference will take place shortly after the release of the new data taken by the LHC in sping 2016 at a collision energy of 13TeV, expected to more than double the currently available data set. It will be one of the first opportunities to discuss these data in a broader context, and we expect the conference to become a very lively forum at the interface of phenomenology and experiment.
The role of hadron resonances in hot hadronic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goity, Jose [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)
2017-02-01
Hadron resonances can play a significant role in hot hadronic matter. Of particular interest for this workshop are the contributions of hyperon resonances. The question about how to quantify the effects of resonances is here addressed. In the framework of the hadron resonance gas, the chemically equilibrated case, relevant in the context of lattice QCD calculations, and the chemically frozen case relevant in heavy ion collisions are discussed.
QCD sum rules in a Bayesian approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2011-01-01
A novel technique is developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. The main advantage of this approach lies in its ability of directly generating the spectral function of a given operator. This is done without the need of making an assumption about the specific functional form of the spectral function, such as in the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that is frequently used in QCD sum rule studies. Therefore, with this method it should in principle be possible to distinguish narrow pole structures form continuum states. To check whether meaningful results can be extracted within this approach, we have first investigated the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results exhibit a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which agrees with earlier QCD sum rules studies and shows that the Maximum Entropy Method is a useful tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.
Nonperturbation aspects of QCD. Monte Carlo and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brezin, E.; Morel, A.; Marinari, E.; Couchot, F.; Narison, S.; Richard, J.M.; Blaizot, J.P.; Souillard, B.
1986-01-01
Phase transitions; lattice QCD; numerical simulation of lattice gauge theories; experimental research on gluonic mesons; QCD-duality sum rules; the bag model, potentials, and hadron spectra; and efficient Lagrangian functions and the Skyrme model are introduced [fr
Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A
2014-01-01
We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
QCD Structure of Nuclear Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)
2011-05-25
This dissertation investigated selected processes involving baryons and nuclei in hard scattering reactions. Through these processes, this work explored the constituent structure of baryons and the mechanisms through which the interactions between these constituents ultimately control the selected reactions. First, hard nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering was studied considering the quark exchange (QE) between the nucleons to be the dominant mechanism of interaction in the constituent picture. It was found that an angular asymmetry exhibited by proton-neutron (pn) elastic scattering data is explained within this framework if a quark-diquark picture dominates the nucleon's structure instead of a more traditional SU(6) model. The latter yields an asymmetry around 90 deg center of mass scattering with a sign opposite to what is experimentally observed. The second process is the hard breakup by a photon of a nucleon-nucleon system in light nuclei. Proton-proton (pp) and pn breakup in ^{3}He, and double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup were analyzed in the hard rescattering model (HRM), which in conjunction with the QE mechanism provides a QCD description of the reaction. Cross sections for both channels in ^{3}He photodisintegration were computed without the need of a fitting parameter. The results presented here for pp breakup show excellent agreement with recent experimental data. In double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup, HRM angular distributions for the two double Δ channels were compared to the pn channel and to each other. An important prediction from this study is that the Δ^{++} Δ^{-} channel consistently dominates Δ^{+}Δ^{0}, which is in contrast with models that unlike the HRM consider a double Δ system in the initial state of the interaction. For such models both channels should have the same strength.
Fermion determinants in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Christopher Andrew
2001-01-01
The main topic of this thesis concerns efficient algorithms for the calculation of determinants of the kind of matrix typically encountered in lattice QCD. In particular an efficient method for calculating the fermion determinant is described. Such a calculation is useful to illustrate the effects of light dynamical (virtual) quarks. The methods employed in this thesis are stochastic methods, based on the Lanczos algorithm, which is used for the solution of large, sparse matrix problems via a partial tridiagonalisation of the matrix. Here an implementation is explored which requires less exhaustive treatment of the matrix than previous Lanczos methods. This technique exploits the analogy between the Lanczos tridiagonalisation algorithm and Gaussian quadrature in order to calculate the fermion determinant. A technique for determining a number of the eigenvalues of the matrix is also presented. A demonstration is then given of how one can improve upon this estimate considerably using variance reduction techniques, reducing the variance by a factor of order 100 with a further, equal amount of work. The variance reduction method is a two-stage process, involving a Chebyshev approximation to the quantity in question and then the subtraction of traceless operators. The method is applied to the fermion determinant for non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions on a 16 3 x 32 lattice. It is also applicable to a wider class of matrix operators. Finally we discuss how dynamical quark effects may be simulated in a Monte Carlo process with an effective partitioning of low and high eigenmodes. This may be done via selective updating of a trial configuration which highlights the physically relevant effects of light quark modes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzierba, A.R.
1995-01-01
One of the open questions in non-perturbative QCD has to do with the existence of meson states predicted by the theory other than qq states. These include four-quark states (q 2 q 2 or molecules like KK), states of pure glue (glueballs: gg or ggg) and mixed or hybrid states (qqg). The prima facie candidate for a non-qq state would be one possessing exotic quantum numbers, J PC , not consistent with a qq combination. Examples include J PC =0 +- , 0-- , -+ ,hor-ellipsis Remarkably, states with exotic quantum numbers have not been found despite intensive searches. The case for a possible sighting of an exotic J Jc = 1 -+ state decaying into ηπ O , made a few years ago, seems to be dissolving. Yet, the evidence for non-qq states is clearly present. Conventional qq nonets are over-subscribed, states have been found with decay modes or production characteristics peculiar for qq. The experimental lesson we have learned is that information from a number of complementary processes must be brought together in order to understand the meson spectrum. Information has come from e + e - ,γγ, γγ, and pp collisions, from vector meson decays and from peripheral and central hadroproduction. This talk will review the status of the experimental search. I will especially point out how new technology is being brought to bear on the re-visit of the light quark sector. New instrumentation allows for sophisticated and selective triggers. The recent explosion in computing power allows us to analyze data with unprecedented statistics. Preliminary results from a recently completed, ultra-high statistics experiment using the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Brookhaven Lab will be presented. I will also describe the extension of the search to CEBAF, where an approved experiment there will study the sub-structure of scalar mesons via the radiative decays of the ER meson
Perturbative QCD and electromagnetic form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, C.E.; Gross, F.
1987-01-01
We calculate nucleon magnetic form factors using perturbative QCD for several distribution amplitudes including a general one given in terms of Appell polynomials. We find that the magnitude and sign of both nucleon magnetic form factors can be explained within perturbative QCD. The observed normalization of G/sub Mp/ requires that the distribution amplitude be broader than its superhigh momentum transfer limit, and the G/sub Mn//G/sub Mp/ data may require the distribution amplitude to be asymmetric, in accord with distribution amplitudes derived from QCD sum rules. Some speculation as to how an asymmetric distribution amplitude can come about is offered. Finally, we show that the soft contributions corresponding to the particular distribution amplitudes we use need not be bigger than the data. 16 refs., 6 figs
Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.
2012-01-01
Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative β-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the β-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.
QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2008-07-01
We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.
QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2008-07-01
We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.
Testing QCD with Hypothetical Tau Leptons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.
1998-10-21
We construct new tests of perturbative QCD by considering a hypothetical {tau} lepton of arbitrary mass, which decays hadronically through the electromagnetic current. We can explicitly compute its hadronic width ratio directly as an integral over the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section ratio, R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}. Furthermore, we can design a set of commensurate scale relations and perturbative QCD tests by varying the weight function away from the form associated with the V-A decay of the physical {tau}. This method allows the wide range of the R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} data to be used as a probe of perturbative QCD.
Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennington, M.R.
1996-01-01
This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)
Small-x physics in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipatov, L.N.
1996-07-01
We review the parton model and the Regge approach to the QCD description of the deep-inelastic ep scattering at the small Bjorken variable x and demonstrate their relation with the DGLAP and BFKL evolution equations. It is shown, that in the leading logarithmic approximation the gluon is reggeized and the pomeron is a compound state of two reggeized gluons. The conformal invariance of the BFKL pomeron in the impact parameter space is used to investigate the scattering amplitudes at high energies and fixed momentum transfers. The remarkable properties of the Schroedinger equation for compound states of an arbitrary number of reggeized gluons in the multi-colour QCD are reviewed. The gauge-invariant effective action describing the gluon-Reggeon interactions is constructed. The known next-to-leading corrections to the QCD pomeron are discussed. (orig.)
Topics in perturbative QCD beyond the leading order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buras, A.J.
1979-08-01
The basic structure of QCD formulae for various inclusive and semi-inclusive processes is presented. Next to leading order QCD corrections to inclusive deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in some detail. The methods for calculations of QCD corrections (leading, next to leading) to semi-inclusive processes are outlined. Some results of these calculations are discussed. 58 references
New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2017-01-31
In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.
2011-01-10
AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.
2011-01-01
AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate ζ which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its β-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.
QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)
2016-08-04
We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.
QCD measurements with the CMS detector
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
In the first year of LHC data taking, CMS pursued a rich program of QCD physics. In the low-pt front, results on momentum-, pseudorapidity- and multiplicity distributions of charged and strange hadrons, underlying event observables, two particle rapidity correlations and Bose-Einstein correlations are presented. In the high-pt front, jet and photon cross-section measurements are reported on inclusive and di-object production, as well as ratios of 3/2 jet cross sections. Finally, the QCD multi-jet dynamics is explored with event-shapes variables, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and dijet angular distributions
Resolution of ambiguities in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakkagawa, Hisao; Niegawa, Akira.
1984-01-01
In the perturbative QCD analyses of the deeply inelastic processes, the coupling constant depends on at least two mass-scales, the renormalization scale and the factorization scale. By integrating the coupled renormalization group equations with respect to these two mass-scales, the running coupling constant is defined. A perturbative approximation then introduces a new ambiguity, the integration-path dependence, into the theory. We show that the problem of this new ambiguity is resolved by imposing Stevenson's principle of minimal sensitivity. Together with the analogous analysis of the operator matrix element or the cut vertex, we can completely solve the problem of getting an unambiguous perturbative QCD prediction. (author)
Critical opalescence in baryonic QCD matter.
Antoniou, N G; Diakonos, F K; Kapoyannis, A S; Kousouris, K S
2006-07-21
We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies.
QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael
2016-01-01
We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.
The instanton liquid model of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blotz, A.
1998-01-01
Within a microscopic model for the non-perturbative vacuum of QCD, hadronic correlation functions are calculated. In the model the vacuum is a statistical, interacting ensemble of instantons and anti-instantons at the scale of Λ QCD . Hadronic two-point as well as three-point correlation functions are evaluated and compared with phenomenological information about the spectra, couplings and form factors. Especially the electro magnetic form factor of the pion is obtained and new predictions for the charm contribution to DIS structure functions are made
Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-12-01
Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs
Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobos-Martínez, J J
2016-01-01
A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented. (paper)
Towards finite density QCD with Taylor expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karsch, F.; Schaefer, B.-J.; Wagner, M.; Wambach, J.
2011-01-01
Convergence properties of Taylor expansions of observables, which are also used in lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potential, are analyzed in an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model. A recently developed algorithmic technique allows the calculation of higher-order Taylor expansion coefficients in functional approaches. This novel technique is for the first time applied to an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model and the findings are compared with the full model solution at finite densities. The results are used to discuss prospects for locating the QCD phase boundary and a possible critical endpoint in the phase diagram.
A color magnetic vortex condensate in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Olesen, P.
1980-03-01
It is shown that there exists a very close analogy between a lattice of vorticies in a superconductor near the critical field and a condensate of color magnetic flux tubes due to the unstable mode in QCD. This analogy makes it possible to identify a dynamical Higgs field in QCD. It is shown that the color magnetic flux tubes are quantized in terms of the center group Z(2) in the SU(2) case. In the case of SU(N) it is possible to select a color direction of the field such that one has Z(N) quantization. (Auth.)
Playing with QCD I: effective field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraga, Eduardo S.
2009-01-01
The building blocks of hadrons are quarks and gluons, although color is confined into singlet states. QCD is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Its asymptotically free nature puts the vacuum out of reach for perturbation theory. The Lagrangian of QCD and the Feynman rules associated were built by using the Gauge Principle, starting from the quark matter fields and obtaining gluons as connections. A simpler, and sometimes necessary or complementary, approach is provided by effective field theories or effective models, especially when one has to deal with the nonperturbative sector of the theory. (author)
QCD bosonization and the meson effective action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Praschifka, J.; Roberts, C.D.; Cahill, R.T.
1987-01-01
A bosonization of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is employed to derive a meson effective action, thus providing a direct link between QCD and meson phenomenology. As an example of this approach expressions are obtained for the meson parameters associated with the analysis of ω→3π decay. The bosonization also directly motivates a divergence-free, global color-symmetry model for mesons, which is seen to be a generalization of various phenomenological models. Good estimates are obtained for the values of several of the meson parameters
QCD physics with the CMS experiment
Cerci, Salim
2017-01-01
Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}$. The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.
QCD Physics with the CMS Experiment
Cerci, S.
2017-12-01
Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant αS . The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.
Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-01-01
Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency
Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mankiewicz, Lech
2002-02-01
In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.
Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peschanski, R.
2001-01-01
Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)
Two flavor QCD and confinement - II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cossu, G.; D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.
2007-01-01
This paper is part of a program of investigation of the chiral transition in Nf=2 QCD, started in Phys.Rev.D72:114510,2005. Progress is reported on theunderstanding of some possible systematic errors. A direct test of first orderscaling is presented.......This paper is part of a program of investigation of the chiral transition in Nf=2 QCD, started in Phys.Rev.D72:114510,2005. Progress is reported on theunderstanding of some possible systematic errors. A direct test of first orderscaling is presented....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Urbach, C.
2008-04-01
We study the flavour singlet pseudoscalar mesons from first principles using lattice QCD. With N f =2 flavours of light quark, this is the so-called η 2 meson and we discuss the phenomenological status of this. Using maximally twisted-mass lattice QCD, we extract the mass of the η 2 meson at two values of the lattice spacing for lighter quarks than previously discussed in the literature. We are able to estimate the mass value in the limit of light quarks with their physical masses. (orig.)
Critical Opalescence in Baryonic QCD Matter
Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Kapoyannis, A. S.; Kousouris, K. S.
2006-07-01
We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies.
Critical Opalescence in Baryonic QCD Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Kapoyannis, A. S.; Kousouris, K. S.
2006-01-01
We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies
Quasiparticles in QCD thermodynamics and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, R.A.; Renk, T.
2002-01-01
We propose a novel quasiparticle interpretation of the equation of state of deconfined QCD at finite temperature. Using appropriate thermal masses, we introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the onset of confinement in the vicinity of the phase transition. Lattice results of the energy density, the pressure and the interaction measure of pure SU(3) gauge theory are well reproduced. A relation between the thermal energy density of the Yang-Mills vacuum and the chromomagnetic condensate left angle B 2 right angle T is found. We also present the two flavour QCD equation of state for realistic quark masses and apply the model to dilepton production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Measuring infrared contributions to the QCD pressure
Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, K; Schröder, Y
2002-01-01
For the pressure (or free energy) of QCD, four-dimensional (4d) lattice data is available at zero baryon density up to a few times the critical temperature $T_c$. Perturbation theory, on the other hand, has serious convergence problems even at very high temperatures. In a combined analytical and three-dimensional (3d) lattice method, we show that it is possible to compute the QCD pressure from about $2 T_c$ to infinity. The numerical accuracy is good enough to resolve in principle, e.g., logarithmic contributions related to 4-loop perturbation theory.
Identifying QCD Transition Using Deep Learning
Zhou, Kai; Pang, Long-gang; Su, Nan; Petersen, Hannah; Stoecker, Horst; Wang, Xin-Nian
2018-02-01
In this proceeding we review our recent work using supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify the QCD equation of state (EoS) employed in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions given only final-state particle spectra ρ(pT, V). We showed that there is a traceable encoder of the dynamical information from phase structure (EoS) that survives the evolution and exists in the final snapshot, which enables the trained CNN to act as an effective "EoS-meter" in detecting the nature of the QCD transition.
Automation of one-loop QCD corrections
Hirschi, Valentin; Frixione, Stefano; Garzelli, Maria Vittoria; Maltoni, Fabio; Pittau, Roberto
2011-01-01
We present the complete automation of the computation of one-loop QCD corrections, including UV renormalization, to an arbitrary scattering process in the Standard Model. This is achieved by embedding the OPP integrand reduction technique, as implemented in CutTools, into the MadGraph framework. By interfacing the tool so constructed, which we dub MadLoop, with MadFKS, the fully automatic computation of any infrared-safe observable at the next-to-leading order in QCD is attained. We demonstrate the flexibility and the reach of our method by calculating the production rates for a variety of processes at the 7 TeV LHC.
Brane-induced Skyrmion on S3: Baryonic matter in holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru
2009-01-01
We study baryonic matter in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory. The baryon is described as the 'brane-induced Skyrmion', which is a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in the four-dimensional meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. We employ the ''truncated-resonance model'' approach for the baryon analysis, including pion and ρ meson fields below the ultraviolet cutoff scale M KK ∼1 GeV, to keep the holographic duality with QCD. We describe the baryonic matter in large N c as single brane-induced Skyrmion on the three-dimensional closed manifold S 3 with finite radius R. The interactions between baryons are simulated by the curvature of the closed manifold S 3 , and the decrease of the size of S 3 represents the increase of the total baryon-number density in the medium in this modeling. We investigate the energy density, the field configuration, the mass and the root-mean-square radius of single baryon on S 3 as the function of its radius R. We find a new picture of 'pion dominance' near the critical density in the baryonic matter, where all the (axial) vector meson fields disappear and only the pion fields survive. We also find the swelling phenomena of the baryons as the precursor of the deconfinement, and propose the mechanism of the swelling in the general context of QCD. The properties of the deconfinement and the chiral symmetry restoration in the baryonic matter are examined by taking the proper order parameters. We also compare our truncated-resonance model with another instanton description of the baryon in holographic QCD, considering the role of cutoff scale M KK .
In-medium meson properties and screening correlators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazavov, A; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Maezawa, Y
2014-01-01
We study spatial meson correlation functions consisting of strange quarks, strange and charm quarks and charm quarks in (2 + 1)-flavor QCD using the highly improved staggered quark action. We find that the in-medium modification of the meson correlators decreases with increasing charm quark content and decreasing size. In particular, we find strong in-medium modification of φ and D s meson correlators around the chiral transition temperature T c , while J/ψ and η c correlators show strong in-medium modification only at temperatures of 1.4T c .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcelay, I.; Pena, E.; Al Omar, A.
2016-10-01
The thermo-mechanical behavior of medium carbon microalloyed steel has been analyzed by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The flow curves for training the ANN have been obtained from the hot compression tests, carried out over a temperature range varying from 900 to 1150 degree centigrade and at different true strain rates ranging from 10{sup -}4 to 10 s{sup -}1. It has been found that the ANN model developed in this study is capable to predict accurately and efficiently the flow behavior of the studied steel and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and the ANN results. To analyze the formability of the studied steel, processing maps have been constructed on the basis of the Dynamic Materials Model (DMM), using the ANN values of the flow stress. The study of maps reveals the different domains of the flow behavior of the studied steel and shows the great similarity between the experimental results and the theoretical results, so the use of the ANN can constitute an interesting alternative for design and study of hot forming processes. (Author)
Dual QCD and phase transition in early universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P.K.; Nandan, Hemwati
2009-01-01
The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum with condensed monopoles/ dyons (i.e., a dual Ginzburg- Landau (DGL) type model of QCD or dual QCD) has been quite successful to describe the large-distance behavior of QCD vacuum. Further, such DGL theory of QCD at finite temperature is also found to be useful in studying the phase transition process as believed to occur in early universe. In the present article, we have used the DGL theory of QCD with dyons to study the hadronisation in early universe. The effective potential at finite temperature is calculated. The notions of the phase transition in the background of the dyonically condensed QCD vacuum has been investigated by calculating the critical temperature in view of the temperature dependent couplings
Pentaquarks in QCD Sum Rule Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues da Silva, R.; Matheus, R.D.; Navarra, F.S.; Nielsen, M.
2004-01-01
We estimate the mass of recently observed pentaquak staes Ξ- (1862) and Θ+(1540) using two kinds of interpolating fields, containing two highly correlated diquarks, in the QCD sum rule approach. We obtained good agreement with the experimental value, using standard continuum threshold
QCD in hadron-hadron collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrow, M.
1997-03-01
Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E T jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction
The QCD Running Coupling and its Measurement
Altarelli, Guido
2013-01-01
In this lecture, after recalling the basic definitions and facts about the running coupling in QCD, I present a critical discussion of the methods for measuring $\\alpha_s$ and select those that appear to me as the most reliably precise
Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adomeit Stefanie
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.
QCD parton model at collider energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.K.
1984-09-01
Using the example of vector boson production, the application of the QCD improved parton model at collider energies is reviewed. The reliability of the extrapolation to SSC energies is assessed. Predictions at √S = 0.54 TeV are compared with data. 21 references
Feynman integrals in QCD made simple
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A key insight is that important properties of these functions can be predicted by inspecting the singularity structure of the Feynman integrand. Combined with the differential equations technique, this gives a powerful method for computing the necessary Feynman integrals. I will review these ideas, based on Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 25, and present recent new results relevant for QCD scattering amplitudes.
Mixed colour states in QCD confining vacuum
Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.
2005-01-01
We show that confinement of spinless heavy quarks in fundamental representation of $SU(N_{c})$ gauge group can be treated as decoherence of pure colour state into a white mixture of states. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the tension of QCD string and the distance between colour charges. The purity of colour states is calculated.
QCD and asymptotic freedom: Perspectives and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczek, F.
1993-01-01
QCD is now a mature theory, and it is possible to begin to view its place in the conceptual universe of physics with an appropriate perspective. There is a certain irony in the achievements of QCD. For the problems which initially drove its development - specifically, the desire to understand in detail the force that holds atomic nuclei together, and later the desire to calculate the spectrum of hadrons and their interactions - only limited insight has been achieved. However, the author shall argue that QCD is actually more special and important a theory than one had any right to anticipate. In many ways, the importance of the solution transcends that of the original motivating problems. After elaborating on these quasiphilosophical remarks, he discusses two current frontiers of physics that illustrate the continuing vitality of the ideas. The recent wealth of beautiful precision experiments measuring the parameters of the standard model have made it possible to consider the unification of couplings in unprecedented quantitative detail. One central result emerging from these developments is a tantalizing hint of virtual supersymmetry. The possibility of phase transitions in matter at temperatures of order ∼ 10 2 MeV, governed by QCD dynamics, is of interest from several points of view. Finally, at the end, there is a brief discussion on the relation between scaling violations and running of the coupling
Low-energy QCD and ultraviolet renormalons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peris, S.
1997-01-01
We discuss the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) renormalons in QCD to two-point functions of quark current operators. This explicitly includes effects due to the exchange of one renormalon chain as well as two chains. It is shown that, when the external Euclidean momentum of the two-point functions becomes smaller than the scale Λ L associated with the Landau singularity of the QCD one-loop running coupling constant, the positions of the UV renormalons in the Borel plane become true singularities in the integration range of the Borel transform. This introduces ambiguities in the evaluation of the corresponding two-point functions. The ambiguities associated with the leading UV renormalon singularity are of the same type as the contribution due to the inclusion of dimension d=6 local operators in a low-energy effective Lagrangian valid at scales smaller than Λ L . We then discuss the inclusion of an infinite number of renormalon chains and argue that the previous ambiguity hints at a plausible approximation scheme for low-energy QCD, resulting in an effective Lagrangian similar to the one of the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model of QCD at large N c . (orig.)
Large Nc QCD at nonzero chemical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, Thomas D.
2004-01-01
The general issue of large N c QCD at nonzero chemical potential is considered with a focus on understanding the difference between large N c QCD with an isospin chemical potential and large N c QCD with a baryon chemical potential. A simple diagrammatic analysis analogous to 't Hooft's analysis at μ=0 implies that the free energy with a given baryon chemical potential is equal to the free energy with an isospin chemical potential of the same value plus 1/N c corrections. Phenomenologically, these two systems behave quite differently. A scenario to explain this difference in light of the diagrammatic analysis is explored. This scenario is based on a phase transition associated with pion condensation when the isospin chemical potential exceeds m π /2; associated with this transition there is breakdown of the 1/N c expansion--in the pion condensed phase there is a distinct 1/N c expansion including a larger set of diagrams. While this scenario is natural, there are a number of theoretical issues which at least superficially challenge it. Most of these can be accommodated. However, the behavior of quenched QCD which raises a number of apparently analogous issues cannot be easily understood completely in terms of an analogous scenario. Thus, the overall issue remains open
Lattice investigations of the QCD phase diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, Jana
2016-01-01
To understand the physics in the early universe as well as in heavy ion collisions a throughout understanding of the theory of strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), is important. Lattice QCD provides a tool to study it from first principles. However due to the sign problem direct simulations with physical conditions are at the moment limited to zero chemical potential. In this thesis I present a circumvention of this problem. We can gain information on the QCD phase diagram and the equation of state from analytical continuation of results extracted from simulations at imaginary chemical potential. The topological susceptibility is very expensive to compute in Lattice QCD. However it provides an important ingredient for the estimation of the axion mass. The axion is a possible candidate for a dark matter, which plays in important role in the understanding of our universe. In this thesis I discuss two techniques that make it possible to determine the topological susceptibility and allow for an estimation of the axion mass. I then use this mass restrain to analyze the idea of an experiment to detect axions with a dielectric mirror.
Lattice investigations of the QCD phase diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Jana
2016-12-15
To understand the physics in the early universe as well as in heavy ion collisions a throughout understanding of the theory of strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), is important. Lattice QCD provides a tool to study it from first principles. However due to the sign problem direct simulations with physical conditions are at the moment limited to zero chemical potential. In this thesis I present a circumvention of this problem. We can gain information on the QCD phase diagram and the equation of state from analytical continuation of results extracted from simulations at imaginary chemical potential. The topological susceptibility is very expensive to compute in Lattice QCD. However it provides an important ingredient for the estimation of the axion mass. The axion is a possible candidate for a dark matter, which plays in important role in the understanding of our universe. In this thesis I discuss two techniques that make it possible to determine the topological susceptibility and allow for an estimation of the axion mass. I then use this mass restrain to analyze the idea of an experiment to detect axions with a dielectric mirror.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Changrim; Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Suzuki, Junji
2008-01-01
Beisert et al. have identified an integrable SU(2,2) quantum spin chain which gives the one-loop anomalous dimensions of certain operators in large N c QCD. We derive a set of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs) for this model, and compute the scattering matrix of the various (in particular, magnon) excitations
Multiparton interactions and multiparton distributions in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus
2011-11-15
After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multiparton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multiparton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (orig.)
Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dru B Renner, Xu Feng, Karl Jansen, Marcus Petschlies
2011-12-01
Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we will examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We will then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we will mention applications to the Adler function, the determination of the strong coupling constant and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.
Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S
2004-08-04
Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.
Hadron interactions at high energy in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, E.M.; Ryskin, M.G.
1988-01-01
Well known the typical hadronic interactions at high energy are soft processes occurring at large distances where the mysterious confinement forces should be essential. Due to this fact, discussing these processes at first sight the authors are to use and really use some models that incorporate their educated guess about the confinement and utilize the QCD degrees of freedom. But really these models use the QCD terminology rather than the explicit form of the QCD interaction. Up to now the multiparticle dynamics had been the dynamics of reggeons with some detailization coming from their hypothesis about confinement. It is the Reggeon Calculus or the reggeon phenomenology that allows them to describe the main properties of exclusive and inclusive reactions at high energy in agreement with experiment. This paper discusses this problem at this Symposium in many details. However, such pure phenomenological understanding cannot satisfy all of us at the moment. The authors would like to understand the multiparticle production and other soft processes at high energy in more microscopic way using directly the form of the QCD Lagrangian
Sound speed during the QCD phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagasawa, Michiyasu; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
1998-01-01
The Jeans scale is estimated during the coexistence epoch of quark-gluon and hadron phases in the first-order QCD phase transition. It is shown that, contrary to previous claims, reduction of the sound speed is so little that the phase transition does not affect evolution of cosmological density fluctuations appreciably. (author)
Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio
2011-01-01
We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound...
Lattice QCD simulation of meson exchange forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.G.; Sinclair, D.K.; Sivers, D.
1990-01-01
We present the formalism for investigating the bar Qq bar Qq system in lattice QCD. This system serves as a model for describing exchange forces between heavy, static hadrons. We use this formalism to calculate the exchange potential from gauge configurations which incorporate the effects of dynamical quarks. Our data can be interpreted as giving preliminary results on the range of the nuclear force
A QCD motivated model for soft processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kormilitzin, A.; Levin, E.
2009-01-01
In this talk we give a brief description of a QCD motivated model for both hard and soft interactions at high energies. In this model the long distance behaviour of the scattering amplitude is determined by the dipole scattering amplitude in the saturation domain.
A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2009-11-15
ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)
A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2009-11-01
ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)
Multiparton interactions and multiparton distributions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diehl, Markus
2011-11-01
After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multiparton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multiparton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (orig.)
Parametric form of QCD travelling waves
Peschanski, R.
2005-01-01
We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.
Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renner, Dru B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Feng, Xu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus)
2012-06-15
Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements, effective field theory techniques and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we mention applications to the Adler function, which can be used to determine the strong coupling constant, and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.
The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.
Dawson, S.
2002-06-01
The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.
Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S
2004-01-01
Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized
Phase transitions: the lattice QCD approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavai, R.V.
1986-01-01
Recent results in the field of finite temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are presented with special emphasis on comparison of the different methods used to incorporate the dynamical fermions. Attempts to obtain a nonperturbative estimate of the velocity of sound in both the hadronic and quark-gluon phase are summarized along with the results. 15 refs., 7 figs
On-Shell Methods in Perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.
2007-01-01
We review on-shell methods for computing multi-parton scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD, utilizing their unitarity and factorization properties. We focus on aspects which are useful for the construction of one-loop amplitudes needed for phenomenological studies at the Large Hadron Collider
Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.
1995-01-01
In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer
HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.
2010-01-01
We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.
Future cosmological sensitivity for hot dark matter axions
Archidiacono, Maria; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y Y
2015-01-01
We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\\rm QCD} \\sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \\gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is n...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zachariasen, F.
1986-01-01
The author describes the construction of an effective action describing long-range Yang-Mills theory. This action is motivated by a study of the system of Dyson equations and Ward identities, but cannot (yet) be derived from the underlying quantum theory. The effective action turns out to describe a medium very much like a dual relativistic superconductor; that is, with electric and magnetic fields interchanged. There is a dual Meissner effect, which serves to compress color electric fields into flux tubes, containing quantized units of color electric flux. This produces electric confinement. There is a magnetic condensate, resulting from a spontaneous symmetry breaking analogous to that in the relativistic superconductor, as in the Abelian Higgs model. He gives the motivation leading to the effective action, and describes the quantized electric flux tube solutions. Finally, he mentions briefly some other applications
Equilibration of matter near the QCD critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravina, L V; Arsene, I; Nilsson, M S; Tywoniuk, K; Zabrodin, E E
2006-01-01
The relaxation of hot and dense nuclear matter to local equilibrium in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around 40 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model. Dynamical calculations performed for the central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. It is found that kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrations of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached for the period of 10-18 fm/c. Within this time, the matter in the cell expands almost isentropically. It is quite interesting that in the T-μ B plane the system crosses the critical point predicted by lattice QCD calculations. Similar to the cells studied at lower (AGS) and higher (SPS, RHIC) energies, the central cell at 40 A GeV possesses negative (though small) net strangeness. Several peculiarities are observed as well. These features can be attributed to the transition from baryon-dominated to meson-dominated matter, discussed recently
Extension of the HAL QCD approach to inelastic and multi-particle scatterings in lattice QCD
Aoki, S.
We extend the HAL QCD approach, with which potentials between two hadrons can be obtained in QCD at energy below inelastic thresholds, to inelastic and multi-particle scatterings. We first derive asymptotic behaviors of the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave function at large space separations for systems with more than 2 particles, in terms of the one-shell $T$-matrix consrainted by the unitarity of quantum field theories. We show that its asymptotic behavior contains phase shifts and mixing angles of $n$ particle scatterings. This property is one of the essential ingredients of the HAL QCD scheme to define "potential" from the NBS wave function in quantum field theories such as QCD. We next construct energy independent but non-local potentials above inelastic thresholds, in terms of these NBS wave functions. We demonstrate an existence of energy-independent coupled channel potentials with a non-relativistic approximation, where momenta of all particles are small compared with their own masses. Combining these two results, we can employ the HAL QCD approach also to investigate inelastic and multi-particle scatterings.
Solar 'hot spots' are still hot
Bai, Taeil
1990-01-01
Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, T.
1990-01-01
Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs
QCD and panti p collider physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.
1983-01-01
The relevance for QCD of experiments at the SPS collider rests on the possibility they offer of testing parton dynamics in a new and highly non trivial configuration. For example, hadron-hadron interactions in the deep inelastic, large Psub(perpendicular to), region are non linear in parton densities. Also the relevant predictions cannot be derived by less committed formulations than the explicit QCD improved parton model, as for example light cone dominance and operator expansion. This complexity, which is important for providing qualitatively new testing grounds is however paid for by a loss of precision in predictive power. In addition to that, panti p collisions are also important as jet sources with an energy scale comparable to that of an e + e - ring with beam energy up to 50 GeV and more. (orig./HSI)
Effective Chiral Lagrangians and Lattice QCD
Heitger, J; Wittig, H; Heitger, Jochen; Sommer, Rainer; Wittig, Hartmut
2000-01-01
We propose a general method to obtain accurate estimates for some of the "low-energy constants" in the one-loop effective chiral Lagrangian by means of simulating lattice QCD. In particular, the method is sensitive to those constants whose values are required to test the hypothesis of a massless up-quark. Initial tests performed in the quenched approximation confirm that good statistical precision can be achieved. As a byproduct we obtain an accurate estimate for the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants, F_K/F_pi, in the quenched approximation, which lies 10% below the experimental result. The quantities that serve to extract the low-energy constants also allow a test of the scaling behaviour of different discretizations of QCD and a search for the effects of dynamical quarks.
Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shifman, M.A.
1992-01-01
The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have originally been developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This volume presents a collection of papers which provide an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach and priority has been given to the works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view
Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD
Fromm, Michael
2009-01-01
The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.
A transverse lattice QCD model for mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, Apoorva D.; Ratabole, Raghunath
2004-03-01
QCD is analysed with two light-front continuum dimensions and two transverse lattice dimensions. In the limit of large number of colours and strong transverse gauge coupling, the contributions of light-front and transverse directions factorise in the dynamics, and the theory can be analytically solved in a closed form. An integral equation is obtained, describing the properties of mesons, which generalises the 't Hooft equation by including spin degrees of freedom. The meson spectrum, light-front wavefunctions and form factors can be obtained by solving this equation numerically. These results would be a good starting point to model QCD observables which only weakly depend on transverse directions, e.g. deep inelastic scattering structure functions.
Factorization and pion form factor in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.
1979-01-01
The behaviour of the pion electromagnetic form factor (EMFF) in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is discussed. Pion is considered to be a quark-antiquark bound state. It is proposed to use an OPE description of the bound state structure by matrix elements of certain local gauge-invariant operators. Short-distance quark interactions is proved using a direct analysis of perturbation theory in the α-parametric representation of the Feynman diagrams. It is shown that the short-distance parton picture privides a self-consistent description of the large Q 2 momentum behaviour of the pion EMFF in QCD. Pion EMFF asymptotics is expressed in terms of fu fundamental constants of the theory
Probing QCD and new physics with dijets
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
Dijets are the most abundant final state in hadron collisions. During the last 30 years dijets have been used to probe QCD and also search for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Recent results from Tevatron and LHC are discussed that reveal the full physics potential of dijets. Precise measurements of cross sections and angular observables, made possible thanks to the excellent understanding of the jet objects, confront the perturbative QCD predictions at the multi-TeV regime and constrain the PDFs. At the same time, the dijet invariant mass spectrum is used as a means of searching for resonances and for contact interactions between the quarks. Following the success of the LHC Run I physics program, dijets will once again play a central role in the quest for exciting discoveries at Run II, and we are prepared to exploit this powerful final state.
QCD and the chiral critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, S.; Gocksch, A.; Pisarski, R.D.
1994-01-01
As an extension of QCD, consider a theory with ''2+1'' flavors, where the current quark masses are held in a fixed ratio as the overall scale of the quark masses is varied. At nonzero temperature and baryon density it is expected that in the chiral limit the chiral phase transition is of first order. Increasing the quark mass from zero, the chiral transition becomes more weakly first order, and can end in a chiral critical point. We show that the only massless field at the chiral critical point is a σ meson, with the universality class that of the Ising model. Present day lattice simulations indicate that QCD is (relatively) near to the chiral critical point
Phenomenological dynamics in QCD at large distances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogohia, V.Sh.; Kluge, Gy.
1991-07-01
A gauge-invariant, nonperturbative approach to QCD at large distances in the context of the Schwinger-Dyson equations and corresponding Slavnov-Taylor identities in the quark sector is presented. Making only one widely accepted assumption that the full gluon propagator becomes an infrared singular like (q 2 ) -2 in the covariant gauge, we find three and only three confinement-type solutions for the quark propagator (quark confinement theorem.) The approach is free from ghost complications. Also show that multiplication by the quark infrared renormalization constant only, would make all the Green's functions infrared finite (multiplicative renormalizability). The bound-state problem in framework of Bethe-Salpeter equation is discussed as well. Some basic physical parameters of chiral QCD as pion decay constant and quark condensate, have been calculated within our approach. (author) 75 refs.; 14 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.
1981-04-01
The promise of e + e - annihilation as an ideal laboratory to test Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, has been the dominating theme in elementary particle physics during the last several years. An attempt is made to partially survey the subject in deep perturbative region in e + e - annihilation where theoretical ambiguities are minimal. Topics discussed include a review of the renormalization group methods relevant for e + e - annihilation, total hadronic cross section, jets and large-psub(T) phenomena, non-perturbative quark and gluon fragmentation effects and analysis of the jet distributions measured at DORIS, SPEAR and PETRA. My hope is to review realistic tests of QCD in e + e - annihilation - as opposed to the ultimate tests, which abound in literature. (orig.)
QCD studies at the hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flaugher, B.L.
1990-01-01
Two hadron collider experiments are actively pursuing QCD jet analyses. They are CDF, with a √s = 1800 GeV, and UA2, with a √s = 630 GeV. Recent results from these collaborations are discussed. The inclusive jet spectrum, dijet mass and angular distribution are compared to QCD predictions and used to set limits on quark substructure. Data from both experiments are compared to the O(α s 3 ) calculations for the inclusive jet cross section. Studies of 3-jet, 4-jet and 5-jet events are described. A limit is set on the cross section for double parton scattering from the UA2 4-jet analysis. The inclusive photon cross section has been measured by both CDF and UA2 and is compared to theoretical predictions. 13 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab
Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco
2005-01-01
The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental...... representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting...... phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when...
Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makeenko, Yuri
2011-01-01
QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.
Compositeness and QCD at the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, V.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cahn, R.
1987-01-01
Compositeness may be signaled by an increase in the production of high transverse momentum hadronic jet pairs or lepton pairs. The hadronic jet signal competes with the QCD production of jets, a subject of interest in its own right. Tests of perturbative QCD at the SSC will be of special interest because the calculations are expected to be quite reliable. Studies show that compositeness up to a scale of 20 to 35 TeV would be detected in hadronic jets at the SSC. Leptonic evidence would be discovered for scales up to 10 to 20 TeV. The charge asymmetry for leptons would provide information on the nature of the compositeness interaction. Calorimetry will play a crucial role in the detection of compositeness in the hadronic jet signal. Deviations from an e/h response of 1 could mask the effect. The backgrounds for lepton pair production seem manageable. 30 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs
QCD measurements with heavy quarks at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maettig, P.
1991-10-01
Recent experimental results from LEP on strong interactions using heavy quarks are reviewed. By identifying bottom and charm decays, a model independent evidence for the string effect has been found together with a softer fragmentation function of gluons compared to quarks. The comparison of jet properties and the value of the strong coupling constant α s in bottom events and average events provides evidence for the flavour independence of QCD: α b0tt0m s /α s udsc = 1.00 ± 0.05 ± 0.06. The average scaled energy of charmed and bottom hadrons at Z 0 energies is found to be + )> = 0.507 +0.012 -0.015 ± 0.010 = 0.705 ± 0,008 ± 0.010. A comparison with results at lower c.m. energies exhibits significant scaling violations. These are interpreted in the context of various QCD calculations. (orig.)
Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shifman, M.A.
1992-01-01
The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have been originally developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, such as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This collection of papers provides an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach. Priority has been given to those works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view
Exactly soluble QCD and confinement of quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rusakov, B.
1997-01-01
An exactly soluble non-perturbative model of the pure gauge QCD is derived as a weak coupling limit of the lattice theory in plaquette formulation [B. Rusakov, Phys. Lett. B 398 (1997) 331]. The model represents QCD as a theory of the weakly interacting field strength fluxes. The area law behavior of the Wilson loop average is a direct result of this representation: the total flux through macroscopic loop is the additive (due to the weakness of the interaction) function of the elementary fluxes. The compactness of the gauge group is shown to be the factor which prevents the elementary fluxes contributions from cancellation. There is no area law in the non-compact theory. (orig.)
Hadronization of QCD and effective interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, M.R.
1994-01-01
An introductory treatment of hadronization through functional integral calculus and bifocal Bose fields is given. Emphasis is placed on the utility of this approach for providing a connection between QCD and effective hadronic field theories. The hadronic interactions obtained by this method are nonlocal due to the QCD substructure, yet, in the presence of an electromagnetic field, maintain the electromagnetic gauge invariance manifest at the quark level. A local chiral model which is structurally consistent with chiral perturbation theory is obtained through a derivative expansion of the nonlocalities with determined, finite coefficients. Tree-level calculations of the pion form factor and π - π scattering, which illustrate the dual constituent-quark-chiral-model nature of this approach, are presented
The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Perturbation Theory in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C. A.
2011-01-01
The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) of current correlators at short distances beyond perturbation theory in QCD, together with Cauchy's theorem in the complex energy plane, are the pillars of the method of QCD sum rules. This technique provides an analytic tool to relate QCD with hadronic physics at low and intermediate energies. It has been in use for over thirty years to determine hadronic parameters, form factors, and QCD parameters such as the quark masses, and the running strong coupling at the scale of the τ-lepton. QCD sum rules provide a powerful complement to numerical simulations of QCD on the lattice. In this talk a short review of the method is presented for non experts, followed by three examples of recent applications.
The AdS/CFT Correspondence and Holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erlich, J.
2012-01-01
Holographic QCD is an extra-dimensional approach to modeling QCD resonances and their interactions. Holographic models encode information about chiral symmetry breaking, Weinberg sum rules, vector meson dominance, and other phenomenological features of QCD. There are two complementary approaches to holographic model building: a top-down approach which begins with string-theory brane configurations, and a bottom-up approach which is more phenomenological. In this talk I will describe the AdS/CFT correspondence, which motivates Holographic QCD, and the techniques used to build holographic models of QCD and to calculate observables in those models. I will also discuss an intriguing light cone approach to Holographic QCD discovered by Brodsky and De Teramond. (author)
The multiparton distribution equations in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shelest, V.P.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zinovjev, G.M.
1982-01-01
The equations for multiparton distribution functions of deep-inelastic lepton-hadron scattering and fragmentation functions of e + e - annihilation are obtained by using parton interpretation of the leading logarithm diagrams of perturbative QCD theory. These equations have essentially different structute but the solutions are the same on the definite initial conditions and coincide with the jet calculus rules. The difference is crucial when these equations for hadron jets description are generalized [ru
Heavy flavour production in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.
1994-01-01
The status of heavy flavour production in QCD is reviewed. Recent results on the doubly-differential cross section are discussed for the photoproduction of heavy flavours. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical calculation is discussed both for b production at hadron colliders and c production in fixed-target hadroproduction and photoproduction. The possibility of using photoproduction of heavy flavour in order to determine the gluon density in the proton is also discussed. (author). 38 refs., 8 figs
Old tensor mesons in QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, T.M.; Shifman, M.A.
1981-01-01
Tensor mesons f, A 2 and A 3 are analyzed within the framework of QCD sum rules. The effects of gluon and quark condensate is accounted for phenomenologically. Accurate estimates of meson masses and coupling constants of the lowest-lying states are obtained. It is shown that the masses are reproduced within theoretical uncertainty of about 80 MeV. The coupling of f meson to the corresponding quark current is determined. The results are in good aqreement with experimental data [ru
Thermal hadron production by QCD Hawking radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satz, Helmut
2007-01-01
The QCD counterpart of Hawking radiation from black holes leads to thermal hadron production in high energy collisions, from e + e - annihilation to heavy ion interactions. This hadronic radiation is emitted at a universal temperature T≅(σ/2π) 1/2 , where the string tension σ measures the colour field at the event horizon of confinement. Moreover, the emitted radiation is thermal 'at birth'; since the event horizon prevents all information transfer, no memory has to be destroyed kinetically. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Zerwas, P.M.; Walsh, T.F.
1978-12-01
We show how the Q 2 evolution of gluon jets can be used to provide indirect but strong evidence for the 3 gluon vertex of QCD. We propose looking for this evolution in the QantiQ → 3G → hadrons decay of successive 1 3 S 1 quarkonium states. The results apply to other processes if G jets can be isolated. (orig.) [de
Lattice QCD and the Schwarz alternating procedure
Lüscher, Martin
2003-01-01
A numerical simulation algorithm for lattice QCD is described, in which the short- and long-distance effects of the sea quarks are treated separately. The algorithm can be regarded, to some extent, as an implementation at the quantum level of the classical Schwarz alternating procedure for the solution of elliptic partial differential equations. No numerical tests are reported here, but theoretical arguments suggest that the algorithm should work well also at small quark masses.
Starovoitov, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
A short overview of the recent soft QCD results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations is presented. The inelastic cross section measurement by CMS at 13 TeV is summarised. The contribution of the diffractive processes to the very forward photon spectra studied by ATLAS and LHCf is discussed. The ATLAS measurements of the exclusive two-photon production of the muon pairs is presented and compared to the previous ATLAS and CMS results.
Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge
Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya
2007-01-01
In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given $\\theta$ is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of...
Solving QCD using multi-regge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A. R.
1998-01-01
This talk outlines the derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD in which the Regge pole and ''single gluon'' properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. In first approximation, the pomeron is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory
Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A. R.
1998-01-01
To solve QCD at high-energy the authors must simultaneously find the hadronic states and the exchanged pomeron (IP) giving UNITARY scattering amplitudes. Experimentally, the IP ∼ a Regge pole at small Q 2 and a single gluon at larger Q 2 . (F 2 D -H1, dijets-ZEUS). In the solution which the author describes, these non-perturbative properties of the IP are directly related to the non-perturbative confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of hadrons
Canonical ward identities in generalized QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ziping
1995-01-01
The canonical Ward identities for a system with singular higher-order Lagrangian are derived and some application to the generalized QCD are given. The new relations of the Ward identities for gauge ghost field proper vertices are obtained which differ from the usual Ward-Takahashi identities arising from BRS invariance. The expressions for PCAC and generalized PCAC of AVV vertices are also obtained
Renormalization group approach to QCD phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midorikawa, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; So, H.
1987-01-01
Effective scalar theories for QCD are proposed to investigate the deconfining and chiral phase transitions. The orders of the phase transitions are determined by infrared stabilities of the fixed points. It is found that the transitions in SU(3) gauge theories are of 1st order for any number of massless flavors. The cases of SU(2) and SU(4) gauge theories are also discussed. (orig.)
Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, A.W.
1985-01-01
A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)
Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.
2011-01-01
The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S.R. Beane; U. van Kolck
2005-06-01
We show that existing data suggest a simple scenario in which the nucleon and the Delta and Roper resonances act as chiral partners in a reducible representation of the full QCD chiral symmetry group. We discuss the peculiar interpretation of this scenario using spin-flavour symmetries of the naive constituent quark model, as well as the consistency of the scenario with large-Nc expectations.
INSPIRE-00355000
2013-01-01
In this paper, selected CMS measurements sensitive to low-x QCD are presented: inclusive cross-sections for forward-central jets production at \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV, inclusive cross-sections for forward jets production at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, inclusive to exclusive dijets production cross-sections ratios and correlations of Mueller-Navelet dijets at 7 TeV. Results for data are compared to predictions of theoretical models.
High momentum transfer processes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.
1978-01-01
A unified approach to the investigation of inclusive high momentum transfer processes in the QCD framework is proposed. A modified parton model (with parton distribution functions depending on an additional renormalization parameter) is shown to be valid in all orders of perturbation theory. The approach is also applicable for studying wide-angle elastic scattering processes of colourless bound states of quarks (the hadrons). The asymptotic behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor is calculated as an example
Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V.T.
2004-01-01
The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms
QCD Sum Rules, a Modern Perspective
Colangelo, Pietro; Colangelo, Pietro; Khodjamirian, Alexander
2001-01-01
An introduction to the method of QCD sum rules is given for those who want to learn how to use this method. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of sum rules, from the determination of quark masses to the calculation of hadronic form factors and structure functions. Finally, we explain the idea of the light-cone sum rules and outline the recent development of this approach.
Yamamoto, Naoki; Kanazawa, Takuya
2009-01-01
We study the properties of QCD at high baryon density in a finite volume where color superconductivity occurs. We derive exact sum rules for complex eigenvalues of the Dirac operator at finite chemical potential, and show that the Dirac spectrum is directly related to the color superconducting gap $\\Delta$. Also, we find a characteristic signature of color superconductivity: an X-shaped spectrum of partition function zeros in the complex quark mass plane near the origin, reflecting the $Z(2)_...
Diffraction theory in QCD and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1987-01-01
A study of the Pomeron in QCD is briefly outlined. Implications for the production of W + W - and Z 0 Z 0 pairs are described and the possibility that the electroweak scale is a major strong-interaction threshold discussed. The application of Pomeron phase-transition theory to SU(5) dynamical symmetry breaking is suggested and the related ''strong-interaction'' properties of the photon briefly mentioned
The massless limit of supersymmetric QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, A.C.; Dine, M.; Seiberg, N.
1983-01-01
We construct an effective lagrangian for supersymmetric QCD, using a simple set of rules. The model with non-zero quark mass, msub(q), has at least N supersymmetric vacua, where N is the number of colors (in agreement with Witten's index). These vacua move to infinity as msub(q)->0. We study the possibility of supersymmetric breaking at msub(q)=0. (orig.)