WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot opaque sources

  1. Sealed source dismantling hot cell - startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br, E-mail: rojefer@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos radioativos

    2013-07-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology and at the end of the useful life, most sources become radioactive waste. In Brazil, this waste is received by the Institutes of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and kept under centralized storage. The Waste Management Department at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received around 20,000 disused sources. A hot cell was designed and constructed to manage Co-60 spent sealed sources with activity up to 3.7 10{sup 1}0 Bq and other sources with equivalent activities. In the hot cell the sources are withdraw from their original shielding and transferred to a standard shielding for further disposal off. The original shielding disassembling is made outside the hot cell and after opening, it is transferred inside the hot cell and the sealed source is removed remotely. The source is checked in relation to external contamination and its activity is checked. After this, the source is positioned in the standard shielding located inside an overpack at the bottom of the hot cell. This paper describes some pre-operational tests carried out in it, that include: opening and closing doors and locks, checking of all electrical and pneumatic controls, the original shielding movement inside the hot-cell, dose rate measurements outside the hot-cell, insertion of the sealed sources inside the activity meter chamber, transferring the sealed source to the standard shielding, movement of the overpack with the standard shielding to outside of the hot-cell and plugging of the standard shielding. (author)

  2. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  3. Multinationality and Opaqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether and how multinationality affects the opaqueness of the firm. We use multiple alternative measurements of multinationality and opaqueness. Spanning nearly three decades for a large sample of US non-financial firms, we find a statistically and economically significant, positive...... there is harmony between the size of foreign involvement and the extent of the MNC network's geographic dispersion. Previous literature has implicitly assumed a simple, positive relationship. This is the first study to explicitly address the question in a comprehensive manner....

  4. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    As if it werent enough that quasars distant and bright nuclei of galaxies twinkle of their own accord due to internal processes, nature also provides another complication: these distant radio sources can also appear to twinkle because of intervening material between them and us. A new study has identified a possible source for the material getting in the way.Unexplained VariabilityA Spitzer infrared view of the Helix nebula, which contains ionized streamers of gas extending radially outward from the central star. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.]Distant quasars occasionally display extreme scintillation, twinkling with variability timescales shorter than a day. This intra-day variability is much greater than we can account for with standard models of the interstellar medium lying between the quasar and us. So what could cause this extreme scattering instead?The first clue to this mystery came from the discovery of strong variability in the radio source PKS 1322110. In setting up follow-up observations of this object, Mark Walker (Manly Astrophysics, Australia) and collaborators noticed that, in the plane of the sky, PKS 1322110 lies very near the bright star Spica. Could this be coincidence, or might this bright foreground star have something to do with the extreme scattering observed?Diagram explaining the source of the intra-day radio source variability as intervening filaments surrounding a hot star. [M. Walker/CSIRO/Manly Astrophysics]Swarms of ClumpsWalker and collaborators put forward a hypothesis: perhaps the ultraviolet photons of nearby hot stars ionize plasma around them, which in turn causes the extreme scattering of the distant background sources.As a model, the authors consider the Helix Nebula, in which a hot, evolved star is surrounded by cool globules of molecular hydrogen gas. The radiation from the star hits these molecular clumps, dragging them into long radial streamers and ionizing their outer skins.Though the molecular clumps in the Helix

  5. More Authors, More Institutions, and More Funding Sources: Hot Papers in Biology from 1991 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiqi, Zhang

    1997-01-01

    A bibliometric study analyzed the authorship of biology periodicals, "Nature,""Science," and "Cell" from 1991 to 1993. The source data consisted of "hot papers" in biology and a sample of articles from the three periodicals. Results showed that the hot papers have more authors and participating institutions, and that funding sources are related to…

  6. Sunstroke opaque windows; Des vitres opaques aux coups de soleil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.

    2000-10-01

    The Fraunhofer institute of building applied physics (IBP) of Stuttgart (Germany) has developed T-Opal, a new double glazing material with an acrylate resin film. The acrylate film is a thermo-optical polymer which is transparent at low temperature and becomes opaque when the temperature rises above a given value. This new material allows to regulate the insolation of buildings. The only drawback concerns the threshold temperature which is definitely fixed when the glazing material is manufactured. However, the price of this system is 3 to 10 times lower than the electrochromic or integrated blind systems. (J.S.)

  7. Biological shielding test of hot cells with high active source 60Co (300 TBq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švrčula, P.; Zoul, D.; Zimina, M.; Petříčková, A.; Adamíková, T.; Schulc, M.; Srba, O.

    2017-11-01

    This article describes a method for testing of the efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cell facility, which were constructed as a part of the project SUSEN. Ten hot cells and one semi-hot cell are present in the facility Radiochemistry II. The shielding is made from steel plates. In order to demonstrate sufficient efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cells and a correspondence between measured and contractual values at selected points. The test was done using sealed high activity 60Co sources. The results are also used as a proof of the optimization of radiation protection for the workplace of this type. The results confirm significant optimization of radiation protection at the workplace. The dose received by a staff do not exceed one tens of annual limit during active service. Obtained results fulfill general requirements of radiation protection and will be used for further active service of hot cells facility.

  8. Measurements of the Aeroacoustic Sound Source in Hot Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We have succeeded in measuring a substantial portion of the two-point space-time velocity correlation in hot, high speed turbulent jets. This measurement, crucial in aeroacoustic theory and the prediction of jet noise, has been sought for a long time, but has not been made due to the limitations of anemometry. Particle Image Velocimetry has reached a stage of maturity where sufficient measurement density in both time and space allow the computation of space-time correlations. This paper documents these measurements along with lower-order statistics to document the adherence of the jet rig and instrumentation to conventional measures of the turbulence of jets. These measures have been made for a simple round convergent nozzle at acoustic Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.9, both cold and at a static temperature ratio of 2.7, allowing some estimation of the changes in turbulence that take place with changes in jet temperature. Since the dataset described in this paper is very extensive, attention will be focused on validation of the rig and of the measurement systems, and on some of the interesting observations made from studying the statistics, especially as they relate to jet noise. Of note is the effort to study the acoustically relevant part of the space-time correlation by addressing that part of the turbulence kinetic energy that has sonic phase speed.

  9. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Reponen, M; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A

    2015-01-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Agisotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusio...

  10. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reponen, M., E-mail: mikael.reponen@riken.jp [Nuclear Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Moore, I. D., E-mail: iain.d.moore@jyu.fi; Pohjalainen, I.; Savonen, M.; Voss, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Rothe, S. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sonnenschein, V. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Ag isotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary {sup 107}Ag{sup 21+} ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z {sup 94}Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusion coefficients for silver in graphite were measured for temperatures of 1470 K, 1630 K, and 1720 K, from which an activation energy of 3.2 ± 0.3 eV could be determined.

  11. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  12. Bacterial tetraethers from Tibetan hot springs: Implications for nitrogen metabolism and biological sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Klotz, M. G.; Dong, H.; Li, W.

    2013-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are considered to be produced by bacteria that are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. Recently, however, in situ production of bGDGTs is reported from a terrestrial hot spring in the Great Basin. In this study, we analyzed water chemistry, bacterial lipids, and pyrosequencing data from 37 Tibetan hot springs in order to evaluate the linkage between biological sources, metabolic processes and the distribution of bGDGTs. Analyses of absolute and relative concentrations of intact polar- and core bGDGTs (IP-bGDGTs and C-bGDGTs) suggest that the bGDGTs are predominantly produced in situ in Tibetan hot springs. Cluster analysis separated the hot spring samples into three major groups, which showed significant relationships between bGDGTs and concentrations of ammonia, nitrite or nitrate. The nirS gene abundance also correlated significantly with bGDGTs. These results indicate that the bGDGT-producing organisms may be involved in nitrogen metabolism in the Tibetan hot springs. Pyrosequencing analysis identified eight phyla of Bacteria (Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Spirochetes) that may be potential sources of bGDGTs based on significant correlations of these organisms with the distribution of different bGDGTs. Representatives of these phyla have been implicated in nitrogen oxide transformations in many diverse environments including hot springs. Overall, our results suggest that bacteria producing bGDGTs may play an important role in nitrogen cycle in the Tibetan hot springs.

  13. The analysis of unit costs of preparing hot water for various sources of heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of energy consumption and the cost of its production by the systems of supply of hot water depending on the applied heat sources and destination of a building. The calculations have taken into account the efficiency of the adopted installation solutions that have a direct impact on energy consumption. The following parameters have been determined: the size of the seasonal demand for hot water, an annual amount of fuel needed to its production and annual operating costs. The calculations have been performed for residential buildings and public buildings, whilst maintaining the same usable space. The aim of the article is to determine the rate of the amount of fuel, needed to heat to the desired temperature, a unit volume of water depending on the type of heat source and destination of a premises. For the adopted variants of installation, the ratio of production costs of unit volume of hot water has been also determined. The indicators of the fuel amount and the cost of hot water pointed out in the article may be one of the criteria for selection of an effective system for the preparation of hot water.

  14. Study of Low Work Function Materials for Hot Cavity Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B; Mattolat, C; Menna, Mariano; Österdahl, F; Raeder, S; Schwellnus, F; Stora, T; Wendt, K; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization on the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high-temperature, low-work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE / CERN, Geneva and RISIKO / University of Mainz.

  15. Study of low work function materials for hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Schwellnus, F; Crepieux, B; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Mattolat, Ch; Menna, M; Österdahl, F K; Raeder, S; Stora, T; Wendta, K

    2009-01-01

    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization of the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high temperature, low work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva and RISIKO/University of Mainz.

  16. Ultrasound thermometry in transparent and opaque fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, S.; Andereck, C.D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 43210, Columbus, OH (United States); Rahal, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Batna, Batna (Algeria)

    2003-08-01

    We have exploited the temperature dependence of sound velocity to measure the thermal fields in transparent and opaque fluids. A chamber containing glycerol undergoing Rayleigh-Benard convection was probed with an ultrasound transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode. The times-of-flight for the ultrasound pulse to traverse the fluid at several transducer locations were converted into a temperature profile that is in qualitative agreement with simultaneous thermochromic liquid crystal visualization of the flow pattern. Temperature profiles in a mercury-filled stainless steel chamber have also been obtained, both for quiescent and turbulent flows, thereby validating the ultrasound thermometry concept for opaque fluids as well. (orig.)

  17. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of porous opaque PMMA foils to be laser irradiated producing ion acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Cutroneo Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of pore size in the opaque poly(methyl methacrylate) and its composition is investigated by optical measurements as well as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analyses. The enhancement of the absorption coefficient induced by the presence of micrometric beads makes these porous thin foils high absorbent to IR radiation and suitable to be laser irradiated in order to generate a hot plasma rich in proton emission. The presented results ...

  19. Image Transmission Through an Opaque Material

    CERN Document Server

    Popoff, S M; Fink, M; Boccara, A C; Gigan, S

    2010-01-01

    Optical imaging relies on the ability to illuminate an object and to collect and make sense of the light it scatters or transmit. Propagation through complex media such as biological tissues was so far believed to degrade the attainable depth as well as the resolution for imaging \\cite{sebbah2001introduction} because of multiple scattering. This is why such media are usually considered opaque. Recent experiments have demonstrated that multiply scattered light can in fact be harnessed thanks to wavefront control, and even put to profit to surpass what one can achieve within a homogenous medium in terms of focusing. Very recently, we have proven that it is possible to measure the complex mesoscopic optical transmission channels that allow light to traverse through an opaque medium. Here we show that we can optimally exploit those channels to coherently transmit and recover with a high fidelity an arbitrary image, independently of the complexity of the propagation. Our approach gives a general framework for cohe...

  20. Lafayette meteorite - Petrology and opaque mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boctor, N. Z.; Meyer, H. O. A.; Kullerud, G.

    1976-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite is a calcium-rich achondrite composed predominantly of cumulus clinopyroxene with minor iron-rich olivine and rare interstitial feldspar. The opaque oxide minerals are magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths, an apparently homogenous Cr-rich titaniferous magnetite, and discrete ilmenite. Pyrite, the major sulfide mineral, occasionally displays lamellar intergrowths of marcasite that appear to be of primary origin. Troilite occurs as inclusions in ilmenite or interstitial to the silicate minerals. Bulk chemical composition of the glass in the fusion crust is comparable with that of the Nakhla meteorite. The glass contains abundant skeletal crystals of magnetite as well as very rare, zoned magnetite grains with rims enriched in Mg and depleted in Ti relative to the cores. Although no brecciation is visible in the Lafayette meteorite, the presence of deformed twin lamellae in the clinopyroxene indicates some deformation has occurred.

  1. Marker assisted introgression of opaque2 gene into herbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opaque2 while 3% were non-opaque2. Both methods of conventional breeding using light table and marker assisted selection (MAS) were comparable. However, the application of SSR markers and the. FTA technology offers the breeder a fast, time saving, reliable and less labour intensive method of screening QPM maize ...

  2. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  3. Tree Coring as a Complement to Soil Gas Screening to Locate PCE and TCE Source Zones and Hot Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rehne Jensen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    ) or trichloroethylene (TCE) to evaluate their ability to locate source zones and contaminant hot spots. One test site represented a relatively homogeneous sandy soil and aquifer, and the second a more heterogeneous geology with both sandy and less permeable clay till layers overlying a chalk aquifer. Tree cores from...... different tree species were sampled and analysed, and compared to soil gas measurements and existing soil gas data. Both methods were found useful as screening tools to locate hot spots of PCE and TCE in the shallow subsurface. Tree coring was found to be particularly beneficial as a complement to soil gas...... the feasibility of using tree coring to locate the hot spots. Moreover, a combination of the two methods can help to focus any subsequent investigations like soil or groundwater sampling. The use of tree coring to complement soil gas sampling for pre-screening is expected to result in higher certainty...

  4. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke

    2010-06-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  5. Selected Apollo 17 soils - Mineralogy and geochemistry of opaque and non-opaque phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Sardi, O.; Williams, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    Soil samples 74220 ('orange soil'), 74241 and 75081 were sized, and the compositions of the opaque and silicate phases were determined. The ilmenites, particularly in 74241, contain up to 7.8 wt % MgO and display higher bireflectance than low-Mg ilmenites. They commonly contain exsolution-like chromite and rutile and occasionally are in association with native Fe in an assemblage probably resulting from reduction. The chromian ulvospinels are similar to Apollo 11 spinels in that they contain near-equal amounts of chromite and ulvospinel molecules. No primary chromites were observed. Most native Fe has No and Co contents of less than 1 wt %; some in 74220 contained 5-6% Ni and less than 1% Co in association with schreibersite.

  6. Sexual Biofilm Formation in Candida tropicalis Opaque Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that can transition between white and opaque phenotypic states. White and opaque cells differ both morphologically and in their responses to environmental signals. In C. albicans, opaque cells respond to sexual pheromones by undergoing conjugation, while white cells are induced by pheromones to form sexual biofilms. Here, we show that sexual biofilm formation also occurs in C. tropicalis but, unlike C. albicans, biofilms are formed exclusively by opaque cells. C. tropicalis biofilm formation was dependent on the pheromone receptors Ste2 and Ste3, confirming the role of pheromone signaling in sexual biofilm development. Structural analysis of C. tropicalis sexual biofilms revealed stratified communities consisting of a basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells, together with an extracellular matrix. Transcriptional profiling showed that genes involved in pheromone signaling and conjugation were upregulated in sexual biofilms. Furthermore, FGR23, which encodes an agglutinin-like protein, was found to enhance both mating and sexual biofilm formation. Together, these studies reveal that C. tropicalis opaque cells form sexual biofilms with a complex architecture, and suggest a conserved role for sexual agglutinins in mediating mating, cell cohesion and biofilm formation. PMID:24612417

  7. Le paradoxe d’une transparence « opaque »

    OpenAIRE

    Guittonneau, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Il s’agit, ici, d’interroger les formations paradoxales au cœur de certaines organisations psychiques. Si elles témoignent souvent de l’aliénation produite par les relations d’emprise, elles montrent aussi l’inventivité dont fait preuve la psyché pour s’y soustraire. Tel est le cas de la transparence opaque que l’on découvre parfois. Prenant forme dans les mots, les comportements et dans une mise au silence des affects, cette transparence opaque, qui se donne à ressent...

  8. Optimization of a hot-cavity type resonant ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henares, J. L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr; Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Vignet, J. L. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T.; Naubereit, P.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Le Blanc, F. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France)

    2016-02-15

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented.

  9. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  10. Opaque contact lens treatment for older children with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Brown, Sandra M; Mathews, Taryn A; Mathews, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of daily-wear opaque contact lens treatment for older children with amblyopia. A retrospective chart review of all children undergoing opaque contact lens therapy for amblyopia between 2000 and 2003 was performed. All patients were included except for those younger than 5 years of age, those undergoing maintenance treatment only, those lost to follow-up, or those unable to cooperate with Snellen visual acuity testing. Thirteen children were identified, and seven met the inclusion criteria. The seven patients had a mean age of 7.5 years (range, 5.7-8.7 years). The causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (five patients), cataract (one patient), and strabismus (one patient). For all seven patients, the mean logMAR improvement in visual acuity was 0.52 (range, 0.26-1.22). The average duration of opaque contact lens use was 9.3 months (range, 2-21 months). Compliance problems were encountered in three patients. No major complications occurred, but one patient had an episode of mild superficial punctate keratitis. Daily-wear opaque contact lens treatment is a useful occlusion method for amblyopia treatment in older children with various practical and social impediments to skin patching. Meaningful improvement in visual acuity can be obtained, even in children older than 8 years of age.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of porous opaque PMMA foils to be laser irradiated producing ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of pore size in the opaque poly(methyl methacrylate) and its composition is investigated by optical measurements as well as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analyses. The enhancement of the absorption coefficient induced by the presence of micrometric beads makes these porous thin foils high absorbent to IR radiation and suitable to be laser irradiated in order to generate a hot plasma rich in proton emission. The presented results indicate that the high optical transparency of PMMA foils can be strongly reduced by the presence of the micrometric acrylic beads and that the presence of high Z-metallic nanoparticles, such as gold, embedded in the polymer enhances the acceleration of emitted ions. The fabricated advanced targets have been irradiated by lasers at low intensity (Messina University) and at high intensity (PALS Research Infrastructure in Prague) generating plasma accelerating high proton yield and energy.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of porous opaque PMMA foils to be laser irradiated producing ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutroneo Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pore size in the opaque poly(methyl methacrylate and its composition is investigated by optical measurements as well as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analyses. The enhancement of the absorption coefficient induced by the presence of micrometric beads makes these porous thin foils high absorbent to IR radiation and suitable to be laser irradiated in order to generate a hot plasma rich in proton emission. The presented results indicate that the high optical transparency of PMMA foils can be strongly reduced by the presence of the micrometric acrylic beads and that the presence of high Z-metallic nanoparticles, such as gold, embedded in the polymer enhances the acceleration of emitted ions. The fabricated advanced targets have been irradiated by lasers at low intensity (Messina University and at high intensity (PALS Research Infrastructure in Prague generating plasma accelerating high proton yield and energy.

  13. Quantification of diffuse and fugitive PM10 sources by integrated “hot-spot” method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, C.; Cosemans, G.; Bleux, N.; Berghmans, P.; Deutsch, F.; Janssen, L.; Liekens, I.; Torfs, R.; Van Rompaey, H.

    2011-04-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, various exceedances of air quality directive 1999/30/EC were reported in a number of PM 10 monitoring stations in Flanders. A study was carried out with the objectives: i) to identify and quantify the sources that have caused or have contributed to the exceedances over this period; and ii) to propose suitable emission reduction measures to comply with the current air quality standards (2010). We followed an integrated multi-disciplinary approach consisting of a detailed analysis of the PM 10 data series, specific air quality measuring campaigns, air quality modelling and expertise on emission reduction measures (including current BAT and BREF studies). The data analysis was based on 5 steps: 1) The pollution roses of the individual monitoring stations were analyzed. 2) The variation of the PM 10 concentration in function of wind speed was assessed to determine whether we were dealing with a fugitive source of primary particles (e.g. mineral dust) or a source of smaller secondary particles taken up and dispersed by the ambient air flow (e.g. industrial combustion sources or traffic sources). 3) The temporal patterns of the potential sources were analyzed. 4) Specific measurement campaigns were organized in the neighbourhood of the potential sources. This included mapping of PM 10 concentrations and a detailed analysis of the chemical composition. 5) The (fugitive) PM 10 sources were quantified by means of reversed modelling. After deduction of a high background concentration, observed in all monitoring stations in Flanders, results for the individual monitoring stations show that in almost all cases the peak concentrations can be attributed to local fugitive PM 10 emissions. Thus for most of the analysed cases it could be concluded that the cause of the exceedances or nearly exceedances is the combination of high background concentrations and local contributions from diffuse or fugitive sources. The total contribution of these non

  14. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  15. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  16. Thermal Modelling of Amagmatic Heat Sources as an Exploration Tool for Hot Rock Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescinsky, D. T.; Budd, A. R.; Champion, D. C.; Gerner, E. J.; Kirkby, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geothermal resources in Australia are amagmatic, "Hot Rock" systems, and unrelated to active volcanism or plate margin collision. Instead, these resources are typically associated with heat from radioactive decay in high-heat-producing (HHP) granites (granites containing high concentrations of U, Th and K), coupled with thermal insulation from a thick sediment cover. A greater understanding of the ideal geological components of the Hot Rock system is needed to assist geothermal exploration and reduce risk. Existing geothermal data for Australia (borehole temperatures and heat flow determinations) are limited and collection of additional data is both time consuming and restricted to accessing wells drilled for other purposes. To aid in targeting and prioritizing areas for further study (i.e., evaluations of permeabilities and flow rates), GA has undertaken synthetic thermal modelling, constrained by available geological and geophysical datasets. 150,000 discrete numerical simulations were performed using the SHEMAT computer code. The models were designed to explore the range of geological conditions present in Australia and include variations in intrusive geometry and heat production, sediment thickness and thermal conductivity, basement heat production and basal heat flow. In order to facilitate computation and analysis, plutons were modelled as radially symmetrical cylinders and advective heat transfer was considered to be negligible. The results of the synthetic modelling indicate that significant heat can be generated by granites and trapped in geologically realistic conditions. Temperatures >160°C can be produced with heat production values as low as 2.0 μW/m3, but these scenarios require either unusually large pluton diameters (>50 km), low sediment thermal conductivity (0.05 W/m2). The most geologically reasonable conditions that result in temperatures >160°C, are: pluton diameters 30-40 km; heat production of 4.0-5.0 μW/m3; a basal heat flow of 0.04 W/m2

  17. Hot-cavity studies for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henares, J.L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Le Blanc, F. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France); Leroy, R.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Raeder, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); KU Leuven, Oude Markt 13, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Schneider, F.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) has emerged as an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability, and ability to ionize target elements efficiently and element selectively. GISELE is an off-line RILIS test bench to study the implementation of an on-line laser ion source at the GANIL separator facility. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. The ion source geometry was tested in several configurations in order to find a solution with optimal ionization efficiency and beam emittance. Furthermore, a low work function material was tested to reduce the contaminants and molecular sidebands generated inside the ion source. First results with ZrC ionizer tubes will be presented. Furthermore, a method to measure the energy distribution of the ion beam as a function of the time of flight will be discussed.

  18. Hot expanding source in 50 A.MeV Xe+Sn central reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, N.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Laforest, R.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, J.F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Bacri, Ch.O. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; and others

    1996-09-01

    Evidence are presented for a radial collective motion of the fragments emitted during the multifragmentation of a single source formed in central collisions of the quasi symmetric Xe+Sn system at 50 A.MeV. The experiment was performed using a {sup 129}Xe beam at the GANIL facility. (K.A.). 24 refs.

  19. An opaque surface influences the depth from the Pulfrich phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kham, Keetaek

    2004-01-01

    When a pendulum, swinging in a frontoparallel plane, is viewed with a neutral density filter before one eye, the pendulum bob appears to rotate in an elliptical path. This illusion, known as the Pulfrich phenomenon, was used to examine depth cue interaction in a natural environment. An opaque surface was placed behind the pendulum. This intervention put the 'Pulfrich depth' of the pendulum in conflict with the information provided by other depth cues, such as interposition, and observers reported that the 'far' part of the pendulum's Pulfrich trajectory appeared to be flat. This was not the case when the surface was transparent. If the opaque surface was placed farther behind the pendulum's physical path, the far trajectory became increasingly elliptical. These results suggest that the opaque surface influences the pendulum's depth qualitatively and quantitatively. That is, the depth order between the surface and the pendulum is determined by interposition, but the absolute depth of the pendulum's Pulfrich trajectory is constrained by the surface's depth.

  20. 78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code AGENCY: U.S... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers that infringe...

  1. White-opaque switching in natural MTLa/α isolates of Candida albicans: evolutionary implications for roles in host adaptation, pathogenesis, and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    Full Text Available Phenotypic transitions play critical roles in host adaptation, virulence, and sexual reproduction in pathogenic fungi. A minority of natural isolates of Candida albicans, which are homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL, a/a or α/α, are known to be able to switch between two distinct cell types: white and opaque. It is puzzling that white-opaque switching has never been observed in the majority of natural C. albicans strains that have heterozygous MTL genotypes (a/α, given that they contain all of the opaque-specific genes essential for switching. Here we report the discovery of white-opaque switching in a number of natural a/α strains of C. albicans under a condition mimicking aspects of the host environment. The optimal condition for white-to-opaque switching in a/α strains of C. albicans is to use N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc as the sole carbon source and to incubate the cells in 5% CO2. Although the induction of white-to-opaque switching in a/α strains of C. albicans is not as robust as in MTL homozygotes in response to GlcNAc and CO2, opaque cells of a/α strains exhibit similar features of cellular and colony morphology to their MTL homozygous counterparts. Like MTL homozygotes, white and opaque cells of a/α strains differ in their behavior in different mouse infection models. We have further demonstrated that the transcriptional regulators Rfg1, Brg1, and Efg1 are involved in the regulation of white-to-opaque switching in a/α strains. We propose that the integration of multiple environmental cues and the activation and inactivation of a set of transcriptional regulators controls the expression of the master switching regulator WOR1, which determines the final fate of the cell type in C. albicans. Our discovery of white-opaque switching in the majority of natural a/α strains of C. albicans emphasizes its widespread nature and importance in host adaptation, pathogenesis, and parasexual reproduction.

  2. X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D; Celona, L; Maimone, F; Maeder, J; Castro, G; Romano, F P; Musumarra, A; Altana, C; Caliri, C; Torrisi, G; Neri, L; Gammino, S; Tinschert, K; Spaedtke, K P; Rossbach, J; Lang, R; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source - operating at GSI, Darmstadt - has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD - Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe - hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2-30 keV) and hot (30-500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

  3. X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Neri, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Maimone, F.; Maeder, J.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, K. P.; Rossbach, J.; Lang, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Romano, F. P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source – operating at GSI, Darmstadt – has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD – Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe – hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2–30 keV) and hot (30–500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

  4. New interferometric technique to measure the length (thickness) of opaque objects using a commercial interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratkar, Amit R.; Davies, Angela D.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-09-01

    Wavelength scanning interferometry offers many advantages over traditional phase shifting interferometry, most significantly the elimination of mechanical movement of the part/s for phase modulation by implementing a tunable light source. Further, Fourier analysis on the interference time history enables this technique to accurately measure distances, treating the distance between two optical surfaces as an interferometric cavity. We propose to use a newly acquired wavelength scanning Fizeau interferometer from Zygo Corporation, the MST (Multiple Surface Transform) to explore the limits of absolute thickness metrology to measure an opaque cavity, such as a gauge block. While transparent cavities can be measured with ease in a Fizeau setup, opaque cavities need additional optics. A two mirror Sagnac configuration in conjunction with the interferometer from Zygo Corporation is used to measure the length (thickness) of a 1 inch gauge block. Current gauge block measurements rely on comparison methods to determine the fractional length with respect to a reference or master gauge block or use techniques which require the absolute length of the gauge block to be previously known. By using wavelength scanning interferometry, the absolute length of the gauge block can be determined directly within limits of the repeatability of the instrument. While other techniques implement a point by point approach for measurement or use interpolation methods, we simply use a large aperture to provide the thickness variation over the sample. Experimental results of a 1 inch gauge block along with an uncertainty estimate are discussed.

  5. Size-segregated aerosol in a hot-spot pollution urban area: Chemical composition and three-way source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, V; Elser, M; Valli, G; Valentini, S; Bigi, A; Fermo, P; Piazzalunga, A; Vecchi, R

    2017-08-24

    In this work, a comprehensive characterisation and source apportionment of size-segregated aerosol collected using a multistage cascade impactor was performed. The samples were collected during wintertime in Milan (Italy), which is located in the Po Valley, one of the main pollution hot-spot areas in Europe. For every sampling, size-segregated mass concentration, elemental and ionic composition, and levoglucosan concentration were determined. Size-segregated data were inverted using the program MICRON to identify and quantify modal contributions of all the measured components. The detailed chemical characterisation allowed the application of a three-way (3-D) receptor model (implemented using Multilinear Engine) for size-segregated source apportionment and chemical profiles identification. It is noteworthy that - as far as we know - this is the first time that three-way source apportionment is attempted using data of aerosol collected by traditional cascade impactors. Seven factors were identified: wood burning, industry, resuspended dust, regional aerosol, construction works, traffic 1, and traffic 2. Further insights into size-segregated factor profiles suggested that the traffic 1 factor can be associated to diesel vehicles and traffic 2 to gasoline vehicles. The regional aerosol factor resulted to be the main contributor (nearly 50%) to the droplet mode (accumulation sub-mode with modal diameter in the range 0.5-1 μm), whereas the overall contribution from the two factors related to traffic was the most important one in the other size modes (34-41%). The results showed that applying a 3-D receptor model to size-segregated samples allows identifying factors of local and regional origin while receptor modelling on integrated PM fractions usually singles out factors characterised by primary (e.g. industry, traffic, soil dust) and secondary (e.g. ammonium sulphate and nitrate) origin. Furthermore, the results suggested that the information on size

  6. Comparative study of two drying techniques used in radioactive source preparation: Freeze-drying and evaporation using hot dry nitrogen jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branger, T. [CEA/LIST/LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: thierry.branger@cea.fr; Bobin, C.; Iroulart, M.-G.; Lepy, M.-C.; Le Garreres, I.; Morelli, S.; Lacour, D.; Plagnard, J. [CEA/LIST/LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    Quantitative solid sources are used widely in the field of radionuclide metrology. With the aim to improve the detection efficiency for electrons and x-rays, a comparative study between two source drying techniques has been undertaken at LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB, France). In this paper, freeze-drying using commercial equipment is compared with a system of drying using hot jets of nitrogen developed at Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Belgium). In order to characterize the influence of self-absorption, the detection efficiencies for {sup 51}Cr sources have been measured by coincidence counting and photon spectrometry.

  7. Completing The Characterization Of Stellar Populations In The Galaxy: Final Catalogs Of Unique Galex Uv Sources And Of Milky Way Hot Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first extensive surveys in the Ultraviolet (UV), filling the last gap in our view of the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum. Its legacy is an unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV and near-UV. The UV surveys offer unique sensitivity for identifying and studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, both stellar and extra- galactic, notably hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and QSOs (redshift ≤sssim2.4). In order to examine the overall content and distribution of UV sources over the sky, and to classify them by astrophysical class, we propose to construct final catalogs of UV unique sources with homogeneous quality (eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source, excluding artifacts, adding science flags, etc). Such catalogs will facilitate a variety of science investigations on UV-selected samples by the community, in addition to our own science goal, as well as planning of observations with future instruments. We will build the catalogs (high-level science product) using recipes developed for our early version (Bianchi et al. 2011a) but with expanded tools, science flags, and corollary data, in addition to the much larger area coverage with respect to our early version. To facilitate UV source classification and characterization, we will also match the catalogs of unique UV sources with existing ground-based surveys, adding optical and infrared magnitudes to the two UV GALEX magnitudes, and construct flags to identify sources with multiple matches. These products will allow us (and the community) to extract UV-selected samples for several projects. We will use our catalogs for our own science goal: an unbiased census of Milky Way hot white dwarfs (WD). Hot WDs are elusive at all wavelengths except the UV, given their very high temperatures to which optical colors are insensitive, and low optical luminosity. From our proposed UV catalogs we will be

  8. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  9. Identification and Characterization of Wor4, a New Transcriptional Regulator of White-Opaque Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Lohse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two cell types, “white” and “opaque,” each of which is heritable through many cell divisions. Switching between these two cell types is regulated by six transcriptional regulators that form a highly interconnected circuit with multiple feedback loops. Here, we identify a seventh regulator of white-opaque switching, which we have named Wor4. We show that ectopic expression of Wor4 is sufficient to drive switching from the white to the opaque cell type, and that deletion of Wor4 blocks switching from the white to the opaque cell type. A combination of ectopic expression and deletion experiments indicates that Wor4 is positioned upstream of Wor1, and that it is formally an activator of the opaque cell type. The combination of ectopic expression and deletion phenotypes for Wor4 is unique; none of the other six white-opaque regulators show this pattern. We determined the pattern of Wor4 binding across the genome by ChIP-seq and found it is highly correlated with that of Wor1 and Wor2, indicating that Wor4 is tightly integrated into the existing white-opaque regulatory circuit. We previously proposed that white-to-opaque switching relies on the activation of a complex circuit of feedback loops that remains excited through many cell divisions. The identification of a new, central regulator of white-opaque switching supports this idea by indicating that the white-opaque switching mechanism is considerably more complex than those controlling conventional, nonheritable patterns of gene expression.

  10. A first principles scanning tunneling potentiometry study of an opaque graphene grain boundary in the ballistic transport regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Kirk H

    2014-10-17

    We report on a theoretical interpretation of scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP), formulated within the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function description of quantum transport. By treating the probe tip as an electron point source/sink, it is shown that this approach provides an intuitive bridge between existing theoretical interpretations of scanning tunneling microscopy and STP. We illustrate this through ballistic transport simulations of the potential drop across an opaque graphene grain boundary, where atomistic features are predicted that might be imaged through high resolution STP measurements. The relationship between the electrochemical potential profile measured and the electrostatic potential drop across such a nanoscale defect is also explored in this model system.

  11. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  12. Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.

  13. 78 FR 31575 - Certain Opaque Polymers, Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Doc No: 2013-12372] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2957] Certain Opaque Polymers, Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Opaque Polymers, DN 2957; the Commission is soliciting... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers. The complaint...

  14. Magnetic properties and opaque mineralogy of rocks from selected seafloor hydrothermal sites at oceanic ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.L. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States) NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Harrison, C.G.A. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)); Rona, P.A. (NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Haggerty, S.E. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))

    1990-08-10

    Magnetic properties (natural remanent magnetization, susceptibility, Curie point temperature, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, and Koeenigsberger ratio) and opaque mineralogy were determined for basalts, diabases, gabbros, peridotites, and serpentinites collected by dredging and submersible from the rift valley at five hydrothermal sites (the Snake Pit hydrothermal field, the Tag hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge). Evidence for unequivocal magnetic mineral modification by hydrothermal action is present only in a small percentage of extrusive basalts but is pervasive in diabases, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks. The studies reveal distinct correlations between magnetization intensity, thermomagnetic behavior, and magnetic mineralogy, grain size, style, and intensity of alteration and rock type. Layer 2A basalts are the source of median valley magnetic anomalies. The magnetic source may shift from the surface to deeper horizons with progressive seafloor aging and enhanced deuteric oxidation in layer 2B dikes and layer 3 gabbros and the formation of magnetite in derpentinized peridotites. This shift is influenced by fluctuations in the Curie isotherm related to the duration of active magma chambers and convective hydrothermal cells. The magnetic and mineralogic properties of oceanic rocks determined show the effects of a wide range of alteration processes that are variously related to depth in oceanic lithosphere, magmatic cooling history, and hydrothermal circulation.

  15. Shock-drift particle acceleration in superluminal shocks - A model for hot spots in extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Kirk, John G.

    1990-01-01

    Shock-drift acceleration at relativistic shock fronts is investigated using a fully relativistic treatment of both the microphysics of the shock-drift acceleration and the macrophysics of the shock front. By explicitly tracing particle trajectories across shocks, it is shown how the adiabatic invariance of a particle's magnetic moment breaks down as the upstream shock speed becomes relativistic, and is recovered at subrelativistic velocities. These calculations enable the mean increase in energy of a particle which encounters the shock with a given pitch angle to be calculated. The results are used to construct the downstream electron distribution function in terms of the incident distribution function and the bulk properties of the shock. The synchrotron emissivity of the transmitted distribution is calculated, and it is demonstrated that amplification factors are easily obtained which are more than adequate to explain the observed constrasts in surface brightness between jets and hot spots.

  16. Shock-drift particle acceleration in superluminal shocks - A model for hot spots in extragalactic radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begelman, M.C.; Kirk, J.G. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Shock-drift acceleration at relativistic shock fronts is investigated using a fully relativistic treatment of both the microphysics of the shock-drift acceleration and the macrophysics of the shock front. By explicitly tracing particle trajectories across shocks, it is shown how the adiabatic invariance of a particle's magnetic moment breaks down as the upstream shock speed becomes relativistic, and is recovered at subrelativistic velocities. These calculations enable the mean increase in energy of a particle which encounters the shock with a given pitch angle to be calculated. The results are used to construct the downstream electron distribution function in terms of the incident distribution function and the bulk properties of the shock. The synchrotron emissivity of the transmitted distribution is calculated, and it is demonstrated that amplification factors are easily obtained which are more than adequate to explain the observed constrasts in surface brightness between jets and hot spots. 72 refs.

  17. Adhesive bonding of titanium with a titanate coupler and 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Yoshida, K; Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M

    1990-09-01

    Adhesive bonding of titanium was evaluated with a titanate primer and adhesive opaque resin. The primer consisted of 2% isopropyl dimethacryloyl isostearoyl titanate in methyl methacrylate. The adhesive was 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin that contained 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride and was initiated by tri-n-butylborane derivative. Titanium discs were machined and blasted with aluminum oxide. They were primed and bonded together with the opaque resin. A shear test was performed after repeated thermocycles for investigation of the durability of the bond. The shear strength of the primed and 4-META resin-bonded specimens was 37.2 MPa after 50,000 thermocycles, with only a small decrease in bond strength. This was significantly higher than the control values. Thus, titanate primer and 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin may be used for the bonding of titanium in prosthodontic practice.

  18. Reconstruction of buried objects embedded in circular opaque structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This contribution deals with the ground penetrating radar imaging of targets embedded in a visually opaque circular structure. The problem has practical relevance in civil engineering and archeological prospections, where structures of interest such as columns or pillars may have to be inspected in non-invasive way in order to detect the possible presence of anomalies (e.g. cracks, water infiltrations, and so on). In this framework, we investigate the possibility to inspect the circular region of interest thanks to a radar system composed by two antennas that are in contact with the structure and rotate simultaneously around it in order to illuminate and measure the field scattered by buried objects from multiple directions. Two different measurement strategies are examined. The first one is the multimonostatic configuration where the backscattered signal is collected by the transmitting antenna itself, as it moves along the circular observation line. The second acquisition strategy is the multibistatic one, with the transmitting and receiving antennas shifted by a constant angular offset of ninety degrees as they move around the column. From the mathematical viewpoint, the imaging problem is formulated as a linear inverse scattering one holding under Born approximation [1]. Furthermore, the Green's function of a homogeneous medium [2] is used to simplify the evaluation of the kernel of the integral equation. The inverse problem is then solved via the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition algorithm [3] in order to obtain a regularized solution. Tomographic reconstructions based on full-wave synthetic data generated by the Finite Difference Time Domain code GPRmax2D [4] are shown to assess the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. REFERENCES [1] W. C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media, IEEE Press, 1995. [2] R. F. Harrington, Time harmonic electromagnetic waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961. [3] M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to

  19. Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Intact and Opaque Cornea in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    HIROOKA, Masamitsu; Igarashi, Osamu; NAGAYASU, Aya; MINAGUCHI, Jyun; HOSAKA, , Yoshinao Z.; UEDA, Hiromi; TANGKAWATTANA, Prasarn; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in substantia propria are important for maintaining transparency of the cornea. Interferences in collagen fibrils and GAG production could be adversative to corneal integrity. In this study, six dogs consisting of four Beagles with normal cornea (normal), one Beagles with opaque cornea (sample No.1) and one Shih Tzu with neovascularization opaque cornea (sample No.2) were used. All samples were observed morphologically by light...

  20. Experimental evaluation on the use of capillary tube and thermostatic expansion valve with heat recovery hot spot water heater in air source refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azridjal; Mainil, Rahmat Iman; Mainil, Afdhal Kurniawan; Saputra, Eko

    2017-01-01

    The present experimental evaluation has been carried out to investigate the use of capillary tube (CT) and thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) with heat recovery hot spot water heater (HRHSWH) in air source compression refrigeration system. CT and TEV are the two basic types of refrigerant expansion devices that most frequently used in compression refrigeration system, but the identified about HRHSWH in extant literature are limited. The HRHSWH is modified from residential refrigeration system. The heat exchanger coil as HRHSWH was bonded with the compressor discharge pipe line as counter-flow heat exchanger, then insulated and placed them into transparent acrylic box. Water from storage tank with 50L capacity is pumped using circulation pump to the HRHSWH and heating the water in storage tank. The system performance of those two expansion devices in compression refrigeration system are evaluated and compared between with or without modified using HRHSWH. Results show that refrigeration system using TEV performs better performance than CT using HRHSWH compared to standard refrigeration system (without HRHSWH). The use of TEV device in HRHSWH causes a slight decrease in compressor power 0.0198 kW (4%), where the COP increases around 20% higher than the CT device. The finding indicates that the use of HRHSWH generates free hot water for TEV and CT with temperature around 54.06°C and 55.78°C, respectively. In general, HRHSWH give better perfomance than standar refrigeration system.

  1. [Effects of different surface conditioning agents on the bond strength of resin-opaque porcelain composite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Fu, Jing; Liao, Shuang; Su, Naichuan; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. After the surface of opaque porcelain was etched, five different surface treatments, i.e. RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP), Porcelain Bond Activator and SE Bond Primer (mixed with a proportion of 1:1) (PBA), Shofu Porcelain Primer (SPP), SE bond primer (SEP), and no primer treatment (as a control group), were used to combine P60 and opaque porcelain along with resin cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested in a universal testing machine. The failure modes of specimens in all groups were observed and classified into four types. Selected specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy to reveal the relief of the fracture surface and to confirm the failure mode of different types. The experimental results showed that the values of the tested items in all the tested groups were higher than that in the control group. Group PBA exhibited the highest value [(37.52 +/- 2.14) MPa] and this suggested a fact that all of the specimens in group PBA revealed combined failures (failure occurred in metal-porcelain combined surface and within opaque porcelain). Group SPP and RCP showed higher values than SEP (P porcelain or composite resin) while all the specimens in group SEP and control group revealed adhesive failures. Conclusions could be drawn that silane coupling agents could reinforce the bond strength of dental composite resin to metal-opaque porcelain substrate. The bond strength between dental composite resin and dental opaque porcelain could meet the clinical requirements.

  2. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  3. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  4. The Opaque Projector: The Inverse of the Camera Obscura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Many years ago I was running the standard laboratory experiment on thin lens optics. The source was the usual self illuminated object mounted on an optical bench, and a converging lens formed a real image on a screen. One of the students sitting near one wall of the darkened lab was having some trouble with the idea of image formation. Her face…

  5. TURKISH STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF TRANSPARENT AND OPAQUE IDIOMS IN ENGLISH IN READING AS WELL AS IN SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer ELKILIÇ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the understanding of transparent and opaque English idiomatic expressions of Turkish students. In order to carry out the study, randomly selected 35 intermediate and 36 advanced level students in the Department of English Language and Literature at Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey, were given a 40-item containing Turkish version of idiomatic expressions and a 40-item containing English version of different idiomatic expressions. The students were wanted to write the equivalences in English and Turkish. According to the result of the study, Turkish students can understand transparent and common opaque idioms more easily. However, if the idioms are both opaque and uncommon, they cannot get their meanings if they haven’t learned them directly. The result of the study has indicated that there is no significant difference between intermediate and advanced students in understanding transparent, opaque/common and opaque/uncommon idioms, however, a significant difference has been observed between the subjects to transparent, opaque/common and opaque/uncommon idioms in both for the answers from Turkish to English and English to Turkish (p<0,001. The highest scores are those for the transparent idioms which are followed by opaque/common and opaque/uncommon, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of five primers and two opaque resins for bonding ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohji Kamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of five primers [Super-Bond C&B Monomer (SB, Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Alloy Primer, M.L. Primer, and AZ Primer] and two undercoating opaque resins [Super-Bond C&B (S-opaque and Ceramage Pre-opaque (C-opaque] on the bonding of a resin composite veneering material to a ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals/alumina nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/Al2O3. Disk-shaped specimens of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 were sandblasted with alumina and primed. The undercoating opaque resins and resin composites were subsequently applied to the specimen, and then light cured. After 5000 thermocycles at 4°C and 60°C, shear bond strengths were determined. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, Tukey–Kramer honest significant difference test, and Student t test (n = 10, α = 0.05. With the exception of SB/S-opaque, all S-opaque groups exhibited significantly higher bond strengths than C-opaque groups. The use of S-opaque resin is recommended when veneering frameworks made of Ce-TZP/Al2O3.

  7. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsmiedl, Erwin [Technical University Munich, FRM-II (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examinated in the temperature range between -256degC and 250degC. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was taken into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-V samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256degC and 150degC to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to taken into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of {approx}1{center_dot}10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As an additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studies. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfill the leak

  8. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  9. Programmable two-photon quantum interference in 10^3 channels in opaque scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Tom; Uppu, Ravitej; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports a large number of transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase modulation of the incident wave fronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From 10 3

  10. Enhancing introgression of the opaque-2 trait into elite maize lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve on the efficiency of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) breeding in Uganda, the utility of three simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers (phi057, phi 112 and umc1066) in selection and introgression of the opaque-2 (o2) gene was investigated. Genomic DNA of six normal and seven (QPM) lines was analysed using a ...

  11. 78 FR 71643 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Notice of Commission Decision Amending the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Opaque Polymers; Notice of Commission Decision Amending the Complaint and Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  12. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the

  13. Semantically Transparent and Opaque Compounds in German Noun-Phrase Production: Evidence for Morphemes in Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Antje; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the lexical representation and processing of noun-noun compounds and their grammatical gender during speech production in German, a language that codes for grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Using a picture-word interference paradigm, participants produced determiner-compound noun phrases in response to pictures, while ignoring written distractor words. Compound targets were either semantically transparent (e.g., birdhouse) or opaque (e.g., hotdog), and their constituent nouns either had the same or a different gender (internal gender match). Effects of gender-congruent but otherwise unrelated distractor nouns, and of two morphologically related distractors corresponding to the first or second constituent were assessed relative to a completely unrelated, gender-incongruent distractor baseline. Both constituent distractors strongly facilitated compound naming, and these effects were independent of the targets' semantic transparency. This supports retrieval of constituent morphemes for semantically transparent and opaque compounds during speech production. Furthermore, gender congruency between compounds and distractors did not speed up naming in general, but interacted with gender match of the compounds' constituent nouns, and their semantic transparency. A significant gender-congruency effect was obtained with semantically transparent compounds, consisting of two constituent nouns of the same gender, only. In principle, this pattern is compatible with a multiple lemma representation account for semantically transparent, but not for opaque compounds. The data also fit with a more parsimonious, holistic representation for all compounds at the lemma level, when differences in co-activation patterns for semantically transparent and opaque compounds are considered.

  14. Model for Naturally Ventilated Cavities on the Exteriors of Opaque Building Thermal Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes a model for naturally ventilated cavities on the exterior of opaque building thermal envelopes that are formed by the presence of a lightweight baffle. The model can be used for building components that are slightly detached from the main envelope (but do not connect to the interior).

  15. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of germination moisture and time on pearl millet malt quality - with respect to its opaque and lager beer brewing potential

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info pelembe_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27677 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pelembe_2004.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 320 JOURNAL... OF THE INSTITUTE OF BREWING Effect of Germination Moisture and Time on Pearl Millet Malt Quality ? With Respect to Its Opaque and Lager Beer Brewing Potential L.A.M. Pelembe1,4, J. Dewar2,3 and J.R.N. Taylor4,5 ABSTRACT J. Inst. Brew. 110(4), 320?325, 2004...

  17. A modified transmission tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) setup provides access to opaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Richter, Marc; Knebel, Detlef; Jähnke, Torsten; Jankowski, Tilo; Stock, Erik; Deckert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy enables chemical characterization of surfaces at highest spatial resolution. This so-called tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be employed for a variety of samples where a label-free characterization or identification of constituents on the nanometer scale is pursued. Present TERS setup geometries are always a compromise for specific dedicated applications and show different advantages and disadvantages: Transmission back-reflection setups, when using immersion objectives with a high numerical aperture, intrinsically provide the highest collection efficiency but cannot be applied for opaque samples. Those samples demand upright setups, at the cost of lower collection efficiency, even though very efficient systems using a parabolic mirror for illumination and collection have been demonstrated. In this contribution it is demonstrated that the incorporation of a dichroic mirror to a transmission TERS setup provides easy access to opaque samples without further modification of the setup.

  18. Sub-Nyquist sampling boosts targeted light transport through opaque scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuecheng; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V

    2016-01-01

    Optical time-reversal techniques are being actively developed to focus light through or inside opaque scattering media. When applied to biological tissue, these techniques promise to revolutionize biophotonics by enabling deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, optogenetics, optical tweezers and photodynamic therapy. In all previous optical time-reversal experiments, the scattered light field was well-sampled during wavefront measurement and wavefront reconstruction, following the Nyquist sampling criterion. Here, we overturn this conventional practice by demonstrating that even when the scattered field is under-sampled, light can still be focused through or inside opaque media. Even more surprisingly, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the focus achieved by under-sampling is usually about one order of magnitude brighter than that achieved by conventional well-sampling conditions. Moreover, sub-Nyquist sampling improves the signal-to-noise ratio and the collection efficiency of the scattered...

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka K. Vallittu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA/methyl methacrylate (MMA dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC, flexural strength (FS and modulus (FM, water sorption (WS and solubility (WSL, antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p 0.05. However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05 and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05, thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation.

  20. Activation of the Cph1-dependent MAP kinase signaling pathway induces white-opaque switching in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala

    Full Text Available Depending on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs, which are controlled by dedicated transcription factors and upstream signaling pathways. C. albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can switch from the normal yeast form (white to an elongated cell type (opaque, which is the mating-competent form of this fungus. Both white and opaque cells use the Ste11-Hst7-Cek1/Cek2 MAP kinase signaling pathway to react to the presence of mating pheromone. However, while opaque cells employ the transcription factor Cph1 to induce the mating response, white cells recruit a different downstream transcription factor, Tec1, to promote the formation of a biofilm that facilitates mating of opaque cells in the population. The switch from the white to the opaque cell form is itself induced by environmental signals that result in the upregulation of the transcription factor Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. To get insight into the upstream signaling pathways controlling the switch, we expressed all C. albicans protein kinases from a tetracycline-inducible promoter in a switching-competent strain. Screening of this library of strains showed that a hyperactive form of Ste11 lacking its N-terminal domain (Ste11(ΔN467 efficiently stimulated white cells to switch to the opaque phase, a behavior that did not occur in response to pheromone. Ste11(ΔN467-induced switching specifically required the downstream MAP kinase Cek1 and its target transcription factor Cph1, but not Cek2 and Tec1, and forced expression of Cph1 also promoted white-opaque switching in a Wor1-dependent manner. Therefore, depending on the activation mechanism, components of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway can be reconnected to stimulate an alternative developmental program, switching of white cells to the mating-competent opaque phase.

  1. Activation of the Cph1-dependent MAP kinase signaling pathway induces white-opaque switching in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Zavala, Bernardo; Weyler, Michael; Gildor, Tsvia; Schmauch, Christian; Kornitzer, Daniel; Arkowitz, Robert; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs, which are controlled by dedicated transcription factors and upstream signaling pathways. C. albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can switch from the normal yeast form (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of this fungus. Both white and opaque cells use the Ste11-Hst7-Cek1/Cek2 MAP kinase signaling pathway to react to the presence of mating pheromone. However, while opaque cells employ the transcription factor Cph1 to induce the mating response, white cells recruit a different downstream transcription factor, Tec1, to promote the formation of a biofilm that facilitates mating of opaque cells in the population. The switch from the white to the opaque cell form is itself induced by environmental signals that result in the upregulation of the transcription factor Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. To get insight into the upstream signaling pathways controlling the switch, we expressed all C. albicans protein kinases from a tetracycline-inducible promoter in a switching-competent strain. Screening of this library of strains showed that a hyperactive form of Ste11 lacking its N-terminal domain (Ste11(ΔN467)) efficiently stimulated white cells to switch to the opaque phase, a behavior that did not occur in response to pheromone. Ste11(ΔN467)-induced switching specifically required the downstream MAP kinase Cek1 and its target transcription factor Cph1, but not Cek2 and Tec1, and forced expression of Cph1 also promoted white-opaque switching in a Wor1-dependent manner. Therefore, depending on the activation mechanism, components of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway can be reconnected to stimulate an alternative developmental program, switching of white cells to the mating-competent opaque phase.

  2. Woody biomass: Niche position as a source of sustainable renewable chemicals and energy and kinetics of hot-water extraction/hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to chemicals and energy is imperative to sustaining our way of life as known to us today. Fossil chemical and energy sources are traditionally regarded as wastes from a distant past. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are not being regenerated in a sustainable manner. However, biomass sources such as algae, grasses, bushes and forests are continuously being replenished. Woody biomass represents the most abundant and available biomass source. Woody biomass is a reliably sustainable source of chemicals and energy that could be replenished at a rate consistent with our needs. The biorefinery is a concept describing the collection of processes used to convert biomass to chemicals and energy. Woody biomass presents more challenges than cereal grains for conversion to platform chemicals due to its stereochemical structures. Woody biomass can be thought of as comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Each of these four components has a different degree of resistance to chemical, thermal and biological degradation. The biorefinery concept proposed at ESF (State University of New York - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) aims at incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. The emphasis of this work is on the kinetics of hot-water extraction, filling the gap in the fundamental understanding, linking engineering developments, and completing the first step in the biorefinery processes. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers and acetic acid in the extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Extraction/hydrolysis involves at least 16 general reactions that could

  3. Observation of superluminal wave-front propagation at the shadow area behind an opaque disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasnetsov, M; Pas'ko, V; Khoroshun, A; Slyusar, V; Soskin, M

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate in theory and experiment superluminal properties of optical field propagation in the shadow area behind an opaque disk (Poisson's spot). The wave front of the field in the shadow zone is initially delayed with respect to the unperturbed field. This phase shift gradually diminishes along the optical path and therefore ensures variation of the phase velocity of the field at the axis. A resulting excess of about cx10(-5) was detected.

  4. Phenotypic recurrent selection to improve protein quality in non-opaque maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Antonio Augusto Franco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. protein is considered to be of low quality due to low levels of the essential lysine and tryptophan amino acids. An alternative to solve this problem is to use the opaque-2 gene, which improves the level of these amino acids, but has negative pleiotropic effects on agronomic characters. A phenotypic recurrent selection scheme was carried out in two non-opaque maize populations to verify the possibility of improving their protein quality without using this gene. Four cycles were completed and a 20% selection intensity for tryptophan content in the kernels was used in two populations, IG-1 and IG-2. The original and the four-cycle populations were evaluated in three locations for agronomic traits. For protein and tryptophan content, a separated trial was carried out because plants of the plots were hand-pollinated. No increase in tryptophan content was observed in the IG-2 population, whereas IG-1 presented a small increase (0.70% per cycle. The ratio tryptophan/protein increased 1.26% per cycle in IG-1 and the protein content did not increase in both populations. The ESALQ-VD2-opaque check was superior in relation to both populations for protein quality, as expected, even after completion of four selection cycles. The kernel yield (2.5% per cycle prolificacy, plant and ear heights, decreased with selection cycles, as a correlated response to selection. Phenotypic recurrent selection in non-opaque maize was not able to increase, at reasonable rates, the protein quality of maize kernels.

  5. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  6. The effects of opaque and clear pit and fissure sealants on infrared laser fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Z; Khodabakhsh, M; Khaksar, Y

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant.

  7. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  8. MRT letter: a fast and easy method for general fluorescent staining of cultured cells on transparent or opaque supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso, Manuel J

    2012-07-01

    Development of cell-based therapy entails the use of different types of materials as support for cultured cells. Some of these materials are opaque. For a general microscope study of cell cultures prepared on transparent supports, Giemsa stain with bright field microscopy is useful. With opaque supports or scaffolds, epifluorescence microscopy is necessary. The method the authors describe uses eosin Y to stain cytoplasm and DAPI to stain nuclei under fluorescence microscopy. This method provides easy and fast fluorescent staining for a general morphological study of cultured cells on transparent or opaque supports. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin with poly(methyl methacrylate)-coated titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Nakabayashi, N

    1988-01-01

    An adhesive opaque resin for veneering on cast metal was developed with 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride and poly (methyl methacrylate)-coated titanium dioxide prepared by aqueous phase polymerization. The opaque resin was a modified 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. The powder consisted of 20% of the encapsulated material and 80% PMMA instead of pure PMMA powder. This resin hides the metal color when the thickness of the resin is as thin as 50 microns. The opaque resin bonded strongly to both cobalt-chromium alloy and visible-light-cured veneering resin. This self-curing opaque resin is applicable not only for bonding veneering resin to an alloy surface but also for bonding fixed partial dentures to enamel surfaces.

  10. Anomalous complete opaqueness in a sparse array of gold nanoparticle chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Benfeng [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Li Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Vartiainen, Ismo; Lehmuskero, Anni; Turunen, Jari; Kuittinen, Markku; Vahimaa, Pasi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kang Guoguo [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-08-22

    We report on an anomalous polarization-switching extinction effect in a sparse array of gold nanoparticle chains: under normal incidence of light, the array is almost transparent for one polarization; whereas it is fully opaque (with nearly zero transmittance) for the orthogonal polarization within a narrow band, even though the nanoparticles cover only a tiny fraction (say, 3.5%) of the transparent substrate surface. We reveal that the strong polarization-dependent short-range dipolar coupling and long-range radiative coupling of gold nanoparticles in this highly asymmetric array is responsible for this extraordinary effect.

  11. Ephemeral Transparency: Glass as a Reflective Screen and Opaque Veil in the New National Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Balik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the dilemma between intentions and outcomes, based on the transparency debate that has recently resurfaced, by undertaking a critical reading of essential architectural history texts. Using the New National Gallery by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, in Berlin, as the central focus, it argues that, in reality, transparent buildings do not always allow clear vision, free flow, circulation, connection, and accessibility. As a result, the building challenges modern notions by presenting glass as an ephemeral and temporal reflective screen and a condensed opaque veil due to its context and content.

  12. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  13. Anisotropic optical response of optically opaque elastomers with conductive fillers as revealed by terahertz polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    Elastomers are one of the most important materials in modern society because of the inherent viscoelastic properties due to their cross-linked polymer chains. Their vibration-absorbing and adhesive properties are especially useful and thus utilized in various applications, for example, tires in automobiles and bicycles, seismic dampers in buildings, and seals in a space shuttle. Thus, the nondestructive inspection of their internal states such as the internal deformation is essential in safety. Generally, industrial elastomers include various kinds of additives, such as carbon blacks for reinforcing them. The additives make most of them opaque in a wide spectral range from visible to mid-infrared, resulting in that the nondestructive inspection of the internal deformation is quite difficult. Here, we demonstrate transmission terahertz polarization spectroscopy as a powerful technique for investigating the internal optical anisotropy in optically opaque elastomers with conductive additives, which are transparent only in the terahertz frequency region. The internal deformation can be probed through the polarization changes inside the material due to the anisotropic dielectric response of the conductive additives. Our study about the polarization-dependent terahertz response of elastomers with conductive additives provides novel knowledge for in situ, nondestructive evaluation of their internal deformation.

  14. Sub-Nyquist sampling boosts targeted light transport through opaque scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V

    2017-01-20

    Optical time-reversal techniques are being actively developed to focus light through or inside opaque scattering media. When applied to biological tissue, these techniques promise to revolutionize biophotonics by enabling deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, optogenetics, optical tweezing, and phototherapy. In all previous optical time-reversal experiments, the scattered light field was well-sampled during wavefront measurement and wavefront reconstruction, following the Nyquist sampling criterion. Here, we overturn this conventional practice by demonstrating that even when the scattered field is under-sampled, light can still be focused through or inside scattering media. Even more surprisingly, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the focus achieved by under-sampling can be one order of magnitude brighter than that achieved under the well-sampling conditions used in previous works, where 3×3 to 5×5 pixels were used to sample one speckle grain on average. Moreover, sub-Nyquist sampling improves the signal-to-noise ratio and the collection efficiency of the scattered light. We anticipate that this newly explored under-sampling scheme will transform the understanding of optical time reversal and boost the performance of optical imaging, manipulation, and communication through opaque scattering media.

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE ELECTRON-OPAQUE PORE MATERIAL ON EXCHANGES THROUGH THE NUCLEAR ANNULI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldherr, Carl M.

    1965-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which the electron-opaque pore material can regulate nucleocytoplasmic exchanges which occur through the nuclear annuli, experiments were performed in which polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated colloidal gold particles (25 to 170 A in diameter) were microinjected into the cytoplasm of amebas (Amoeba proteus). The cells were fixed at various times after injection and examined with the electron microscope in order to determine the location of the gold particles. High concentrations of gold were found associated with the pore material at specific points adjacent to and within the pores. It is tentatively suggested that such specific accumulations could be a means of selecting substances from the cytoplasm for transport through the pores. Particles were also scattered throughout the ground cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. A comparison of the diameters of particles located in these two regions showed that the ability of materials to penetrate the nuclear envelope is a function of their size. It was estimated that the maximum size of the particles able to enter the nucleus is approximately 125 to 145 A indiameter. The regulation of exchanges with regard to particle size is thought to be dependent on the specific organization of the electron-opaque pore material. PMID:14283630

  16. Randomized study of tolerance and efficacy of a home-use intense pulsed light (IPL) source compared to the hot-wax method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhoute, Hertsel; Hamidou, Zohra; Humbert, Philippe; Lyonnet, Cindy; Peuchot, Marie-Anne; Reygagne, Pascal; Reynier, Chantal; Rivoire, Stéphanie; Simoneau, Guy; Toubel, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    More and more we are seeing depilatory mechanisms based on IPL technology and used at home. As far as we know, these appliance have not undergone either safety or efficacy testing. The aim of the study was to compare tolerance and efficacy of two depilation methods a medical device in-home-use IPL (E-One) and hot wax. Axillae of 63 persons were treated by either IPL (intense pulsed light) or hot wax for 49 weeks. Tolerance was assessed clinically by a dermatologist and efficacy by an independent blinded photographic assessment. Tolerance of the two methods is reasonably good with better results for the IPL treatment. IPL treatment is also much more efficient. This study confirmed good tolerance and excellent efficacy of this first one medical device used at home. Taking into consideration the mechanical action of the IPL and our experience, other cutaneous appliances (against wrinkles (or aging), hyperpigmentation. etc.) could be considered after optimization of the technical parameters. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Application of 4-META on adhesive opaque resin. (Part 1) Adhesive strength and the stability (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nagata, K; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1979-04-01

    Mechanical devices, which has been conventionally used for retaining thermo-setting acrylic resin veneers possesses disadvantage of poor marginal sealing and requires rather complicated procedure applying on the metal casting. An application of adhesive resins to overcome these disadvantages was studied. Adhesive opaque resin consisted of MMA, epoxy acrylate, TiO2 and adhesive monomer 4-META was prepared and the adhesive bonding strength between the opaque resin and Ni-Cr alloy which is for crown and bridge works, was measured. As the results, the opaque resin applied on the metal casting with proper surface treatment showed an excellent adhesive bonding strength of 260 kg/cm2. This value did not decreased even after subjected to 300 time thermal cyclings (4 degrees C and 60 degrees C). After a three months immersion in water at 37 degrees C, adhesive bonding strength decreased slightly to 190 kg/cm2.

  18. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  19. An easy-to-use program for the determination of common opaque minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, H. J.; Voncken, J. H. L.

    2010-12-01

    A Microsoft Excel macro is described that enables rapid recognition of common opaque minerals. The program uses ore mineralogical features such as reflectance, anisotropy, bireflectance, Vickers Hardness and morphological features (bladed crystals, zoning and twinning) to identify possible candidates from a database of 200 common ore minerals. Reflectance can be estimated from the uncorrected light of a microscope lamp. While the program yields all possible minerals matching the entered search criteria, these must be distinguished by additional information such as paragenesis, and detailed checks of observed features with data listed in reference works. The program is especially suited for students of ore microscopy and for mineralogists and petrologists who are not experts in ore microscopy.

  20. Radio-opaque fecal impaction and pseudo-occlusion in a dialyzed patient taking lanthanum carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Clotilde; Muller, Sandrine; Sissoko, Aicha; Klein, Alexandre; Faller, Bernadette; Chantrel, Francois

    2012-10-01

    Lanthanum therapy is an efficient therapy of hyperphosphoremia by chelating phosphore in the digestive tract. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table. This drug is lightly absorbed and has low water solubility. It should be borne in mind that abdominal X-rays of patients taking lanthanum carbonate may have a radio-opaque appearance typical of imaging agents. This characteristic is suggested to confirm adherence of the patient by doing an abdominal X-ray. We describe in our case a particular good compliant patient with slow digestive transit, which ends by pseudo-occlusion. © 2011 The Authors; Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. Do daily wear opaquely tinted hydrogel soft contact lenses affect contrast sensitivity function at one meter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkagnici, Ahmet; Zengin, Nazmi; Kamiş, Omit; Gündüz, Kemal

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of daily wear opaquely tinted hydrogel soft contact lenses on contrast sensitivity functions, as measured using the Pelli-Robson chart viewed at 1 meter. Contrast sensitivity was measured in 48 healthy individuals before and 6 hours after soft contact lens wear. Twenty-four subjects used clear soft contact lenses and 24 used tinted soft contact lenses. The contrast sensitivity scores were significantly decreased monocularly and binocularly (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively) in the colored contact lens group whereas there were no significant changes in the clear contact lens group (P = 0.317 and P = 0.317, respectively). Color-tinted contact lenses were associated with a reduction of contrast sensitivity function. Therefore, those who wear colored contact lenses should be informed about the possible consequences of tinted contact lens wearing.

  2. List context effects in languages with opaque and transparent orthographies: A challenge for models of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTraficante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of data which show that reading is a flexible and dynamic process and that readers can exert strategic control over it. Two main hypotheses on the control of reading processes have been suggested: the route de-emphasis hypothesis and the time-criterion hypothesis. According to the former, the presence of irregular words in the list might lead to an attenuation of the non-lexical process, while the presence of non-words could trigger a de-emphasis of the lexical route. An alternative account is proposed by the time-criterion hypothesis whereby the reader sets a flexible deadline to initiate the response. According to the latter view, it is the average pronunciation difficulty of the items in the block that modulates the time-criterion for response. However, it is worth noting that the list composition has been shown to exert different effects in transparent compared to opaque orthographies, as the consistency of spelling-sound correspondences can influence the processing costs of the non-lexical pathway. In transparent orthographies, the non-lexical route is not resource demanding and can successfully contribute to the pronunciation of regular words, thus its de-emphasis could not be as useful/necessary as in opaque orthographies. The complex patterns of results from the literature on list context effects are a challenge for computational models of reading which face the problem of simulating strategic control over reading processes. Different proposals suggest a modification of parameter setting in the non-lexical route or the implementation of a new module aimed at focusing attention on the output of the more convenient pathway. Simulation data and an assessment of the models’ fit to the behavioral results are presented and discussed to shed light on the role of the cognitive system when reading aloud.

  3. Morphological and biochemical analysis of intact and opaque cornea in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Masamitsu; Igarashi, Osamu; Nagayasu, Aya; Minaguchi, Jun; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2010-08-01

    The arrangement of collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in substantia propria are important for maintaining transparency of the cornea. Interferences in collagen fibrils and GAG production could be adversative to corneal integrity. In this study, six dogs consisting of four Beagles with normal cornea (normal), one Beagles with opaque cornea (sample No. 1) and one Shih Tzu with neovascularization opaque cornea (sample No.2) were used. All samples were observed morphologically by light and electron microscopes to obtain diameter and distribution of collagen fibrils in substantia propria and were performed biochemically to investigate into GAGs and collagen types. The average diameter of collagen fibrils in the intact cornea of normal, sample No.1 and No.2 was 33.2, 35.0 and 25.0 nm, respectively. The percentage of matrix per unit area was 67% in normal, 87% in sample No.1 and 28.3% in sample No.2. The type III collagen ratio was 25.3% in normal, 21.3% in sample No.1 and 35.8% in sample No.2. The relative amount of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and keratin sulfate was 1.5, 9.7, 51.1 and 37.7% in normal, 3.3, 26.0, 45.7 and 23.7% in sample No.1 and 1.2, 18.0, 16.6 and 54.1% in sample No.2. Hyaluronic acid was found only in sample No.1 with a relative amount of 1.3%. Since there was some relationship between collagen formation and GAGs composition, it might be speculated that disturbance in arrangement of collagen fibrils and GAG metabolism especially in substantia propria would bring up opacity of the cornea.

  4. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....

  5. Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Josh D; Wong, Bonny P Y; Abrams, Stephen H; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran S; Mathews, Sapna M; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of operators using The Canary System and DIAGNOdent to detect natural pit and fissure caries under four commonly-used opaque dental sealants. Mixed sound and carious pits/fissures (N = 105) selected from 40 human teeth were randomly assigned (10 teeth/group) to one of four opaque sealant groups (Delton, Embrace WetBond, Helioseal F, UltraSeal XT Plus). Selected pits/fissures sites on occlusal surfaces were scanned with The Canary System and DIAGNOdent, sealed, re-scanned, and subjected to polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the scanned regions were sound or carious. Sensitivities and specificities for each detection method before and after sealant placement were calculated. The Canary System and DIAGNOdent were able to distinguish between sound and carious tissue beneath opaque sealants with an accuracy of 76% and 59%, respectively. The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Min Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTL a/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival.

  7. Development of a computerized scheme for detection of very subtle lung nodules located in opaque areas on chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    The detection of lung nodules located in opaque areas including the mediastinum, retrocardiac lung, and lung projected below or on the diaphragm has been very difficult, because the contrast of these nodules is usually extremely low, and sometimes radiologists may not pay attention to these locations. In this study, we have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme designed specifically for the detection of these difficult-to-detect lung nodules located in opaque areas. We used 1,000 chest images with 1,076 lung nodules, which included 73 very difficult lung nodules in these opaque areas. In this new computerized scheme, opaque areas within a chest image were segmented by use of an adaptive multi-thresholding method based on edge-gradient values, and then the gray level and contrast of the chest image were adjusted for the opaque areas. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient (ARG) filtering technique based on radial gradient values. We employed a total of 35 image features for sequential application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false-positive candidates. The ANNs were trained and tested by use of a k-fold cross-validation test method (k=100), in which each of 100 different combinations of training and test image data sets included 990 and 10 chest images, respectively. The overall performance determined from the results of 100 test data sets indicated that the average sensitivity in detecting lung nodules was 52.1% with 1.89 false positives per image, which was considered "acceptable", because these nodules were very subtle and difficult to detect. By combination of this advanced CAD scheme with our standard CAD scheme for lung-nodule detection, the clinical usefulness of the CAD scheme would be improved significantly.

  8. Adhesion promotion between metadent and a high palladium alloy with a pyrolytically fused porcelain opaque layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, M C; Culbertson, B M

    1994-06-01

    Several authors have reported a preference for the use of high palladium alloys in the construction of implant-fixed partial denture (IFPD) substructures. Heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resins (PMMR) are used to secure denture teeth to IFPD substructures. Metadent (Sun Medical Co, Kyoto, Japan), a heat-polymerized PMMR containing 5% 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), could possibly improve the overall design of the prosthesis because this resin adheres to resin and ceramic denture teeth and noble metals. However, adhesive bonding between Metadent and elemental palladium has been shown to be poor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for adhesive bonding between Metadent, titanate primers, and a ceramic layer pyrolytically fused to a high palladium alloy. Five groups of 10 specimens were prepared. A layer of opaque porcelain was baked on all of the specimens under vacuum at 1760 degrees F. The specimens were grouped as follows: (1) Metadent resin processed on ceramic with no primer, (2) Metadent resin with 10% ethyl acetoacetate titanate (DC) processed on ceramic with no primer, (3) Metadent resin with 10% DC processed to ceramic with a 2% tetraisopropyl (TPT) surface primer, (4) 4-Metadent resin with 10% DC processed to ceramic with a 2% isopropyl dimethacryloyl isostearoyl titanate (KR-7) surface primer, and (5) Metadent resin with 10% DC processed to ceramic with a titanium dioxide layer on the opaque and a KR-7 surface primer. The primers were in a methyl methacrylate (MMA) solution. All of the specimens were heat-polymerized under pressure at 212 degrees F for 1 hour. One-half (25) of the specimens (5 from each group) were hydro-thermocycled at 4 degrees C to 55 degrees C, 0.5 minute dwell per bath for 3,000 cycles. All specimens were tested in shear on an MTS Universal machine at cross head speeds of 0.5/mm/min. The results showed adhesion between the resin-ceramic layer in virtually all groups regardless of

  9. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Archives Archivo Histórico del Estado de Jalisco Fondo Gobernación, Asunto Pasaportes y Salvoconductos : G-8-877/9773-9775 G-8-878/9774, 9776, 9777 et 9781 G-8-879/9782-9788 G-8-880/9789-9798 G-8-881-882/9803 G-8-882/9804-9805 G-8-883/9806-9811 G-8-884/9813 G-8-885/9817-9820 G-8-886/9822-9825 G-8-887/9826-9830 G-8-888/9835 G-8-889-890/9837 G-8-889/9839 Sources imprimées Livres et chroniques O’Farrill Romulo, (2004) Reseña histórica estadística y comercial de México y sus estados, directorio g...

  10. Radio-opaque ethylcellulose-ethanol is a safe and efficient sclerosing agent for venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dompmartin, Anne; Barrellier, Marie-Therese [Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, CHU Caen, Department of Dermatology, Caen (France); Blaizot, Xavier; Chene, Yannick; Gaillard, Cathy [Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, CHU Caen, Clinical Research and Biostatistical Unit, Caen (France); Theron, Jacques [Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, CHU Caen, Neuroradiology, Caen (France); Hammer, Frank [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Center for Vascular Anomalies, Brussels (Belgium); Labbe, Daniel [Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, CHU Caen, Plastic Surgery, Caen (France); Leroyer, Robert; Chedru, Valerie; Ollivier, Catherine [Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, CHU Caen, Pharmacy Department, Caen (France); Vikkula, Miikka [Universite catholique de Louvain, de Duve Institute, Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Brussels (Belgium); Boon, Laurence M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Division of Plastic Surgery, Center for Vascular Anomalies, Brussels (Belgium); Universite catholique de Louvain, de Duve Institute, Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gelified ethanol, a newly developed sclerosing agent for slow-flow vascular malformations. Seventy-nine sclerotherapy procedures were performed on 44 patients with 37 venous malformations, 2 glomuvenous malformations, 2 lymphatic malformations, 2 lymphatico-venous malformations, and 1 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The median injected volume was 1.00 mL/site of injection. Effects of sclerotherapy on pain, functional and cosmetic disturbance were statistically evaluated with a final result score. Local and systemic complications were recorded. The mean Visual Analogue Scores were 5.20 {+-} 2.81 before and 1.52 {+-} 1.25 after treatment (p < 0.001). Functional and aesthetic improvement was achieved in 31/35 patients (89%) and in 33/41 (80%), respectively. Minor local side effects included necrosis with or without issue of ethylcellulose, palpable residue, and hematoma. No systemic side-effects occurred. Per mL used, radio-opaque gelified ethanol is at least as effective as absolute ethanol. No systemic complication was observed, as only a low dose of ethanol was injected. Indications for sclerotherapy can be widened to areas with higher risk for local side effects (hands and periocular region), as ethanol is trapped in the lesion. Careful injection procedure is though necessary, because only a limited amount of ethylcellulose can be used per puncture. (orig.)

  11. Opaque contact lens color choices among women of different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Amber; Prager, Thomas C; Bergmanson, Jan P G; Quintero, Sam; Harden, John; Perrigin, Judith; Piccolo, Marc

    2003-04-01

    The opaque contact lens (OCL) market is profitable and expanding. This pilot study sought to identify OCL color preferences among women of three ethnic groups, African American (A), white (W), and Hispanic Americans (H). Sixty-three brown-eyed female subjects (19 A; 22 W; 22 H), 18 to 35 years of age, with uncorrected near visual accuity of at least 20/50 were recruited. Each subject was presented with OCLs of three different color pattern designs in each of four colors (blue, green, gray, and hazel). The subjects viewed their appearance in a mirror while wearing each lens. Once all lenses had been observed, the subjects chose their lens color preference. Using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, an ethnic preference was shown for all but the gray contact lenses. In group A 47.4% rated the hazel lens as their first choice whereas 0% chose the blue lens. In contrast, 45.5% of group C chose the blue lens over the other colors but did not favor the hazel lens, which was their first choice only 4.5% of the time. Group H demonstrated the most diversity in color preference, however, 36.4% chose green as their overall lenscolor preference. Distinct differences exist in OCL color preferences among the three ethnic groups studied. Improved understanding of this ethnic difference could increase the efficiency of the trial lens process while possibly decreasing inventory costs when one ethnic group dominates a practice patient base.

  12. Internal triaxial strain imaging of visibly opaque black rubbers with terahertz polarization spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuto Moriwaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of internal triaxial strain in visibly opaque black rubbers by employing the polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (PS THz-TDS technique. From the sample thickness and the differences in amplitude and phase between orthogonal components of the terahertz wave that passed through the sample, the degree of birefringence and the angle of the slow optic axis were determined. We were able to convert the birefringence data into the amount and orientation of the internal strain through a Monte Carlo simulation that correlates the birefringent properties of the rubber with deformation. By comparing the strain map obtained from the PS THz-TDS measurements with that obtained by conventional digital image correlation, we found that both experimental and spatial distributions of the strain are in overall good agreement, except around the clamped sample regions. The deviations result from the intrinsic difference in the obtained strain information between two experiments and it is confirmed that our method based on PS THz-TDS is suited for evaluating the spatial distribution of the internal strain in black rubbers.

  13. Development of a compact multipass oxygen sensor used for gas diffusion studies in opaque media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jim; Mei, Liang; Lundin, Patrik; Bood, Joakim; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-20

    A highly scattering porous ceramic sample is employed as a miniature random-scattering multipass gas cell for monitoring of oxygen content in opaque media, that is, wood materials in the present work. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy is used by employing a 760 nm near-infrared laser diode to probe the absorption of molecular oxygen enclosed in the pores of the ceramic material working as the multipass gas cell, with a porosity of 75%. A path length enhancement of approximately 26 times and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 60 were obtained for the ceramic sample used in this work. The gas sensor was then used in a case study of the gas diffusion in wood materials, namely, oak, spruce, and mahogany samples. Differences depending on whether gas diffusion was studied longitudinal or radial to the tree annual rings are demonstrated, with very little gas diffusing in the radial direction. We can also observe that the gas diffusion for the densest material-oak-had the fastest diffusion time, and mahogany, which had the lowest density, showed the slowest diffusion time.

  14. Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-05-01

    Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because the signal from the contents is often overwhelmed by the much stronger Raman signal and/or fluorescence originating from the container itself. SORS overcomes these difficulties and generates clean Raman spectra from both the container and the contents with no prior knowledge of either. This is achieved by making two, or more, Raman measurements at various offsets between the collection and illumination areas, each containing different proportions of the fingerprint signals from the container and content materials. Using scaled subtraction, or multivariate statistical methods, the two orthogonal signals can be separated numerically, thereby providing a clean Raman spectrum of the contents without contamination from the container. Consequently, SORS promises to significantly improve threat detection capability and decrease the falsealarm rate compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy making it considerably more suitable as an alarm resolution methodology (e.g. at airports). In this paper, the technique and method are described and a study of offset value optimization is described illustrating the difference between one and two fixed spatial offsets. It is concluded that two fixed offsets yield an improvement in the SORS measurement which will help maximize the threat detection capability.

  15. The opaque minerals and economic geology of the nemeiben ultramafic complex, saskatchewan, canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, N. D.; Mossman, D. J.

    1981-10-01

    The main rock types of the Nemeiben ultramafic complex form grossly concentric layers of clinopyroxenite, websterite, wehrlite and dunite. These rocks were partially amphibolitized late in the Hudsonian orogeny; consequently numerous relict primary textural and mineralogical features are preserved. Disseminated primary magmatic nickeliferous pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and chromite occur throughout this complex and local concentrations of sulfides occur. Textures, mineralogy and chemistry of these phases are indicative of a high temperature magmatic origin. Unmixing phenomena in pyrrhotite are attributable to post crystallization dissociation of a high temperature Fe-Ni-Cu-Co monosulfide solid solution. A secondary assemblage of fine-grained iron oxides, sulfides and native metals developed in altered ultramafic rocks. Magnetite and hematite, bravoite, violarite and millerite are among the minerals formed during serpentinization. Trace amounts of nickeliferous copper, native gold and silver occur in hematite veinlets and at the center of hematized former sulfide grains. Supergene alteration has affected most of the sulfides. Thus the most plausible explanation of the opaque minerals is that they represent a metamorphosed primary magmatic assemblage modified by supergene alteration.

  16. Visual and anatomic outcomes of vitrectomy with temporary keratoprosthesis or endoscopy in ocular trauma with opaque cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dal W; Colyer, Marcus H; Wroblewski, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    To examine the outcomes of vitrectomy in ocular trauma with opaque cornea. This retrospective study included 17 eyes of 16 patients who underwent vitrectomy with temporary keratoprosthesis or endoscopy at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, from March 2003 to October 2010. A temporary keratoprosthesis was used in 8 eyes (47%) and endoscopy in 9 eyes (53%). Overall, the number of eyes with visual acuity of 20/200 or better improved from 0 at baseline to 5 (29%) at 6 months. The number of eyes with retinal detachment also improved from 10 (59%) at baseline to 3 (18%) at 6 months. Vitrectomy may be safely performed in ocular trauma with opaque cornea using a temporary keratoprosthesis or endoscopy with comparable outcomes. Endoscopy allows earlier diagnosis and treatment of occult pathology and requires less time and fewer procedures to implement than the temporary keratoprosthesis. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  18. Analysis of N2O isotopic composition at a tall tower in central Switzerland to identify emission sources and hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraim, E.; Mohn, J.; Harris, E. J.; Henne, S.; Eyer, S.; Denk, T.; Wolf, B.; Tuzson, B.; Emmenegger, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Six, J.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrous oxide (N2O) provides important information on N2O sources, because microbial processes exhibit characteristic isotopic signatures [1]. Therefore, quasi-continuous measurements of ambient N2O concentration and isotopic composition in combination with atmospheric modelling can be used to identify local and regional emission hotspots and disentangle production pathways [2]. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) in combination with preconcentration allows simultaneous and high-precision analysis of the four main stable N2O isotopologues (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O and 14N14N18O) at ambient mixing ratios [3]. In the presented project, we will initiate quasi-continuous measurements of N2O isotopologues at the Beromünster tall tower in Central Switzerland [4]. For the two inlet heights 12 and 212 m, maximum changes in the N2O mixing ratios of 50 and 10 ppb are anticipated, which would result in delta value changes in the order of 3 and 0.6 ‰, assuming a 20 ‰ depletion in delta values for the main source processes. To resolve differences in N2O isotopic composition at the highest inlet the repeatability of delta value measurements has to be improved to cell temperature on ambient temperature changes from 100 mK K-1 to 10 mK K-1. Thereby, the required precision level is maintained for a 10 times longer period, which results in an accuracy of tower, which are anticipated for fall 2015, will be presented and followed by atmospheric transport simulations and a biogeochemical soil model developed at IMK-IFU to simulate N2O isotopomer surface fluxes. References[1] S. Toyoda et al. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, DOI: 10.1002/mas.21459, (2015). [2] S. Park S. et al. Nature Geosci, 5, 4, 261 (2012). [3] B. Wolf et al. Biogeosciences, 12, 8, 2517 (2015). [4] B. Oney et al. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss, 15, 9, 12911 (2015). [5] E. Simon et al. submitted to Atmos Meas Tech Discuss, (2015).

  19. Opaque bubble layer incidence in Femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK: comparison among different flap design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Calienno, Roberta; Lanzini, Manuela; Salgari, Niccolò; De Vecchi, Sergio; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Nubile, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of opaque bubble layer (OBL) in femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps created with the support of Visumax Carl Zeiss femtosecond laser, planned with different flap diameters (7.90, 8.0, and 8.20 mm) and the same laser energy and power settings. Incidence of intraoperative OBL in flaps of consecutive 108 patients (216 eyes) subjected to bilateral femtosecond-assisted LASIK was considered. Flap creation was performed with the same laser design parameters (spot distance and energy offset) and different presetting diameters of 7.90 mm (72 eyes, group 1), 8 mm (72 eyes, group 2), and 8.20 mm (72 eyes, group 3). The incidence of OBL was considered and its extension was reported measuring involvement of different four corneal flap quadrants in which was theoretically divided the entire flap area; based on these data, OBL presence was classified as none (no evidence of OBL), minimal (minimal presence in not more that one quadrants corneal flap), mild (OBL presence in almost two or three quadrants without tendency to invade central cornea), and moderate (OBL presence in almost three quadrants with tendency to invade central cornea). In group 1, the incidence of OBL was of 23.6 % (17 eyes) with a mild/moderate presence; in group 2, incidence was 20.8 % (15 eyes) with mild presence. Group 3 presented a reduced OBL incidence (4.1 %, 3 eye) with a minimal presence. No statistically significant difference was found between group 1 and 2 (p = 0.8414).We found statistically significant differences between group 1 and group 3 (p = 0.0012) and between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.0044). A significant reduction and extension of OBL incidence were evident when LASIK flap settings diameter was increased, and flap edge was closer to the contact glass border; this is probably consequent to a more effective gas dispersion outside of corneal flap.

  20. Effect of alloy recasting on the color of opaque porcelain applied on different dental alloy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Ozcelik, Tuncer B; Johnston, William M; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Company, Andrea M

    2012-12-01

    The effect of different proportions of recast dental alloys on the color of overlying opaque porcelain (OP) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the color of OP applied on 2 different proportions (50% and 100%) of recast alloys with the color of commercially available shade tabs of OP. Six different metal alloy systems (2 base: Metalloy CC, Cr-Co [B-MCC]; Heraenium NA, Ni-Cr [B-HNA]; 3 noble: Cerapall 2, Pd-Au [N-CP2]; Triumph, Pd-Ag [N-T]; V-Deltaloy, Au-Pd [N-VD]; and 1 high-noble: V-Gnathos Plus, Au-Pt [HN-GP]) were selected for the fabrication of disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness). Each alloy was divided into 2 subgroups: 50% new alloy with 50% recast alloy (n=3) and 100% recast alloy (n=3). OP (B1) was applied (0.1 mm) to all specimens. The color coordinates (L*, a*, b*) of each specimen and the corresponding commercially available OP shade tab (control) were measured with a spectroradiometer, and color differences between specimens and control group were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed (2-way ANOVA, Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test, α=.05). For each alloy, ΔL*(L(control)(-)L(recastalloy)) values for the 2 subgroups were not statistically different from each other. The Δa* and Δb* of different proportions of N-CP2, B-HNA, N-VD, and HN-GP were not statistically different within the alloys. However, the a* values of 100% recast N-T and B-MCC were significantly closer to the a* values of the control group, and the b* values of 50% recast B-MCC were significantly closer to the b* values of the control group (Pvalues for different proportions of alloys were not statistically different. However, color differences did not meet the criterion of clinical acceptability (ΔE=3.46). According to the results of this study, the different proportions (50% and 100%) of recast alloys used have similar effects on the color of OP. Differences between the final color of OP on the recast alloys used and the

  1. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  2. Lumière dans des vapeurs atomiques opaques : piégeage radiatif, laser aléatoire et vols de Lévy

    OpenAIRE

    Baudouin, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    The matter-light interaction in opaque media gives rise to collective effects which may be explained by the coupling between atomic equations and light transfer equation. The trapping of light in an opaque multi-levels atomic system will be studied experimentally in a cold vapour and theoritically. Then, this vapour will be in situation with gain and amplification of light occurs. We will show that a laser threshold exists with this kind of system. Experimentally, the mixing of Raman gain and...

  3. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    cosmic objects. Notes [1]: The new results are described in a research paper, "Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of Radio Galaxy 3C 445, Imaged with the VLT" by M. Almudena Prieto (ESO, Garching, Germany), Gianfranco Brunetti (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy) and Karl-Heinz Mack (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy; ASTRON/NFRA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany), that recently appeared in the research journal Science (Vol. 298, pp. 193-195). [2]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral along the lines of force. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy distribution of the electrons caught in this field. Many cosmic radio sources have been found to emit synchrotron radiation - one of the best examples is the famous Crab Nebula, depicted in ESO PR Photo 40f/99. ESO PR Photo 26/02 may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

  4. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  5. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project technology need is evaluating the potential development to provide a capability that will produce high temperature hydrogen, in excess of 2500...

  6. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  7. Estimation of energy consumption for domestic hot water in hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Bourkas, P.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Halaris, P.G. [Asklepieon Voulas General Hospital, Athens (Greece). Electrical Engineering Dept. of Biomedical Technology; Malahias, G.N. [Hellenic Naval Academy, Athens (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    Hospitals are among the largest energy consumers in the building sector, with hot water constituting the largest part of the base load which consists of partial loads for heating, sanitary hot water, sterilization, disinfection, kitchen thermal load and laundry thermal load. This study estimated the energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) for Greek hospitals. The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using cogeneration systems in hospitals, which would combine electric and thermal energy from the same energy source. In this study, only the data for the consumption of DHW was presented. DHW in Greek hospitals is 45 degrees C except for the kitchen, laundry and anatomic room supply where hot water reaches 65 degrees C. Water consumption varies considerably depending on the condition of the hospital and extent of outpatients and clinical provisions. Hot water production is typically achieved in thermal substations through hot water production centres that include hot water storage tanks; heat exchangers; heating medium circuits; pipework for domestic hot water and connection with cold water supply. This presentation described the sizing of the DHW system and estimated the simultaneity factor for hot and cold water in hospitals. The hot water demand curve was used to estimate the energy consumption per day for hot water based on 18 hours of operation. Assuming that the hot water demand curve is typical, the energy consumption was estimated for sanitary hot water per day as a function of the specific water consumption for hospital with different number of beds. The hot water energy use was nearly 50 kWh per cubic meter water. The thermal losses in the hot water piping network were not considered in this study. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Radio-opaque nanosized bioactive glass for potential root canal application: evaluation of radiopacity, bioactivity and alkaline capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, D; Zehnder, M; Imfeld, T; Stark, W J

    2010-03-01

    To produce novel nanosized bioactive glass particles with radio-opaque properties and high alkaline capacity and to evaluate their performance as a potential bioactive root canal dressing or filling material. Flame spray-derived bioactive glass particles in the nanometre range were produced including bismuth oxide as a radiopacifier. Calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate and bismuth oxide served as controls. Corresponding materials were compressed to obtain dense specimens with increased alkaline capacity. Radiopacity was evaluated, and in vitro bioactivity was monitored using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Leaching of bismuth was controlled using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Bioactive glass particles with up to 50 wt% bismuth oxide revealed radiopacity with an equivalent of 4.94-mm aluminium. The introduction of bismuth into the bioactive glass altered the alkaline capacity and the in vitro bioactivity only for high bismuth oxide quantities. Bismuth oxide leaching out of the glass matrix was hardly detectable. Bioactive glass can be modified with bismuth oxide to become radio-opaque.

  9. Copper-based opaque red glasses - Understanding the colouring mechanism of copper nanoparticles in archaeological glass samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drünert, F.; Blanz, M.; Pollok, K.; Pan, Z.; Wondraczek, L.; Möncke, D.

    2018-02-01

    Red opaque glasses of two different sites in central Germany, a medieval glassworks in Glashütten, Taunus Mountains, and an early modern glassworks in Wieda, Harz Mountains, were analysed with regard to their optical appearance. By scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, metallic copper nanoparticles were identified as a conspicuous constituent in these glasses. In addition, similar opaque red glasses were reproduced in the laboratory in order to better understand the manufacturing process. Detailed analysis of the optical scattering was conducted in order to evaluate the role of Cu0 nanoparticles in the colouring mechanism relative to other possible reasons of colouration. We find clear differences between the possible contributions of Cu2O (cuprite) particles and metallic copper (Cu0) nanoparticles. Through simulated backscattering spectra we were able to calculate an average copper particle radius in the archaeological glass samples resulting in a value of up to 95 nm, which matches well the results of SEM investigation (minimum 65 nm). Using the methods we applied in this study, it becomes possible to reconstruct various processing conditions as they were applied in medieval manufacture of these particular materials.

  10. Reading and lexicalization in opaque and transparent orthographies: Word naming and word learning in English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Rosa Kit Wan; Cuetos, Fernando; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Ellis, Andrew W

    2017-10-01

    Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language. The stimuli were interleaved and presented 10 times in a first testing session and 10 more times in a second session 28 days later. Effects of lexicality were observed in both languages, indicating the deployment of lexical representations in word naming. Naming latencies to both words and nonwords reduced across repetitions on Day 1, with those savings being retained to Day 28. Length effects were, however, greater for Spanish than English word naming. Reaction times to long and short nonwords converged with repeated presentations in both languages, but less in Spanish than in English. The results support the hypothesis that reading in opaque orthographies favours the rapid creation and use of lexical representations, while reading in transparent orthographies makes more use of a combination of lexical and sublexical processing.

  11. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  12. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  13. Too hot to handle? Hot water bottle injuries in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Bruce, Eleanor; Darton, Anne; Thornbury, Kelly; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Hot water bottles are frequently used in the community as a source of warmth, and to alleviate a number of medical symptoms. In Australia it is believed that over 500,000 water bottles are sold annually (Whittam et al., 2010). This simple treatment is known to result in significant burns and has led to mandatory labeling requirements on hot water bottles in Australia. Despite this, few published studies have documented the incidence and nature of burns sustained through their use. This study aimed to assess the incidence, causation and outcome of hot water bottle burns presenting to a major burn trauma unit in Sydney (Australia). The New South Wales Agency for Clinical Innovation Statewide Burn Injury database and admission data to the Concord Hospital Burns Injury Unit (major treatment unit) provided information on hot water bottle burns occurring between 2005 and 2013. Demographic details, cause of burn, burn depth, total burn surface area (%TBSA), and outcome of burn were ascertained. In order to assess the burn potential of hot water bottles, a separate study examined the thermic properties of hot water bottles in 'real life' scenarios. There were 155 hot water bottle burn presentations resulting in 41 admissions and 24 grafts. The majority of patients were female, and most burns resulted from appliance rupture when used for local pain relief. Patients had an average TBSA of 2.4%. Burns patients were slightly more likely to reside in areas with greater socio-economic disadvantage. In real life scenarios, hot water bottles were shown to retain heat over 50°C for at least 3 hours (h). Hot water bottles are a source of common and preventable burns in the community, with women being more at risk than men. Hot water bottles may retain harmful levels of heat over an extended period of time. Additional labeling requirements pertaining to the longevity of hot water bottles and their use among people especially at risk of burns (i.e. children, the elderly, patients who

  14. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  15. Predicting Reading and Spelling Difficulties in Transparent and Opaque Orthographies: A Comparison between Scandinavian and U.S./Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, predictors of reading and spelling difficulties among children learning more transparent (Norwegian/Swedish) and less transparent (English) orthographies were examined longitudinally from preschool through Grade 2 using parallel versions of tests. A series of logistic regression analysis indicated three main findings. First, phonological awareness as a predictor of reading difficulties in the Scandinavian sample was time-limited to Grade 1, but remained as a significant predictor in the English-speaking sample. Second, phonological awareness predicted spelling difficulties similarly across orthographies. Third, preschool and kindergarten RAN was a significant predictor of reading and spelling difficulties at both Grades 1 and 2 across orthographies. The authors conclude that phonological awareness diminishes as a predictor of reading difficulties in transparent orthographies after the first years of schooling, that RAN is a better long term predictor of reading difficulties, and that phonological awareness is associated with spelling difficulties similarly in transparent and opaque orthographies. PMID:20440743

  16. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  17. Experience with hot catchpots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-02-02

    The first part of this report was actually a letter regarding the question, ''could the hot circulating pump be omitted when processing pitch at 700 atm.'' It had been stated that the hot circulation pump could be omitted if the quantity of cold letdown was correspondingly increased. The latest experiences with the catchpot at Poelitz showed the following. When running pitch, tar, or petroleum in the liquid-phase stalls, frequent trouble with the hot catchpot was encountered due to the coking. This coking was caused by irregular letdown yield, which could not be avoided due to small temperature fluctuations in the stall. This caused interruption of the uniform flow in the hot catchpot and the deposition of the solids contained in the letdown, largely catalyst solids, due to the asphalt content. Coking of the product was initiated by this concentration of catalyst solids. A perforated double jacket was inserted in the conical part of the catchpot through which about 3000 m/sup 3/ per hour of cold gas was blown in continuously. By this agitation and cooling in the lowest part of the catchpot, catalyst deposits were prevented from forming and the product received a continuous added supply of hydrogen. Another letter was given discussing the same question and an alternate solution. This second letter described Welheim's design for the hot catchpot. It featured introduction of 5000 to 6000 m/sup 3//hr of cold circulating gas into the lower part of the catchpot, and withdrawal of letdown from a point above the gas inlet. The advantages were continued agitation and cooling of the sludge and constant retention of some cold sludge in the catchpot (which evened out throughput and content fluctuations)

  18. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  19. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  20. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  1. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  2. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  3. ACTIVATED HOT PRESSING BEHAVIOR OF WC NANOPOWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin GEVORKYAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of consolidation of nanopowders concerning hot compaction by pressing activated by electric current action are considered. Mechanisms of grain boundary creep-sliding which are sequentially prevalent in a forming of compacted structures under influence of temperature factor and in the presence of a direct electric heating are discussed. Structural-transformational sources and conditions of forming of high physical-mechanical properties of nanopowder refractory solid-state products are described.

  4. Mineralogy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of opaque phases in the Neuschwanstein EL6 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochleitner, R.; Fehr, K. T.; Simon, G.; Pohl, J.; Schmidbauer, E.

    2004-10-01

    This study presents compositional data and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra, taken at 295 K and 85°K, of two fragments of the enstatite (EL6) chondrite Neuschwanstein that fell near the famous Neuschwanstein castle (Bavaria, southern Germany) on April 6, 2002. Main silicate minerals are enstatite (Fs 2) and plagioclase (An 20), the main opaque minerals are kamacite and troilite. Small amounts of oldhamite, daubreelite and schreibersite have been found. The presented Mössbauer data are the first data gathered for an EL6 chondrite. The dominant parts of each Mössbauer spectrum consist of two six-line patterns due to the presence of ferromagnetic phases kamacite and troilite. In contrast to other chondrites, peaks of other iron species in the central parts of the spectra are missing due to an extremely low content of Fe-bearing paramagnetic components. The hyperfine interaction parameters for kamacite are internal magnetic hyperfine field Hhf = 333.2 kOe, isomer shift (relative to a metallic Fe foil) IS = 0.01 mm/s, quadrupole splitting QS = 0 mm/s, line width W = 0.41 mm/s. The data for troilite are Hhf = 305.5 kOe, IS = 0.75 mm/s, QS = -0.85 mm/s, W = 0.34 mm/s.

  5. Inter-character relationships and heterosis observed in opaque-2 maize crosses and in their normal analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Kovács, I

    1974-01-01

    Hybrids obtained from two series of diallel crosses made between six o 2 converted inbred lines on the one hand and their normal analogues on the other were compared for twenty-five characters including yield and several of the yield components, including the parents. Observations on simple inter-character correlation coefficients presented here have shown that the majority of the correlations at the o 2 level are of the same order as at the normal level. A number of correlations of the o 2 type are inferior to those of their normal analogues, whereas a few are favoured by the o 2 gene including the correlation of grain yield with kernels per row. A measure of heterosis for each hybrid over its mid-parent also demonstrated that the o 2 types show poorer heterosis in more cases than do their normal counterparts. Still, in nearly 40 percent of the cases the o 2 hybrids were found to be more heterotic than their normal analogues, particularly for the various maturity characters and several of the yield components. Thus, the possibility of improvement exists in breeding maize with the opaque-2 gene.

  6. Jet interactions with the hot halos of clusters and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNamara, B.R.; Bîrzan, L.; Rafferty, D.A.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Carilli, C.; Wise, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray observations of cavities and shock fronts produced by jets streaming through hot halos have significantly advanced our understanding of the energetics and dynamics of extragalactic radio sources. Radio sources at the centers of clusters have dynamical ages between ten and several hundred

  7. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  8. Corneal thickness, residual stromal thickness, and its effect on opaque bubble layer in small-incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaonan; Wang, Yan; Li, Liuyang; Zhang, Jiamei

    2017-08-18

    To evaluate the effects of the central corneal thickness (CCT) and residual stromal thickness (RST) on the formation of opaque bubble layer (OBL) during small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). A total of 345 eyes from Refractive Surgery Center database at Tianjin Eye Hospital that had been subjected to SMILE surgery and followed for 6 months were included in this study and divided into OBL and OBL-free groups. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data for all eyes were evaluated and analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. After adjustment for several confounding factors, potential associations of CCT and RST with OBL were elucidated by determining odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 22 of the 345 eyes developed various degrees of OBL during the femtosecond laser scanning phase of SMILE surgery. After adjustment for age, sex, and refractive errors, significant relationships were detected between CCT and RST and OBL formation (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06; OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05, respectively, P < 0.001). Smooth curve fitting revealed an increased risk of OBL in the presence of an increased CCT or RST. However, visual outcomes were comparable between the two groups at both 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The results suggest that OBL formation during SMILE surgery is more likely in eyes with a thicker cornea. CCT and RST can be considered independent risk factors for OBL formation. Although this phenomenon may disturb the surgical procedure, it is unlikely to affect the postoperative visual outcome.

  9. Secret Societies, Opaque Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    as political. What is the role of business in the WEF, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? Inspired by Stephen Barley's (2010) work on how corporations have systematically built an institutional field to exert greater influence on the US Federal government, we aim...... for a concentration of resources at the center. The periphery has little sanctioned insight into the core of the organization, and a weak voice in influencing the operations of the organization. Actors in the partially organized environment thus have to rely on the goodwill of the leadership....

  10. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles. Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone. This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged, even as the planet

  11. Demonstration of domestic hot water with combination of wood stove hot water (winter) and homemade solar collector (summer). Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, N.S. II

    1981-09-03

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate that adequate hot water can be provided for a family of four in northeastern Pennsylvania, by using a combination of wood stove hot water in the winter and solar collector hot water during the non-heating months. This demonstration would be to encourage other people in the area to investigate using similar energy-saving systems, by providing an observable operating installation, and by increasing their confidence in using simple alternate-energy sources.

  12. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  13. 40 CFR 468.13 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.13 New source... subject to the provisions of this subpart: (a) Subpart A—Hot Rolling Spent Lubricant NSPS. Pollutant or... copper alloy hot rolled English units—pounds per 1,000,000 off-pounds of copper or copper alloy hot...

  14. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  15. Final report on numerical simulation of processes of hot sheet bending in the frame of the project EUREKA-FASP (EU353). v. 3. Pt. 5. Pt. 6. New source representation obtained by comparison with experimental temperature data; Parametric analyses of area heating processes in the sheet hot bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmignani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-10-01

    This work is the final report of the activity developed in the frame of the European project EUREKA-FASP (EU353) concerning the numerical simulation of the processes of the hot shaping or bending of large sheets, of interest of the ship-buildings, by the use of ABACUS code in its implicit version (ABAQUS/S). The work has been subdivided in 6 parts according to different considered aspects and made choices. Substantially, two different types of sheet heating processes have been considered, that is line heating and area heating processes, while two aims have been pursued; (1) to single out the best strategies in order to simulate the shaping of large sheets in a suitable way corresponding to the experience, adopting thermo-structural computation codes, as ABAQUS; (2) to verify and suggest, in some cases, orientations and indications for the design of an automate machine managed by an expert system (one of the aims of FASP project) for the heating of large sheets, able to provide the required shaping or bending of these sheets.

  16. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    . With this additional information, the criteria can, for the first time, be used to their full potential.The purpose of this paper is to first give an introduction to a stress/strain simulation procedure that can be used in any foundry. Then, some results how to predict the hot cracking tendency in a casting are shown......The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  17. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  18. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  19. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere. The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO). Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit). The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  20. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  1. Opaque assemblages in CR2 Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100 as indicators of shock-driven hydrothermal alteration in the CR chondrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Neyda M.; Bullock, Emma S.

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the petrologic characteristics of sulfide-metal lodes, polymineralic Fe-Ni nodules, and opaque assemblages in the CR2 chondrite Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100, one of the most altered CR chondrites. Unlike low petrologic type CR chondrites, alteration of metal appears to have played a central role in the formation of secondary minerals in GRA 06100. Differences in the mineralogy and chemical compositions of materials in GRA 06100 suggest that it experienced higher temperatures than other CR2 chondrites. Mineralogic features indicative of high temperature include: (1) exsolution of Ni-poor and Ni-rich metal from nebular kamacite; (2) formation of sulfides, oxides, and phosphates; (3) changes in the Co/Ni ratios; and (4) carbidization of Fe-Ni metal. The conspicuous absence of pentlandite may indicate that peak temperatures exceeded 600 °C. Opaques appear to have been affected by the action of aqueous fluids that resulted in the formation of abundant oxides, Fe-rich carbonates, including endmember ankerite, and the sulfide-silicate-phosphate scorzalite. We suggest that these materials formed via impact-driven metamorphism. Mineralogic features indicative of impact metamorphism include (1) the presence of sulfide-metal lodes; (2) the abundance of polymineralic opaque assemblages with mosaic-like textures; and (3) the presence of suessite. Initial shock metamorphism probably resulted in replacement of nebular Fe-Ni metal in chondrules and in matrix by Ni-rich, Co-rich Fe metal, Al-Ti-Cr-rich alloys, and Fe sulfides, while subsequent hydrothermal alteration produced accessory oxides, phosphates, and Fe carbonates. An extensive network of sulfide-metal veins permitted effective exchange of siderophile elements from pre-existing metal nodules with adjacent chondrules and matrix, resulting in unusually high Fe contents in these objects.

  2. Hot semiworks Redox studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.F.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1954-01-27

    The separations Hot Semiworks at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation was built in order to: (1) develop optimum conditions for the economic operation of the Redox and TBP plants, (2) procure engineering design data which would allow the specification of process equipment required for new processes such as Purex, (3) provide facilities for the study of future process and engineering problems on a semiworks scale employing radioactive process solutions, and (4) provide facilities for immediate trouble shooting for urgent separations plant problems. The initial operation of this facility was designed to develop conditions for the economic operation of the Redox Plant. These studies, covering a period from November, 1952 to October, 1953, are described in this report. The Redox process is used at Hanford for the separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products and from each other. The basis of the process is the preferential extraction of uranium and plutonium nitrates from an aqueous phase of high salting strength into an organic solvent (methyl isobutyl ketone) to effect the separation from fission products. This operation is conducted continuously in columns, packed with Raschig rings, through which the phases are passed counter-currently. Uranium and plutonium are separated by converting the plutonium to a lower valence state, in which form it is preferentially extracted back into an aqueous phase of high salting strength in a second column. Uranium is then returned to an aqueous phase of low salting strength in a third column. The products are further decontaminated in similar additional cycles. A detailed description of the process is given in the Redox Technical Manual.

  3. The decay of hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  4. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  5. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cereal subcategory. 406.80 Section 406.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resulting from hot forming operations conducted in primary, section, flat, and pipe and tube mills. ... forming subcategory. 420.70 Section 420.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming...

  7. Minimizing fuel wood consumption through the evolution of hot ston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimizing fuel wood consumption through the evolution of hot ston cooker as an alternative domestic energy supply. M.A.C.A. Odii, J.N. Mokwunye. Abstract. The central objective of this paper is to minimize fuelwood consumption through evolving alternative domestic energy. Data on alternative domestic energy sources, ...

  8. Neptune's Wandering Hot Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Geballe, Tom; Hammel, Heidi; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Encrenaz, Therese; Hofstadter, Mark; Mousis, Olivier; Fuse, Tetsuharu

    2010-05-01

    Images of stratospheric emission from Neptune obtained in 2006 at ESO's Very Large Telescope (Orton et al., 2007, A&A 473, L5) revealed a near-polar hot spot near 70 deg. S latitude that was detectable in different filters sampling both methane (~7-micron) and ethane (~12-micron) emission from Neptune's stratosphere. Such a feature was not present in 2003 Keck and 2005 Gemini North observations: these showed only a general warming trend towards Neptune's pole that was longitudinally homogeneous. Because of the paucity of longitudinal sampling in the 2003, 2005 and 2006 images, it was not clear whether the failure to see this phenomenon in 2003 and 2005 was simply the result of insufficient longitudinal sampling or whether the phenomenon was truly variable in time. To unravel these two possibilities, we proposed for time on large telescopes that were capable of resolving Neptune at these wavelengths. We were granted time at Gemini South in 2007 using T-Recs, Subaru time in 2008 using the COMICS instrument and VLT time in 2008 and 2009 using VISIR. Two serendipitous T-Recs images of Neptune were also obtained in 2007 using a broad-band N (8-14 micron) filter, whose radiance is dominated by 12-micron ethane emission, and whose primary purpose was navigation of N-band spectroscopy. The feature was re-observed (i) in 2007 in the T-Recs N-band filter and (ii) in 2008 with COMICS in a 12.5-micron image. Unfortunately, none of the telescope time granted was sufficient to sample all longitudes over the 12-hour period of this latitude, and so no definitive separation of the two possibilities was obtained. However, considering the ensemble of images as a random sample of longitudes, it is likely that the phenomenon is ephemeral in time, as it was observed only twice among 9 independent observing epochs. We will continue to request observations to sample all longitudes systematically, but our current sample argues that the phenomenon is truly ephemera, because we most likely

  9. Bonding fixed prosthodontic composite resin and precious metal alloys with the use of a vinyl-thiol primer and an adhesive opaque resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuta, M; Matsumura, H; Tanaka, T

    1992-03-01

    Adhesive bonding of a light-cured fixed prosthodontic composite resin joined to silver- and gold-based alloys was investigated with the use of a metal primer and an adhesive opaque resin. The primer contained an adhesive bonding promoter for precious alloys, 6- (4-vinylbenzyl-n-propyl) amino-1, 3, 5-triazine-2, 4-dithiol (VBATDT). The cast metal specimens were alumina-blasted and primed with VBATDT acetone solution. A self-curable 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin was used to bond the primed metals and a light-cured composite resin. Prepared specimens were thermocycled in water and bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths after 100,000 thermocycles (4 degrees C to 60 degrees C for 1 minute) were 28.4 MPa for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy and 20.8 MPa for type III gold alloy. This simple method may be used to bond silver or gold alloy and light-activated fixed prosthodontic composite resin.

  10. The involvement of Opaque 2 on beta-prolamin gene regulation in maize and Coix suggests a more general role for this transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord Neto, G; Yunes, J A; da Silva, M J; Vettore, A L; Arruda, P; Leite, A

    1995-03-01

    The maize opaque 2 (o2) mutation is known to have numerous pleiotropic effects. Some polypeptides have their expression depressed while others are enhanced. The best characterized effects of the o2 mutation are those exerted on endosperm genes encoding the storage protein class of the 22 kDa alpha-zeins and the ribosome inactivating protein b-32. The Opaque 2 (O2) locus encodes a basic domain-leucine zipper DNA-binding factor, O2, which transcriptionally regulates these genes. In the maize-related grass Coix lacryma-jobi, an O2-homologous protein regulates the 25 kDa alpha-coixin family. We show in this paper that O2 transcriptionally regulates the structurally and developmentally different class of the beta-prolamins. A new O2-binding box was identified in beta-prolamin genes from maize and Coix that, together with the boxes previously identified in other endosperm expressed genes, forms a curious collection of O2 cis elements. This may have regulatory implications on the role of O2 in the mechanism that controls coordinated gene expression in the developing endosperm. Considering that the O2 locus controls at least three distinct classes of genes in maize endosperm, we propose that the O2 protein may play a more general role in maize endosperm development than previously conceived.

  11. A new stent design with multiple radio-opaque markers for protection of side-branch vessels in bifurcation lesions: HJ stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Myeong-Ki; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2011-01-01

    Loss of side-branch vessels is a serious complication following stent implantation in parent vessels of bifurcation lesions. The purpose of this study was to introduce and test a new stent design for the protection of side-branch vessels in the management of bifurcation lesions. This stent has multiple radio-opaque markers in its central portion, whose presence is useful in avoiding stent-strut placement across the side-branch orifice and in correctly directing the insertion of a second guide wire through the struts into the side branch to minimize jailing of side branches during stent deployment in the parent vessel. In vitro tests of the acrylic resin bifurcation phantom model were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the catheterization laboratory with 10 stents with multiple radio-opaque markers and 10 stents without. Kissing balloon angioplasty was performed across the side branch after stent implantation in the parent vessel in both groups. Side-branch jailing by the stent (presence of any stent struts crossing the side-branch orifice) was determined visually and compared between the two groups. The jailed side branch with the stent struts was observed in one of 10 new stents and in five of 10 conventional stents without them. The in vitro tests demonstrated the superiority of a new stent design for the reduction of side-branch jailing in bifurcation lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Synthesis of oil soluble radio-opaque agent entering a cell and causing anti-tumor effect with X-ray endovascular therapy for malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovetskaya, K. N.; Klyubin, V. V.; Tarazov, P. G.; Pavlovsky, A. V.; Statsenko, A. A.; Granov, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Analytic review of domestic and foreign literature dedicated to X-ray endovascular studies in the therapy for malignant tumors aiming to diagnose and treat tumors showed a great interest to the agent named Lipiodol Ultra Fluid, developed by Guerbet (France) that is oil soluble radio-opaque agent meant mainly for lymphography and sialography. The interest of researchers is caused by the ability of Lipiodol to penetrate into tumor cells and stay there for a long time expressing diagnostic efficacy and in a number of cases expressing anti-tumor effect. The authors note that the mechanism of anti-tumor effect of Lipiodol is still unclear. High viscosity of Lipiodol can be considered as its shortages that at giving intravascular therapy with Lipiodol it can result in embolism of organs of vital importance. The present study was aimed to develop effective oil soluble radio-opaque agent that would not cause vessels embolism but could infiltrate neoplastic tissue while administrating it into vessels of the tumors of parenchymastous organs.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.14 - Hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot work. 1915.14 Section 1915.14 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.14 Hot work. (a) Hot work requiring testing by a Marine Chemist or Coast Guard authorized person. (1) The employer shall ensure that hot work is not performed in...

  15. Hot Jupiter Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, George B.; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2011-02-01

    The upper atmospheres of close-in gas giant exoplanets ("hot Jupiters") are subjected to intense heating and tidal forces from their parent stars. The atomic (H) and ionized (H+) hydrogen layers are sufficiently rarefied that magnetic pressure may dominate gas pressure for expected planetary magnetic field strength. We examine the structure of the magnetosphere using a 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a static "dead zone" near the magnetic equator containing gas confined by the magnetic field, a "wind zone" outside the magnetic equator in which thermal pressure gradients and the magneto-centrifugal-tidal effect give rise to a transonic outflow, and a region near the poles where sufficiently strong tidal forces may suppress transonic outflow. Using dipole field geometry, we estimate the size of the dead zone to be several to tens of planetary radii for a range of parameters. Tides decrease the size of the dead zone, while allowing the gas density to increase outward where the effective gravity is outward. In the wind zone, the rapid decrease of density beyond the sonic point leads to smaller densities relative to the neighboring dead zone, which is in hydrostatic equilibrium. To understand the appropriate base conditions for the 3D isothermal model, we compute a simple 1D thermal model in which photoelectric heating from the stellar Lyman continuum is balanced by collisionally excited Lyα cooling. This 1D model exhibits a H layer with temperature T ~= 5000-10,000 K down to a pressure P ~ 10-100 nbar. Using the 3D isothermal model, we compute maps of the H column density as well as the Lyα transmission spectra for parameters appropriate for HD 209458b. Line-integrated transit depths sime5%-10% can be achieved for the above base conditions, in agreement with the results of Koskinen et al. A deep, warm H layer results in a higher mass-loss rate relative to that for a more shallow layer, roughly in proportion to the base pressure. Strong magnetic

  16. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  17. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan, E-mail: hannan@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rahman, Anwar Abdul, E-mail: anwar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Mohd Arif, E-mail: arif@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni [Prototype and Plant Development Centre, Technical Services Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  18. Optimization of neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1993-11-09

    I consider here the optimization of the two component neutron source, allowing beam species and energy to vary. A simple model is developed, based on the earlier publications, that permits the optimum to be obtained simply. The two component plasma, with one species of hot ion (D{sup +} or T{sup +}) and the complementary species of cold ion, is easy to analyze in the case of a spatially uniform cold plasma, as to good approximation the total number of hot ions is important but not their spatial distribution. Consequently, the optimization can ignore spatial effects. The problem of a plasma with both types of hot ions and cold ions is rather more difficult, as the neutron production by hot-hot interactions is sensitive to their spatial distributions. Consequently, consideration of this problem will be delayed to a future memorandum. The basic model is that used in the published articles on the two-component, beam-plasma mirror source. I integrate the Fokker-Planck equation analytically, obtaining good agreement with previous numerical results. This simplifies the optimization, by providing a functional form for the neutron production. The primary result is expressed in terms of the power efficiency: watts of neutrons/watts of primary power. The latter includes the positive ion neutralization efficiency. At 150 keV, the present model obtains an efficiency of 0.66%, compared with 0.53% of the earlier calculation.

  19. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  20. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    cooling (1700 to 1000 K within days to weeks) [18]; by analogy, it was proposed that all H3-6 chondrites containing polycrystalline taenite cooled rapidly from 1700 K [4], an idea inconsistent with prograde metamorphism. However, cooling rates in equilibrated chondrites that were slow enough to permit significant growth of kamacite would erase prior solidification zoning in taenite by solid-state diffusion [19,20]. This hypothesis, confirmed by computer modeling [21], invalidates the assumption that equilibrated OC containing polycrystalline taenite cooled rapidly. Polycrystalline taenite is most likely a pre-metamorphic relict. Heterogeneous metal grains. Compositionally and texturally heterogeneous metal grains in L6 Bruderheim are unlikely to have survived solid-state diffusion during prograde metamorphism [22]; these authors favored hot accretion followed by low-temperature annealing. However, Bruderheim is a fragmental breccia of shock stage S4 [23] containing partly melted metal grains and opaque veins; heterogeneities in metallic Fe-Ni grains are due to post-metamorphic shock. Misshapen chondrules. A small proportion of chondrules in Tieschitz are non-spherical and seem to have molded themselves around one another while they were at least partly molten, possibly on the surface of a hot asteroid [24]. However, it is now clear that these conjoined objects are adhering or enveloping compound chondrules that fused in the nebula [25]; most are probably siblings that collided shortly after forming in the same heating event. Objects adjacent to the compound chondrules are separated by intervening matrix material; because matrix material is fine grained, porous, highly disequilibrated and unmelted [26,27], any complementarity in shape between adjacent objects and compound chondrules is either due to coincidence or jostling during chondrite compaction. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM). The orientations of the stable NRM in OC were found to be random at scales of ~1 mm3

  1. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid Ground-source Heat Pump Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Glenn [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Moon, Tess [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This project team analyzed supplemental heat rejection/recovery (SHR) devices or systems that could be used in hybrid ground source heat pump (HGHP) systems located in arid or semi-arid regions in southwestern U.S. Identification of effective SHR solutions would enhance the deployment of ground source heat pumps (GHP) in these regions. In a parallel effort, the team developed integrated GHP models that coupled the building load, heat pump, and ground loop subsystems and which could be applied to residential and commercial office buildings. Then GHP and HGHP performances could be compared in terms of operational performance and life-cycle costs. Several potential SHR devices were analyzed by applying two strategies: 1) to remove heat directly from the water in the ground loop before it enters the ground and 2) to remove heat in the refrigerant loop of the vapor compression cycle (VCC) of the heat pump so less heat is transferred to the water loop at the condenser of the VCC. Cooling towers, adsorption coolers, and thermoelectric liquid coolers were included in strategy 1, and expanded desuperheaters, thermosyphons, and an optimized VCC were included in strategy 2. Of all SHR devices analyzed, only the cooling tower provided a cost-effective performance enhancement. For the integrated GHP model, the project team selected the building load model HAMBASE and its powerful computational Simulink/MatLab platform, empirical performance map models of the heat pumps based upon manufacturers’ performance data, and a ground loop model developed by Oklahoma State University and rewritten for this project in Simulink/MatLab. The design process used GLHEPRO, also from Oklahoma State University, to size the borehole fields. The building load and ground loop models were compared with simulations from eQuest, ASHRAE 140-2008 standards, EnergyPlus, and GLHEPRO and were found to predict those subsystems’ performance well. The integrated GHP model was applied to a 195m2

  2. High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amekpewu, M., E-mail: mamek219@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, University for Development Studies, Navrongo (Ghana); Mensah, S.Y. [Department of Physics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana); Musah, R. [Department of Applied Physics, University for Development Studies, Navrongo (Ghana); Mensah, N.G. [Department of Mathematics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana); Abukari, S.S.; Dompreh, K.A. [Department of Physics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana)

    2016-05-01

    High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in undoped single walled achiral Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of ac–dc driven fields was considered. We investigated semi-classically Boltzmann's transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons’ source by deriving the current densities in CNTs. Plots of the normalized current density versus frequency of ac-field revealed an increase in both the minimum and maximum peaks of normalized current density at lower frequencies as a result of a strong injection of hot electrons. The applied ac-field plays a twofold role of suppressing the space-charge instability in CNTs and simultaneously pumping an energy for lower frequency generation and amplification of THz radiations. These have enormous promising applications in very different areas of science and technology.

  3. Dummy source digitization algorithm for reconstruction of flexible brachytherapy catheters with biplane images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálvölgyi, Jenö

    2014-03-01

    The traditional brachytherapy catheter reconstruction with biplane images is based on digitizing radio-opaque markers with a pointing device on a film or on a screen. An algorithm to automate digitization of radio-opaque marker coordinates on biplane images is presented. To obtain the marker coordinates in a proper sequence, instead of usual pair of reconstruction images, series of images were taken with insertion of radio-opaque markers consecutively into the catheters. The images were pre-processed to suppress the shield of anatomic structures. The determination of the marker coordinates is based on the detection of characteristic high gradient variation in pre-processed image profiles. The method was tested with six endometrial insertions performed with Simon-Norman catheters using our version of Heyman packing. 28 catheters of six treatment fractions were digitized, typically 10 markers per catheter. To obtain the marker coordinates, adjustment of two threshold levels on the pre-processed images were needed. The coordinates of the radio-opaque markers on the biplane projection images were obtained without positive or negative artefact. THE DUMMY SOURCE COORDINATES ON THE BIPLANE IMAGES WERE DIGITIZED IN A PROPER SEQUENCE: from the catheters' tip towards the end of the catheters. After the three-dimensional reconstruction of the catheters from the digitized coordinates, the geometry file was imported by the brachytherapy planning system for dose calculation. The method has the advantage to eliminate manual digitization of the dummy sources.

  4. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  5. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  6. REFERÊNCIA OPACA, MANIPULAÇÃO DE PONTOS DE VISTA E TEXTUALIDADE / OPAQUE REFERENCE, MANIPULATION OF POINTS OF VIEW AND TEXTUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Apothéloz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo aborda o problema da opacidade referencial – originariamente descrita e discutida no quadro da lógica da filosofia da linguagem – na perspectiva da análise do discurso. Mostra-se que as expressões referenciais opacas são associadas à manipulação dos pontos de vista. Diferentes categorias de opacidade são distinguidas em função do tipo de conteúdo explorado para produzir um efeito de opacidade. ABSTRACT This article is focused on the problem of referential opacity – originally described and discussed in the framework of the logic of the language philosophy – in the perspective of the discourse analysis. It is shown that opaque referential expressions are associated to the manipulation of points of view. Different categories of opacity are distinguished according to the type of content exploited in order to produce an opacity effect.

  7. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism and opaque mineralogy of iron ore deposits from southern Mexico and their implications for quantitative modelling of magnetometric data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva-Valdivia, L.M.; Fucugauchi, Urrutia, J.; Bohnel, H.; Moran Zenteno, D.J. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1990-06-01

    Paleomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Opaque Mineralogy of Iron Ore Deposits from Southern Mexico and Their Implications for Quantitative Modelling of Magnetometric Data. The tectonic history of the Pacific continental margin is critical for understanding their mineral deposits. The margin presents intrusive and volcanic activity characteristic of magmatic arcs of subduction zones, which are genetically related with deposits of Cu, Fe, Mo, Au, and Ag. Although the tectonic history has been complex, involving oblique plate subduction, lateral movements, accretion of magmatic arcs and oceanic plateaux, and lateral displacements of major blocks, the mineral deposits are spatially distributed along elongated belts that roughly follow the margin. The authors have conducted paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and petrological studies of the iron ore deposits to investigate genesis, magnetic mineralogy, stratigraphic relationships, metamorphism, and applications on quantitative modelling of magnetometric data. The remanent magnetization and susceptibility data are necessary for interpretation of magnetic anomalies. The results permit a comparison of the mineral deposits along the continental margin.

  8. Note: Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows. II. Three-dimensional velocity field reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Yong [Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Joon [Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    An x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system using a cone-beam type x-ray was developed. The field of view and the spatial resolution are 36 x 24.05 mm{sup 2} and 20 {mu}m, respectively. The three-dimensional velocity field was reconstructed by adopting the least squares minimum residue and simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction techniques. According to a simulation study with synthetic images, the reconstructions were acceptable with 7 projections and 50 iterations. The reconstructed and supplied flow rates differed by only about 6.49% in experimental verification. The x-ray tomographic PIV system would be useful for 3D velocity field information of opaque flows.

  9. Hot-spots in tapwaterleidingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolferen, J. van; Sluis, S.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    ln opdracht van de VNI is een aantal berekeningen uitgevoerd voor het vaststellen van aanvullende richtlijnen in verband met hot-spots in tapwaterleidingen. Hierbij is deels voortgebouwd op berekeningen die reeds eerder in opdracht van Novem zijn uitgevoerd t.b.v. ISSO publicatie 55.1, Handleiding

  10. Hot Corrosion in Gas Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-27

    in hot corrosion under some circumstances, because its role seems to be principally through reduction of NagSO, or erosion by pyrolytic graphite...same morphology could be produced either by spray -coating with NaxSO, or by diffusing NIS into the cut- edge region under argon at temperature and then

  11. Measurement of spatial resolution and sensitivity in transmission and backscattering Raman spectroscopy of opaque samples: impact on pharmaceutical quality control and Raman tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Neil; Priestnall, Ian; Dallin, Paul; Andrews, John; Lewis, Ian; Davis, Kevin; Owen, Harry; George, Michael W

    2010-05-01

    A practical methodology is described that allows measurement of spatial resolution and sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in backscatter and transmission modes under conditions where photon migration dominates, i.e., with turbid or opaque samples. For the first time under such conditions the width and intensity of the point spread function (PSF) has been accurately measured as a function of sample thickness and depth below the surface. In transmission mode, the lateral resolution for objects in the bulk degraded linearly with sample thickness, but the resolution was much better for objects near either surface, being determined by the diameter of the probe beam and collection aperture irrespective of sample thickness. In other words, buried objects appear to be larger than ones near either surface. The absolute transmitted signal decreased significantly with sample thickness, but objects in the bulk yielded higher signals than those at either surface. In transmission, materials are sampled preferentially in the bulk, which has ramifications for quantitative analysis. In backscattering mode, objects near the probed surface were detected much more effectively than in the bulk, and the resolution worsened linearly with depth below the surface. These results are highly relevant in circumstances in which one is trying to detect or image buried objects in opaque media, for example Raman tomography of biological tissues or compositional and structural analysis of pharmaceutical tablets. Finally, the observations were in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations and, provided one is in the diffusion regime, were insensitive to the choice of transport length, which shows that a simple model can be used to predict instrument performance for a given excitation and collection geometry.

  12. Protein quality traits and their relationships with yield and yield components of opaque-2 and analogous normal maize hybrids and inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Kovács, I; Gáspár, L

    1974-01-01

    Diallel cross hybrids obtained by crossing six opaque-2 (o 2) converted inbred lines were compared with a similar series of crosses made between the analogous normal inbred lines together with the parents, for a number of protein quality and oil traits. The results obtained show that there is only a minor decrease in percent protein or yield of protein per hectare caused by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition, compared with its normal counterpart. On the other hand, percent lysine in the whole kernel, lysine yield per hectare and percent lysine in protein are increased by 53, 45 and 55 percent, respectively, in the o 2 inbred lines and hybrids compared with their normal analogues. Percent oil and oil yield remain almost unaltered by the presence or absence of the o 2 gene. As well as lysine, the content of other amino acids, such as aspartic acid, arginine, glycine, threonine, valine and histidine are also, in general, increased by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition.The results obtained have shown that a number of correlation coefficients between the protein quality traits and yield components related to kernel characteristics are negative and significant, especially in the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition. Only two correlation coefficients have been found that could be used with advantage by opaque-2 maize breeders. They are a stronger positive correlation of percent protein with percent lysine, and lysine yield per hectare with 1000 grain weight, in o 2 maize than in normal maize.The results presented here also show that there is more heterotic dilution in the o 2 hybrids than in the normal analogues for traits like percent protein, percent lysine (whole kernel basis) and percent lysine in protein. It has been observed that the inbred lines with the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition and a superior protein quality tend to produce hybrids of superior quality.

  13. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  14. Progress in hot dry rock technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.; Brown, D.W.; House, L.; Robinson, B.R.; Ponden, R.

    1990-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy program at Los Alamos is directed toward demonstrating the viability of HDR as a practical energy source. Recently, reservoir characterization experiments have been carried out to evaluate water loss and reservoir inflation under pressurized conditions over a long time period. In addition, advances have been made in reservoir engineering, seismic modeling, and tracer development. Preparations are being made to conduct a long term flow test (LTFT) to evaluate the thermal power potential of the existing Phase 2 reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The reservoir is located 12,000 ft below the surface and has an estimated capacity of about a million gallons. The LTFT is scheduled to start in 1991 and will run for 1--2 years. This paper summarizes recent developments in all of the above areas. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-31

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  17. Iron losses during desulphurisation of hot metal

    OpenAIRE

    Magnelöv, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    After injection of calcium carbide and magnesium during desulphurisation of hot metal, the slag is normally solid and contains large amounts of iron. Besides the enclosed iron droplets in the slag, drawn-off hot metal during slag skimming also accounts for iron losses during desulphurisation of hot metal. Iron losses during hot metal desulphurisation using both calcium carbide (mono-injection), and calcium carbide and magnesium (co-injection), have been studied by large-scale investigations o...

  18. Basaltic lava characterization using magnetic susceptibility identification and presence of opaque minerals in Ijen volcanic complex, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Aditya; Hafidz, Abd.; Bijaksana, Satria; Abdurrachman, Mirzam

    2017-07-01

    Reliable volcanic map and deep understanding of magmatic processes are very important in exploration of natural resources and mitigation of volcanic hazards. The conservative method in volcanic mapping still depends on qualitative approach thus it often failed to characterize volcanic products properly. Rock magnetic methods are quantitative approaches that classify rocks based on their magnetic properties. In this study, magmatic processes in basaltic lavas from Ijen volcanic complex in Banyuwangi, East Java were studied using combined rock magnetic and petrogenesis approaches. Samples of basaltic lavas from 13 localities, taken from three eruption sources were measuredfor their mass-specific magnetic susceptibility. The samples were then also subjected to petrographic and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analyses for their minerals composition and petrogenesis. Preliminary results show that the distinction in magnetic characters might be due to the quantity of magnetic minerals contained in rocks.

  19. HEiDi: Single crystal diffractometer at hot source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Meven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The single crystal diffractometer HEiDi, which is operated by the Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University and JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, is designed for detailed studies on structural and magnetic properties of single crystals using unpolarised neutrons and Bragg’s Law: 2dhklsinθ = λ (typically 0.55 Å <λ< 1.2 Å.

  20. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  1. A case of familial hot tub lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kitahara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot tub lung is a lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. We report the first case of familial hot tub lung appearing simultaneously in a husband and wife. Our case supports the consideration that hot tub lung is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis rather than an infectious lung disease. It also suggests that the state of hot tub lung changes seasonally depending on temperature variations, in a manner similar to summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This case demonstrates similarities between hot tub lung and summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis in regards to familial occurrence and seasonal changes in the disease state.

  2. SMA millimeter observations of hot molecular cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Hernández, Vicente; Zapata, Luis; Kurtz, Stan [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: v.hernandez@crya.unam.mx [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and the CH{sub 3}CN (12 {sub K}-11 {sub K}) line of 17 hot molecular cores associated with young high-mass stars. The angular resolution of the observations ranges from 1.''0 to 4.''0. The continuum observations reveal large (>3500 AU) dusty structures with gas masses from 7 to 375 M {sub ☉}, which probably surround multiple young stars. The CH{sub 3}CN line emission is detected toward all the molecular cores at least up to the K = 6 component and is mostly associated with the emission peaks of the dusty objects. We used the multiple K-components of the CH{sub 3}CN and both the rotational diagram method and a simultaneous synthetic local thermodynamic equilibrium model with the XCLASS program to estimate the temperatures and column densities of the cores. For all sources, we obtained reasonable fits from XCLASS by using a model that combines two components: an extended and warm envelope and a compact hot core of molecular gas, suggesting internal heating by recently formed massive stars. The rotational temperatures lie in the range of 40-132 K and 122-485 K for the extended and compact components, respectively. From the continuum and CH{sub 3}CN results, we infer fractional abundances from 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –7} toward the compact inner components, which increase with the rotational temperature. Our results agree with a chemical scenario in which the CH{sub 3}CN molecule is efficiently formed in the gas phase above 100-300 K, and its abundance increases with temperature.

  3. Meet the family - the catalog of known hot subdwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Stephan; Østensen, Roy H.; Nemeth, Peter; Heber, Ulrich; Gentile Fusillo, Nicola P.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Telting, John H.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Schaffenroth, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    In preparation for the upcoming all-sky data releases of the Gaia mission, we compiled a catalog of known hot subdwarf stars and candidates drawn from the literature and yet unpublished databases. The catalog contains 5613 unique sources and provides multi-band photometry from the ultraviolet to the far infrared, ground based proper motions, classifications based on spectroscopy and colors, published atmospheric parameters, radial velocities and light curve variability information. Using several different techniques, we removed outliers and misclassified objects. By matching this catalog with astrometric and photometric data from the Gaia mission, we will develop selection criteria to construct a homogeneous, magnitude-limited all-sky catalog of hot subdwarf stars based on Gaia data. As first application of the catalog data, we present the quantitative spectral analysis of 280 sdB and sdOB stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Combining our derived parameters with state-of-the-art proper motions, we performed a full kinematic analysis of our sample. This allowed us to separate the first significantly large sample of 78 sdBs and sdOBs belonging to the Galactic halo. Comparing the properties of hot subdwarfs from the disk and the halo with hot subdwarf samples from the globular clusters ! Cen and NGC 2808, we found the fraction of intermediate He-sdOBs in the field halo population to be significantly smaller than in the globular clusters.

  4. Impact of hot environment on colostrum and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P

    2013-11-03

    Under hot and warm environments productivity and reproduction efficiency of farm and wild animals are negatively affected. The negative effects of hot environments on animal health are responsible for the alteration of colostrum and milk production in term of quantity and quality. Colostrum and milk are nutrient-rich fluids secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals after giving birth and during growth and development of the young. Multiple factors influence the production and the composition of colostrum and milk, including species, breed, health status, feeding practices and environmental conditions. Colostrum and milk are not only a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients, but contains many biologically-active constituents. Colostrum and milk of various species differ widely in amounts and proportions of their principal constituents, especially comparing monogastric with ruminant animals because of the difference between their physiology and digestion. The interspecies variations in part reflect different adaptive strategies to environmental conditions and selective pressures of various species during the evolution. A limited number of studies documented the effects of hot condition on modification of colostrum and milk quality, in particular referred to nutrients and immunoglobulin composition, but no information are available on the effects of hot environment on nutraceutical properties and bioactive molecules content of colostrum and milk.

  5. The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building

    OpenAIRE

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas; Solveiga Adomėnaitė

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and e...

  6. Lente intra-ocular opaca em diplopia intratável: relato de caso Opaque intraocular lens in intractable diplopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Teixeira Krieger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia intratável tem sido descrita em várias situações. Métodos convencionais como prismas e correção cirúrgica do estrabismo falham em neutralizá-la. O objetivo do trabalho é documentar o caso de uma paciente com estrabismo de longa data, cuja diplopia deteriorou-se ao longo dos anos, e não foi possível resolução com cirurgia, prisma, e oclusão com óculos e lente de contato com pupila opaca. A paciente foi então submetida à facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular opaca que atingiu o objetivo desejado.Intractable diplopia has been described in many situations but poor results are the rule with standard treatment modalities. The authors report a case of a woman with long-standing strabismus and diplopia who failed to improve following surgery, prism, and occlusive spectacles or contact lenses. Then, she was submitted to phacoemulsification and opaque intraocular lens implantation, which successfully neutralized diplopia.

  7. Numerical Modelling for the Thermal Performance Assessment of a Semi-Opaque Façade with a Multilayer of Nano-Structured and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study was to assess and compare the thermo-physical and energy behaviour of different integrated building façades, using a multi-physics simulation approach. Advanced integrated façades composed of opaque modules, one of them with a phase change materials (PCM layer, the others with multilayer panels, combined with transparent ones, consisting of nano-structured materials and new-generation photovoltaic systems, were investigated. A multi-physics approach was used for the design optimization of the studied components and evaluation of their thermo-physical and heat transfer performance. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD multi-physics transient simulations were performed to assess air temperature and velocity fields inside the ventilated cavities. Analysis of heat and mass exchange through all the components was assessed during heating and cooling mode of a reference building. The typical Mediterranean climate was considered. Results comparison allowed the dynamic heat transfer evaluation of the multilayer façades as a function of variable climatic conditions, and their flexibility and adaptability exploitation, when different energy strategies are pursued. The multi-physics modelling approach used, proved to be a strong tool for the energy design optimization and energy sustainability evaluation of different advance materials and building components.

  8. The transcriptional activator Opaque2 recognizes two different target sequences in the 22-kD-like alpha-prolamin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, J A; Cord Neto, G; da Silva, M J; Leite, A; Ottoboni, L M; Arruda, P

    1994-01-01

    The maize Opaque2 (O2) protein is a "leucine zipper" DNA binding factor that interacts with the sequence TCCACGTAGA in the promoters of the 22-kD alpha-zein genes and activates its transcription. A completely different consensus sequence (GATGAPyPuTGPu) identified in b-32, a gene that encodes an abundant albumin that is also under control of the O2 locus, can also be bound by the O2 protein. We showed that the gene encoding the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin, the alpha-prolamin of the maize-related grass Coix, can also be transactivated by the O2 protein. A binding assay in vitro and footprint analysis demonstrated that the GACATGTC sequence of the alpha-coixin promoter can be recognized and protected by the maize O2 protein. Employing transient expression experiments in immature maize endosperm and tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, we demonstrated that the O2 protein can activate expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene placed under the control of the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin promoter. We also demonstrated that a 22-kD-like alpha-coixin pseudogene promoter is transactivated by the maize O2 protein. PMID:8148647

  9. Economics of Hot Water Dipping

    OpenAIRE

    P., Maxin; K., Klopp

    2004-01-01

    Hot water dipping is an appropriate method to protect apples against spoilage caused by gloeosporium rot. Tests on the varieties Topaz and Ingrid Marie at the OVB Jork (Germany) have demonstrated an effective reduction of spoilage from between 80% and 92% in charges by an infection rate of 40%. The result of an intensive R&D process between 2002 and 2003 is the development of a praxis-tested big box (300 kg) dipping station. With the first Bio Dipping systems now on the mark...

  10. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  11. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  12. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  13. POLI: Polarised hot neutron diffractometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hutanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available POLI, which is operated by the Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University in cooperation with JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, is a versatile two axes single crystal diffractometer with broad field of applications. Mostly dedicated to the investigation of magnetic structures in single crystals using neutron spin polarisation, POLI is also used for classical structural investigations under extreme conditions. High intensity hot neutrons flux makes it attractive also for the other applications like study of parity violations phenomena in nuclear physics or BNCT (boron neutron-capture therapy in medicine.

  14. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  15. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  16. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation...

  17. HotSpot Wizard: a web server for identification of hot spots in protein engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavelka, Antonin; Chovancova, Eva; Damborsky, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    HotSpot Wizard is a web server for automatic identification of 'hot spots' for engineering of substrate specificity, activity or enantioselectivity of enzymes and for annotation of protein structures...

  18. Corrosion of galvanized pipes in the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the problem of steel pipes corrosion in domestic hot water supply systems. A case study of abnormally high rate of corrosion of galvanized steel pipes in a hot water supply system, installed in a complex of residential and public buildings, was considered. The rapid corrosion led to premature failure of these pipelines. Onsite visual inspection, chemical analysis of the tap water with LSI/RSI calculation and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used during this study. The basic factors that lead to pitting corrosion were established: quality of source water (its high corrosion activity, high temperature and local increase in oxygen content near the pipe surface. A possibility of microbial corrosion was also assumed.

  19. Diffuse vacuum arc with cerium oxide hot cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, R. Kh; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.; Ivanov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse vacuum arc with hot cathode is one of the perspective plasma sources for the development of spent nuclear fuel plasma reprocessing technology. Experimental data is known for such type of discharges on metal cathodes. In this work discharge with cerium dioxide hot cathode was studied. Cerium dioxide properties are similar to uranium dioxide. Its feature as dielectric is that it becomes conductive in oxygen-free atmosphere. Vacuum arc was studied at following parameters: cathode temperatures were between 2.0 and 2.2 kK, discharge currents was between 30 and 65 A and voltages was in range from 15 to 25 V. Power flows from plasma to cathode were estimated in achieved regimes. Analysis of generated plasma component composition was made by radiation spectrum diagnostics. These results were compared with calculations of equilibrium gaseous phase above solid sample of cerium dioxide in close to experimental conditions. Cerium dioxide vacuum evaporation rate and evaporation rate in arc were measured.

  20. Application of hot-wire technique at unconventional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiga, V. A.; Pak, A. Yu.; Zinoviev, V. N.; Mironov, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    The problems of using the hot-wire method for studying fluctuations in flows are considered when standard approaches and conventional modes cannot be used due to constraints caused either by the flow parameters or by the characteristics and conditions of the experiments. Examples of measurements under conditions of extremely low pressures and beyond the limits of the continuity of the medium in the CO2-laser are given; The use of data of hot-wire measurements for the determination of sources of disturbances in test sections of high-speed wind tunnels is shown; the design of a probe for measurement of concentration of components of the binary gas mixture is described, etc.

  1. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  2. Hot Jupiters around young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. F.; Donati, J.-F.

    2017-12-01

    This conference paper presents the results of the MaTYSSE (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of massive close-in Exoplanets) observation programme, regarding the search for giant exoplanets around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTS), as of early 2017. The discoveries of two hot Jupiters (hJs), around V830 Tau and TAP 26, sun-like stars of respectively ˜2 Myr and ˜17 Myr, are summarized here. Both exoplanets seem to have undergone type-II migration (planet-disc interaction leading the orbit to narrow around the host) based on their low orbital eccentricity. The methods which were used are given more focus in the paper Stellar activity filtering methods for the detection of exoplanets in the present book.

  3. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  4. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  5. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  6. A daytime climatological distribution of high opaque ice cloud classes over the Indian summer monsoon region observed from 25-year AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A daytime climatological spatio-temporal distribution of high opaque ice cloud (HOIC classes over the Indian subcontinent (0–40° N, 60° E–100° E is presented using 25-year data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs for the summer monsoon months. The HOICs are important for regional radiative balance, precipitation and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. In this study, HOICs are sub-divided into three classes based on their cloud top brightness temperatures (BT. Class I represents very deep convection (BT<220 K. Class II represents deep convection (220 K<=BT<233 K and Class III background convection (233 K<=BT<253 K. Apart from presenting finest spatial resolution (0.1×0.1 degrees and long-term climatology of such cloud classes from AVHRRs to date, this study for the first time illustrates on (1 how these three cloud classes are climatologically distributed during monsoon months, and (2 how their distribution changes during active and break monsoon conditions. It is also investigated that how many deep convective clouds reach the tropopause layer during individual monsoon months. It is seen that Class I and Class II clouds dominate the Indian subcontinent during monsoon. The movement of monsoon over continent is very well reflected in these cloud classes. During monsoon breaks strong suppression of convective activity is observed over the Arabian Sea and the western coast of India. On the other hand, the presence of such convective activity is crucial for active monsoon conditions and all-India rainfall. It is found that a significant fraction of HOICs (3–5% reach the tropopause layer over the Bay of Bengal during June and over the north and northeast India during July and August. Many cases are observed when clouds penetrate the tropopause layer and reach the lower stratosphere. Such cases mostly occur during June compared to the other months.

  7. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  8. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  9. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HOT JUPITER HD 189733b AT X-RAY WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schmitt, J. H. M. M., E-mail: kpoppenhaeger@cfa.harvard.edu [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-10

    We present new X-ray observations obtained with Chandra ACIS-S of the HD 189733 system, consisting of a K-type star orbited by a transiting Hot Jupiter and an M-type stellar companion. We report a detection of the planetary transit in soft X-rays with a significantly deeper transit depth than observed in the optical. The X-ray data favor a transit depth of 6%-8%, versus a broadband optical transit depth of 2.41%. While we are able to exclude several possible stellar origins for this deep transit, additional observations will be necessary to fully exclude the possibility that coronal inhomogeneities influence the result. From the available data, we interpret the deep X-ray transit to be caused by a thin outer planetary atmosphere which is transparent at optical wavelengths, but dense enough to be opaque to X-rays. The X-ray radius appears to be larger than the radius observed at far-UV wavelengths, most likely due to high temperatures in the outer atmosphere at which hydrogen is mostly ionized. We furthermore detect the stellar companion HD 189733B in X-rays for the first time with an X-ray luminosity of log L{sub X} = 26.67 erg s{sup -1}. We show that the magnetic activity level of the companion is at odds with the activity level observed for the planet-hosting primary. The discrepancy may be caused by tidal interaction between the Hot Jupiter and its host star.

  10. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...

  11. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    . The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  12. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  13. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  14. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  15. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  16. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Rashes Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... scrubbing and cleaning? Replacement of the hot tub water filter according to manufacturer’s recommendations? Replacement of hot tub ...

  17. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  18. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  19. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  20. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  1. 40 CFR 468.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.15... part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment sources for new sources: (a) Subpart A—Hot Rolling... average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot rolled English units—pounds per 1,000,000 off...

  2. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  3. Hot workability of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwembela, Aaron Absalom

    For the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9.OAl-0.7Zn-0.13Mn) die cast specimens were subjected to torsion testing at 150, 180, 240, 300, 420 and 450°C at 0.05 0.5 and 5.0 s--1 The as-cast specimens exhibited hot shortness at 360°C and above; however in that domain, after prior thermomechanical processing (TMP) at 300°C, they showed much improved properties (which were reported along with as-cast properties at 300°C and below). For AZ31-Mn (Mg-3.2Al-1-1Zn-0.34Mn), AZ31 (Mg-2-8Al-0-88Zn-0.01Mn), AZ63 (Mg-5-5Al-2.7Zn-0.34Mn) and ZK60 (Mg-5.7Zn-0.65Zr-O-O1A]), the specimens were subjected to hot torsion testing in the range 180 to 450°C and 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 s--1. In the temperature range below 300°C flow curves rise to a peak with failure occurring immediately thereafter. Above 300°C the flow curves exhibited a peak and a gradual decline towards steady state. The temperature and strain rate dependence of the strength is described by a sinh-Arrhenius equation with QHW between 125 and 144 kJ/mol; this indicates control by climb in comparison with creep in the range 200--400°C. The alloy strength and activation energy declined in the order AZ63, AZ31-Mn AZ91, AZ31 and ZK60, while ductility increased with decreasing strength. In working of Mg alloys from 150 to 450°C, the flow curves harden to a peak and work soften to a steady state regime above 300°C. At temperatures below 300°C, twinning is observed initially to bring grains into more suitable slip orientations. At high T a substructure develops due to basal and prismatic slip, Forming cells of augmented misorientation first near the grain boundaries and later towards the grain cores. Near the peak, new grains appear along the old boundaries (mantle) as a result of dynamic recrystallization DRX but not in the core of the initial grains. As T rises, the new grains are larger and the mantle broader, enhanced DRX results in higher ductility. At intermediate T, shear bands form through alignment of mantle zones resulting in

  4. Hot dry rock, an alternate geothermal energy resource: a challenge for instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Horton, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The natural internal heat from the Earth is one of the cleanest, nearly inexhaustible energy sources. The hot dry rock that composes most of the Earth's crust has the potential of becoming one of the largest reservoirs of energy economically available in the near future. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, for the past five years, has been working toward exploiting this very abundant, clean energy source. The LASL technique to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of extracting heat from the hot dry rock source depends upon the connection of two deep boreholes drilled into impermeable precambrian granite where the temperature approaches 200/sup 0/C. The boreholes are connected by a system of hydraulic-produced fractures. Cold water flowing down the deeper hole will be heated by the hot rock and will be brought to the surface through the second hole. The hot water will be circulated through a closed-loop heat exchanger. The first phase of operating the 10 MW(t) heat extraction experiment will be conducted to determine the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the reservoir and heat exchange system. Environmental effects will be carefully monitored. For optimum extraction of energy from this man-made geothermal reservoir, it is vital that the absolute location of the fractured system be well established. Fracture mapping techniques include an array of downhole instrumentation that must survive the hostile environment of the deep hot boreholes.

  5. Astro-archaeology - The white dwarfs and hot subwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1991-01-01

    By 'astroarcheology' is presently meant the effort to ascertain the Galaxy's past in light of what is found in its most ancient, white dwarf constituents. Attention is given to the controversial role of the hot subdwarfs and the theory of white dwarf spectral evolution, as well as to the concept of the 'Whole Earth Telescope', involving continuous photometric coverage of rapidly varying astronomical sources and thereby eliminating the otherwise troublesome diurnal gaps in data. Much higher resolution of the power spectra of these objects is attainable by these means than any current alternative.

  6. A Comprehensive GALEX Catalog of UV Variable Hot Stars with Broad Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed sky surveys in the Ultraviolet (UV) with different depth and coverage. Its database of about 300 million photometric source measurements in far-UV and near-UV offers unique sensitivity for identifying and studying classes of astrophysical objects such as hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and zMCP detectors. Until now, only integrated images and photometry from each observation were available in the public archive. Now it is possible to search through the photon list, and extract photometry with chosen time integrations for a given source. Such facility opens up unprecedented opportunities for investigations of short-term UV variability, serendipitous and unbiased, over samples orders-of-magnitude larger than any dedicated variability search could afford, and the only one in the UV. We will search for variability on all time scales afforded by the database (from seconds to the >9 years of GALEX operations), but especially on the fast cadences, for all hot stellar sources in the GALEX database. Most of these are very hot white dwarfs (WD), elusive at all wavelengths except the UV owing to their small radii and hot temperatures. We have identified about half a million hot WD candidates in the GALEX database, with corollary data at longer wavelengths. The GALEX-selected hot-WD samples are orders of magnitude larger than previous catalogs, and unbiased thanks to the UV selection (e.g., Bianchi et al. 2011a). Of particular interest are the hot WDs in binaries with a cooler (less evolved) star, uniquely identified and characterized from matched UV-À

  7. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  8. Polyakov loop modeling for hot QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Skokov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    We review theoretical aspects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature. The most important physical variable to characterize hot QCD is the Polyakov loop, which is an approximate order parameter for quark deconfinement in a hot gluonic medium. Additionally to its role as an order parameter, the Polyakov loop has rich physical contents in both perturbative and non-perturbative sectors. This review covers a wide range of subjects associated with the Polyakov loop from topological defects in hot QCD to model building with coupling to the Polyakov loop.

  9. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  10. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic...

  11. VT New Market Tax Credit - Hot Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EconOther_NMTC layer delineates New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) "hot zones" and qualified counties and census tracts. This dataset is designed to...

  12. 35 70 deg. hot water springs at the origin of a 'thermo-recreational' facility; 35 sources d'eau chaude a 70 deg a l'origine d'un complexe ''thermoludique''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-10-01

    Thirty five hot water springs of the Andorre region (Southern France) are used to supply the energy needs of a recreational facility located in the village of Escaldes Engordany in the heart of the French Pyrenees (1050 m of altitude). Because these geothermal waters reach the surface at 70 deg. C, their cooling allows to recover the heat necessary for the space heating of the building and for the thermal regulation of the water temperature of the pools. (J.S.)

  13. Bibliography on Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Carbon Astrology Subjected to Hot Isostatic Pressing Jablonski, D. A. Mater Sci Eng 48 (2), 189-98, 1981 ( AD-D121 615) Key Words: Udimet 700...turbine components, heat treatment, microstructure tensile properties, fractography, porosity 73. Manufacture of Low Carbon Astrology Turbine Disk...Pyromet CTX- 1, Pyromet 3 i, tensile properties, creep rupture, microstructure 119 15. Manufacture of Low Carbon Astrology Turbine Disk Shapes by Hot

  14. Some considerations on flow, heat and chemical composition of Italian hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. YUHARA

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Tlie flow, the temperature and the chemical composition
    of Italian hot springs are eonsidered from the geopliysical and geochemical
    points of view. At Guardia Piemontese, the spring temperature deereases in
    the rainy season while the flow increases, the phase lag of this variation from
    tlie rain being about two months. This may suggest that the precipitation
    aliments the source of the hot spring itself or it causes an increase of groundwater
    mixing to tlie hot spring.
    In Italy, the hot water output of each hot spring is generally less
    than the quantity of corresponding recharged water from the precipitation
    in the basili, and tliis relation is also kept in the geothermal steam fleld
    of Larderello. The annual tliermal outputs of Italian hot springs are
    of order of IO14 cai at maximum. We can extraet geochemically some
    groups of water from the Italian minerai waters: thev are a high saline water
    being regarded as fossil or oil-field water, a water being similar to the sea
    water, a water of which main soluble component is CaS04, and a middle
    type between last two waters.

  15. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  16. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  17. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  18. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...

  19. Utilizing 'hot words' in ParaConc to verify lexical simplification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to illustrate that ParaConc, a parallel concordancer designed by Barlow (1995) has proved useful in the analysis of parallel texts, i.e. source texts (ST) and their target texts (TT), which are English original texts and their Xhosa translated versions respectively in this context. The 'hot word' function in ...

  20. "Hot", "Cold" and "Warm" Information and Higher Education Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, K.; Mangan, J.; Hughes, A.; Davies, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the notions of "hot" and "cold" knowledge in analysing the responses of students to the relevance of different information and sources of such information in university choice. Analysis of questionnaire and focus group data from prospective and first-year undergraduate students provides evidence that many…

  1. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  2. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition: recent progress, present state of the art and competitive opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2009-01-01

    Hot Wire CVD (also called Catalytic CVD or initiated CVD) is an elegant low pressure deposition technique for the deposition of functional films, both inorganic and organic, based on the decomposition of precursor sources at a heated metallic surface. The conformal deposition of thin films on rigid

  3. Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces using a random forest model with hybrid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces provides crucial information for the research on protein-protein interaction and drug design. Existing machine learning methods generally judge whether a given residue is likely to be a hot spot by extracting features only from the target residue. However, hot spots usually form a small cluster of residues which are tightly packed together at the center of protein interface. With this in mind, we present a novel method to extract hybrid features which incorporate a wide range of information of the target residue and its spatially neighboring residues, i.e. the nearest contact residue in the other face (mirror-contact residue) and the nearest contact residue in the same face (intra-contact residue). We provide a novel random forest (RF) model to effectively integrate these hybrid features for predicting hot spots in protein interfaces. Our method can achieve accuracy (ACC) of 82.4% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.482 in Alanine Scanning Energetics Database, and ACC of 77.6% and MCC of 0.429 in Binding Interface Database. In a comparison study, performance of our RF model exceeds other existing methods, such as Robetta, FOLDEF, KFC, KFC2, MINERVA and HotPoint. Of our hybrid features, three physicochemical features of target residues (mass, polarizability and isoelectric point), the relative side-chain accessible surface area and the average depth index of mirror-contact residues are found to be the main discriminative features in hot spots prediction. We also confirm that hot spots tend to form large contact surface areas between two interacting proteins. Source data and code are available at: http://www.aporc.org/doc/wiki/HotSpot.

  4. Life cycle assessment of domestic heat pump hot water systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water heating accounts for 23% of residential energy consumption in Australia, and, as over half is provided by electric water heaters, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to inclusion in rebate schemes heat pump water heating systems are becoming increasingly popular, but do they result in lower greenhouse gas emissions? This study follows on from a previous life cycle assessment study of domestic hot water systems to include heat pump systems. The streamlined life cycle assessment approach used focused on the use phase of the life cycle, which was found in the previous study to be where the majority of global warming potential (GWP impacts occurred. Data was collected from an Australian heat pump manufacturer and was modelled assuming installation within Australian climate zone 3 (AS/NZS 4234:2011. Several scenarios were investigated for the heat pumps including different sources of electricity (grid, photovoltaic solar modules, and batteries and the use of solar thermal panels. It was found that due to their higher efficiency heat pump hot water systems can result in significantly lower GWP than electric storage hot water systems. Further, solar thermal heat pump systems can have lower GWP than solar electric hot water systems that use conventional electric boosting. Additionally, the contributions of HFC refrigerants to GWP can be significant so the use of alternative refrigerants is recommended. Heat pumps combined with PV and battery technology can achieve the lowest GWP of all domestic hot water systems.

  5. Investigation of plasma flow in vacuum arc with hot cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, R.; Vorona, N.; Gavrikov, A.; Lizyakin, G.; Polistchook, V.; Samoylov, I.; Smirnov, V.; Usmanov, R.; Yartsev, I.

    2014-11-01

    One of the crucial problems which appear under development of plasma technology processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is the design of plasma source. The plasma source must use solid SNF as a raw material. This article is devoted to experimental study of vacuum arc with hot cathode made of gadolinium that may consider as the simple model of SNF. This vacuum discharge was investigated in wide range of parameters. During the experiments arc current and voltage, cathode temperature, and heat flux to the cathode were measured. The data on plasma spectrum and electron temperature were obtained. It was shown that external heating of the cathode allows change significantly the main parameters of plasma. It was established by spectral and probe methods that plasma jet in studied discharge may completely consist of single charged ions.

  6. SOFIA/EXES High Spectral Resolution Observations of the Orion Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Colgan, Sean; Le Gal, Romane; Acharya, Kinsuk; Huang, Xinchuan; Herbst, Eric; Lee, Timothy J.; Richter, Matthew J.; Boogert, Adwin

    2018-01-01

    The Orion hot core has one of the richest molecular chemistries observed in the ISM. In the MIR, the Orion hot core composition is best probed by the closest, compact, bright background continuum source in this region, IRc2. We present high-spectral resolution observations from 12.96 - 13.33 μm towards Orion IRc2 using the mid-infrared spectrograph, EXES, on SOFIA, to probe the physical and chemical conditions of the Orion hot core. All ten of the rovibrational C2H2 transitions expected in our spectral coverage, are detected with high S/N, yielding continuous coverage of the R-branch lines from J=9-8 to J=18-17, including both ortho and para species. Eight of these rovibrational transitions are newly reported detections. These data show distinct ortho and para ladders towards the Orion hot core for the first time, with an ortho to para ratio (OPR) of only 0.6 - much lower than the high temperature equilibrium value of 3. A non-equilibrium OPR is a further indication of the Orion hot core being heated externally by shocks likely resulting from a well-known explosive event which occurred 500 yrs ago. The OPR conversion timescales are much longer than the 500 yr shock timescale and thus a low OPR might be a remnant from an earlier colder pre-stellar phase before the density enhancement (now the hot core) was impacted by shocks.We will also present preliminary results from an on-going SOFIA Cycle-5 impact program to use EXES to conduct an unbiased, high-S/N, continuous, molecular line survey of the Orion hot core from 12.5 - 28.3 microns. This survey is expected to be 50 times better than ISO in detecting isolated, narrow lines to (a) resolve the ro-vibrational structure of the gas phase molecules and their kinematics, (b) detect new gas phase molecules missed by ISO, and (c) provide useful constraints on the hot core chemistry and the source of Orion hot core excitation. This survey will greatly enhance the inventory of resolved line features in the MIR for hot cores

  7. Assessment of the Stability of Condensed Solid Substance Ignition by a Hot Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical simulation of composite fuel ignition by a disc-shaped hot metal particle. The study establishes the temperature and the source size limits, which are necessary and sufficient for condensed substance ignition. A diagram with coordinates “a heat flow the amplitude – ignition delay time” has been presented. The diagram shows the area of the sustainable initiate combustion of composite solid fuel at local heating by the source with limited energy capacity.

  8. Assessment of the Stability of Condensed Solid Substance Ignition by a Hot Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.; Nyashina Galina S.; Vershinina Ksenia Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation of composite fuel ignition by a disc-shaped hot metal particle. The study establishes the temperature and the source size limits, which are necessary and sufficient for condensed substance ignition. A diagram with coordinates “a heat flow the amplitude – ignition delay time” has been presented. The diagram shows the area of the sustainable initiate combustion of composite solid fuel at local heating by the source with limited energy capacity.

  9. Experiments with the hot list strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wos, L.

    1997-10-01

    Experimentation strongly suggests that, for attacking deep questions and hard problems with the assistance of an automated reasoning program, the more effective paradigms rely on the retention of deduced information. A significant obstacle ordinarily presented by such a paradigm is the deduction and retention of one or more needed conclusions whose complexity sharply delays their consideration. To mitigate the severity of the cited obstacle, the author formulates and features in this report the hot list strategy. The hot list strategy asks the researcher to choose, usually from among the input statements, one or more clauses that are conjectured to play a key role for assignment completion. The chosen clauses - conjectured to merit revisiting, again and again - are placed in an input list of clauses, called the hot list. When an automated reasoning program has decided to retain a new conclusion C - before any other clause is chosen to initiate conclusion drawing - the presence of a nonempty hot list (with an appropriate assignment of the input parameter known as heat) causes each inference rule in use to be applied to C together with the appropriate number of members of the hot list. Members of the hot list are used to complete applications of inference rules and not to initiate applications. The use of the hot list strategy thus enables an automated reasoning program to briefly consider a newly retained conclusion whose complexity would otherwise prevent its use for perhaps many CPU-hours. To give evidence of the value of the strategy, the author focuses on four contexts: (1) dramatically reducing the CPU time required to reach a desired goal; (2) finding a proof of a theorem that had previously resisted all but the more inventive automated attempts; (3) discovering a proof that is more elegant than previously known; and (4) answering a question that had steadfastly eluded researchers relying on an automated reasoning program.

  10. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  11. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  12. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions...

  13. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBee, M.R.; Chance, C.M. (eds.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the advanced neutron source: quality assurance (QA) program; reactor core development; fuel element specification; corrosion loop tests and analyses; thermal-hydraulic loop tests; reactor control concepts; critical and subcritical experiments; material data, structural tests, and analysis; cold source development; beam tube, guide, and instrument development; hot source development; neutron transport and shielding; I C research and development; facility concepts; design; and safety.

  14. Cold SQUIDs and hot samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley national Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    Low transition temperature (low-{Tc}) and high-{Tc} Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have been used to perform high-resolution magnetic measurements on samples whose temperatures are much higher than the operating temperatures of the devices. Part 1 of this work focuses on measurements of the rigidity of flux vortices in high-{Tc} superconductors using two low-{Tc} SQUIDs, one on either side of a thermally-insulated sample. The correlation between the signals of the SQUIDs is a direct measure of the extent of correlation between the movements of opposite ends of vortices. These measurements were conducted under the previously-unexplored experimental conditions of nominally-zero applied magnetic field, such that vortex-vortex interactions were unimportant, and with zero external current. At specific temperatures, the authors observed highly-correlated noise sources, suggesting that the vortices moved as rigid rods. At other temperatures, the noise was mostly uncorrelated, suggesting that the relevant vortices were pinned at more than one point along their length. Part 2 describes the design, construction, performance, and applications of a scanning high-{Tc} SQUID microscope optimized for imaging room-temperature objects with very high spatial resolution and magnetic source sensitivity.

  15. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  16. Alternative Solution for Consumption Hot Water Recirculation for the Civil Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary comfort and the effective cost of maintenance in the civil buildings (block of flats are badly affected by the absence of the consumption hot water recirculation. From the technical point of view, the classical solution imposes the doubling of the transport and distribution pipes on the entire route, between the source and the consumption points. The materialization of the solution requires important financial investment, discouraging most of the time and the postponement of the problem solving with important consequences. This paper proposes an alternative technical solution which limits to a minimum the intervention, only in the interior hot water distribution system.

  17. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems.

  18. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A Case of Hot Foot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çayırlı

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot foot syndrome (HFS is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is apparently caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The disease is characterized by the acute onset in children with painful plantar nodules which generally does not require antibiotic therapy. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools or hot tubs. HFS is a potentially important public health hazard that may causes outbreaks. In search of literature we detected three published reports to date of outbreaks of pseudomonas hot foot syndrome associated with the use of community whirlpools. Here we present a four-year old girl presented with painful plantar erythematous nodules localized in heels that developed one day after contacting with contaminated water from bath tub. According to data of literature we able to reach, our case is the first HFS case presented in Turkey. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 111-3

  20. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-dregree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well...

  1. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Carter, Joshua A; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Rowe, Jason F; Welsh, William F; Borucki, William J; Boss, Alan P; Ciardi, David R; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-05-22

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 21 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  2. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  3. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  4. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Ragozzine, Darin; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Astron. Astrophys.; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Holman, Matthew J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames; Welsh, William F.; /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Boss, Alan P.; /Carnegie Inst., Wash., D.C., DTM; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  5. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  6. Are hot-spots occluded from water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Irina Sousa; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Martins, Joao Miguel; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the basis of many biological processes and are governed by focused regions with high binding affinities, the warm- and hot-spots. It was proposed that these regions are surrounded by areas with higher packing density leading to solvent exclusion around them - "the O-ring theory." This important inference still lacks sufficient demonstration. We have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the validity of the O-ring theory in the context of the conformational flexibility of the proteins, which is critical for function, in general, and for interaction with water, in particular. The MD results were analyzed for a variety of solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) features, radial distribution functions (RDFs), protein-water distances, and water residence times. The measurement of the average solvent-accessible surface area features for the warm- and hot-spots and the null-spots, as well as data for corresponding RDFs, identify distinct properties for these two sets of residues. Warm- and hot-spots are found to be occluded from the solvent. However, it has to be borne in mind that water-mediated interactions have significant power to construct an extensive and strongly bonded interface. We observed that warm- and hot-spots tend to form hydrogen bond (H-bond) networks with water molecules that have an occupancy around 90%. This study provides strong evidence in support of the O-ring theory and the results show that hot-spots are indeed protected from the bulk solvent. Nevertheless, the warm- and hot-spots still make water-mediated contacts, which are also important for protein-protein binding.

  7. An integrated modular hot gas conditioning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzoglou, N.; Bangala, D.; Chornet, E. [Kemestrie Inc., Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Hot gas conditioning is considered the most scientific and technological challenge on the road towards commercialization of large biomass and waste gasification units. The modular hot gas conditioning system presented in this paper is designed to be integrated into any gasification unit regardless of feedstock type and operation pressure. It comprises a mobile granular bed filtration system and an in-series multi-tubular fixed-bed downdraft steam catalytic reformer. In this work we discuss the concept, the design, the methodology and our results. (author)

  8. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli...

  9. Thermal tides on a hot Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh H.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the linear analysis laid out by Gu & Ogilvie 2009 (hereafter GO09, we investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. Besides the internal and Rossby waves considered by GO09, we study the Kelvin waves excited by the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the prograde stellar irradiation. We also present a 2-dimensional plot of internal waves excited by the semi-diurnal component of the stellar irradiation and postulate that thermal bulges may arise in a hot Jupiter. Whether our postulation is valid and is consistent with the recent results from Arras & Socrates (2009b requires further investigation.

  10. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  11. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  13. APIS: accurate prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces by combining protrusion index with solvent accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun-Feng; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Song, Jiangning; Huang, De-Shuang

    2010-04-08

    has been shown to significantly improve the prediction performance of hot spots. Moreover, we identify a compact and useful feature subset that has an important implication for identifying hot spot residues. Our results indicate that these features are more effective than the conventional evolutionary conservation, pairwise residue potentials and other traditional features considered previously, and that the combination of our and traditional features may support the creation of a discriminative feature set for efficient prediction of hot spot residues. The data and source code are available on web site http://home.ustc.edu.cn/~jfxia/hotspot.html.

  14. Short-lived and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.

    2003-10-01

    South Pacific intraplate volcanoes have been active since the Early Cretaceous. Their HIMU-EMI-EMII mantle sources can be traced back into the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) using plate tectonic reconstructions, implying that these distinctive components are enduring features within the Earth's mantle for, at least, the last 120 Myr. These correlations are eminent on the scale of the WPSP and the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA), but the evolution of single hot spots emerges notably more complicated. Hot spots in the WPSP and SOPITA mantle regions typically display intermittent volcanic activity, longevities shorter than 40 Myr, superposition of hot spot volcanism, and motion relative to other hot spots. In this review, we use 40Ar/39Ar seamount ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures to map out Cretaceous volcanism in the WPSP and to characterize its evolution with respect to the currently active hot spots in the SOPITA region. Our plate tectonic reconstructions indicate cessation of volcanism during the Cretaceous for the Typhoon and Japanese hot spots; whereas the currently active Samoan, Society, Pitcairn and Marquesas hot spots lack long-lived counterparts in the WPSP. These hot spots may have become active during the last 20 Myr only. The other WPSP seamount trails can be only "indirectly" reconciled with hot spots in the SOPITA region. Complex age distributions in the Magellan, Anewetak, Ralik and Ratak seamount trails would necessitate the superposition of multiple volcanic trails generated by the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hot spots during the Cretaceous; whereas HIMU-type seamounts in the Southern Wake seamount trail would require 350-500 km of hot spot motion over the last 100 Myr following its origination along the Mangaia-Rurutu "hotline" in the Cook-Austral Islands. These observations, however, violate all assumptions of the classical Wilson-Morgan hot spot hypothesis, indicating that long-lived, deep and fixed mantle

  15. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  16. No hot and luminous progenitor for Tycho's supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T. E.; Ghavamian, P.; Badenes, C.; Gilfanov, M.

    2017-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae have proven vital to our understanding of cosmology, both as standard candles and for their role in galactic chemical evolution; however, their origin remains uncertain. The canonical accretion model implies a hot and luminous progenitor that would ionize the surrounding gas out to a radius of 10-100 pc for 100,000 years after the explosion. Here, we report stringent upper limits on the temperature and luminosity of the progenitor of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572), determined using the remnant itself as a probe of its environment. Hot, luminous progenitors that would have produced a greater hydrogen ionization fraction than that measured at the radius of the present remnant ( 3 pc) can thus be excluded. This conclusively rules out steadily nuclear-burning white dwarfs (supersoft X-ray sources), as well as disk emission from a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf accreting approximately greater than 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 (recurrent novae; M⊙ is equal to one solar mass). The lack of a surrounding Strömgren sphere is consistent with the merger of a double white dwarf binary, although other more exotic scenarios may be possible.

  17. Preventive and promotive effects of habitual hot spa-bathing on the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Mimori, Koshi; Suzuki, Sadao; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2018-01-09

    Although body-warming with hot spa-bathing has been proposed to exert medical therapeutic effects on certain diseases, whether body-warming has preventive and promotive effects remains unknown. To clarify this issue, an epidemiological questionnaire study regarding personal hot spa-bathing habits and disease history was carried out in Japan, where individuals engage in daily warm water bathing. Questionnaires regarding hot spa-bathing habits and disease history were randomly sent to 20,000 residents aged ≥65 years living in Beppu, a city in Japan that has the highest concentration of hot spa sources in the world. The results showed that habitual hot spa-bathing exerts preventive or promotive effects on the occurrence of certain diseases, such as hypertension (preventive) and collagen disease (promotive) in women, and cardiovascular diseases (preventive) and colon cancer survival (promotive) in men. These findings suggest that habitual body warming is an effective and economical method with beneficial preventive and promotive effects on various diseases.

  18. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  19. Hot flushes in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, CH; Buijs, C; Willemse, PHB; Mourits, MJE; de Vries, EGE

    Objective : A literature search was conducted to gather information concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to hot flushes, their prevelence and severity in breast cancer patients, their influence on quality of life, and the best therapeutic option. Methods: Relevant studies in English

  20. Viscosity: From air to hot nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-09

    Oct 9, 2014 ... After a brief review of the history of viscosity from classical to quantal fluids, a discussion of how the shear viscosity of a finite hot nucleus is calculated directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of the nucleus is given in this paper. The ratio / with s being the entropy volume ...

  1. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  2. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  3. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  4. Esophageal thermal injury by hot adlay tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-03-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement.

  5. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  6. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is only slightly better than a placebo (pill that has no effect). Most studies of soy and black cohosh show they are no better than a placebo in reducing hot flashes. Soy contains estrogen -like substances; the effect of soy on the risk of breast cancer ...

  7. Evaluation of hot in-place recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the construction of hot in-place recycled (HIPR) pavement on SR 542. : HIPR is a process by which rehabilitation of the existing HMA pavement occurs on site in one : operation. HIPR project selection, mix design, construction an...

  8. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  10. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hot Tub Rash > Remove swimsuits and shower with soap after getting out of the water. > Clean swimsuits after getting out of the water. ... in locations that have been closed because of pollution. Pseudomonas can multiply quickly when water disinfectant levels drop, so testing your pool or ...

  11. Cycling the Hot CNO: A Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost-Schenk, J. W.; Diget, C. Aa.; Bentley, M. A.; Tuff, A.

    2018-01-01

    An interactive activity to teach the hot Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen (HCNO) cycle is proposed. Justification for why the HCNO cycle is important is included via an example of x-ray bursts. The activity allows teaching and demonstration of half-life, nuclear isotopes, nuclear reactions, protons and a-particles, and catalytic processes. Whilst the…

  12. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  13. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  14. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  15. Laboratory spectra of hot molecules: Data needs for hot super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of stars are now thought to support exoplanets. Many of those exoplanets discovered thus far are categorized as rocky objects with an atmosphere. Most of these objects are however hot due to their short orbital period. Models suggest that water is the dominant species in their atmospheres. The hot temperatures are expected to turn these atmospheres into a (high pressure) steam bath containing remains of melted rock. The spectroscopy of these hot rocky objects will be very different from that of cooler objects or hot gas giants. Molecules suggested to be important for the spectroscopy of these objects are reviewed together with the current status of the corresponding spectroscopic data. Perspectives of building a comprehensive database of linelist/cross sections applicable for atmospheric models of rocky super-Earths as part of the ExoMol project are discussed. The quantum-mechanical approaches used in linelist productions and their challenges are summarized.

  16. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igochine, Valentin (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Written and edited by leading plasma physics researchers. Provides a toolkit for scientists and engineers aiming to optimize plasma performance. Comprehensive treatment of different plasma instabilities. During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for ''old hands'' and newcomers alike.

  17. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  18. Fracture network modeling of a Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid flow and tracer transport in a fractured Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoir are modeled using fracture network modeling techniques. The steady state pressure and flow fields are solved for a two-dimensional, interconnected network of fractures with no-flow outer boundaries and constant-pressure source and sink points to simulate wellbore-fracture intersections. The tracer response is simulated by particle tracking, which follows the progress of a representative sample of individual tracer molecules traveling through the network. Solute retardation due to matrix diffusion and sorption is handled easily with these particle tracking methods. Matrix diffusion is shown to have an important effect in many fractured geothermal reservoirs, including those in crystalline formations of relatively low matrix porosity. Pressure drop and tracer behavior are matched for a fractured HDR reservoir tested at Fenton Hill, NM.

  19. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  20. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g-1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hydrochloric acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property. Based on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency ... the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children ...

  2. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hot outside for it to be brutally hot inside the car. Be especially careful if you are ... act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in direct ...

  3. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Emergency Phycisians Toggle navigation Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Emergency Care or Urgent Care? When ... being left alone in a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car ...

  4. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use ... stress reduction. Learning how to decrease stress and anxiety may help relieve hot flashes in some people. ...

  5. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  6. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... each year as a direct result of being left alone in a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, ... reach from children. If you see a child left alone in a hot vehicle, call the police. ...

  7. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the ... the country die each year as a direct result of being left alone in a hot vehicle. “ ...

  8. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  9. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  10. Venlafaxine hydrochloride for the treatment of hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Christina E; Ansani, Nicole T

    2003-11-01

    To review the literature evaluating venlafaxine for the treatment of hot flashes. Clinical literature accessed through MEDLINE (1966-August 2002), PubMed, Harrison's Online, and references of reviewed articles. Key terms used were venlafaxine, Effexor, hot flashes, and vasomotor symptoms. Not all patients experiencing hot flashes are candidates for traditional hormonal therapy. Nonhormonal alternatives have long been explored, but conflicting evidence of efficacy exists. Venlafaxine is an effective nonhormonal alternative for relief from uncontrolled hot flashes.

  11. Investigation of Usibor 1500 Formability in a Hot Forming Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Hande

    2013-01-01

    The hot forming process included heating metals to a temperature in the austenite range, transferring the austenitized sheet from the furnace to a press, forming and simultaneously quenched. In this work, Usibor 1500 steel was hot stamped using water-cooled prototype mould. Micro structural analyses as well as tensile tests and hardness measurements of hot stamped samples were performed. The results showed that most of austenite microstructure was changed into martensite by the hot forming. T...

  12. Hot Electron Injection into Uniaxially Strained Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo

    In semiconductor spintronics, silicon attracts great attention due to the long electron spin lifetime. Silicon is also one of the most commonly used semiconductor in microelectronics industry. The spin relaxation process of diamond crystal structure such as silicon is dominant by Elliot-Yafet mechanism. Yafet shows that intravalley scattering process is dominant. The conduction electron spin lifetime measured by electron spin resonance measurement and electronic measurement using ballistic hot electron method well agrees with Yafet's theory. However, the recent theory predicts a strong contribution of intervalley scattering process such as f-process in silicon. The conduction band minimum is close the Brillouin zone edge, X point which causes strong spin mixing at the conduction band. A recent experiment of electric field-induced hot electron spin relaxation also shows the strong effect of f-process in silicon. In uniaxially strained silicon along crystal axis [100], the suppression of f-process is predicted which leads to enhance electron spin lifetime. By inducing a change in crystal structure due to uniaxial strain, the six fold degeneracy becomes two fold degeneracy, which is valley splitting. As the valley splitting increases, intervalley scattering is reduced. A recent theory predicts 4 times longer electron spin lifetime in 0.5% uniaxially strained silicon. In this thesis, we demonstrate ballistic hot electron injection into silicon under various uniaxial strain. Spin polarized hot electron injection under strain is experimentally one of the most challenging part to measure conduction electron spin lifetime in silicon. Hot electron injection adopts tunnel junction which is a thin oxide layer between two conducting materials. Tunnel barrier, which is an oxide layer, is only 4 ˜ 5 nm thick. Also, two conducting materials are only tens of nanometer. Therefore, under high pressure to apply 0.5% strain on silicon, thin films on silicon substrate can be easily

  13. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22... Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d. (1) Fruit must be grown and treated in Hawaii. (2) Fruit must be submerged at least 4 inches below the water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor... Employment § 1915.503 Precautions for hot work. (a) General requirements—(1) Designated Areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops, and...

  15. Hot Pepper Reaction to Field Diseases | Nsabiyera | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases are major constraints to hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) production in sub-Saharan Africa. The search for cultivars resistant to the major diseases of hot pepper has been limited. This study was conducted in Uganda to evaluate exotic and local hot pepper genotypes for disease resistance. Viral diseases and ...

  16. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial community structure and composition in cold and hot drinking water derived from surface water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    In temperate regions, seasonal variability of environmental factors affects the bacterial community in source water and finished drinking water. Therefore, the bacterial core community and its seasonal variability in cold and the respective hot drinking water was investigated. The bacterial core community was studied by 16S rRNA-based SSCP fingerprint analyses and band sequencing of DNA and RNA extracts of cold and hot water (60 °C). The bacterial communities of cold and hot drinking water showed a highly different structure and phylogenetic composition both for RNA and DNA extracts. For cold drinking water substantial seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community was observed related to environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation affecting source and drinking water. Phylogenetic analyses of the cold water community indicated that the majority of phylotypes were very closely affiliated with those detected in former studies of the same drinking water supply system (DWSS) in the preceding 6 years, indicating a high stability over time. The hot water community was very stable over time and seasons and highly distinct from the cold water with respect to structure and composition. The hot water community displayed a lower diversity and its phylotypes were mostly affiliated with bacteria of high temperature habitats with high growth rates indicated by their high RNA content. The conversion of the cold to the hot water bacterial community is considered as occurring within a few hours by the following two processes, i) by decay of most of the cold water bacteria due to heating, and ii) rapid growth of the high temperature adapted bacteria present in the hot water (co-heated with the cold water in the same device) using the nutrients released from the decaying cold water bacteria. The high temperature adapted bacteria originated partially from low abundant but beforehand detected members of the cold water; additionally, the rare members ("seed bank ") of the

  17. FOREWORD: Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Montemerie, Thierry

    1984-01-01

    A Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas" was held in Nice, France, on 8-10 November 1982. Dedicated mostly to theoretical, observational, and experimental aspects of X-ray astronomy and related atomic physics, it was the first of its kind to be held in France. The Workshop was "European" in the sense that one of its goals (apart from pure science) was to gather the European astronomical community in view of the forthcoming presentation of the "X-80" project for final selection to be the next scientific satellite of the European Space Agency. We now know that the Infrared Space Observatory has been chosen instead, but the recent successful launch of EXOSAT still keeps X-ray astronomy alive, and should be able to transfer, at least for a time, the leadership in this field from the U.S. to Europe, keeping in mind the competitive level of our Japanese colleagues. (With respect to the selection of ISO, one should also keep in mind that observations in the infrared often bring material relevant to the study of X-ray sources!) On a longer time scale, the Workshop also put emphasis on several interesting projects for the late eighties-early nineties, showing the vitality of the field in Europe. Some proposals have already taken a good start, like XMM, the X-ray Multi-Mirror project, selected by ESA last December for an assessment study in 1983. The present proceedings contain most of the papers that were presented at the Workshop. Only the invited papers were presented orally, contributed papers being presented in the form of posters but summarized orally by rapporteurs. To make up this volume, the written versions of these papers were either cross-reviewed by the Invited Speakers, or refereed by the Rapporteurs (for contributed papers) and edited by us, when necessary. Note, however, that the conclusions of the Workshop, which were kindly presented by Richard McCray, have already appeared in the "News and Views" section of Nature (301, 372, 1983). Altogether, the

  18. Hot temperatures line lists for metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M.; Lodi, L.; Leyland, P. pC; Hill, C.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The ExoMol project is an ERC funded project set up with the purpose of calculating high quality theoretical molecular line list data to facilitate the emerging field of exoplanet and cool star atmospheric haracterisation [1]. Metal hydrides are important building blocks of interstellar physical chemistry. For molecular identification and characterisation in astrophysical sources, one requires accurate and complete spectroscopic data including transitional frequencies and intensities in the form of a line list. The ab initio methods offer the best opportunity for detailed theoretical studies of free diatomic metal hydrides and other simple hydride molecules. In this contribution we present progress on theoretical line lists for AlH, CrH, MgH, NiH, NaH and TiH obtained from first principles, applicable for a large range of temperatures up to 3500 K. Among the hydrides, AlH is of special interest because of a relatively high cosmic abundance of aluminium. The presence of AlH has been detected in the spectra of M-type and S-type stars as well as in sunspots (See [2] and references therein). CrH is a molecule of astrophysical interest; under the classification scheme developed by Kirkpatrick et al [3], CrH is of importance in distinguishing L type brown dwarfs. It has been proposed that theoretical line-lists of CrH and CrD could be used to facilitate a 'Deuterium test' for use in distinguishing planets, brown dwarfs and stars [5] and also it has been speculated that CrH exists in sunspots [4] but a higherquality hot-temperature line-list is needed to confirm this finding. The presence of MgH in stellar spectra is well documented through observation of the A2 ! X 2+ and B0 2+ ! X 2+ transitions. Different spectral features of MgH have been used as an indicator for the magnesium isotope abundances in the atmospheres of different stars from giants to dwarfs including the Sun, to measure the temperature of stars, surface gravity, stars' metal abundance, gravitational, as

  19. Alternatives to estrogen to manage hot flushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Hot flushes are probably the most common symptom resulting in medical consultation in relation to the menopause and, when severe, they can affect quite dramatically women's quality of life. Hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy (HRT) is the most effective treatment for this symptom and in the ideal setting of clinical trials, under optimal selection of patients and compliance, it reduces hot flushes by about 70-80%. Recently, however, a series of 'scares' has had large resonance in the lay press about possible adverse effects of HRT. These have undermined both doctors' and women's confidence in the use of these compounds. This has been witnessed by the recent fall in HRT sales. A number of compounds, both pharmacological and herbal in origin, have been used for the treatment of neurovegetative symptoms in menopausal women. The present article critically reviews evidence of the efficacy of some of the most commonly used compounds and assesses their effect in relation to that of HRT.

  20. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-08-17

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  1. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Processing Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  2. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... in combination with 14 t-RFLP profiles revealed a high abundance of clones clustering together with sequences from the nonthermophilic I.1b group of Crenarchaeota. The archaeal diversity in one solfatara was high; 26 different RFLP patterns were found using double digestion of the PCR products with restriction......Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...

  3. The hot γ Doradus and Maia stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balona, L. A.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; Joshi, Y. C.; Joshi, S.; Sharma, K.; Semenko, E.; Pandey, G.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B. P.; Nemec, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The hot γ Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of γ Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the γ Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though δ Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot γ Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of β Cep and δ Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the β Cep and the blue edge of the δ Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  4. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    variability in the (economically allowed) designs - i.e., to allow them to think out of the box. To address this challenge The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation (now InnovationsFonden) is currently supporting the BladeRunner project that involves several Danish companies and public institutions....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...... are mainly concerned with the rationalization of the architects’ CAD drawings into surfaces that can be created via this particular sweeping and cutting technology....

  5. Hot subdwarf formation: Confronting theory with observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hot subdwarf stars is still unclear. Both single-star and binary scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of these evolved stars situated at the extreme blue end of the horizontal branch. The observational evidence gathered in the last decade, which revealed high fractions of binaries, shifted the focus from the single-star to the binary formation scenarios. Common envelope ejection, stable Roche lobe overflow and the merger of helium white dwarfs seemed to be sufficient to explain the formation of both the binary as well as the remaining single hot subdwarfs. However, most recent and rather unexpected observations challenge the standard binary evolution scenarios.

  6. A hot L1 retrotransposon evades somatic repression and initiates human colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Emma C.; Gardner, Eugene J.; Masood, Ashiq; Chuang, Nelson T.; Vertino, Paula M.; Devine, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    Although human LINE-1 (L1) elements are actively mobilized in many cancers, a role for somatic L1 retrotransposition in tumor initiation has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we identify a novel somatic L1 insertion in the APC tumor suppressor gene that provided us with a unique opportunity to determine whether such insertions can actually initiate colorectal cancer (CRC), and if so, how this might occur. Our data support a model whereby a hot L1 source element on Chromosome 17 of the patient's genome evaded somatic repression in normal colon tissues and thereby initiated CRC by mutating the APC gene. This insertion worked together with a point mutation in the second APC allele to initiate tumorigenesis through the classic two-hit CRC pathway. We also show that L1 source profiles vary considerably depending on the ancestry of an individual, and that population-specific hot L1 elements represent a novel form of cancer risk. PMID:27197217

  7. Ignition of a polymer propellant of hybrid rocket motor by a hot particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    The ignition of polymethylmethacrylate (typical model propellant of the hybrid rocket motor) by a hot particle in a shape of parallelepiped, polyhedron, disk is investigated numerically. The initial temperature of a heat source varied within the range 950-1150 K, size of particle - within the range 2-6 mm. It is established that varying these parameters influenced significantly the main characteristic of the process - ignition delay time under ignition conditions close to critical. For considered shape of particles, ignition delay time is in ascending sequence: parallelepiped, polyhedron, disk. Three polymer ignition regimes, which characterized by the initial temperature of a heat source, ignition delay time and a location of an ignition zone in a vicinity of a hot particle, are emphasized. It is illustrated that taking into account the dependence of thermal and physical characteristics of polymethylmethacrylate on temperature, the ignition delay time increased due to augmentation of energy accumulated by a subsurface layer.

  8. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  9. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Zheng, H. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX-77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Boisjoli, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Verde, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chbihi, A. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Augey, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bhattacharya, C. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2016-05-10

    We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  10. Hot carriers in a bipolar graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Balev, Oleg G.; Vasko, Fedir T.

    2010-01-01

    Hot carriers in a doped graphene under dc electric field is described taking into account the intraband energy relaxation due to acoustic phonon scattering and the interband generation-recombination transitions caused by thermal radiation. The consideration is performed for the case when the intercarrier scattering effectively establishes the quasiequilibrium electron-hole distributions, with effective temperature and concentrations of carriers. The concentration and energy balance equations ...

  11. Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; von Känel, Roland; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-08-01

    Hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women. Emerging data indicate that they may be associated with endothelial dysfunction. No studies have tested whether hot flashes are associated with endothelial function using physiologic measures of hot flashes. We tested whether physiologically assessed hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function. We also considered whether age modified associations. Two hundred seventy-two nonsmoking women reporting either daily hot flashes or no hot flashes, aged 40 to 60 years, and free of clinical cardiovascular disease, underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash and diary hot flash monitoring; a blood draw; and ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation to assess endothelial function. Associations between hot flashes and flow-mediated dilation were tested in linear regression models controlling for lumen diameter, demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and estradiol. In multivariable models incorporating cardiovascular disease risk factors, significant interactions by age (P women in the sample (age 40-53 years), the presence of hot flashes (beta [standard error] = -2.07 [0.79], P = 0.01), and more frequent physiologic hot flashes (for each hot flash: beta [standard error] = -0.10 [0.05], P = 0.03, multivariable) were associated with lower flow-mediated dilation. Associations were not accounted for by estradiol. Associations were not observed among the older women (age 54-60 years) or for self-reported hot flash frequency, severity, or bother. Among the younger women, hot flashes explained more variance in flow-mediated dilation than standard cardiovascular disease risk factors or estradiol. Among younger midlife women, frequent hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function and may provide information about women's vascular status beyond cardiovascular disease risk factors and estradiol.

  12. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  13. Hot forming of composite prepreg : Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Xavier; Duthille, Bertrand; Bechtel, Stephane; le Pinru, Louis; Campagne, Benjamin; Destombes, Gautier; Deshors, Antoine; Marchand, Christophe; Azzouzi, Khalid El; Moro, Tanguy

    2017-10-01

    The hot forming of thermoset prepreg consists in bending an uncured composite part by applying a mechanical constrain on the hot laminate. Most of the time, the mold is inserted in a vacuum box and the mechanical constrain is applied on the composite laminate by a single membrane or a double-membrane. But the performance improvement products resulted in forming increasingly complex parts with advanced materials having a less formability. These new complex parts require a finer comprehension of the process and an optimization of the key parameters to get acceptable quality. In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to identify the process conditions that do not lead to unacceptable defaults: undulations of fibers. In the present study, downward-bending has been evaluated with an original light mechanical forming concept, for a given stacking sequence. The influence of the part's temperature and the part's bending speed are investigated. To carry this study out, a hot forming test bench has been designed and manufactured to have a precise supervision of the process conditions. It is able to bend parts of 1500 mm length x 600 mm width x 20 mm thick.

  14. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  15. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  17. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  18. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  19. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  20. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  1. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  2. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  3. Noise temperature and beam pattern of an NbN hot electron bolometer mixer at 5.25 THz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J.R.; Bansal, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Miao, W.; Shi, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measured sensitivities of a superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne receiver at 5.25 THz. Terahertz (THz) radiation is quasioptically coupled to a HEB mixer with a lens and a spiral antenna. Using a measurement setup with black body calibration sources and a beam

  4. The angular momentum of hot coronae around spiral galaxies and its impact on the evolution of star forming discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.; Binney, J.

    Galaxy formation theory and recent observations indicate that spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive and hot coronae, which potentially constitute a huge source of mass and angular momentum for the star forming discs embedded within them. Accretion from these reservoirs is likely a key ingredient

  5. Evaluating hot spot-ridge interaction in the Atlantic from regional-scale seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaherty, James B.; Dunn, Robert A.

    2007-05-01

    We probe variations in mantle temperature, composition, and fabric along hot spot-influenced sections of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), using surface waves from nearby ridge earthquakes recorded on broadband island-based seismic stations. We invert frequency-dependent phase delays from these events to estimate one-dimensional mean shear velocity and radial shear anisotropy profiles in the upper 200 km of the mantle within two seafloor age intervals: 5-10 Ma and 15-20 Ma. Mean shear velocity profiles correlate with apparent hot spot flux: lithosphere formed near the low-flux Ascension hot spot is characterized by high mantle velocities, while the MAR near the higher-flux Azores hot spot has lower velocities. The impact of the high-flux Iceland hot spot on mantle velocities along the nearby MAR is strongly asymmetric: the lithospheric velocities near the Kolbeinsey ridge are moderately slow, while velocities near the Reykjanes ridge estimated in previous studies are much slower. Within each region the increase in shear velocity with age is consistent with a half-space cooling model, and the velocity variations observed between Ascension, the Azores, and Kolbeinsey are consistent with approximately ±75° potential-temperature variation among these sites. In comparison, the Reykjanes lithosphere is too slow to result purely from half-space cooling of a high-temperature mantle source. We speculate that the anomalously low shear velocities within the lithosphere produced at the Reykjanes ridge result from high asthenospheric temperatures of +50-75 K combined with ˜12% (by volume) gabbro retained in the mantle due to the imbalance between high hot spot-influenced melt production and relatively inefficient melt extraction along the slow spreading Reykjanes. Radial shear anisotropy in the upper 150 km also indicates an apparent hot spot influence: mantle fabric near Ascension is quite weak, consistent with previous models of anisotropy produced by corner flow during slow

  6. Use of soil inventories to detect hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats

    2010-05-01

    The aim with this presentation is to show possibilities and limitations of SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) inventories for identification of sites with high SOC changes over time. Hot spots are here defined as sites expected to respond strongly to environmental or management changes in a manner that is likely to turn these ecosystems into sources of GHGs. The data used originate from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation. This survey is based on about 23 500 permanent sample plots in a stratified national grid system that were sampled 1983-1987 and resampled 1993-2002, and 2003-2012, and hence provides suitable conditions for evaluation of SOC changes over time, and their relation to selected site factors. In addition also the Biosoil project provides such possibilities, though with much fewer resampled sites. The analyses are restricted to upland mineral soils (naturally drained), mainly Podzols. Predominating trees are conifers. The soil organic C stock for the O horizon is in average about 70% higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern, and 50 % higher for slightly moist sites than for dry sites. The selected site conditions are 1) current SOC content, 2) soil moisture (dry-slightly moist) and 3) stand age. The survey used does not monitor changes in mineral soil bulk density over time. Furthermore, estimates of stone content are associated with big uncertainties. For these reasons the change in SOC content was not expressed as a stock for the entire soil, but as 1) change in O horizon SOC stock and 2) change in B horizon SOC concentration. It is suggested that these two parameters are satisfactory for hot spot identification.

  7. Chemistry of the organic-rich hot core G327.3-0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, E.; Nummelin, A.; Irvine, W. M.; Whittet, D. C.; Bergman, P.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We present gas-phase abundances of species found in the organic-rich hot core G327.3-0.6. The data were taken with the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). The 1-3 mm spectrum of this source is dominated by emission features of nitrile species and saturated organics, with abundances greater than those found in many other hot cores, including Sgr B2 and OMC-1. Population diagram analysis indicates that many species (CH3CN, C2H3CN, C2H5CN, CH3OH, etc.) have hot components that originate in a compact (2") region. Gas-phase chemical models cannot reproduce the high abundances of these molecules found in hot cores, and we suggest that they originate from processing and evaporation of icy grain mantle material. In addition, we report the first detection of vibrationally excited ethyl cyanide and the first detection of methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) outside the Galactic center.

  8. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Badirzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also per­formed using sequencing based method.Results: Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9% samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6% and 11 (39.3% samples, respectively. Se­quence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T4 geno­type corresponding to A. castellanii.Conclusion: Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (A. castel­lanii and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.

  9. Hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes under the influence of quasi-static ac-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekpewu, M.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Abukari, S. S.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    The theory of hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where both dc electric field (Ez), and a quasi-static ac field exist simultaneously (i.e. when the frequency ω of ac field is much less than the scattering frequency v (ω ⪡ v or ωτ ⪡ 1, v =τ-1) where τ is relaxation time) is studied. The investigation is done theoretically by solving semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons source to derive the current densities. Plots of the normalized current density versus dc field (Ez) applied along the axis of the CNTs in the presence and absence of hot electrons reveal ohmic conductivity initially and finally negative differential conductivity (NDC) provided ωτ ⪡ 1 (i.e. quasi- static case). With strong enough axial injection of the hot electrons, there is a switch from NDC to positive differential conductivity (PDC) about Ez ≥ 75 kV / cm and Ez ≥ 140 kV / cm for a zigzag CNT and an armchair CNT respectively. Thus, the most important tough problem for NDC region which is the space charge instabilities can be suppressed due to the switch from the NDC behaviour to the PDC behaviour predicting a potential generation of terahertz radiations whose applications are relevance in current-day technology, industry, and research.

  10. Hot Electron Propagation and Imposed Magnetic Field in Inertial Fusion Hohlraums

    CERN Document Server

    Strozzi, D J; Marinak, M M; Larson, D J; Koning, J M; Logan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Simulations with the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), with and without an imposed axial magnetic field, are presented. We also study superthermal, or "hot," electron dynamics with the hybrid-PIC code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, when hot electrons from the window are a concern, we find ~2E-3 of the hot electron energy in a source consistent with two-plasmon decay (80 keV temperature) in the laser entrance hole deposits in the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel, while most of the energy deposits in the high-Z wall. A 70 Tesla field, which may improve capsule performance, magnetizes hot electrons in the hohlraum fill gas, guides them to the capsule, and increases the DT deposition 12x. Early in peak laser power, electrons with >125 keV reach the DT fuel, and those with ~185 keV deposit the largest fraction of their energy (13%) in DT. HYDRA magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with an initial...

  11. Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API fragmentation: comparison with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2016-08-01

    Although the fragmentation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a phenomenon that is mentioned in many literature sources, no well-suited analytical tools for its investigation are currently known. We used the hot-stage microscopy method, already presented in our previous work, and studied the real fragmentation of the tadalafil particles in model tablets which were prepared under different compaction pressures. The morphology, spectral imaging and evaluation of plastic and elastic energies were also analyzed to support the hot-stage method. The prepared blend of tadalafil and excipients was compacted under a several forces from 5 to 35 kN to reveal the trend of fragmentation. The exact fragmentation of tadalafil with increased compaction pressure was revealed by the hot-stage microscopic method and it was in good agreement with plastic and elastic energies. Conversely, spectral imaging, which is being used for this analysis, was considered to be inaccurate methodology as mainly agglomerates, not individual particles, were measured. The availability of the hot-stage microscopic method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment technique that will more reliably determine the fragmentation of the API in finished tablets and the behavior of the particles when compacted.

  12. The interaction between hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-01-01

    SO and Sa galaxies have approximately equal masses of H I and X-ray emitting gas and are ideal sites for studying the interaction between hot and cold gas. An X-ray observation of the Sa galaxy NGC 1291 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) shows a striking spatial anticorrelation between hot and cold gas where X-ray emitting material fills the large central black hole in the H I disk. This supports a previous suggestion that hot gas is a bulge phenomenon and neutral hydrogen is a disk phenomenon. The X-ray luminosity (1.5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s) and radial surface brightness distribution (beta = 0.51) is the same as for elliptical galaxies with optical luminosities and velocity dispersions like that of the bulge of NGC 1291. Modeling of the X-ray spectrum requires a component with a temperature of 0.15 keV, similar to that expected from the velocity dispersion of the stars, and with a hotter component where kT = 1.07 keV. This hotter component is not due to emission from stars and its origin remains unclear. PSPC observations are reported for the SO NGC 4203, where a nuclear point source dominates the emission, preventing a study of the radial distribution of the hot gas relative to the H I.

  13. Seismic evidence for a possible deep crustal hot zone beneath Southwest Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Crustal pathways connecting deep sources of melt and the active volcanoes they supply are poorly understood. Beneath Mounts St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier these pathways connect subduction-induced ascending melts to shallow magma reservoirs. Petrogenetic modeling predicts that when these melts are emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust they generate deep crustal hot zones. While these zones are increasingly recognized as a primary site for silicic differentiation at a range of volcanic settings globally, imaging them remains challenging. Near Mount Rainier, ascending melt has previously been imaged ~28 km northwest of the volcano, while to the south, the volcano lies on the margin of a broad conductive region in the deep crust. Using 3D full-waveform tomography, we reveal an expansive low-velocity zone, which we interpret as a possible hot zone, linking ascending melts and shallow reservoirs. This hot zone may supply evolved magmas to Mounts St. Helens and Adams, and possibly Rainier, and could contain approximately twice the melt volume as the total eruptive products of all three volcanoes combined. Hot zones like this may be the primary reservoirs for arc volcanism, influencing compositional variations and spatial-segmentation along the entire 1100 km-long Cascades Arc.

  14. 40 CFR 468.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.14...) Subpart A—Hot Rolling Spent Lubricant PSES. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot rolled English units—pounds...

  15. Studies of plasmonic hot-spot translation by a metal-dielectric layered superlens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoreson, Mark D.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; West, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    optical nanoantennas as sources, we investigated the translation of these sources to the far side of a layered silver-silica superlens operating in the canalization regime. Using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), we have observed evidence of superlens-enabled enhanced-field translation...... at a wavelength of about 680 nm. Specifically, we discuss our recent experimental and simulation results on the translation of hot spots using a silver-silica layered superlens design. We compare the experimental results with our numerical simulations and discuss the perspectives and limitations of our approach....

  16. Multifrequency emission from hot ion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisack, Michael; Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of a large number of gamma-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has spawned a lot of theoretical interest in the high-energy and multifrequency emission from these objects. Since most of them show evidence for relativistic outflow, jet models have received most of the attention so far. However, the presence of soft photons at the center of the active nucleus and the resulting Compton drag make it difficult to produce the observed amount of MeV/GeV emission. We explore hot, two-temperature accretion disks around Kerr black holes as an alternative to relativistic beam models for the production of the high-enerty emission. The decay of neutral pions created in the hot region produces photons with energies up to several hundred MeV. Relativistic pairs created as a result of charged pion decays produce additional inverse-Compton radiation in the range of approx. 1 keV-4 MeV if the pairs are exposed to UV radiation, or in the range of approx. 40 keV-150 MeV if the pairs are exposed to soft X-rays. This suggests that high-energy flares in AGNs may be triggered by changes in the disk structure (such as phase transitions or the development of electron scattering coronae) that temporarily shield the hot inner region from UV photons emitted at larger radii, thereby reducing the optical depth for MeV/GeV gamma-rays. Stochastic processes may also play a role in accelerating the utrarelativistic electrons responsible for producing the highest energy (GeV) emission.

  17. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  19. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  20. Observational signatures of hot-star magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksala, Mary E.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in shaping the circumstellar environment of hot, massive stars. Observational diagnostics give clues to the presence of magnetism across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared features can show more complex structure, indicating they may probe deeper opacities than optical features. Optical and infrared features mimic each other, with identical blue and red peak variations and identical peak velocity of material. These comparisons indicate the location of the infrared and optical emitting material is similar. Longer wavelength diagnostics are currently being developed and tested. IR spectroscopy is a viable tool to detect magnetic candidates in the Galactic center and star forming regions.

  1. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Gaulard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  2. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  3. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  4. Phase boundary of hot dense fluid hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kenji; Ichimaru, Kota; Einaga, Mari; Kawaguchi, Sho; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-11-09

    We investigated the phase transformation of hot dense fluid hydrogen using static high-pressure laser-heating experiments in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The results show anomalies in the heating efficiency that are likely to be attributed to the phase transition from a diatomic to monoatomic fluid hydrogen (plasma phase transition) in the pressure range between 82 and 106 GPa. This study imposes tighter constraints on the location of the hydrogen plasma phase transition boundary and suggests higher critical point than that predicted by the theoretical calculations.

  5. Terahertz sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy...

  6. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  7. Botulism and hot-smoked whitefish: a family cluster of type E botulism in France, September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Niskanen, T; Junnikkala, M; Moilanen, E; Lindstrom, M; Korkeala, H; Korhonen, T; Popoff, M; Mazuet, C; Callon, H; Pihier, N; Peloux, F; Ichai, C; Quintard, H; Dellamonica, P; Cua, E; Lasfargue, M; Pierre, F; de Valk, H

    2009-11-12

    A family cluster of three cases of type E botulism were identified in south-east France in September 2009. The suspected food source of infection was a vacuum packed hot-smoked whitefish of Canadian origin purchased by the family during a visit to Finland and consumed several weeks later in France on the day prior to symptom onset. No leftover fish was available to confirm this hypothesis. Vacuum packed hot-smoked whitefish has previously been associated with cases of type E botulism in multiple countries, including Finland, Germany, the United States and Israel.

  8. Modelling the spectroscopic behaviour of hot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    At elevated temperatures the molecules absorb and emit light in a very complicated fashion which is hard to characterise on the basis of laboraroty measurement. Computed line lists of molecule transitions therefore provide a vital input for models of hot atmospheres. I will describe the calculation and use of such line lists including the BT2 water line list [1], which contains some 500 million distinct rotation-vibration transitions. This linelist proved crucial in the detection of water in extrasolar planet HD189733b and has been used extensively in atmospheric modelling. Illustrations will be given at the meeting. A new linelist for the ammonia molecule has just been completed [2] which shows that standard compilations for this molecule need to be improved. Progress on a more extensive linelist for hot ammonia and linelists for other molecules will be discussed at the meeting. [1] R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G.J. Harris and R.N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 368, 1087-1094 (2006) [2] S.N. Yurchenko, R.J. Barber, A. Yachmenev, W. Theil, P. Jensen and J. Tennyson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11845-11855 (2009).

  9. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  10. Why Are Hot Jupiters So Lonely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Jupiter-like planets with blisteringly close-in orbits are generally friendless, with no nearbyplanets transiting along with them. Giant planets with orbits a little further out, on the other hand, often have at least one companion. A new study examines the cause of hot Jupiters loneliness.Forming Close-In GiantsArtists impression of a planet forming within a protoplanetary disk. [NAOJ]Though weve studied close-in giant planets for decades now, we still dont fully understand how these objects form and evolve. Jupiter-like giant planets could form in situ next to their host stars, or they could form further out in the system beyond the ice line and then migrate inwards. And if they do migrate, this migration could occur early, while the protoplanetary disk still exists, or long after, via excitation of large eccentricities.We can try to resolve this mystery by examining the statistics of the close-in giant planets weve observed, but this often raises more questions than it answers. A prime example: the properties of close-in giants that have close-in companion planets orbiting in the same plane (i.e., co-transiting).About half of warm Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of 1030 days appear to have close-in, co-transiting companions. In contrast, almost no hot Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of less than 10 days have such companions. What causes this dichotomy?Schematic of the authors model, in which the close-in giant (m1) encounters a resonance with its host star, causing the orbit of the exterior companion (m2) to become tilted. [Spalding Batygin 2017]Friendless Hot JupitersWhile traditional models have argued that the two types of planets form via different pathways warm Jupiters form in situ, or else migrate inward early and smoothly, whereas hot Jupiters migrate inward late and violently, losing their companions in the process a new study casts doubt on this picture.Two scientists from the California Institute of Technology, Christopher

  11. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  12. Hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Chipres, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Mejia, I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: imejia@zeus.umich.mx; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); El-Wahabi, M. [Departament de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Departament de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CTM Centre Tecnologic. Av. de las Bases de Manresa, 1, de Manresa, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This research work studies the effect of boron contents on the hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, uniaxial hot-compression tests were carried out in a low carbon steel microalloyed with four different amounts of boron over a wide range of temperatures (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg. C) and constant true strain rates (10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Experimental results revealed that both peak stress and peak strain tend to decrease as boron content increases, which indicates that boron additions have a solid solution softening effect. Likewise, the flow curves show a delaying effect on the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) when increasing boron content. Deformed microstructures show a finer austenitic grain size in the steel with higher boron content (grain refinement effect). Results are discussed in terms of boron segregation towards austenitic grain boundaries during plastic deformation, which increases the movement of dislocations, enhances the grain boundary cohesion and modificates the grain boundary structure.

  13. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  14. The menopausal hot flush--anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdee, David W

    2008-05-20

    Although the hot flush is generally recognised by women and the medical profession as the most characteristic and often a very distressing symptom of the climacteric, it remains an enigma. The physiological changes associated with the hot flush are different from any other flushing condition, with an increased peripheral blood flow, increased heart rate and in particular a decrease in galvanic skin resistance, which is unique to the flush. Flushing occurs as a result of disturbance of the temperature regulating mechanism situated in the hypothalamus, and probably a reduction in the thermoneutral zone, within which fluctuations of basal body temperature do not provoke compensatory vascular responses. Many factors have been implicated, including hormone releasing factors, gonadotrophins and neurohumorals. However, the role of oestrogen is critical and the clinical value of oestrogen therapy is well established and has been confirmed by a Cochrane review. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which reduced circulating levels of oestrogen are involved in causing the flush has not yet been established. Priming with oestrogen seems to be an essential pre-requisite for flushing, as young women with ovarian dysgenesis and very low circulating levels of oestrogen never have hot flushes unless they are given oestrogen replacement therapy, which is later discontinued. Oestrogen antagonist activity by selective oestrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen and raloxifene can also cause flushing. A link with gonadotrophins is demonstrated by a temporal association of flushes with the pulsatile release of luteinising hormone (LH). However, if LH pulses are eliminated by GnRH analogue, the frequency of flushing is not altered, which confirms that LH is merely associated with the flush rather than being causative. It is probable that the flush is initiated by a supra-pituitary mechanism which is influenced by the hypothalamic factors responsible for pulsatile LH release. A

  15. Quality of scintillating fibres after hot bump shrinking

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Joram, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the diameter of fibre bumps by a hot drawing tool requires to run the fibre through the hot tool over its full length, bearing the risk of a degradation of the fibre performance. In this study we demonstrated that the hot bump shrinking method has no visible effect on the optical attenuation length, the light yield following ionising radiation, the diameter, the mechanical stability and the integrity of the cladding. For the latter, even a small positive impact was observed.

  16. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  17. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    > . The field's main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or `hot', electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium-tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. The effect of the field on deuterium-tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.

  18. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline

    2015-12-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe’s total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 105-107 kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm-hot baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm-hot baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at 107 kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we find hot gas structures that are coherent over scales of 8 megaparsecs. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10 per cent of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster’s gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. Our findings strengthen evidence for a picture of the Universe in which a large fraction of the missing baryons reside in the filaments of the cosmic web.

  19. Harvesting the loss: surface plasmon-based hot electron photodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason G.

    2017-01-01

    Although the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process within the plasmonic and metamaterial communities, hot carriers generated from nonradiative plasmon decay offer new opportunities for harnessing absorption loss. Hot carriers can be harnessed for applications ranging from chemical catalysis, photothermal heating, photovoltaics, and photodetection. Here, we present a review on the recent developments concerning photodetection based on hot electrons. The basic principles and recent progress on hot electron photodetectors are summarized. The challenges and potential future directions are also discussed.

  20. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  1. Hot complaint intelligent classification based on text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Haifeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complaint recognizer system plays an important role in making sure the correct classification of the hot complaint,improving the service quantity of telecommunications industry.The customers’ complaint in telecommunications industry has its special particularity which should be done in limited time,which cause the error in classification of hot complaint.The paper presents a model of complaint hot intelligent classification based on text mining,which can classify the hot complaint in the correct level of the complaint navigation.The examples show that the model can be efficient to classify the text of the complaint.

  2. Thermus caldifontis sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inam Ullah; Habib, Neeli; Hussain, Firasat; Xian, Wen-Dong; Amin, Arshia; Zhou, En-Min; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-08-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, designated YIM 73026T was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a hot spring in Tibet, PR China. The taxonomic position of the novel isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. The novel isolate was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. Colonies were circular, convex, opaque and yellow. The strain grew at 50-70 °C (optimum, 60 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of up to 1.0 % NaCl (w/v). Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of YIM 73026T and those of other members of the genus Thermus showed sequence similarities ranging from 91.2 to 97.5 %, with YIM 73026T showing closest sequence similarity to Thermus scotoductus SE-1T (97.5 %). DNA-DNA hybridization results, however, revealed that DNA-DNA reassociation values between YIM 73026T and T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (37.6 %), Thermusamyloliquefaciens YIM 77409T (34.5 %), Thermusantranikianii DSM 12462T (30.3 %), Thermuscaliditerrae YIM 77925T (28.6 %) and Thermustengchongensis YIM 77924T (27.3 %) were well below the 70 % limit for species identification. YIM 73026T contained MK-8 as the respiratory quinone, and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %). The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of YIM 73026T was 65.4 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 73026T (=NBRC 112415T=CCTCC AB 2016305T).

  3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of the depth-dose distribution in skin contaminated by hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patau, J.-P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1991-01-01

    Accurate computer programs were developed in order to calculate the spatial distribution of absorbed radiation doses in the skin, near high activity particles (''hot particles''). With a view to ascertaining the reliability of the codes the transport of beta particles was simulated in a complex configuration used for dosimetric measurements: spherical {sup 60}Co sources of 10-1000 {mu}m fastened to an aluminium support with a tissue-equivalent adhesive overlaid with 10 {mu}m thick aluminium foil. Behind it an infinite polystyrene medium including an extrapolation chamber was assumed. The exact energy spectrum of beta emission was sampled. Production and transport of secondary knock-on electrons were also simulated. Energy depositions in polystyrene were calculated with a high spatial resolution. Finally, depth-dose distributions were calculated for hot particles placed on the skin. The calculations will be continued for other radionuclides and for a configuration suited to TLD measurements. (author).

  5. Indications of Bose-Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, P.; Zheng, H.; Bonasera, A.; Verde, , G.; Chbihi, A.

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in nuclear systems at low excitation energies produced in {^{40}Ca}+{^{40}Ca} collisions. The innovative experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the VAMOS spectrometer to the 4π charged particle detector INDRA, allowed us to reconstruct the characteristics of the decaying hot source. We have investigated the thermodynamic properties, temperatures and partial nucleon densities, of the low density region of the nuclear system with quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, as "seen" by bosons and fermions separately. We show that in dilute hot nuclear systems, as in atomic traps, bosons experience a higher density than fermions do. Also, the nuclear interaction between fermions and bosons does not significantly reduce the fermion quenching and the Bose condensation.

  6. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at zeta approx 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A.W.; Zhang, William W.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(sub BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(sub Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(sub H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  7. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at Z Approx. 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  8. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z~1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chang, C. S.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S.; Lansbury, G. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stalevski, M.; Stanley, F.; Treister, E.; Tsai, C.-W.; Walton, D. J.; Wu, J. W.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z> 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z˜ 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ({L}{Bol}≃ 8× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}8 {M}⊙ and an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}≃ 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of {N}{{H}}≃ (2{--}15)× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of ˜ 6× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared/X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z≲ 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  9. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project Progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H. (ed.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Thompson, P.B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (United States). Engineering Division)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

  11. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project Progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thompson, P.B. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (United States). Engineering Division

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I & C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

  12. Hot flashes and carotid intima media thickness among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Hess, Rachel; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2011-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests associations between menopausal hot flashes and cardiovascular risk. However, whether hot flashes are associated with intima media thickness (IMT) or IMT changes over time is unknown. We hypothesized that reported hot flashes would be associated with greater IMT cross-sectionally and with greater IMT progression over 2 years. Participants were 432 women aged 45 to 58 years at baseline participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart, an ancillary study to the SWAN. Measures at the SWAN Heart baseline and follow-up visit 2 years later included a carotid artery ultrasound, reported hot flashes (past 2 weeks: none, 1-5 d, ≥6 d), and a blood sample for measurement of estradiol. Women reporting hot flashes for 6 days or more in the prior 2 weeks had significantly higher IMT than did women without hot flashes at the baseline (mean [SE] difference, 0.02 [0.01] mm; P=0.03) and follow-up (mean [SE] difference, 0.02 [0.01] mm; P=0.04) visits, controlling for demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. Reporting hot flashes at both study visits was associated with higher follow-up IMT relative to reporting hot flashes at neither visit (mean [SE] difference, 0.03 [0.01] mm; P=0.03). Associations between hot flashes and IMT largely remained after adjusting for estradiol. An interaction between hot flashes and obesity status was observed (P=0.05) such that relations between hot flashes and IMT were observed principally among overweight/obese women. Hot flashes were not associated with IMT progression. These findings provide some indication that women reporting hot flashes for 6 days or more in the prior 2 weeks may have higher IMT than do women without hot flashes, particularly for women who are overweight or obese. Further work should determine whether hot flashes mark adverse underlying vascular changes. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society

  13. A Pilot Study of Integral Yoga for Menopausal Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Legault, Claudine; Russell, Gregory; Weaver, Kathryn; Danhauer, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of yoga for reducing self-reported menopausal hot flashes in a randomized study including an attention control group. Methods We randomized 54 women late perimenopausal (2–12 months of amenorrhea) and postmenopausal women (12 or more months of amenorrhea), aged 45–58 years, with at least 4 hot flashes per day on average, for at least 4 weeks, to one of three groups: yoga, health and wellness education (HW) classes, and a wait list (WL) control group. Yoga and HW classes consisted of weekly 90 minute classes for 10 weeks. All women completed daily hot flash diaries throughout the trial (10 weeks) to track frequency and severity of hot flashes. The mean hot flash index score is based on the number of mild, moderate, severe and very severe hot flashes. Results Hot flash frequency declined significantly over time for all three groups with the strongest decline during the first week. There was no overall significant difference in hot flash frequency decrease over time by treatment groups, but the yoga and HW groups followed similar patterns and both showed greater decreases than the WL group. By week 10, women in the yoga group reported a decrease of approximately 66% in hot flash frequency, 63% in HW, and 36% in the WL group. The hot flash index showed a similar pattern. Conclusions Results suggest that yoga can serve as a behavioral option for reducing hot flashes, but they also suggest that yoga may not offer any advantage over other types of interventions. PMID:24473534

  14. Pilot study of integral yoga for menopausal hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Legault, Claudine; Russell, Gregory; Weaver, Kathryn; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of yoga for reducing self-reported menopausal hot flashes in a randomized study including an attention control group. We randomized 54 late perimenopausal women (2-12 mo of amenorrhea) and postmenopausal women (>12 mo of amenorrhea)--aged 45 to 58 years and who experienced at least four hot flashes per day, on average, for at least 4 weeks--to one of three groups: yoga, health and wellness education (HW), and wait list (WL). Yoga and HW classes consisted of weekly 90-minute classes for 10 weeks. All women completed daily hot flash diaries throughout the trial (10 wk) to track the frequency and severity of hot flashes. The mean hot flash index score is based on the number of mild, moderate, severe, and very severe hot flashes. Hot flash frequency declined significantly across time for all three groups, with the strongest decline occurring during the first week. There was no overall significant difference in hot flash frequency decrease over time by treatment groups, but the yoga and HW groups followed similar patterns and showed greater decreases than the WL group. On week 10, women in the yoga group reported an approximately 66% decrease in hot flash frequency, women in the HW group reported a 63% decrease, and women in the WL group reported a 36% decrease. The hot flash index showed a similar pattern. Results suggest that yoga can serve as a behavioral option for reducing hot flashes but may not offer any advantage over other types of interventions.

  15. Annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide film obtained by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarminio, Jair; Silva, Paulo Rogerio Catarini da, E-mail: scarmini@uel.br, E-mail: prcsilva@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Gelamo, Rogerio Valentim, E-mail: rogelamo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Mario Antonio Bica de, E-mail: bmoraes@mailhost.ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Vanadium oxide films amorphous, nonstoichiometric and highly absorbing in the optical region were deposited on ITO-coated glass and on silicon substrates, by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD) and oxidized by ex-situ annealing in a furnace at 200, 300, 400 and 500 deg C, under an atmosphere of argon and rarefied oxygen. X-ray diffraction, Raman and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy as well as optical transmission were employed to characterize the amorphous and annealed films. When annealed at 200 and 300 deg C the as-deposited opaque films become transparent but still amorphous. Under treatments at 400 and 500 deg C a crystalline nonstoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure is formed. All the annealed films became semiconducting, with their optical absorption coefficients changing with the annealing temperature. An optical gap of 2.25 eV was measured for the films annealed at 400 and 500 deg C. The annealing in rarefied oxygen atmosphere proved to be a useful and simple ex-situ method to modulate the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide films deposited by HFMOD technique. This technique could be applied to other amorphous and non-absorbing oxide films, replacing the conventional and sometimes expensive method of modulate desirable film properties by controlling the film deposition parameters. Even more, the HFMOD technique can be an inexpensive alternative to deposit metal oxide films. (author)

  16. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact...... of the inlet design on the flow patterns in the tank and thus how the energy quality in a hot water tank is reduced with a poor inlet design. The numerical investigations were followed by experiments. A test solar store, similar to the store investigated by numerical modelling was constructed with cylindrical...... transparent walls so that the flow structures due to the inlet jets could be visualized. With the three inlets, nine draw-off tests with different inlet flow rates were carried out and the temperature stratification in the tank was measured during the draw-offs. The experimental results were used...

  17. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  18. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

  19. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  20. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  1. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  2. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  3. Tidal Dissipation in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Short-period extrasolar giant planets (hot Jupiters) experience periods of strong tidal dissipation. It is not well known whether tidal energy is deposited primarily in the deep interior or the surface layers of these planets, or what effect the location of tidal heating has on their evolution and observable properties (e.g. radii, spectra, and rate of mass loss in a planetary wind). I present a study of the local tidal heating rate as a function of latitude and depth in the radiative envelope and atmosphere (between pressure levels of about 1 kilobar and 0.001 microbars). Results are based on a nonadiabatic linear analysis of the tide in this region, which takes the form of an upward-propagating train of inertial-gravity waves excited at the interface between the convective interior and the stably-stratified envelope. Radiative damping dominates the dissipation. Careful attention is paid to the computation of the radiative relaxation timescale, using nongray radiative transfer to transition smoothly from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. The potential exists for conversion from inertial-gravity waves to pure inertial waves in the presence of strong radiative damping. This raises the possibility that a significant tidal energy flux can be transported as high as the base of the thermosphere, where it would contribute to driving atmospheric escape. Results can be used to chart local tidal heating rates over the lifetime of a hot Jupiter as its orbit and rotation rate evolve. Although the potential for high-altitude tidal heating is intriguing, I find that over a wide range of orbital parameters the bulk of the energy flux is dissipated nearer the IR photosphere. Tidal heating at those heights (around 0.1-10 bars) has the greatest potential to affect the emergent spectrum, and is least likely to slow the planet's rate of contraction.

  4. Guided Geothermal Exploration in Hot Sedimentary Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, J.; Horowitz, F. G.; Ricard, L.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2010-12-01

    The search for a suitable reservoir site in a geothermal system depends on many factors. In Hot Sedimenatry Aquifer systems (i.e. deep, permeable geological units filled with hot fluids and with a significant regional extent), mostly important are hydraulic conductivity, fluid temperature and heat capacity. These factors are strongly coupled. For example, hydraulic conductivity depends on fluid viscosity which itself is a function of temperature. We can therefore derive the most meaningful estimation of parameters at depth when we consider all these coupling effects - instead of simply interpolating measured values. The best way to incorporate the relevant factors and their couplings is to create a mathematical model of the subsurface, considering all important physical effects (usually done in thermo-hydraulic simulations). Results of these simulations are the distribution of thermodynamic properties (temperature, pressure) and rock properties (permeability, porosity, thermal conductivity, etc.) in space. Only certain combinations of these properties will finally lead to a suitable location for a geothermal reservoir. Also, other relevant aspects have to be considered, like the regional extent of the aquifer, its thickness and natural groundwater flow. We developed methods to combine many of these relevant factors into coherent models, the results of which can be visualized in simple exploration maps. We are considering two highly important factors: (a) the available heat density, related to a minimum temperature (``Lindal-Maps'') and (b) the sustainability of the system, considering a potential pumping and reinjection well doublet scheme. Example applications show how our estimations can help locate a potential geothermal reservoir. Estimation of a maximal pumping rate for the theoretical case of no thermal breakthrough, in the presence of advection. This is of practical significance as areas with a high value can also be expected to allow a higher sustainable

  5. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  6. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Gasification Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a highly instrumented half-ton/day pilot scale plant capable of demonstrating industrially relevant thermochemical technologies from lignocellulosic biomass conversion, including gasification. Gasification creates primarily Syngas (a mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide) that can be utilized with synthesis catalysts to form transportation fuels and other valuable chemicals. Biomass derived gasification products are a very complex mixture of chemical components that typically contain Sulfur and Nitrogen species that can act as catalysis poisons for tar reforming and synthesis catalysts. Real-time hot online sampling techniques, such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS), and Gas Chromatographs with Sulfur and Nitrogen specific detectors can provide real-time analysis providing operational indicators for performance. Sampling typically requires coated sampling lines to minimize trace sulfur interactions with steel surfaces. Other materials used inline have also shown conversion of sulfur species into new components and must be minimized. Sample line Residence time within the sampling lines must also be kept to a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Solids from ash and char contribute to plugging and must be filtered at temperature. Experience at NREL has shown several key factors to consider when designing and installing an analytical sampling system for biomass gasification products. They include minimizing sampling distance, effective filtering as close to source as possible, proper line sizing, proper line materials or coatings, even heating of all components, minimizing pressure drops, and additional filtering or traps after pressure drops.

  7. Engineering Physics of Superconducting Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Teun M.; Semenov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Superconducting hot-electron bolometers are presently the best performing mixing devices for the frequency range beyond 1.2 THz, where good quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) devices do not exist. Their physical appearance is very simple: an antenna consisting of a normal metal, sometimes a normal metal-superconductor bilayer, connected to a thin film of a narrow, short superconductor with a high resistivity in the normal state. The device is brought into an optimal operating regime by applying a dc current and a certain amount of local- oscillator power. Despite this technological simplicity its operation has been found to be controlled by many different aspects of superconductivity, all occurring simultaneously. A core ingredient is the understanding that there are two sources of resistance in a superconductor: a charge conversion resistance occurring at an normal-metal-superconductor interface and a resistance due to time- dependent changes of the superconducting phase. The latter is responsible for the actual mixing process in a non-uniform superconducting environment set up by the bias-conditions and the geometry. The present understanding indicates that further improvement needs to be found in the use of other materials with a faster energy-relaxation rate. Meanwhile several empirical parameters have become physically meaningful indicators of the devices, which will facilitate the technological developments.

  8. Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeck, Andreas; Delsontro, Tonya; McGinnis, Daniel F; Fischer, Helmut; Flury, Sabine; Schmidt, Mark; Fietzek, Peer; Lorke, Andreas

    2013-08-06

    Inland waters transport and transform substantial amounts of carbon and account for ∼18% of global methane emissions. Large reservoirs with higher areal methane release rates than natural waters contribute significantly to freshwater emissions. However, there are millions of small dams worldwide that receive and trap high loads of organic carbon and can therefore potentially emit significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. We evaluated the effect of damming on methane emissions in a central European impounded river. Direct comparison of riverine and reservoir reaches, where sedimentation in the latter is increased due to trapping by dams, revealed that the reservoir reaches are the major source of methane emissions (∼0.23 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1) vs ∼19.7 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1), respectively) and that areal emission rates far exceed previous estimates for temperate reservoirs or rivers. We show that sediment accumulation correlates with methane production and subsequent ebullitive release rates and may therefore be an excellent proxy for estimating methane emissions from small reservoirs. Our results suggest that sedimentation-driven methane emissions from dammed river hot spot sites can potentially increase global freshwater emissions by up to 7%.

  9. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  10. Hot spots of Phytophthora in commercial nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Junker; Patrick Goff; Stefan Wagner; Sabine Werres

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that nurseries are an important source for the spread of Phytophthora. Most surveys and studies focusing on the epidemiology of these pathogens in nurseries are based on sampling of symptomatic plants or on samples like water of different sources used for irrigation. There is little knowledge, however, on the survival and...

  11. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  12. KINETICS PROCESSES OF DEHYDRATION AND HEATING FISH DURING FRYING, DURING SEMI HOT AND HOT SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokholchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Calculated methods of graphing of curves for kinetics of dehydration and fish heating during the processes of frying, semi hot smoking and hot smoking have been developed. The offered methods of calculating are based on the basic regularities of heat and mass exchanges of these processes. Based on the research of the regularities of dehydration on the kinetic curves, critical points were identified, that characterize the transition from the moisture removal with lower energy of its bond with material to the removal of one with higher energy bond, also the influence of the product shrinkage on the velocity of the moisture removal. These points are characteristic for the temperature curves as well. It’s suggested for the temperature curve to be replaced by broken line that consists of three straight lines that are crossing in points, corresponded with the critical moistures and critical temperatures. Significant amount of the experimental material of the research of the kinetics of dehydration and fish heating under different modes is shown by authors in the form of generalized dependencies. The method allows modeling the processes of heating and dehydrating of fish and choosing the most rational modes based on the calculated data. The proposed technique makes it possible to construct the curves of the kinetics of heating and dehydration kinetics in processes of roasting, semi hot and hot smoked fish, which allows to optimize a particular process, design more efficient in terms of consumption of raw materials and energy technology, as well as to create better machines or upgrade existing equipment into account the relationship of heat and mass transfer processes.

  13. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  14. HOT PEPPER REACTION TO FIELD DISEASES ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases are major constraints to hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) production in sub-Saharan Africa. The search for cultivars resistant to the major diseases of hot pepper has been limited. ..... mottle virus, PVY=potato virus Y, ToMV=tobacco mosaic virus, BW=bacterial wilt, PB=phytophtora blight, Anthr=anthracnose,.

  15. Does the Basketball Market Believe in the 'Hot Hand,'?

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1989-01-01

    Most people who watch basketball believe in the "hot hand": Players who make a shot are more likely to hit the next shot than players who miss a shot (i.e., shots are positively autocorrelated rather than independent). Almost everyone in the sample studied by Thomas Gilovich, Robert Vallone, and Amos Tversky (1985), including several successful professionals, believed in the hot hand.

  16. Hot flushes | van Schoor | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not fully understood, and is likely to reflect the interplay between multiple central and peripheral physiological systems. Reproductive ...

  17. Obese Women May Have More Intense Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166108.html Obese Women May Have More Intense Hot Flashes Body fat might trap heat inside the ... t prove cause and effect, it found that women who were obese had more extreme hot flashes that interfered with some activities and took ...

  18. How to deal with the annoying Hot Spots in FEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenninggaard, Jon

    2017-01-01

    How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?......How do we deal with the annoying ”Hot Spots” in our solid structure Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and how do we justify the stresses in those areas?...

  19. Urban renovation of the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraday Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to improving the reliability of hot water supply systems are considered. Currently, centralized hot water supply systems are in an emergency condition due to the fact that the external networks are made of black pipes without anticorrosive coatings. A fundamental difference between hot water supply systems and heating systems is the nature of black metal corrosion. The purpose of this article is to conduct a research of the state of hot water supply systems and consider options for their recovery. The options suggested for restoration of hot water supply systems in cities and settlements of Ukraine are the following: complete replacement of failed networks with new pre-insulated plastic pipelines; refusal from external networks of centralized hot water supply systems and a central heat point with the installation of individual heat points in each house; decentralization of hot water supply systems by installing electric water heaters. A technical and economic comparison of these options is carried out, and the advantages and disadvantages of each option are considered. The arrangement of a set of individual heat points instead of one central point cannot be considered as the recommended method, because of the need for large additional costs for the reconstruction of heating, water supply and electricity supply systems. The most technically and economically justified method from the considered renovation methods of hot water supply systems is the complete replacement of failed steel pipelines with new nonmetallic pre-insulated structures.

  20. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  1. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  2. Hot environments decrease exercise capacity and elevate multiple neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Lai, Lili; Cheung, Stephen S; Cui, Shuqiang; An, Nan; Feng, Wenping; Lorenzo, Santiago

    2015-11-15

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that different neurotransmitters and hormones are presented at exercise fatigue in hot temperatures with differing relative humidities (RH). Eight trained male athletes performed a graded maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) test in five different environmental conditions, namely, 21°C/20% RH (Normal), 33°C/20% RH (Hot 20%), 33°C/40% RH (Hot 40%), 33°C/60% RH (Hot 60%), and 33°C/80% RH (Hot 80%). Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise and analyzed for noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (ADR), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and prolactin (PRL). Weight and oral and skin temperatures were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Heart rate was continuously monitored throughout the exercise. Hot 20%, Hot 40%, and Hot 80% had lower VO2max levels compared with Normal (Pneurotransmitter level irrespective of the environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  4. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit oven,” said Dr. Nick Jouriles. “ ... or experience changes in your schedule or your child is in the back seat, making it more ...

  5. Hot flashes: a review of pathophysiology and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Phuong Khanh H; Mattair, Danielle N; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2011-01-01

    Many therapies are being studied for the treatment of hot flashes for individuals with cancer, yet few studies have demonstrated safe and effective clinical benefit for those who suffer from this distressing symptom. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current options for the management of hot flashes, examining key endpoints from recent clinical trials and reviewing future directions. Hot flashes are a common stressful symptom for individuals with cancer, particularly women with a history of breast cancer and men with prostate cancer. Lifestyle modifications are proposed as the first step in the management of less severe hot flashes. Several publications have addressed nonhormonal agents as a treatment option for hot flashes. Newer antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have been studied and show potential in treating vasomotor symptoms. Although many complementary and alternative therapies, including herbal medications and phytoestrogens, have been studied for the treatment of hot flashes, none are clinically recommended at this time. Additionally, further evidence is needed for supportive exercise such as yoga and relaxation techniques. Acupuncture may warrant further investigation in the reduction and severity of hot flashes in both men and women. Hormonal therapies, including estrogens and progestogens, are the most well-known and efficient agents in alleviating hot flashes; however, the safety of these agents is disputable.

  6. Protein determinants of meiotic DNA break hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kyle R; Gutiérrez-Velasco, Susana; Martín-Castellanos, Cristina; Smith, Gerald R

    2013-03-07

    Meiotic recombination, crucial for proper chromosome segregation and genome evolution, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeasts and likely all sexually reproducing species. In fission yeast, DSBs occur up to hundreds of times more frequently at special sites, called hot spots, than in other regions of the genome. What distinguishes hot spots from cold regions is an unsolved problem, although transcription factors determine some hot spots. We report the discovery that three coiled-coil proteins-Rec25, Rec27, and Mug20-bind essentially all hot spots with great specificity even without DSB formation. These small proteins are components of linear elements, are related to synaptonemal complex proteins, and are essential for nearly all DSBs at most hot spots. Our results indicate these hot spot determinants activate or stabilize the DSB-forming protein Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) rather than promote its binding to hot spots. We propose a paradigm for hot spot determination and crossover control by linear element proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In an attempt to determine a cold defense mechanism in plants, we have attempted to characterize changes occurring in the expression of cold-regulated transcript levels in the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), using cDNA microarray analysis, combined with Northern blot analysis. After analysing a 3.1 K hot pepper cDNA ...

  8. 207 EFFECTS OF HOT AND COLD WATER PRE- TREATMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    no significant difference in the number of seeds that emerged from the cold water treatment (á = 0.05), while treatment with hot water showed significant differences among the treatment times. (á =0.05). Treatment of a. senegal seeds with hot water for 10 minutes gave the highest number of emerged seeds (mean, 7.50) ...

  9. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  10. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a systematic analysis of different methods of d-ferrite estimation is carried out based on the well-known relationship between d-ferrite content and hot cracking in stainless steels. Additionally, the influence of certain chemical requirements on d-ferrite stabilization and their relationship to hot cracking isevaluated ...

  11. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. Application of numerical modeling for optimization of selective hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... selective hot water extraction of taxifolin from 'milk thistle' seeds. Hala El-Adawi1, Yasser Abdel-Fattah2 ... content; HWE, hot water extract. 2002; Skottová et al., 2003; Sobolová et al., 2006). ..... Decreased plasma and tissue levels of vitamin C in a rat model of aging: implications for antioxidative defense.

  13. Development and efficiency assessment of process lubrication for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, S.; Artyukh, Viktor; Ignatovich, I.; Dikareva, Varvara

    2017-10-01

    The article considers innovative technologies in testing and production of process lubricants for hot bulk forging. There were developed new compositions of eco-friendly water-graphite process lubricants for hot extrusion and forging. New approaches to efficiency assessment of process lubricants are developed and described in the following article. Laboratory and field results are presented.

  14. Transformation kinetics of microalloyed steels after hot controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation kinetics of austenite into ferrite after controlled hot rolling has been investigated in three microalloyed steels (Nb, Nb-Ti and C-Mn-V) using hot interrupted compression tests on the Gleeble 1500 within the testing temperature range of 875°C-1100°C. Holding times were varied between 0.5 and 30s, strain ...

  15. Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2003-10-14

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  16. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    A Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) based device is developed for investigation of hot electron enhanced chemistry. A model of the device is presented explaining the key concepts of the functionality and the character- istics. The MIS hot electron emitter is fabricated using cleanroom technology...... is characterized using IV and CV measurements to extract tun- nel barrier thicknesses, which was distributed around the expected value of 50 ºA. CV measurements yield thicknesses between 44.7 ºA and 58 ºA. The IV and CV measurements is shown to correlate and an o®set between the two types of measurements indicate...... is monitored using the calibrated resistance of the metal layer. The MIS hot electron emitters are cleaned in-situ in a background pressure of 3 £ 10¡7 mbar O2. Thermal desorption experiments with labeled CO are carried out with a reproducibility of 7%. The detection limit of labeled CO for the mass...

  17. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  18. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org.

  19. WASP-47 and the Origin of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred; Bryan, Marta; Buchhave, Lars; Haywood, Raphaelle; Khain, Tali; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Mortier, Annelies; HARPS-N Consortium

    2018-01-01

    WASP-47 b is a transiting hot Jupiter in a system with two additional short-period transiting planets and a long-period outer Jovian companion. WASP-47 b is the only known hot Jupiter with such close-in companions and therefore may hold clues to the origins of hot Jupiter systems. We report on precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47 to measure planet masses and determine their orbits to high precision. Using these improved masses and orbital elements, we perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the inclination of the outer planet, which we find likely orbits near the same plane as the inner transiting system. A similar dynamical analysis for five other hot Jupiter systems with long-period companions around cool host stars (Teff Jupiters. These constraints disfavor hot Jupiter models involving strong dynamical interactions like Kozai-Lidov migration.

  20. Investigation of Usibor 1500 Formability in a Hot Forming Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande GÜLER

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hot forming process included heating metals to a temperature in the austenite range, transferring the austenitized sheet from the furnace to a press, forming and simultaneously quenched. In this work, Usibor 1500 steel was hot stamped using water-cooled prototype mould. Micro structural analyses as well as tensile tests and hardness measurements of hot stamped samples were performed. The results showed that most of austenite microstructure was changed into martensite by the hot forming. The tensile strength and hardness value were up to 1485 MPa and 492 HV1, respectively. On the other side, hot stamped parts presented mechanical properties higher than cold stamped parts.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.1484

  1. Development of iron-aluminide hot-gas filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, I.G.; Judkins, R.R.

    1996-06-01

    Removal of particles from hot synthesis gas produced by coal gasification is vital to the success of these systems. In Integrated [Coal] Gasification Combined Cycle systems, the synthesis gas is the fuel for gas turbines. To avoid damage to turbine components, it is necessary that particles be removed from the fuel gas prior to combustion and introduction into the turbine. Reliability and durability of the hot-gas filtering devices used to remove the particles is, of course, of special importance. Hot-gas filter materials include both ceramics and metals. Numerous considerations must be made in selecting materials for these filters. Constituents in the hot gases may potentially degrade the properties and performance of the filters to the point that they are ineffective in removing the particles. Very significant efforts have been made by DOE and others to develop effective hot-particle filters and, although improvements have been made, alternative materials and structures are still needed.

  2. Diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs in Tengchong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Chen, Jing-Quan; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Chuan-Lun L; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Diversity of Crenarchaeota was investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH 2.8-7.7; temperature 44-96 degrees C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were sequenced and a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59-77 degrees C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderately hot-temperature springs may provide optimal conditions for speciation of Crenarchaeota.

  3. Hot gas path component having near wall cooling features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2017-11-28

    A method for providing micro-channels in a hot gas path component includes forming a first micro-channel in an exterior surface of a substrate of the hot gas path component. A second micro-channel is formed in the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that it is separated from the first micro-channel by a surface gap having a first width. The method also includes disposing a braze sheet onto the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that the braze sheet covers at least of portion of the first and second micro-channels, and heating the braze sheet to bond it to at least a portion of the exterior surface of the hot gas path component.

  4. Endolithic microbial life in hot and cold deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    Endolithic microorganisms (those living inside rocks) occur in hot and cold deserts and exist under extreme environmental conditions. These conditions are discussed on a comparative basis. Quantitative estimates of biomass are comparable in hot and cold deserts. Despite the obvious differences between the hot and cold desert environment, survival strategies show some common features. These endolithic organisms are able to 'switch' rapidly their metabolic activities on and off in response to changes in the environment. Conditions in hot deserts impose a more severe environmental stress on the organisms than in the cold Antarctic desert. This is reflected in the composition of the microbial flora which in hot desert rocks consist entirely of prokaryotic microorganisms, while under cold desert conditions eukaryotes predominate.

  5. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  6. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  7. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Detection of three new hot cores in Sagittarius B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfand, M.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud contains several sites forming high-mass stars. Sgr B2(N) is one of its main centers of activity. It hosts several compact and ultra-compact HII regions, as well as two known hot molecular cores (Sgr B2(N1) and Sgr B2(N2)) in the early stage of the high-mass star formation process, where complex organic molecules (COMs) are detected in the gas phase. Aims: Our goal is to use the high sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to characterize the hot core population in Sgr B2(N) and thereby shed new light on the star formation process in this star-forming region. Methods: We use a complete 3 mm spectral line survey conducted with ALMA to search for faint hot cores in the Sgr B2(N) region. The chemical composition of the detected sources and the column densities are derived by modeling the whole spectra under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. Population diagrams are constructed to fit rotational temperatures. Integrated intensity maps are produced to derive the peak position and fit the size of each molecule's emission distribution. The kinematic structure of the hot cores is investigated by analyzing the line wing emission of typical outflow tracers. The H2 column densities are computed from ALMA and SMA continuum emission maps. Results: We report the discovery of three new hot cores in Sgr B2(N) that we call Sgr B2(N3), Sgr B2(N4), and Sgr B2(N5). The three sources are associated with class II methanol masers, well known tracers of high-mass star formation, and Sgr B2(N5), also with a UCHII region. Their H2 column densities are found to be between approximately 16 and 36 times lower than the one of the main hot core Sgr B2(N1). The spectra of these new hot cores have spectral line densities of 11 up to 31 emission lines per GHz above the 7σ level, assigned to 22-25 molecules plus 13-20 less abundant isotopologs. We derive rotational temperatures of approximately 140-180 K for

  8. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  9. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  11. ATMOSPHERIC HEAT REDISTRIBUTION ON HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy absorbed on their daysides—and thus have a larger day-night temperature contrast—than colder planets. To this day, no predictive atmospheric model has been published that identifies which dynamical mechanisms determine the atmospheric heat redistribution efficiency on tidally locked exoplanets. Here we present a shallow-water model of the atmospheric dynamics on synchronously rotating planets that explains why heat redistribution efficiency drops as stellar insolation rises. Our model shows that planets with weak friction and weak irradiation exhibit a banded zonal flow with minimal day-night temperature differences, while models with strong irradiation and/or strong friction exhibit a day-night flow pattern with order-unity fractional day-night temperature differences. To interpret the model, we develop a scaling theory which shows that the timescale for gravity waves to propagate horizontally over planetary scales, τ{sub wave}, plays a dominant role in controlling the transition from small to large temperature contrasts. This implies that heat redistribution is governed by a wave-like process, similar to the one responsible for the weak temperature gradients in the Earth's tropics. When atmospheric drag can be neglected, the transition from small to large day-night temperature contrasts occurs when τ{sub wave}∼√(τ{sub rad}/Ω), where τ{sub rad} is the radiative relaxation time and Ω is the planetary rotation frequency. Alternatively, this transition criterion can be expressed as τ{sub rad} ∼ τ{sub vert}, where τ{sub vert} is the timescale for a fluid parcel to move vertically over the difference in day-night thickness. These results subsume the more widely used timescale comparison for estimating heat redistribution efficiency between τ{sub rad} and the horizontal day

  12. Nanosecond Laser Photolysis of Opaque Heterogeneous Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Willsher spent two weeks in Spain during the Summer working on this project and presented a poster at the XIIth Recunion Bienal de Quimica Organica de la...Real Sociedad Espaiola de Quimica , Cordoba, Spain,23-25 September, entitled "Fase Solida : Contribuci6n de la "Laser Flash Photolysis" a la Elucidacion

  13. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O' HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  14. DARWIN-HC: A Tool to Predict Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Based Turbine Disks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot Corrosion of turbine engine components has been studied for many years. The underlying mechan-isms of Type I Hot Corrosion and Type II Hot Corrosion are...

  15. DARWIN-HC:? A Tool to Predict Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Based Turbine Disks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot Corrosion of turbine engine components has been studied for many years. The underlying mechan-isms of Type I Hot Corrosion and Type II Hot Corrosion are...

  16. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  17. Improved understanding of the hot cathode current modes and mode transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanell, M. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    Hot cathodes are crucial components in a variety of plasma sources and applications, but they induce mode transitions and oscillations that are not fully understood. It is often assumed that negatively biased hot cathodes have a space-charge limited (SCL) sheath whenever the current is limited. Here, we show on theoretical grounds that a SCL sheath cannot persist. First, charge-exchange ions born within the virtual cathode (VC) region get trapped and build up. After the ion density reaches the electron density at a point in the VC, a new neutral region is formed and begins growing in space. In planar geometry, this ‘new plasma’ containing cold trapped ions and cold thermoelectrons grows towards the anode and fills the gap, leaving behind an inverse cathode sheath. This explains how transitions from temperature-limited mode to anode glow mode occur in thermionic discharge experiments with magnetic fields. If the hot cathode is a small filament in an unmagnetized plasma, the trapped ion region is predicted to grow radially in both directions, get expelled if it reaches the cathode, and reform periodically. Filament-induced current oscillations consistent with this prediction have been reported in experiments. Here, we set up planar geometry simulations of thermionic discharges and demonstrate several mode transition phenomena for the first time. Our continuum kinetic code lacks the noise of particle simulations, enabling a closer study of the temporal dynamics.

  18. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  19. Thermal depth profiling of materials for defect detection using hot disk technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Mihiretie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of the hot disk transient plane source technique is described. The new application yields the thermal conductivity of materials as a function of the thermal penetration depth which opens up opportunities in nondestructive testing of inhomogeneous materials. The system uses the hot disk sensor placed on the material surface to create a time varying temperature field. The thermal conductivity is then deduced from temperature evolution of the sensor, whereas the probing depth (the distance the heat front advanced away from the source is related to the product of measurement time and thermal diffusivity. The presence of inhomogeneity in the structure is manifested in thermal conductivity versus probing depth plot. Such a plot for homogeneous materials provides fairly constant value. The deviation from the homogeneous curve caused by defects in the structure is used for inhomogeneity detection. The size and location of the defect in the structure determines the sensitivity and possibility of detection. In addition, a complementary finite element numerical simulation through COMSOL Multiphysics is employed to solve the heat transfer equation. Temperature field profile of a model material is obtained from these simulations. The average rise in temperature of the heat source is calculated and used to demonstrate the effect of the presence of inhomogeneity in the system.

  20. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  1. Phthalate metabolite levels and menopausal hot flashes in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Gallicchio, Lisa; Chiang, Catheryne; Ther, Sara N; Miller, Susan R; Zacur, Howard A; Dills, Russell L; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-04-01

    During the menopausal transition, a woman's reproductive capacity declines, her hormone milieu changes, and her risk of hot flashes increases. Exposure to phthalates, which can be found in personal care products, can also result in altered reproductive function. Here, we investigated the associations between phthalate metabolite levels and midlife hot flashes. Eligible women (45-54 years of age) provided detailed information on hot flashes history and donated urine samples (n=195). Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. A higher total sum of phthalate metabolites commonly found in personal care products was associated with an increased risk of ever experiencing hot flashes (odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.96), hot flashes in the past 30days (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.04-1.96), and more frequent hot flashes (OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.06-2.05). These data suggest that some phthalate exposures from personal care products are associated with menopausal hot flashes in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory simulation of Hot Jupiters atmosphere expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Ponomarenko, A. G.

    2017-11-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJ) are exoplanets, gas giants with low orbits (≤ 0.1 a.u.). The stellar X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation energy deposition result in heating ionization and the consequent expansion of planetary atmosphere. Expansion of upper atmosphere under certain conditions could be so large that the majority of light atmospheric constituents overcome the gravitational binding and escape from the planet in a form of hydrodynamic wind. Besides interaction of two counter-streaming plasma flows (stellar wind and ionized upper layers of planet atmosphere), each of this flows interact with planetary magnetic field. In such complex situation laboratory simulation can provide data that can’t be obtained by computer simulation or observation. Experiment was carried out on KI-1 facility: high-vacuum chamber 5m long, 1.2 m in diameter with pressure ∼ 10-6 Torr. Magnetic dipole with two attached laser targets played the role of a planet, and background plasma from θ-pinch used for simulation of stellar wind. As a result, data on a behavior of plasma density and magnetic field were obtained. The novel phenomenon was registered: magnetic field is transferred by the cloud of laser plasma, which was not observed before in experiments or calculations.

  3. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minjie [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ∼550 K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ∼10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} and ∼10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. This “hot-silicon”-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450–550 K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ∼7 V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550 K in a frequency range of 0.1–2.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  4. Hot News for Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the most detailed probe yet of the distribution of dark matter in a massive cluster of galaxies. Their results indicate that about 80 percent of the matter in the universe consists of cold dark matter - mysterious subatomic particles left over from the dense early universe. Chandra observed a cluster of galaxies called Abell 2029 located about a billion light years from Earth. The cluster is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a gigantic cloud of hot gas, and an amount of dark matter equivalent to more than a hundred trillion Suns. At the center of this cluster is an enormous, elliptically shaped galaxy that is thought to have been formed from the mergers of many smaller galaxies. The X-ray data show that the density of dark matter increases smoothly all the way into the central galaxy of the cluster. This discovery agrees with the predictions of cold dark matter models, and is contrary to other dark matter models that predict a leveling off of the amount of dark matter in the center of the cluster. "I was really surprised at how well we could measure the dark matter so deep into the core of a rich cluster," said Aaron Lewis of the University of California, Irvine, lead author of a paper describing the results in a recent issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We still have very little idea as to the exact nature of these particles, but our results show that they must behave like cold dark matter." Cold dark matter gets its name from the assumption that the dark matter particles were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. Dark matter particles interact with each other and "normal" matter only through gravity. The astronomers' success in placing such tight constraints on the dark matter distribution was partly due to Chandra's ability to make a high resolution intensity and temperature map, and partly due to their choice of a target. The cluster and central galaxy are

  5. Hot news from home and abroad

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The heatwave affecting many parts of Europe has been often in the news this summer, but we’ve also had plenty of “hot news” at CERN, in particular regarding the LHC and the experiments.   There’s been great excitement everywhere about the restart of the LHC. However, we should not forget just how much work was done during the long shutdown, and that in many ways it’s like starting up a new machine, with all the surprises that can bring. This year, the LHC has already run at the record-breaking collision energy of 13 TeV and now we’re seeing the careful, step-by-step procedure to increase the beam intensity. The aim, as it always was, is to have the collider up to its full performance by the end of the year, so that we can then embark on three years full of physics. Nevertheless, the LHC experiments already have 100 times more data than they did at around the same time after the machine first started up at a collision energy of 7 TeV...

  6. Sustainable Energy - Without the hot air

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Dan

    2009-11-01

    Reader John Roeder writes about a website associated with David MacKay's book Sustainable Energy-Without the hot air. The book is a freely downloadable PDF (or purchasable) book describing an analysis detailing a low-carbon renewable energy transformation route for a large, modern first world industrial country (the United Kingdom). Written for the layman, the work uses vernacular language, e.g., energy consumption and production in a series of bar charts detailing the impacts of necessary strategies such as population reduction, lifestyle changes, and technology changes. MacKay notes that most reasonable plans have large nuclear and ``clean coal'' or other carbon capture components, lots of pumped heat, wind, and much efficiency improvement. He debunks some sacred cows (roof-mounted micro-turbines; hydrogen-powered cars) while pointing out simple effective technologies such as roof-mounted solar water heaters. Similar modest changes in the U.S. (painting roofs white in the southern half of the country) have strong impacts. MacKay claims that he ``doesn't advocate any particular plan or technology,'' but ``tells you how many bricks are in the lego box, and how big each brick is'' so readers can start making planning decisions.

  7. YACON INULIN LEACHING DURING HOT WATER BLANCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fenner Scher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTYacon roots contain inulin, which has prebiotic properties and it may be used as sucrose or fat substitutes. However, inulin is very soluble in water. The loss of this important nutrient during blanching is caused mainly by diffusion or leaching, which might be diminished if blanching temperature - time conditions are correctly employed. The aim of this study was to determine the leaching of the sugars inulin, glucose and fructose, present in yacon roots, during hot water blanching under different time/temperature conditions. The samples were cleaned and peeled and cut into geometric forms of 1.75 ± 0.35 mm thick disks. A complete factorial experimental design was used, and the treatments of the samples were compared using the Tukey test. The results indicated that the time and temperature were significant in the dissolution of the sugars. The lowest inulin losses occurred at temperatures and times lower than 60 ºC and 3 minutes. For all temperatures, the lowest glucose and fructose losses were obtained at time lower than 3 and 5 minutes, respectively.

  8. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  9. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  10. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-26

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes a description of a device developed to harden a filter cake on a filter element so that the element and cake can subsequently be encapsulated in epoxy and studied in detail. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data base of ash and char characteristics. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), encapsulation of an intact filter cake from the PSDF, and completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of hoop tensile and axial compressive stress-strain responses of McDermott ceramic composite and hoop tensile testing of Techniweave candle filters as-manufactured and after exposure to the gasification environment.

  11. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Pontius

    1999-08-30

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  12. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  13. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  14. The Structure of the Local Hot Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy (DXL) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). Based on the results from the DXL mission, we quantified and removed the contribution of SWCX to the diffuse X-ray background measured by the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The cleaned maps were used to investigate the physical properties of the LHB. Assuming thermal ionization equilibrium, we measured a highly uniform temperature distributed around kT = 0.097 keV +/- 0.013 keV (FWHM) +/- 0.006 keV(systematic). We also generated a thermal emission measure map and used it to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the LHB, which we found to be in good agreement with the structure of the local cavity measured from dust and gas.

  15. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  16. Decadal radon cycles in a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-09-21

    A high-fidelity record covering nearly 40 years of water-dissolved radon from the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is presented to study multi-year periodicities of radon. Ancillary observational data, i.e., water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic rays (GCR flux is modulated by solar wind and thus a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity from the same period are considered to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes in radon. Variations in radon concentration and ancillary observational data are studied using continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC). The results show that the long-period radon concentration is characterized by a quasi-decadal (8-11 years) cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rates and GCR. PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggest that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. We tentatively conclude that radon variations are mainly explained by variations in water temperature and spring discharge, which are modified and modulated by earthquakes and quasi-decadal variations of an unidentified process. The influence of solar activity on the decadal periodicity is discussed.

  17. Hunting for hot Jupiters around young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Louise; MaTYSSE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This conference paper reports the recent discoveries of two hot Jupiters (hJs) around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTS) V830 Tau and TAP 26, through the analysis of spectropolarimetric data gathered within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of massive close-in Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) observation programme. HJs are thought to form in the outskirts of protoplanetary discs, then migrate inwards close to their host stars as a result of either planet-disc type II migration or planet-planet scattering. Looking for hJs around young forming stars provides key information on the nature and time scale of such migration processes, as well as how their migration impacts the subsequent architecture of their planetary system. Young stars are however extremely active, to the point that their radial velocity (RV) jitter is around an order of magnitude larger than the potential signatures of close-in gas giants, making them difficult to detect with velocimetry. Three techniques to filter out this activity jitter are presented here, two using Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) and one using Gaussian Process Regression (GPR).

  18. Computational ghost imaging of hot objects in long-wave infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-07-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) is an intriguing imaging modality to obtain the object information from the correlation calculations of spatial intensity fluctuations. In this letter, we report the computational GI of hot objects in the long-wave infrared range both in experiment and simulation. Without employing an independent light source, we reconstruct thermal images of objects only based on the intensity correlations of their thermal radiation at room temperature. By comparing different GI reconstruction algorithms, we demonstrate that GI with compressive sensing can efficiently obtain the thermal object information only with a single-pixel infrared camera, which might be applied to night-vision, environmental sensing, military detection, etc.

  19. Study on slag forming mechanism of hot metal containing titanium in converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. B.; Lv, Y. C.; Qin, L. Y.; Liu, Y.; Ma, C. W.; Kong, X. T.

    2017-09-01

    The use of titanium containing molten iron can expand the sources of raw materials, reduce the cost, but the process produce serious foaming slag, low dephosphorization proportion and the consumption of lime is high. The technicians have improved the operation process through experiments and solved the problem of efficient and smooth blowing of hot metal containing titanium. Through mine phase composition analysis of slag using SEM and EDS, the distribution of titanium and the regularity of phosphorus retention are found, and measures to prevent phosphorus recovery in the later stage of converter are put forward.

  20. FUSE Spectroscopy of the Accreting Hot Components in Symbiotic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M; Godon, Patrick; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Sabra, Bassem; Kolobow, Craig

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic analysis of the far ultraviolet archival spectra of four symbiotic variables, EG And, AE Ara, CQ Dra and RW Hya. RW Hya and EG And have never had a recorded outburst while CQ Dra and AE Ara have outburst histories. We analyze these systems while they are in quiescence in order to help reveal the physical properties of their hot components via comparisons of the observations with optically thick accretion disk models and NLTE model white dwarf photospheres. We have extended the wavelength coverage down to the Lyman Limit with FUSE spectra. We find that the hot component in RW Hya is a low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 160,000K. We re-examine whether or not the symbiotic system CQ Dra is a triple system with a red giant transferring matter to a hot component made up of a cataclysmic variable in which the white dwarf has a surface temperature as low as ∼20,000K. The very small size of the hot component contributing to the shortest wavelengths of the FUSE spectrum of CQ Dra agrees with an optically thick and geometrically thin (∼4% of the WD surface) hot (∼ 120, 000K) boundary layer. Our analysis of EG And reveals that its hot component is a hot, bare, low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 80-95,000K, with a surface gravity log( g ) = 7.5. For AE Ara, we also find that a low gravity (log( g ) ∼ 6) hot ( T ∼ 130, 000K) WD accounts for the hot component.