WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot liquid surface

  1. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  2. Evaporation of a liquid drop on a hot liquid surface, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Takeo

    1980-01-01

    As for the phenomena occurring when two kinds of liquid at different temperature come in contact, the clarification of the basic, general matters of the phenomena has not been made yet. Such situation has been caused by the facts that the detailed observation of the aspect in liquid-liquid contact becomes impossible as the disturbance on the interface becomes violent, and it is difficult to obtain the quantitative data and to change temperature difference largely in practice. In this study, liquid drops were dropped on the free surface of another liquid at the temperature higher than the saturation temperature of the dropping liquid, and it was attempted to obtain the basic knowledge concerning the general behavior at the time of liquid-liquid contact by determining the aspect of evaporation and its change and evaporation time. For this experiment, the silicone oil with four different kinematic viscosity was used as the high temperature liquid, and n-pentane and dichloromethane soluble in the mother liquid, and acetone and methyl alcohol insoluble in the mother liquid were used as the liquid drops. The experimental apparatuses and method and the results are reported. The evaporation time curves presented lying S-shape basically, similarly to the evaporation on solid surfaces. The point of maximum evaporation time and the point of maximum heat transfer rate existed. (J.P.N.)

  3. An analytical model for displacement velocity of liquid film on a hot vertical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Shu

    1975-01-01

    The downward progress of the advancing front of a liquid film streaming down a heated vertical surface, as it would occur in emergency core cooling, is much slower than in the case of ordinary streaming down along a heated surface already wetted with the liquid. A two-dimensional heat conduction model is developed for evaluating this velocity of the liquid front, which takes account of the heat removal by ordinary flow boiling mechanism. In the analysis, the maximum heat flux and the calefaction temperature are taken up as parameters in addition to the initial dry heated wall temperature, the flow rate and the velocity of downward progress of the liquid front. The temperature profile is calculated for various combinations of these parameters. Two criteria are proposed for choosing the most suitable combination of the parameters. One is to reject solutions that represent an oscillating wall temperature distribution, and the second criterion requires that the length of the zone of violent boiling immediately following the liquid front should not be longer than about 1 mm, this value being determined from comparisons made between experiment and calculation. Application of the above two criteria resulted in reasonable values obtained for the calefaction temperature and the maximum heat flux, and the velocity of the liquid front derived therefrom showed good agreement with experiment. (auth.)

  4. Studies on micro-structures at vapor-liquid interfaces of film boiling on hot liquid surface at arriving of a shock pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Lee, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    In vapor explosions, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role in the generation, propagation and escalation of the explosion. Transient volume change by rapid heat flow from a high temperature liquid to a low temperature volatile one and phase change generate micro-scale flow and the pressure wave. One of key issues for the vapor explosion is to make clear the mechanism to support the explosive energy release from hot drop to cold liquid. According to our observations by an Image Converter Camera, growth rate of vapor film around a hot tin drop became several times higher than that around a hot Platinum tube at the same conditions when a pressure pulse collapsed the film. The thermally induced fragmentation was followed by the explosive growth rate of the hot drop. In the previous report, we have proposed that the interface instability and fragmentation model in which the fine Taylor instability of vapor-liquid interface at the collapsing and re-growth phase of vapor film and the instability induced by the high pressure spots at the drop surface were assumed. In this study, the behavior of the vapor-liquid interface region at arrival of a pressure pulse was investigated by the CIPRIS code which is able to simulate dynamics of transient multi-phase interface regions. It is compared with the observation results. Through detailed investigations of these results, the mechanisms of the thermal fragmentation of single drop are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  5. Theory of hot electrons on the liquid 4He surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Saitoh, Motohiko

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical study is given of the high field transport of surface state electrons on the liquid 4 He. The explicit form of the electron distribution function is solved by the use of the Boltzmann transport equation where the electron-ripplon and electron-He gas interactions are considered as dominant scattering mechanisms, and the electron-electron interactions are completely neglected. Inter-subband and intra-subband transitions are treated equally. The S-shaped non-linear behaviors predicted to occur at low temperature region in the electron temperature approximation have been removed. Experimentally observed hysteresis, if any, in the widths of the plasmon resonance and cyclotron resonance may thus be attributed to the electron-electron interaction. (author)

  6. Heat and mass transfer across gas-filled enclosed spaces between a hot liquid surface and a cooled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J C; Bennett, A W [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    A detailed knowledge is required of the amounts of sodium vapour which may be transported from the hot surface of a fast reactor coolant pool through the cover gas to cooler regions of the structure. Evaporation from the unbounded liquid surfaces of lakes and seas has been studied extensively but the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in gas-vapour mixtures which occur in enclosed spaces have received less attention. Recent work at Harwell has provided a theoretical model from which the heat and mass transfer in idealised plane cavities can be calculated. An experimental study is reported in this paper which seeks to verify the theoretical prediction. Heat and mass transfer measurements have been made on a system in which a heated water pool transfers heat and mass across a gas-filled space to a cooled horizontal cover plate. Several cover gases were used in the experiments and the results show that, provided the partial density of the vapour is low compared with that of the gas, the heat transfer mechanism is that of combined convection and radiation. The enhancement in heat transfer due to the presence of the vapour is broadly consistent with assumption of a direct analogy between heat and mass transfer neglecting condensation in the interspace. The mass transfer measurements, in which water condensing on the cooled roof was measured directly, showed for low roof temperatures an imbalance between the mass and heat transfer. This observation is consistent with the theoretical predictions that heat transfer in the convecting system should be independent of the amount of condensation and 'rain-back' within the cavity. The results of tests with helium showed that convection was entirely suppressed by the presence of the water vapour. This confirms the behaviour predicted for gas-vapour mixtures in which the vapour density is of the same order as the gas density. (author)

  7. Hot Surface Ignition of A Composite Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the characteristics of conductive heating (up to ignition temperature of a composite fuel droplet based on coal, liquid petroleum products, and water. In this paper, we have established the difference between heat transfer from a heat source to a fuel droplet in case of conductive (hot surface and convective (hot gas heat supply. The Leidenfrost effect influences on heat transfer characteristics significantly due to the gas gap between a composite fuel droplet and a hot surface.

  8. Radiative heat transfer in the Na mist dispersion over the hot surface of liquid Na in the cooling system of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomo, T.; Shafey, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis has been carried out for the radiative heat transfer in the Na mist dispersion enclosed between the hot surface of liquid Na at temperature Tsub(n) and the cold surface of Na deposit at Tsub(c). The model selected for the present study represents the Na mist formed in a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor in which the condensed liquid particles are dispersed in the mixture of the Ar cover gas and the Na vapor. The analysis is based on replacing the inhomogeneous dispersing medium by three discrete homogeneous layers, and formulating the transfer equation for the monochromatic radiation in each layer according to the Chandrasekhar theory. The numerical calculations of the radiative qsub(r) and convective qsub(c) heat transfers have been performed for the wave length range lambda=1.6-30 μm and are compared. The qsub(r) has the same order of magnitude as the qsub(c) for all conditions of the mist dispersions. Both qsub(r) and qsub(c) increase by nearly equal rates with the increase of Tsub(H) and decrease by different rates with increasing Tsub(c). Variations of the particle diameter of the Na mist do not change substantially the qsub(r). Both qsub(r) and qsub(c) decrease slightly with the increase in the total thickness of the Na mist dispersion

  9. Rosettes, Engrailed Edges, and Star-Shaped Patterns: Between Rediscovery and Forgetfulness in the Early Accounts of Vibrating Liquid Drops Floating over Hot Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Seán M

    2017-12-01

    Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling. The episode serves not only as a valuable reminder of the importance the history of science can play in highlighting past achievements that would otherwise remain unknown to the modern practitioner. It also provides an example of how external pressures and personal ambition can often influence the work of a scientist in their pursuit of self-recognition and acclaim amongst their peers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid drop parameters for hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.; Strumberger, E.; Brack, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using the semiclassical extended Thomas-FERMI (ETF) density variational method, we derived selfconsistently the liquid drop model (LDM) coefficients for the free energy of hot nuclear systems from a realistic effective interaction (Skyrme SkM*). We expand the temperature (T) dependence of these coefficients up to the second order in T and test their application to the calculation of the fission barriers of the nuclei 208 Pb and 240 Pu

  11. Liquid phase hot atom chemistry: At crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Omaha, NE

    1981-01-01

    The state of current research in liquid phase hot atom chemistry is discussed. Four classes of experimental approaches are high-lighted. These include 1) primary physical data for (n,γ)-activated 128 I, (I.T.)-activated 130 I and effects on chemical reactivity; 2) the density-variation technique involving iodine reactions with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; 3) stereochemistry experiments on chlorocarbon molecules with single and multiple chiral centers; and 4) experiments employing dilute aqueous solutions of halogenerated biomolecules in the ice state, exposed to neutron irradiation. (orig.) [de

  12. Surface-Plasmon-Driven Hot Electron Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; He, Shuai; Guo, Wenxiao; Hu, Yue; Huang, Jiawei; Mulcahy, Justin R; Wei, Wei David

    2017-11-30

    Visible-light-driven photochemistry has continued to attract heightened interest due to its capacity to efficiently harvest solar energy and its potential to solve the global energy crisis. Plasmonic nanostructures boast broadly tunable optical properties coupled with catalytically active surfaces that offer a unique opportunity for solar photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface plasmons produces energetic hot electrons that can be collected to facilitate chemical reactions. This review sums up recent theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the underlying photophysical processes in hot electron generation and discusses various electron-transfer models on both plasmonic metal nanostructures and plasmonic metal/semiconductor heterostructures. Following that are highlights of recent examples of plasmon-driven hot electron photochemical reactions within the context of both cases. The review concludes with a discussion about the remaining challenges in the field and future opportunities for addressing the low reaction efficiencies in hot-electron-induced photochemistry.

  13. 16 CFR 1505.51 - Hot surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot surfaces. 1505.51 Section 1505.51 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... into any opening in the toy. Unless the probe contacts a surface within 3 inches of the plane of the...

  14. Nanofriction: Skating on hot surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ernst; Gnecco, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    Simulations of nanoscale sharp tips sliding on a salt surface predict vanishing friction at temperatures close to the melting temperature, as the tip skates on a layer of liquefied salt. This insight opens the way to applications in MEMS, NEMS and auto/aerospace engines.

  15. Hot Embossing for Whole Teflon Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a simple fabrication process of whole Teflon superhydrophobic surfaces, featuring high-aspect-ratio (>20 nanowire structures, using a hot embossing process. An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane is used as the embossing mold for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanowires directly on a Teflon substrate. First, high-aspect-ratio nanowire structures of Teflon are formed by pressing a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP sheet onto a heated AAO membrane at 340 °C, which is above the melting point of FEP. Experimental results show that the heating time and aspect ratios of nanopores in the AAO mold are critical to the fidelity of the hot embossed nanowire structures. It has also been found that during the de-molding step, a large adhesive force between the AAO mold and the molded FEP greatly prolongs the length of nanowires. Contact angle measurements indicate that Teflon nanowires make the surface superhydrophobic. The reliability and robustness of superhydrophobicity is verified by a long-term (~6.5 h underwater turbulent channel flow test. After the first step of hot-embossing the Teflon nanowires, microstructures are further superimposed by repeating the hot embossing process, but this time with microstructured silicon substrates as micromolds and at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the FEP. The results indicate that the hot embossing process is also an effective way to fabricate hierarchical micro/nanostructures of whole Teflon, which can be useful for applications of Teflon material, such as superhydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Rewetting of a hot metallic wall by liquid spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.; Lombardo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rewetting is the re-establishment of liquid in contact with a hot dried surface, whose initial temperature is higher than the so-called 'rewetting temperature'. This phenomenology is of interest in many industrial processes, for example: in metallurgical quenching, in electronic equipments cooling, in cryogenic processes, in preserving the integrity of toxic and dangerous substances metallic containers endangered by a hypothetical fire. Moreover it is essential for the re-establishment of normal and safe temperature levels following rod cluster dryout or hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactors. In spite of the large amount of experimental and theoretical work done in the past decades, the above depicted phenomenology still deserves further clarifications and deepening. For this reason, recently at the Institute of Energetic Thermal-Fluid Dynamics of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, at Casaccia, Italy), experimental researches have been carried out on the rewetting of vertical surfaces, at ambient pressure and various water flow rates by spraying subcooled water at the top. Spraying devices of various configuration, able to supply water drops of uniform diameter, have been used [1]. As it is known when, following the drops impact in some region at the top of the surface the temperature is lowered below the rewetting temperature, a liquid falling film forms, the front of which advances with a velocity ( the so called 'rewetting velocity'), limited by the rapidity by which the heat is conducted into the solid (conduction controlled rewetting). In the past, about the rewetting the researchers of Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo have carried out an extensive theoretical work and more recently, have proposed a semi-theoretical model which proved successful in correlating a lot of experimental data [2]. This model has been suitably modified in order to

  17. Rewetting of a hot metallic wall by liquid spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.; Lombardo, C. [University of Palermo, Department of Nuclear Engineering, V.le delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rewetting is the re-establishment of liquid in contact with a hot dried surface, whose initial temperature is higher than the so-called 'rewetting temperature'. This phenomenology is of interest in many industrial processes, for example: in metallurgical quenching, in electronic equipments cooling, in cryogenic processes, in preserving the integrity of toxic and dangerous substances metallic containers endangered by a hypothetical fire. Moreover it is essential for the re-establishment of normal and safe temperature levels following rod cluster dryout or hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactors. In spite of the large amount of experimental and theoretical work done in the past decades, the above depicted phenomenology still deserves further clarifications and deepening. For this reason, recently at the Institute of Energetic Thermal-Fluid Dynamics of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, at Casaccia, Italy), experimental researches have been carried out on the rewetting of vertical surfaces, at ambient pressure and various water flow rates by spraying subcooled water at the top. Spraying devices of various configuration, able to supply water drops of uniform diameter, have been used [1]. As it is known when, following the drops impact in some region at the top of the surface the temperature is lowered below the rewetting temperature, a liquid falling film forms, the front of which advances with a velocity ( the so called 'rewetting velocity'), limited by the rapidity by which the heat is conducted into the solid (conduction controlled rewetting). In the past, about the rewetting the researchers of Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo have carried out an extensive theoretical work and more recently, have proposed a semi-theoretical model which proved successful in correlating a lot of experimental data [2]. This model has been

  18. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  19. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  20. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry

  1. Sudden contact of a hot liquid with a volatile coolant: instability of the created vapour film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion, Agnes

    1983-01-01

    As the sudden contact of a hot body with a coolant which may evaporate, results, after some delay, in an explosive evaporation, this research thesis proposes an interpretation based on the study of the destabilization of the vapour film which forms at the surface of the hot body. The author reports the modelling of the evolution of the average thickness of the film before the explosion. The possible chemical reactions at the surface of the hot body are taken into account. A base flow is obtained which allows the calculation of the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities which may occur at the gas-coolant interface. This study is applied to the interaction between liquid sodium and water [fr

  2. Surface and volume photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare surface- and volume-based photoelectron emission from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expressions for the emission rate in both mechanisms. We show that the surface mechanism prevails, being unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions.......We theoretically compare surface- and volume-based photoelectron emission from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expressions for the emission rate in both mechanisms. We show that the surface mechanism prevails, being unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions....

  3. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by hot trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the method of hot trapping. V-Ti alloy and chromium were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Chromium is known to form ternary nitride with lithium. Gettering experiments were conducted at 823 K for 0.8-2.2 Ms. Under high nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, above 10 -2 mass%, nitrogen gettering effect of chromium was found to be larger than that of V-10at.% Ti alloy. Nitrogen gettering by chromium at 823 K reached a limit at about 6.5x10 -3 mass% of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium. Instability of ternary nitride of chromium and lithium below this nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was considered to be the reason for this limit. The composition of the ternary nitride that was formed in this study was considered to be Li 6 Cr(III) 3 N 5 . In addition, immersion experiments of yttrium with V-10at.% Ti alloy were performed. It was found that nitriding of yttrium in liquid lithium is controlled by nitrogen gettering effect of V-10at.% Ti alloy

  4. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, P.

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Liquid-fog and liquid-gas phase transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.; ); Oeschier, H.; Budzanowski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid-fog phase transition inside the spinodal region. The exclusive data for p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed within the framework of statistical model (SSM). It is found that the partition hot nuclei is specified after expansion to a volume equal to V t = (2.6 ± 0.3)V 0 . The freeze-out volume is found to be twice as large V f = (5 ± 1)V 0 . The similarity between multifragmentation and ordinary fission is discussed [ru

  7. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  8. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Toma, Andrea; Francardi, Marco; Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Stockman, Mark Mark; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  9. Ultrasonically triggered ignition at liquid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lars Hendrik; Meyer, Lennart; Wilkens, Volker; Beyer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is considered to be an ignition source according to international standards, setting a threshold value of 1mW/mm(2) [1] which is based on theoretical estimations but which lacks experimental verification. Therefore, it is assumed that this threshold includes a large safety margin. At the same time, ultrasound is used in a variety of industrial applications where it can come into contact with explosive atmospheres. However, until now, no explosion accidents have been reported in connection with ultrasound, so it has been unclear if the current threshold value is reasonable. Within this paper, it is shown that focused ultrasound coupled into a liquid can in fact ignite explosive atmospheres if a specific target positioned at a liquid's surface converts the acoustic energy into a hot spot. Based on ignition tests, conditions could be derived that are necessary for an ultrasonically triggered explosion. These conditions show that the current threshold value can be significantly augmented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  11. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  12. Electrons on the surface of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.K.

    1979-05-01

    Spectroscopic techniques were used to study transitions of electrons between bound states in the potential well near a helium surface. The charge density distribution of electrons on the surface was independently obtained from electrical measurements. From the measurements, information was obtained both about the interaction of the bound state electrons with the surface of liquid helium and about local disorder in the positions of electrons on the surface

  13. Surface studies of liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metals and alloys have been proposed for use in nuclear fusion reactors to serve as replaceable plasma-facing surfaces that remove particles and heat from reacting plasmas. Several materials are being considered for this purpose including lithium, gallium, and tin as well as some of the alloys made from these elements. In order to better understand the properties of liquid surfaces, the technique of low-energy ion scattering was used to examine the surface composition of several of these materials in vacuum as a function of temperature. Oxygen is found to rapidly segregate to the surface of several metallic liquids. The segregation process can be interpreted using a simple thermodynamic model based on Gibbs theory. In the case of an alloy of Sn and Li, Li also segregates to the liquid surface. This provides a means to produce a surface enriched in Li, which is more plasma compatible than Sn, without the need to handle large quantities of liquid Li. (author)

  14. Liquid-vapour surface sensors for liquid nitrogen and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.; Voth, R. O.; Snyder, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper identifies devices to serve as liquid-vapor detectors in zero gravity. The testing in LH2 was done in a sealed glass Dewar system to eliminate any chance of mixing H2 and air. Most of the tests were performed with the leads to the sensor horizontal. Some results of rapid cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are presented. Findings of rapid-cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are discussed. The sensor crossed the liquid surface when the position sensor registered 1.9 V, which occurred at about 0.4075 s. The delay time was about 1.5 ms. From the estimated slope of the position sensor curve at 1.9 V, the velocity of the sensor through the liquid surface is over 3 m/s. Results of tests of optical sensors are presented as well.

  15. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  16. Surface study of liquid 3He using surface state electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahama, K.; Ito, S.; Suto, H.; Kono, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the mobility of surface state electrons (SSE) on liquid 3 He, μ 3 , aiming to study the elementary surface excitations of the Fermi liquid. A gradual increase of μ 3 below 300 mK is attributed to the scattering of electrons by ripplons. Ripplons do exist in 3 He down to 100 mK. We observe an abrupt decrease of μ 3 , due to the transition to the Wigner solid (WS). The dependences of the WS conductivity and mobility on temperature and magnetic field differ from the SSE behavior on liquid 4 He

  17. Dual temperature isotope exchange process using hot feed with liquid recycle from the humidifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulis, G.J.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in the dual temperature substances at two temperatures. It provides hot feed process, which while keeping the water purity advantages offered by a recycle of liquid, reduces the energy requirements of the process saving in capital cost over previous hot feed process, at equal production rate, or conversely which offers a substantial increase in production rate at equal capital costs

  18. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswaran, G [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1997-02-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures {approx_equal} 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs.

  19. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.

    1997-01-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures ≅ 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Interaction between liquid droplets and heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, B I [Research and Engineering Centre, LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Elektrogorsk (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N I [Research and Engineering Centre, LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Elektrogorsk (Russian Federation); Guguchkin, V V [Research and Engineering Centre, LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Elektrogorsk (Russian Federation)

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, experimental methods and investigation results of interaction between droplets of different liquids and a heated surface are presented. Wetted area, contact time period and transition boundary from wetted to non-wetted interaction regimes are experimentally evaluated. A simple connection of the wetted area value and contact time period with the heat removal efficiency is shown. (orig.)

  1. Evaporation of liquids on chemically patterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieyra Salas, J.A.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    We studied evaporation rates of volatile liquids deposited onto chemically patterned surfaces by means of experiments and numerical simulations. We quantified the influence of the droplet geometry, in particular circular, triangular, rectangular and square shapes, as well as the influence of contact

  2. Temperature field in concrete when in contact with hot liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, F.R. de.

    1981-09-01

    In an HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) it is postulated that liquid metal coolants and core materials come in contact with the retaining concrete structure. A mathematical model and an associated computer program was previously developed to describle the transient heat and mass transfer in the concrete. Implementations on the original program-USINT- are included to consider the variations of the thermal conductivity as a function of the temperature. Also a subroutine - PLOTTI - is incorporated to the program for the plotting of the results. The new program - USINTG - is used to calculate the temperature and pressure fields and the water released from concrete structures during a sodium leak simulation and with the concrete structures in contact with liquid sodium. No consideration about chemical reactions involving the sodium when in contact with concrete is considered. (Author) [pt

  3. Structural Changes of Lignin after Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment and Its Effect on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment, lignin is mostly retained in the pretreated biomass, and the changes in the chemical and structural characteristics of lignin should probably refer to re-/depolymerization, solubilization, or glass transition. The residual lignin could influence the effective enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pure lignin was used to evaluate the effect of LHW process on its structural and chemical features. The surface morphology of LHW-treated lignin observed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM was more porous and irregular than that of untreated lignin. Compared to the untreated lignin, the surface area, total pore volume, and average pore size of LHW-treated lignin tested with the Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET measurement were increased. FTIR analysis showed that the chemical structure of lignin was broken down in the LHW process. Additionally, the impact of untreated and treated lignin on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was also explored. The LHW-treated lignin had little impact on the cellulase adsorption and enzyme activities and somehow could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

  4. Exercise in Experimental Plastics Technology: Hot Embossing of Polymers with surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2004-01-01

    Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages such as relati......Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages...... such as relatively low cost for embossing tools, simple operation and high replication accuracy for small features. Two different plastic materials will be used to replicate surface microstructures by hot embossing. The hot embossing will be done in a hydraulic press where it is easy to control temperature...

  5. Biologically inspired hairy surfaces for liquid repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hau

    Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, anti-biofouling and drag reduction, interest on rendering surfaces water-repellent has significantly grown within this decade. Attempts on making surfaces "superhydrophobic", where high water contact angle (θc >150°) accompanied with only few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated through the mimicking of the surface chemistry and morphology of lotus leaves. This appealing phenomenon also exists on another structure from nature: surfaces comprising soft hairs. Although the role of this piliferous integument has long been recognized for providing life, arthropods in particular, waterrepellency, the synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces based on this structure are still very limited. In this study, the goal was to develop a novel liquid-repellent surface by mimicking the hairy exterior of species. The artificial hairy surfaces were prepared by means of pressurized membrane casting, in which thermoplastic sheets were forced to flow into porous membranes at elevated temperature. The G-shaped pillars on the membrane cast polypropylene substrate are particularly similar to the conformation of natural hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is relatively accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces. The artificial hairy surface features perfectly hydrophobic response where no contact angle hysteresis was observed from video assessment. Thus the artificial hairy surface of the current work appears to be the first report to have such extreme hydrophobicity with only structural modification from the original substrate. This ultralow adhesion to water droplet is believed to be attributed to the hydrophobic methyl groups and the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. Liquid repellency of the hairy surfaces was further enhanced by coating with fluorocarbon (CF) layers via deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The contact angle of

  6. Nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes on flat surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starov, Victor M

    2004-01-15

    The hydrostatic pressure in thin liquid layers differs from the pressure in the ambient air. This difference is caused by the actions of surface forces and capillary pressure. The manifestation of the surface force action is the disjoining pressure, which has a very special S-shaped form in the case of partial wetting (aqueous thin films and thin films of aqueous electrolyte and surfactant solutions, both free films and films on solid substrates). In thin flat liquid films the disjoining pressure acts alone and determines their thickness. However, if the film surface is curved then both the disjoining and the capillary pressures act simultaneously. In the case of partial wetting their simultaneous action results in the existence of nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that in the case of S-shaped disjoining pressure isotherm microdrops, microdepressions, and equilibrium periodic films exist on flat solid substrates. Criteria are found for both the existence and the stability of these nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that a transition from thick films to thinner films can go via intermediate nonflat states, microdepressions and periodic films, which both can be more stable than flat films within some range of hydrostatic pressure. Experimental investigations of shapes of the predicted nonflat layers can open new possibilities of determination of disjoining pressure in the range of thickness in which flat films are unstable.

  7. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  8. Quantum State-Resolved Collision Dynamics of Nitric Oxide at Ionic Liquid and Molten Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Amelia Marie

    Detailed molecular scale interactions at the gas-liquid interface are explored with quantum state-to-state resolved scattering of a jet-cooled beam of NO(2pi1/2; N = 0) from ionic liquid and molten metal surfaces. The scattered distributions are probed via laser-induced fluorescence methods, which yield rotational and spin-orbit state populations that elucidate the dynamics of energy transfer at the gas-liquid interface. These collision dynamics are explored as a function of incident collision energy, surface temperature, scattering angle, and liquid identity, all of which are found to substantially affect the degree of rotational, electronic and vibrational excitation of NO via collisions at the liquid surface. Rotational distributions observed reveal two distinct scattering pathways, (i) molecules that trap, thermalize and eventually desorb from the surface (trapping-desorption, TD), and (ii) those that undergo prompt recoil (impulsive scattering, IS) prior to complete equilibration with the liquid surface. Thermally desorbing NO molecules are found to have rotational temperatures close to, but slightly cooler than the surface temperature, indicative of rotational dependent sticking probabilities on liquid surfaces. Nitric oxide is a radical with multiple low-lying electronic states that serves as an ideal candidate for exploring nonadiabatic state-changing collision dynamics at the gas-liquid interface, which induce significant excitation from ground (2pi1/2) to excited (2pi 3/2) spin-orbit states. Molecular beam scattering of supersonically cooled NO from hot molten metals (Ga and Au, Ts = 300 - 1400 K) is also explored, which provide preliminary evidence for vibrational excitation of NO mediated by thermally populated electron-hole pairs in the hot, conducting liquid metals. The results highlight the presence of electronically nonadiabatic effects and build toward a more complete characterization of energy transfer dynamics at gas-liquid interfaces.

  9. Analytical models for the rewetting of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olek, S.

    1988-10-01

    Some aspects concerning analytical models for the rewetting of hot surface are discussed. These include the problems with applying various forms of boundary conditions, compatibility of boundary conditions with the physics of the rewetting problems, recent analytical models, the use of the separation of variables method versus the Wiener-Hopf technique, and the use of transformations. The report includes an updated list of rewetting models as well as benchmark solutions in tabular form for several models. It should be emphasized that this report is not meant to cover the topic of rewetting models. It merely discusses some points which are less commonly referred to in the literature. 93 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Limets 2: a hot-cell test set-up for Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) studies in liquid lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Bosch, R.W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the nuclear energy sector one of the main candidate designs for the accelerator driven system (ADS) uses liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic both as a coolant and as spallation target. In the fusion community liquid lead lithium eutectic is considered as a possible coolant for the blanket and as a tritium source. Therefore the candidate materials for such structural components should not only comply with the operating conditions but in addition need to guarantee chemical and physical integrity when coming into contact with the lead alloys. The latter phenomena can be manifested in terms of erosion/corrosion. and/or of the so called liquid metal embrittlement (LME). Thus the susceptibility to LME of the structural materials under consideration to be used in such applications should be investigated in contact with the various lead alloys. LME, if occurring in any solid metal/liquid meta] couple, is likely to increase with irradiation hardening as localised stresses and crack initiations can promote it. To investigate the mechanical response of irradiated materials in contact with a liquid metal under representative conditions, a dedicated testing facility has recently been developed and built at our centre. It consists of an instrumented hot cell. equipped with a testing machine that allows mechanical testing of active materials in contact with active liquid lead lithium and liquid lead bismuth under well controlled chemistry conditions. The specificity of the installation is to handle highly activated and contaminated samples. Also a dedicated dismantling set-up has been developed that allows to retrieve the samples from the irradiation rig without any supplementary damage. In this presentation we will focus on the technical design of this new installation, its special features that have been developed to allow testing in a hot environment and the modifications and actions that have been taken to allow testing in liquid lead

  11. A liquid aluminum corrosion resistance surface on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Deqing; Shi Ziyuan; Zou Longjiang

    2003-01-01

    The process of hot dipping pure aluminum on a steel substrate followed by oxidation was studied to form a surface layer of aluminum oxide resistant to the corrosion of aluminum melt. The thickness of the pure aluminum layer on the steel substrate is reduced with the increase in temperature and time in initial aluminizing, and the thickness of the aluminum layer does not increase with time at given temperature when identical temperature and complete wetting occur between liquid aluminum and the substrate surface. The thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic layer on the steel base is increased with increasing bath temperature and time. Based on the experimental data and the mathematics model developed by the study, a maximum exists in the thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic at certain dipping temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis reveals that the top portion of the steel substrate is composed of a thin layer of α-Al 2 O 3 , followed by a thinner layer of FeAl 3 , and then a much thicker one of Fe 2 Al 5 on the steel base side. In addition, there is a carbon enrichment zone in diffusion front. The aluminum oxide surface formed on the steel substrate is in perfect condition after corrosion test in liquid aluminum at 750 deg. C for 240 h, showing extremely good resistance to aluminum melt corrosion

  12. Thermal and chemical interaction of hot liquid sodium with limestone concrete in argon atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, Charan Parida; Sanjay, Kumar Das; Anil, Kumar Sharma; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) may experience accidental leakage of hot liquid sodium in the inert equipment cells and reactor cavity. The leaked sodium at temperature ranging from 120degC to 550degC can come in contact with the sacrificial layer of limestone concrete. In order to study the thermal and chemical impact of sodium on the limestone concrete, five experimental runs were carried out under different test conditions simulating accident scenarios as realistically as possible. In each experimental run, a given mass of liquid sodium preheated to a specified temperature was dumped on the surface of concrete specimen housed in a test vessel with argon atmosphere. The sodium pool formed on the concrete was heated with an immersion heater to maintain the pool temperature at pre-selected level. The temperatures at various strategic locations were continuously monitored throughout the test run. Online measurement of pressure, hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in argon atmosphere was conducted. The solid samples of sodium debris were retrieved from the posttest concrete specimen by manual core drilling device for chemical analysis of reacted and un-reacted sodium. After cleaning the sodium debris, a power-drilling machine was employed to collect powder samples at regular depth interval from the concrete block floor to determine residual free and bound water. This paper presents some of the dominant thermal and chemical features related to structural safety of the concrete. Among the thermal parameters, on-set time and residence period for Energetic Thermal Transients (ETT) along with peak and average heat generation rates are evaluated. Chemical parameters such as rate and extent of water release from concrete, sodium consumption, sodium hydroxide production and sodium emission into argon atmosphere are also elucidated. Physicochemical characteristics of post-test sodium and concrete debris were investigated. Moreover spatial distribution of sodium, free and

  13. Design integration of liquid surface divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Cowgill, D.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Nelson, B.E.; Fogarty, P.J.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Hassanein, A.; Smolentsev, S.S.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    2004-01-01

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied

  14. Hot zirconium cathode sputtered layers for useful surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that multilayer zirconium based sputtered coatings can greatly improve the wear properties of a wide variety of mechanical components, machine tools, and metal surfaces. Although a hot (approximately 1000 0 C) cathode is employed, temperature sensitive components can be beneficially treated, and for precision parts a total coating thickness of only 0.5μm is often perfectly effective. Even at the highest coating rates substrate temperatures are below 300 0 C. For the corrosion protection of less well finished surfaces thicker layers are usually required and it is important that relatively stress free layers are produced. The authors employed a variety of tailored zirconium/zirconium nitride/zirconium oxide mixed layers to solve a number of tribological problems for some 5 or 6 years. However, it is only recently that they designed, built, and commissioned rapid cycle, multiple cathode, load-lock plant for economic production of such coatings. This paper provides an introduction to this method of depositing pure zirconium and pure synthetic zirconium nitride films

  15. Density and surface tension of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, C; Lehmann, J; Lovelock, K R J; Cremer, T; Paape, N; Wasserscheid, P; Fröba, A P; Maier, F; Steinrück, H-P

    2010-12-30

    We measured the density and surface tension of 9 bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Tf(2)N](-))-based and 12 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium ([C(8)C(1)Im](+))-based ionic liquids (ILs) with the vibrating tube and the pendant drop method, respectively. This comprehensive set of ILs was chosen to probe the influence of the cations and anions on density and surface tension. When the alkyl chain length in the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] series (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) is increased, a decrease in density is observed. The surface tension initially also decreases but reaches a plateau for alkyl chain lengths greater than n = 8. Functionalizing the alkyl chains with ethylene glycol groups results in a higher density as well as a higher surface tension. For the dependence of density and surface tension on the chemical nature of the anion, relations are only found for subgroups of the studied ILs. Density and surface tension values are discussed with respect to intermolecular interactions and surface composition as determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The absence of nonvolatile surface-active contaminants was proven by ARXPS.

  16. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of liquid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Pershan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented.......A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented....

  17. Acoustic cavitation as a mechanism of fragmentation of hot molten droplets in in cool liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.; Watson, C.; Lanning, D.; Rohsenow, W.; Todreas, N.

    1976-11-01

    A mechanism that explains several of the observations of fragmentation of hot molten drops in coolants is presented. The mechanism relates the fragmentation to the development of acoustic cavitation and subsequent bubble growth within the molten material. The cavitation is assumed due to the severe pressure excursions calculated within the hot material as a result of the pressure pulses accompanying coolant vaporization at the sphere surface. The growth of the cavitation vapor nuclei inside the hot drop is shown to be influenced by the subsequent long duration surface pressure pulses. The variation of the amplitude of these surface pulses with experimental variables is shown to exhibit the same trends with these variables as does the variation in extent of fragmentation

  18. Liquid--liquid surface impaction. Annual progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The critical Weber number for coalescence, when a droplet of Freon-22 or pentane falls on a pool of hot (80-180 0 C) silicone oil or glycerine, has been determined as a function of pool temperature and droplet size. Using this information, a splash theory for local propagation of a vapor explosion has been formulated, which agrees with intermediate-scale peak pressure data of Henry, et al. A hydrodynamic theory has been constructed for the minimum thickness of the gas film in the approach phase. The Board-Hall theory for fuel-coolant detonation waves has been modified to take into account the presence of a swarm of drops, rather than a single drop. On this basis the existence of a steady-state Chapman-Jouguet wave in either the tin-water or UO 2 -sodium systems seems highly unlikely. Scoping experiments on Leidenfrost boiling of droplets and pool boiling from liquid metal surfaces have been initiated

  19. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  20. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Zimmer, O.; Grigoriev, A. D.; Ziman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyze the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons, and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed 1 h, and rapidly increases with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the sequence of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved tests of short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron β -decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental propositions for level population and trapping of ultracold neutrons above a flat horizontal mirror.

  1. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    A Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) based device is developed for investigation of hot electron enhanced chemistry. A model of the device is presented explaining the key concepts of the functionality and the character- istics. The MIS hot electron emitter is fabricated using cleanroom technology...... and the process sequence is described. An Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) setup is modified to facilitate experiments with electron emission from the MIS hot electron emitters and hot electron chemistry. Simulations show the importance of keeping tunnel barrier roughness to an absolute minimum. The tunnel oxide...... to be an important energy loss center for the electrons tunneling through the oxide lowering the emission e±ciency of a factor of 10 for a 1 nm Ti layer thickness. Electron emission is observed under ambient pressure conditions and in up to 2 bars of Ar. 2 bar Ar decrease the emission current by an order...

  2. The effect of hot electrons and surface plasmons on heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Si Woo; Moon, Song Yi; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-01-01

    Hot electrons and surface-plasmon-driven chemistry are amongst the most actively studied research subjects because they are deeply associated with energy dissipation and the conversion processes at the surface and interfaces, which are still open questions and key issues in the surface science community. In this topical review, we give an overview of the concept of hot electrons or surface-plasmon-mediated hot electrons generated under various structural schemes (i.e. metals, metal–semiconductor, and metal–insulator–metal) and their role affecting catalytic activity in chemical reactions. We highlight recent studies on the relation between hot electrons and catalytic activity on metallic surfaces. We discuss possible mechanisms for how hot electrons participate in chemical reactions. We also introduce controlled chemistry to describe specific pathways for selectivity control in catalysis on metal nanoparticles. (topical review)

  3. Reactivating Catalytic Surface: Insights into the Role of Hot Holes in Plasmonic Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianhuan; Miao, Junjian; Gao, Zhaoshuai; Zhang, Linjuan; Gao, Yi; Fan, Chunhai; Li, Di

    2018-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance of coinage metal nanoparticles is extensively exploited to promote catalytic reactions via harvesting solar energy. Previous efforts on elucidating the mechanisms of enhanced catalysis are devoted to hot electron-induced photothermal conversion and direct charge transfer to the adsorbed reactants. However, little attention is paid to roles of hot holes that are generated concomitantly with hot electrons. In this work, 13 nm spherical Au nanoparticles with small absorption cross-section are employed to catalyze a well-studied glucose oxidation reaction. Density functional theory calculation and X-ray absorption spectrum analysis reveal that hot holes energetically favor transferring catalytic intermediates to product molecules and then desorbing from the surface of plasmonic catalysts, resulting in the recovery of their catalytic activities. The studies shed new light on the use of the synergy of hot holes and hot electrons for plasmon-promoted catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Characterization of the intrinsic density profiles for liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent advances in the characterization of the intrinsic structures in computer simulations of liquid surfaces. The use of operational definitions for the intrinsic surface, associated with each molecular configuration of a liquid slab, gives direct access to the intrinsic profile and to the wavevector dependent surface tension. However, the characteristics of these functions depend on the definition used for the intrinsic surface. We discuss the pathologies associated with a local Gibbs dividing surface definition, and consider the alternative definition of a minimal area surface, going though a set of surface pivots, self-consistently chosen to represent the first liquid layer

  5. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From......In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  6. Ionic liquids at the surface of graphite: Wettability and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Emilie; Douce, Laurent; Quitevis, Edward L.; Pádua, Agílio A. H.; Costa Gomes, Margarida

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a better understanding of the interface between graphite and different molecular and ionic liquids. Experimental measurements of the liquid surface tension and of the graphite-liquid contact angle for sixteen ionic liquids and three molecular liquids are reported. These experimental values allowed the calculation of the solid/liquid interfacial energy that varies, for the ionic liquids studied, between 14.5 mN m-1 for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and 37.8 mN m-1 for 3-dodecyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium tetrafluoroborate. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids with large alkyl side-chains or functionalized with benzyl groups seem to interact more favourably with freshly peeled graphite surfaces. Even if the interfacial energy seems a good descriptor to assess the affinity of a liquid for a carbon-based solid material, we conclude that both the surface tension of the liquid and the contact angle between the liquid and the solid can be significant. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the ordering of the ions near the graphite surface. We conclude that the presence of large alkyl side-chains in the cations increases the ordering of ions at the graphite surface. Benzyl functional groups in the cations lead to a large affinity towards the graphite surface.

  7. Laser ablation of liquid surface in air induced by laser irradiation through liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro; Nakahara, Motonao

    2010-10-01

    The pulse laser ablation of a liquid surface in air when induced by laser irradiation through a liquid medium has been experimentally investigated. A supersonic liquid jet is observed at the liquid-air interface. The liquid surface layer is driven by a plasma plume that is produced by laser ablation at the layer, resulting in a liquid jet. This phenomenon occurs only when an Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength: 1064 nm) is focused from the liquid onto air at a low fluence of 20 J/cm2. In this case, as Fresnel’s law shows, the incident and reflected electric fields near the liquid surface layer are superposed constructively. In contrast, when the incident laser is focused from air onto the liquid, a liquid jet is produced only at an extremely high fluence, several times larger than that in the former case. The similarities and differences in the liquid jets and atomization processes are studied for several liquid samples, including water, ethanol, and vacuum oil. The laser ablation of the liquid surface is found to depend on the incident laser energy and laser fluence. A pulse laser light source and high-resolution film are required to observe the detailed structure of a liquid jet.

  8. Control of the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by the hot trap method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    The nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the hot-trap method. Titanium, vanadium and a V-Ti alloy were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Gettering experiments were conducted at 673, 773 and 823 K for 0.4-2.8 Ms. After immersion, the nitrogen concentration increased in titanium and V-Ti were tested at 823 K. Especially the nitrogen gettering effect by the V-10at.%Ti alloy was found to be large. Nitrogen was considered to exist mainly as solid solution in the V-10at.%Ti alloy. The decrease of the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by the V-Ti gettering was also confirmed

  9. Vibration analysis for IHTS piping system of LMR conveying hot liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Lee, Jae Han

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the vibration characteristics of IHTS(Intermediate Heat Transfer System) piping system of LMR(Liquid Metal Reactor) conveying hot liquid sodium are investigated to eliminate the pipe supports for economic reasons. To do this, a 3-dimensional straight pipe element and a curved pipe element conveying fluid are formulated using the dynamic stiffness method of the wave approach and coded to be applied to any complex piping system. Using this method, the dynamic characteristics including the natural frequency, the frequency response functions, and the dynamic instability due to the pipe internal flow velocity are analyzed. As one of the design parameters, the vibration energy flow is also analyzed to investigate the disturbance transmission paths for the resonant excitation and the non-resonant excitations

  10. Initial surface deformations during impact on a liquid pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; Hendrix, M.H.W.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    A tiny air bubble can be entrapped at the bottom of a solid sphere that impacts onto a liquid pool. The bubble forms due to the deformation of the liquid surface by a local pressure buildup inside the surrounding gas, as also observed during the impact of a liquid drop on a solid wall. Here, we

  11. Waves on the surface of a boiling liquid at various medium stratifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkevich, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of relatively small perturbations of the stationary state consisting of a plane liquid layer and a vapor film is studied when no liquid evaporation or vapor condensation occurs in the stationary state. In this case, heat from a hot to cold wall is removed through a vapor–liquid layer via heat conduction. The boundary conditions that take into account liquid evaporation (appearance of a mass flux) at the vapor–liquid phase surface and the temperature dependence of the saturation pressure are derived. Dispersion equations are obtained. The wave processes for the stable (light vapor under a liquid layer) and unstable stratifications of the phases at rest and during their relative motion are studied. The deformation of the phase boundary results in liquid evaporation, changes in the boiling temperature and the saturation pressure, and generation of weakly damped low-amplitude waves of a new type. These waves ensure the stability of a vapor film under a liquid layer at rest or a liquid layer moving at a constant velocity in the gravity field. The velocities of these waves are much higher than the gravity wave velocities. The critical heat flows and wavelengths at which wave boiling regimes at normal pressure can exist are determined, and the calculated and experimental data are compared

  12. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  13. Investigation of using steel slag in hot mix asphalt for the surface course of flexible pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Q.; Lu, Dai X.; Le, Son D.

    2018-04-01

    The rapid development of heavy industry in Vietnam leads to the establishments of steel industry. Steel slag, a by-product of steelwork industry, under Vietnamese’s law, was considered as a deleterious solid waste which needed to be processed and landfilled. However, this has changed recently, and steel slag is now seen as a normal or non-deleterious solid waste, and has been studied for reuse in the construction industry. In this study, steel slag was used, as a replacement for mineral aggregate, in hot mix asphalt. Two hot mix asphalt mixtures with an equivalent nominal aggregate size of 12.5 (C12.5) and 19 mm (C19) were produced using steel slag. In addition, one conventional hot mix asphalt mixture of C19 was produced using mineral aggregate for comparison purpose. Investigation in laboratory condition and trial sections was carried out on Marshall tests, surface roughness, skid resistance, and modulus of the pavement before and after applying a new surface course of hot mix asphalt. The study showed that all steel slag asphalt mixtures passed the Marshall stability and flow test requirements. The skid resistance of steel slag hot mix asphalt mixtures for the surface course satisfied the Vietnamese specification for asphalt. Moreover, the pavement sections with the surface course of steel slag hot mix asphalt showed a considerable higher modulus than that of the conventional one. Only the roughness of the surface course paved with C19 did not pass the requirement of the specification.

  14. Effect of Liquid Ga on Metal Surfaces: Characterization of Morphology and Chemical Composition of Metals Heated in Liquid Ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Je Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of liquid gallium (Ga on metal foils made of titanium (Ti, niobium (Nb, and molybdenum (Mo. The Ti, Nb, and Mo foils were heated in liquid Ga at 120°C for a maximum of two weeks. After heating, the changes in the morphology and the chemical composition of the metal foils were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The results of the analysis indicated that the Nb foil showed the minimum adhesion of liquid Ga to the surface while the maximum amount of liquid Ga was observed to adhere to the Ti foil. In addition, the Nb foil was oxidized and the Mo foil was reduced during the heating process. Considering these effects, we conclude that Mo may be used as an alternative encapsulation material for Ga in addition to Nb, which is used as the conventional encapsulation material, due to its chemical resistance against oxidation in hot liquid Ga.

  15. X-ray scattering at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, Jean

    2000-01-01

    X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques have become quite popular for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces over the last ten years. In this review, we discuss the specific aspects of both specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity at liquid interfaces. We start from a model liquid surface for which the scattering cross-section can be calculated in terms of thermally excited capillary and acoustic waves, and we examine in detail the experimental consequences of the large bulk scattering and of the low q divergence of the surface scattering. Deviations from the simple calculated behaviour point to interesting phenomena which can be studied in detail, like the appearance of a bending stiffness. The method is illustrated through the discussion of representative studies of liquid surfaces, of surfactant monolayers, of liquid-liquid interfaces and of microemulsions. (author)

  16. Surface tension of liquid Al-Cu binary alloys.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Julianna; Brillo, Jürgen; Egry, Ivan; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Surface tension data of liquid Al–Cu binary alloys have been measured contactlessly using the technique of electromagnetic levitation. A digital CMOS-camera (400 fps) recorded image sequences of the oscillating liquid sample and surface tensions were determined from analysis of the frequency spectra. Measurements were performed for samples covering the entire range of composition and precise data were obtained in a broad temperature range. It was found that the surface tensions can ...

  17. Corrosion Behavior of a Surface Modified Inconel 713LC in a Hot Lithium Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Lim, Jong Ho; Seo, Chung Seok; Jung, Ki Jung; Park, Seoung Won

    2005-01-01

    The Li-reduction process involves the chemical reduction of spent fuel oxides by liquid lithium metal in a molten LiCl salt bath at 650 .deg. C followed by a separate electrochemical reduction of the lithium oxide (Li 2 O), which builds up in the salt bath. This process requires a high purity inert gas atmosphere inside a remote hot cell nuclear facility to prevent an unwanted Li oxidation and fires during the handling of the chemically active Li metal. In light of the limitations of the Li-reduction process, a direct electrolytic reduction technology is being developed by KAERI to enhance the process safety and economic viability. The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of the oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. Even so, the electrochemical process vessel must be resilient at 650 .deg. C in the presence of oxygen to enable high processing rates and an extended service life. But, the mechanism and the rate of the corrosion of the metals in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt under an oxidation condition are not clear. In the present work, the corrosion behavior and corrosion mechanism of a surface modified Inconel 713LC have been studied in the molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O under an oxidation condition

  18. Experimental investigation on the phenomena around the onset nucleate boiling during the impacting of a droplet on the hot surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakusuma, Windy H., E-mail: windyhm@polban.ac.id [Graduate Program at Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Refrigeration and Airconditioning Department, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga Kotak Pos 1234 Bandung (Indonesia); Deendarlianto,; Kamal, Samsul; Indarto [Mechanical and Industrial Department, Engineering Faculty, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Centre for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K-1A Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Nuriyadi, M. [Refrigeration and Airconditioning Department, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga Kotak Pos 1234 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    Onset of nucleate boiling of a droplet when impacted onto hot surface was investigated. Three kinds of surfaces, normal stainless steel (NSS), stainless steel with TiO{sub 2} coating (UVN), and stainless steel with TiO{sub 2} coating and radiated by ultraviolet ray were employed to examine the effect of wettability. The droplet size was 2.4 mm diameter, and dropped under different We number. The image is generated by high speed camera with the frame speed of 1000 fps. The boiling conditions are identified as natural convection, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, transition, and film boiling. In the present report, the discussion will be focused on the beginning of nucleate boiling on the droplet. Nucleate boiling occurs when bubbles are generated. These bubbles are probably caused by nucleation on the impurities within the liquid rather than at nucleation sites on the heated surface because the bubbles appear to be in the bulk of the liquid instead of at the liquid-solid interface. In addition, the smaller the contact angle, the fastest the boiling.

  19. Switchgrass storage effects on the recovery of carbohydrates after liquid hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Julie Carrier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grasses that would be used for bioenergy and bioproducts production will need to be stored for various periods of time to ensure a continual feedstock supply to a bioprocessing facility. The effects of storage practices on grass composition and the response of grasses to subsequent bioprocesses such as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis needs to be understood to develop the most efficient storage protocols. This study examined the effect of outdoor storage of round switchgrass bales on composition before and after liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW and enzymatic hydrolysis. This study also examined the effect of washing LHW pretreated biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. It was determined that switchgrass composition after baling was stable. As expected, glucan and lignin contents increased after LHW due to decreases in xylan and galactan. Washing biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis reduced saccharification, especially in samples from the interior of the bale, by at least 5%.

  20. Effect of Liquid Phase Content on Thermal Conductivity of Hot-Pressed Silicon Carbide Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kwang-Young; Jang, Hun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for Particle-Based Accident Tolerant (PBAT) fuel, fission, and fusion power applications due to its superior physical and thermal properties such as low specific mass, low neutron cross section, excellent radiation stability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity of PBAT fuel is one of very important factors for plant safety and energy efficiency of nuclear reactors. In the present work, the effect of Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 content on the microstructure and thermal properties of the hot pressed SiC ceramics have been investigated. Suppressing the β to α phase transformation of SiC ceramics is beneficial in increasing the thermal conductivity of liquid-phase sintered SiC ceramics. Developed SiC ceramics with Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 additives are very useful for thermal conductivity on matrix material of the PBAT fuel

  1. Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei and liquid-fog phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.; Avdeev, S.P.; Duginova, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the collisions of protons (up to 8.1 GeV), 4 He(4 and 14.6GeV) and 12 C(22.4 GeV) on Au has been studied with the 4π-setup FASA. In all cases thermal multifragmentation of the hot and diluted target spectator takes place. The fragment multiplicity and charge distributions are well described by the combined model including the modified intranuclear cascade followed by the statistical multibody decay of the hot system. IMF-IMF correlation study supports this picture giving very short time scale of the process (τ≤70fm/c). This decay process can be interpreted as the first order nuclear liquid-fog phase transition inside the spinodal region. The evolution of the mechanism of thermal multifragmentation with increasing projectile mass was investigated. The onset of the radial collective flow was observed for heavier projectiles. The analysis reveals the information on the fragment space distribution inside the break-up volume: heavier IMF are formed predominantly in the interior of the fragmenting nucleus possibly due to the density gradient

  2. Thermal Multifragmentation of Hot Nuclei and Liquid-Fog Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Karnaukhov, V A; Duginova, E V; Petrov, L A; Rodionov, V K; Oeschler, H; Budzanowski, A; Karcz, W; Janicki, M; Bochkarev, O V; Kuzmin, E A; Chulkov, L V; Norbeck, E; Botvina, A S

    2002-01-01

    Multiple emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the collisions of protons (up to 8.1 GeV), ^{4}He (4 and 14.6 GeV) and ^{12}C (22.4 GeV) on Au has been studied with the 4\\pi-setup FASA. In all cases thermal multifragmentation of the hot and diluted target spectator takes place. The fragment multiplicity and charge distributions are well described by the combined model including the modified intranuclear cascade followed by the statistical multibody decay of the hot system. IMF-IMF correlation study supports this picture giving very short time scale of the process (\\tau\\le 70 fm/c). This decay process can be interpreted as the first order nuclear liquid-fog phase transition inside the spinodal region. The evolution of the mechanism of thermal multifragmentation with increasing projectile mass was investigated. The onset of the radial collective flow was observed for heavier projectiles. The analysis reveals the information on the fragment space distribution ins! ide the break-up volume: heavier IMF are for...

  3. The dynamics of the water droplet impacting onto hot solid surfaces at medium Weber numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakusuma, Windy H.; Kamal, Samsul; Indarto; Dyan Susila, M.; Hermawan; Deendarlianto

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the wettability of a droplet impacting onto a hot solid surface under medium Weber numbers were studied experimentally. The Weber numbers used in the present experiment were 52.1, 57.6, and 63.1. Three kinds of solid surfaces with different wettability were used. These were normal stainless steel (NSS), TiO2 coated NSS, and TiO2 coated NSS radiated with ultraviolet rays. The surface temperatures were varied from 60 to 200 °C. The image of side the view and 30° from horizontal were taken to explain the spreading and the interfacial behavior of a single droplet during impact the hot solid surfaces. It was found that under medium Weber numbers, the surface wettability plays an important role on the droplet spreading and evaporation time during the impact on the hot solid surfaces. The higher the wettability, the larger the droplet spreading on the hot surface, and the lower the evaporation time.

  4. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid surfaces investigated directly with surface analytical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Gunther [Flinders Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia). Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology; Morgner, Harald [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Wilhelm Ostwald Inst. for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

    2017-06-15

    Measuring directly the composition, the distribution of constituents as function of the depth and the orientation of molecules at liquid surfaces is essential for determining physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. While the experimental tools that have been developed for analyzing solid surfaces can in principal be applied to liquid surfaces, it turned out that they had to be adjusted to the particular challenges imposed by liquid samples, e.g. by the unavoidable vapor pressure and by the mobility of the constituting atoms/molecules. In the present work it is shown, how electron spectroscopy and ion scattering spectroscopy have been used for analyzing liquid surfaces. The emphasis of this review is on using the structural information gained for determining the physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Liquid Atomization Induced by Pulse Laser Reflection underneath Liquid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro; Nakahara, Motonao

    2009-05-01

    We observed a novel effect of pulse laser reflection at the interface between transparent materials with different refractive indices. The electric field intensity doubles when a laser beam is completely reflected from a material with a higher refractive index to a material with a lower index. This effect appreciably reduces pulse laser ablation threshold of transparent materials. We performed experiments to observe the entire ablation process for laser incidence on the water-air interface using pulse laser shadowgraphy with high-resolution film; the minimum laser fluence for laser ablation at the water-air interface was approximately 12-16 J/cm2. We confirmed that this laser ablation occurs only when the laser beam is incident on the water-air interface from water. Many slender liquid ligaments extend like a milk crown and seem to be atomized at the tip. Their detailed structures can be resolved only by pulse laser photography using high-resolution film.

  6. Ionic-Liquid-Infused Nanostructures as Repellent Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Yaraset; Phillips, Katherine R; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter; Zarraga, Ramon; Vogel, Nicolas

    2018-02-02

    In order to prepare lubricant-infused repellent coatings on silica nanostructures using low vapor pressure ionic liquids as lubricants, we study the wetting behavior of a set of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl side chains as a function of the applied surface functionalities. We take advantage of the structural color of inverse opals prepared from a colloidal coassembly technique to study the infiltration of ionic liquids into these nanoporous structures. We find that the more hydrophobic ionic liquids with butyl and hexyl side chains can completely infiltrate inverse opals functionalized with mixed self-assembled monolayers composed of imidazole groups and aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, which we introduce via silane chemistry. These molecular species reflect the chemical nature of the ionic liquid, thereby increasing the affinity between the liquid and solid surface. The mixed surface chemistry provides sufficiently small contact angles with the ionic liquid to infiltrate the nanopores while maximizing the contact angle with water. As a result, the mixed monolayers enable the design of a stable ionic liquid/solid interface that is able to repel water as a test liquid. Our results underline the importance of matching chemical affinities to predict and control the wetting behavior in complex, multiphase systems.

  7. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....

  8. Hot-electron surface retention in intense short-pulse laser-matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R J; Dodd, E S; Albright, B J

    2005-07-01

    Implicit hybrid plasma simulations predict that a significant fraction of the energy deposited into hot electrons can be retained near the surface of targets with steep density gradients illuminated by intense short-pulse lasers. This retention derives from the lateral transport of heated electrons randomly emitted in the presence of spontaneous magnetic fields arising near the laser spot, from geometric effects associated with a small hot-electron source, and from E fields arising in reaction to the ponderomotive force. Below the laser spot hot electrons are axially focused into a target by the B fields, and can filament in moderate Z targets by resistive Weibel-like instability, if the effective background electron temperature remains sufficiently low. Carefully engineered use of such retention in conjunction with ponderomotive density profile steepening could result in a reduced hot-electron range that aids fast ignition. Alternatively, such retention may disturb a deeper deposition needed for efficient radiography and backside fast ion generation.

  9. Amplification of hot electron flow by the surface plasmon effect on metal–insulator–metal nanodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhwan; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I; Keun Lee, Young; Lee, Hyosun; Young Park, Jeong; Ahn, Changui; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2015-01-01

    Au–TiO_2–Ti nanodiodes with a metal–insulator–metal structure were used to probe hot electron flows generated upon photon absorption. Hot electrons, generated when light is absorbed in the Au electrode of the nanodiode, can travel across the TiO_2, leading to a photocurrent. Here, we demonstrate amplification of the hot electron flow by (1) localized surface plasmon resonance on plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by annealing the Au–TiO_2–Ti nanodiodes, and (2) reducing the thickness of the TiO_2. We show a correlation between changes in the morphology of the Au electrodes caused by annealing and amplification of the photocurrent. Based on the exponential dependence of the photocurrent on TiO_2 thickness, the transport mechanism for the hot electrons across the nanodiodes is proposed. (paper)

  10. Flow and heat transfer regimes during quenching of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, Y.; Elias, E.

    1993-05-01

    Reflooding experiments have been performed to study flow and heat transfer regimes in a heated annular vertical channel under supercooled inlet conditions. A gamma densitometer was employed to determine the void fraction as a function of the distance from the quench front. Surface heat fluxes were determined by fast measurements of the temperature spatial distribution. Two quench front is shown to lie in the transition boiling region which spreads into the dry and wet segments of the heated surface. (authors) 5 refs, 3 figs

  11. Enzymatic Saccharification and Ethanol Fermentation of Reed Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reed is a widespread-growing, inexpensive, and readily available lignocellulosic material source in northeast China. The objective of this study is to evaluate the liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment efficiency of reed based on the enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of water-insoluble solids (WISs from reed after the LHW pretreatment. Several variables in the LHW pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process were optimized. The conversion of glucan to glucose and glucose concentrations are considered as response variables in different conditions. The optimum conditions for the LHW pretreatment of reed area temperature of 180°C for 20min and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 10. These optimum conditions for the LHW pretreatment of reed resulted in a cellulose conversion rate of 82.59% in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at 50°C for 72 h with a cellulase loading of 30 filter paper unit per gram of oven-dried WIS. Increasing the pretreatment temperature resulted in a higher enzymatic digestibility of the WIS from reed. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WIS showed that the conversion of glucan to ethanol reached 99.5% of the theoretical yield. The LHW pretreatment of reed is a suitable method to acquire a high recovery of fermentable sugars and high ethanol conversion yield.

  12. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun; Yang, Jieyi; Wan, Fang; Ge, Quan; Yang, Longlai; Ding, Zunliang; Yang, Dequan; Sacher, Edward R.; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a

  13. Surface Science at the Solid Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-06

    prominent experimental avenue, developed originally by Hubbard et al,_ involves emersing monocrystalline elec- As for metal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum...reliable means of both preparing and dosateizn ordered monocrystalline metal surfaces in UHV has led to ing appropriate molecular components of...surface atoms in place of bottom panel of Fig. 2, equal intensity contours are shown 23 underlying surface atoms, the compression is 24/23 - I in the

  14. Liquid Water may Stick on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Common Perception. A surface can be classified as. > Wetting. > Non-wetting. Depending on the spreading characteristics of a droplet of water that splashes on the surface. The behavior of fluid on a solid surface under static and dynamic ..... color of the number density profile. Ions at the interface tend to form pinning zones ...

  15. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  16. Laser grooving of surface cracks on hot work tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of laser grooving of 1.2343 tool steel hardened to 46 HRC. The effect of laser power and grooving speed on groove shape (i.e. depth and width, the material removal rate and the purity of produced groove as a measure of groove quality was investigated and analyzed using response surface methodology. Optimal parameters of laser grooving were found, which enables pure grooves suitable for laser welding.

  17. Surface tension modelling of liquid Cd-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fima, Przemyslaw; Novakovic, Rada

    2018-06-01

    The thermodynamic model in conjunction with Butler equation and the geometric models were used for the surface tension calculation of Cd-Sn-Zn liquid alloys. Good agreement was found between the experimental data for limiting binaries and model calculations performed with Butler model. In the case of ternary alloys, the surface tension variation with Cd content is better reproduced in the case of alloys lying on vertical sections defined by high Sn to Zn molar fraction ratio. The calculated surface tension is in relatively good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the surface segregation of liquid ternary Cd-Sn-Zn and constituent binaries has also been calculated.

  18. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquid- saturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as spe-.

  19. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladisch Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  20. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

    2004-05-13

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

  1. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; Rappaport, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed

  2. Simulation of liquid crystals. Disclinations and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downton, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the behaviour of molecular models liquid crystals in several different situations. Basic introductory material on liquid crystals and computer simulations is discussed in the first two chapters, we then discuss the research. The third chapter investigates the interaction between a liquid crystal and a modified surface. A confined system of hard spherocylinders in a slab geometry is examined. The surface consists of planar hard walls with elongated molecules grafted perpendicularly onto them. The concentration of grafted molecules is varied to give different surfaces. Several different behaviours are found including planar, homeotropic and tilted anchorings of the liquid crystal. Molecular dynamics simulations of a nematic liquid crystal in slab geometry with twisted boundary conditions are performed. By arranging the initial configuration suitably it is possible to create a simulation cell with two regions of opposite twist separated by a strength half disclination line. The properties of the line are examined both with and without an applied external field. Finally, we again examine the system of grafted molecules on a flat substrate using an atomistic model of both the liquid crystal and the surface molecules. Again the effect of varying the density of grafted molecules is found to change the anchoring characteristics of the surface; both homeotropic and planar anchorings are observed. (author)

  3. Multifrequency eddy current examination for surface defects detection of hot steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshima, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Takahide; Takahashi, Akio; Miyata, Kenichi.

    1985-01-01

    Multifrequency eddy current testing method using probe coils has been studied for surface defects detection in hot steel products at high temperature over the magnetic Curie point. The conventional signal processing method is not available for suppression of an undesirable signal caused by lift-off variation or unevenness in inspected surfaces, because the undesirable signal pattern is similar to a defect signal pattern. In order to suppress the undesirable signal a new dual frequency signal processing method using three phase rotators has been developed, and was applied to several hot steel inspections. The results are as follows. 1. In the rotating eddy current machine for hot steel rods, the lift-off variation signal caused by a wobble of rods or the difference between rotating center and pass center of rods can be suppressed. A long seam or crack whose depth is more than 0.5mm can be detected. 2. In the hot inspection for continuously cast slabs, the signal caused by oscillation mark whose depth is under 1 mm can be suppressed. A fine transversal crack whose depth is 2 mm can be detected. 3. In the hot inspection for round billets, the lift-off variation signal caused by oval shape can be eliminated, and a crack which is deeper than 1.5 mm can be clearly detected. The detectability of defects can be improved by the analysis of dual frequency signal pattern. (author)

  4. Surface structure evolution in a homologous series of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Julia; Pontoni, Diego; Murphy, Bridget M; Festersen, Sven; Runge, Benjamin; Magnussen, Olaf M; Steinrück, Hans-Georg; Reichert, Harald; Ocko, Benjamin M; Deutsch, Moshe

    2018-02-06

    Interfaces of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are important for both applications and basic science and are therefore intensely studied. However, the evolution of their interface structure with the cation's alkyl chain length [Formula: see text] from Coulomb to van der Waals interaction domination has not yet been studied for even a single broad homologous RTIL series. We present here such a study of the liquid-air interface for [Formula: see text], using angstrom-resolution X-ray methods. For [Formula: see text], a typical "simple liquid" monotonic surface-normal electron density profile [Formula: see text] is obtained, like those of water and organic solvents. For [Formula: see text], increasingly more pronounced nanoscale self-segregation of the molecules' charged moieties and apolar chains yields surface layering with alternating regions of headgroups and chains. The layering decays into the bulk over a few, to a few tens, of nanometers. The layering periods and decay lengths, their linear [Formula: see text] dependence, and slopes are discussed within two models, one with partial-chain interdigitation and the other with liquid-like chains. No surface-parallel long-range order is found within the surface layer. For [Formula: see text], a different surface phase is observed above melting. Our results also impact general liquid-phase issues like supramolecular self-aggregation and bulk-surface structure relations.

  5. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Wettability of hot-pressed samples of boron-containing aluminium compounds by liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Nizhenko, V.I.; Kirillova, N.V.; Floka, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    Highly dispersed powders of aluminium borides and borocarbides were sintered by hot pressing method. Temperature dependence of wettability of hot-pressed boride samples (α-AlB 12 and AlB 18 ) and aluminium borocarbides (Al 3 B 48 C 2 , Al 8 B 4 C 2 and AlB 24 C) by liquid aluminium, copper, germanium, silicon and melts Al + 25 wt.%Si and Cu + (3-6) wt.%Ti was studied. Dependence of a compound wettability on the ratio of components in it was analyzed [ru

  7. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    2010-01-01

    shows that the primary energy loss mechanism is the atomic displacement of Au atoms in the thin film of the metal–oxide–semiconductor device. We propose that neutral particle detection of the scattered flux from a biased device could be a route to hot electron mediated charge exchange.......We have made Na + and He + ions incident on the surface of solid state tunnel junctions and measured the energy loss due to atomic displacement and electronic excitations. Each tunnel junction consists of an ultrathin film metal–oxide–semiconductor device which can be biased to create a band of hot...

  8. Origin of Power Laws for Reactions at Metal Surfaces Mediated by Hot Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of experiments have established that certain chemical reactions at metal surfaces can be driven by multiple hot-electron-mediated excitations of adsorbates. A high transient density of hot electrons is obtained by means of femtosecond laser pulses and a characteristic feature of such...... density functional theory and the delta self-consistent field method. With a simplifying assumption, the power law becomes exact and we obtain a simple physical interpretation of the exponent n, which represents the number of adsorbate vibrational states participating in the reaction....

  9. Operation of a novel hot-electron vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Naci; O'Brien-Davies, Angela; Thoms, A. B.; Potter, Richard J.; Poolton, Nigel; Adams, Michael J.; Masum, J.; Bek, Alpan; Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Roberts, John S.

    1998-07-01

    The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.

  10. Determination of Surface Properties of Liquid Transition Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Certain surface properties of liquid simple metals are reported. Using the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers we investigated the surface entropy of liquid transition metals namely Fe, Co and Ni. We have also computed surface tensions of the metals concerned. The pair distribution functions are calculated from the solution of Ornstein-Zernike integral equation with Rogers-Young closure using the individual version of the electron-ion potential proposed by Fioalhais and coworkers which was originally developed for solid state. The predicted values of surface tension and surface entropy are in very good agreement with available experimental data. The present study results show that the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers is very useful for the surface entropy by using Fioalhais pseudopotential and Rogers-Young closure

  11. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Liquid infused porous surfaces for mineral fouling mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Baudin, Sophie; Smith, Margaret J; Euvrard, Myriam; Bell, Ashley; Wang, Chun; Barker, Richard

    2015-04-15

    Prevention of mineral fouling, known as scale, is a long-standing problem in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as oil production, water treatment, and many others. The build-up of inorganic scale such as calcium carbonate on surfaces and facilities is undesirable as it can result in safety risks and associated flow assurance issues. To date the overwhelming amount of research has mainly focused on chemical inhibition of scale bulk precipitation and little attention has been paid to deposition onto surfaces. The development of novel more environmentally-friendly strategies to control mineral fouling will most probably necessitate a multifunctional approach including surface engineering. In this study, we demonstrate that liquid infused porous surfaces provide an appealing strategy for surface modification to reduce mineral scale deposition. Microporous polypyrrole (PPy) coatings were fabricated onto stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode. Subsequent infusion of low surface energy lubricants (fluorinated oil Fluorinert FC-70 and ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm)) into the porous coatings results in liquid-repellent slippery surfaces. To assess their ability to reduce surface scaling the coatings were subjected to a calcium carbonate scaling environment and the scale on the surface was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PPy surfaces infused with BMIm (and Fluorinert to a lesser extent) exhibit remarkable antifouling properties with the calcium carbonate deposition reduced by 18 times in comparison to untreated stainless steel. These scaling tests suggest a correlation between the stability of the liquid infused surfaces in artificial brines and fouling reduction efficiency. The current work shows the great potential of such novel coatings for the management of mineral scale fouling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen H. (Inventor); Schein, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  14. Enzymatic saccharification of liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risanto, L.; Fitria; Fajriutami, T.; Hermiati, E.

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) are potential feedstocks for the production of bioethanol. In this study OPEFB and SB were pretreated by liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid (3% H2SO4), and continued with enzymatic saccharification. Heating treatment for both methods was conducted in an autoclave at 121 °C for 1 hr. The saccharification was performed up to 72 hours with cellulase enzyme loading of 10, 20, and 30 FPU per g biomass. Results showed that OPEFB and SB pretreated with H2SO4 produced higher reducing sugars than those pretreated by liquid hot water. Higher enzyme loading also resulted in higher reducing sugars. Reducing sugars obtained from enzymatic saccharification of OPEFB were higher than those obtained from SB. The highest total reducing sugars (50.48 g/100 g biomass) was obtained from OPEFB pretreated with 3% H2SO4 at enzyme loading of 30 FPU per g biomass.

  15. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D2O by the transient hot-wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Y.; Hiraiwa, H.; Nagashima, A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D 2 O (heavy water) started in 1951. Since then, many researchers have measured the thermal conductivity of heavy water mainly with the aid of steady-state methods such as the parallel plate method and the concentric cylinder method. It should be noted here that even in the case of pure H 2 O or D 2 O enclosed in metallic vessel for a couple of days, the electrical conductivity seems to be not low enough for precise transient hot-wire measurements. The purpose of this paper is to obtain precise thermal conductivity data of liquid D 2 O which can be the reference standard values by the transient hot-wire method. The temperature range covered was 4 degrees C to 80 degrees C with pressure up to 40 MPa and the experimental data have an estimated accuracy of ±0.5%

  16. Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.

  17. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid methanol surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-07-01

    The dynamics of evaporation and condensation at a flat liquid surface of methanol were studied under the liquidvapor equilibrium condition at room temperature with molecular dynamics computer simulation techniques. Analysis of molecular trajectories shows that the condensation coefficient is 89%. It suggests that only a tenth of incident vapor molecules are reflected at the liquid surface, contrary to a prediction of a classical transition state theory. To investigate the potential barrier of the evaporation-condensation process, a particle insertion method was applied and the local chemical potential near the surface was evaluated. The calculated chemical potential is constant in the whole region including the surface layer and no potential barrier is observed in the vincinity of the surface, which casts strong doubt on the explanation of a transition state theory.

  18. AFM fluid delivery/liquid extraction surface sampling/electrostatic spray cantilever probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-23

    An electrospray system comprises a liquid extraction surface sampling probe. The probe comprises a probe body having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet, and having a liquid extraction tip. A solvent delivery conduit is provided for receiving solvent liquid from the liquid inlet and delivering the solvent liquid to the liquid extraction tip. An open liquid extraction channel extends across an exterior surface of the probe body from the liquid extraction tip to the liquid outlet. An electrospray emitter tip is in liquid communication with the liquid outlet of the liquid extraction surface sampling probe. A system for analyzing samples, a liquid junction surface sampling system, and a method of analyzing samples are also disclosed.

  19. Solid surface vs. liquid surface: nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, and DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Mori, Taizo; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P

    2017-09-13

    The investigation of molecules and materials at interfaces is critical for the accumulation of new scientific insights and technological advances in the chemical and physical sciences. Immobilization on solid surfaces permits the investigation of different properties of functional molecules or materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Liquid surfaces also present important media for physicochemical innovation and insight based on their great flexibility and dynamicity, rapid diffusion of molecular components for mixing and rearrangements, as well as drastic spatial variation in the prevailing dielectric environment. Therefore, a comparative discussion of the relative merits of the properties of materials when positioned at solid or liquid surfaces would be informative regarding present-to-future developments of surface-based technologies. In this perspective article, recent research examples of nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, DNA nanotechnology, and DNA origami are compared with respect to the type of surface used, i.e. solid surfaces vs. liquid surfaces, for future perspectives of interfacial physics and chemistry.

  20. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanostructures: The Role of Surface Photoemission and Transition Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh

    2015-01-01

    We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate photoemis......We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate...... photoemission rate and transition absorption for nanoparticles surrounded by various media with a broad range of permittivities and show that photoemission rate and transition absorption follow the same dependence on the permittivity. Thus, we conclude that transition absorption is responsible...

  1. Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

    2002-10-15

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

  2. Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Baldwin, M.; Conn, R.; Efthimion, P.; Finkenthal, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Krashenninikov, S.; Kugel, H.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Munsat, T.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Whyte, D.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors

  3. Liquid lithium limiter effects on tokamak plasmas and plasma-liquid surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors. (author)

  4. Reaction of water vapor with a clean liquid uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-01-01

    To study the reaction of water vapor with uranium, we have exposed clean liquid uranium surfaces to H 2 O under UHV conditions. We have measured the surface concentration of oxygen as a function of exposure, and determined the maximum attainable surface oxygen concentration X 0 /sup s/ as a function of temperature. We have used these measurements to estimate, close to the melting point, the solubility of oxygen (X 0 /sup b/, -4 ) and its surface segregation coefficient β/sup s/(> 10 3 ). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

  6. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  7. Domain Structures in Nematic Liquid Crystals on a Polycarbonate Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily F. Shabanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alignment of nematic liquid crystals on polycarbonate films obtained with the use of solvents with different solvations is studied. Domain structures occurring during the growth on the polymer surface against the background of the initial thread-like or schlieren texture are demonstrated. It is established by optical methods that the domains are stable formations visualizing the polymer surface structures. In nematic droplets, the temperature-induced transition from the domain structure with two extinction bands to the structure with four bands is observed. This transition is shown to be caused by reorientation of the nematic director in the liquid crystal volume from the planar alignment to the homeotropic state with the pronounced radial configuration of nematic molecules on the surface. The observed textures are compared with different combinations of the volume LC orientations and the radial distribution of the director field and the disclination lines at the polycarbonate surface.

  8. On the stability of an evaporating liquid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl, R; Bänsch, E

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the interface between a volatile liquid and a gaseous phase has been studied in this paper. We consider the case when the liquid volume is not a film and thus the thin-film approximation might not be valid. A linear stability analysis leads to the Orr–Sommerfeld equation for the stream function and a second-order differential equation for the temperature. This system is solved semi-analytically. A parameter study shows that surface tension is stabilizing, while viscosity is destabilizing the liquid surface. The capillary number is identified as the most significant factor. The analytical results were compared with the growth of an initial perturbation for the full system by direct numerical simulations, and excellent agreement was observed. (paper)

  9. Experimental investigation of quench and re-wetting temperatures of hot horizontal tubes well above the limiting temperature for solid–liquid contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takrouri, Kifah, E-mail: takroukj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Luxat, John, E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Hamed, Mohamed [Thermal Processing Laboratory (TPL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Quench and re-wetting temperatures were measured upon jet quenching of hot cylindrical tubes. • Correlations have been developed and provided good fit of data. • Quench and re-wetting temperatures were found to greatly depend on water subcooling. • Stagnation point showed higher quench and re-wetting temperatures than other locations. • Quench temperature decreased by increasing surface curvature and tube conductivity. • Re-wetting temperature is a weak function of both variables. - Abstract: Quench cooling of a hot dry surface involves the rapid decrease in surface temperature resulting from bringing the hot surface into sudden contact with a coolant at a lower temperature. Quench temperature is the onset of the rapid decrease in surface temperature and corresponds to the onset of destabilization of a vapor film that exists between the hot surface and the coolant. Situations involving quench cooling are encountered in a number of postulated accidents in Canada Deuterium Uranium CANDU reactors, such as the quench of a hot calandria tube in certain Loss of Coolant Accidents LOCA. If the calandria tube temperature is not reduced by initiation of quench heat transfer, then this may lead to subsequent fuel channel failure and for this accident knowledge of quench heat transfer characteristics is of great importance. In this study, a Water Quench Facility WQF has been designed and built at the Thermal Processing Laboratory TPL at McMaster University and a series of experimental tests were carried out to investigate the quench of hot horizontal tubes using a vertical rectangular water multi-jet system. The tubes were heated to a temperature between 380 and 780 °C then cooled to the jet temperature. The temperature variation with time in tube circumferential and axial directions was measured. The two-phase flow behavior and the propagation of the re-wetting front around and along the tubes were simultaneously observed using a high-speed camera

  10. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Broer, D.J.; Chien, L.-C.; Coles, H.J.; Kikuchi, H.; Smalyukh, I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed 'smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that

  11. Surface effects on the propagation of sound in Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, K.; Woelfle, P.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of sound in a resonator is discussed in both the normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. A set of model hydrodynamic equations is developed for describing the transition from the hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. Surface effects are incorporated by using a slip boundary condition. The resonance condition for the sound propagation in a cylindrical resonator is derived

  12. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  13. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  14. Surface Structures of Binary Mixture of Ionic Liquids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakajima, K.; Nakanishi, S.; Lísal, Martin; Kimura, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 230, MARCH (2017), s. 542-549 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12291S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * mixture * surface structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2016

  15. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  16. Hot electron dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: Implications for quantum dot photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, William A., III

    Finding a viable supply of clean, renewable energy is one of the most daunting challenges facing the world today. Solar cells have had limited impact in meeting this challenge because of their high cost and low power conversion efficiencies. Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, are promising materials for use in novel solar cells because they can be processed with potentially inexpensive solution-based techniques and because they are predicted to have novel optoelectronic properties that could enable the realization of ultra-efficient solar power converters. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the behavior of highly-excited, or "hot," charge carriers near quantum-dot and semiconductor interfaces, which is of paramount importance to the rational design of high-efficiency devices. The elucidation of these ultrafast hot electron dynamics is the central aim of this Dissertation. I present a theoretical framework for treating the electronic interactions between quantum dots and bulk semiconductor surfaces and propose a novel experimental technique, time-resolved surface second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), for probing these interactions. I then describe a series of experimental investigations into hot electron dynamics in specific quantum-dot/semiconductor systems. A two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (2PPE) study of the technologically-relevant ZnO(1010) surface reveals ultrafast (sub-30fs) cooling of hot electrons in the bulk conduction band, which is due to strong electron-phonon coupling in this highly polar material. The presence of a continuum of defect states near the conduction band edge results in Fermi-level pinning and upward (n-type) band-bending at the (1010) surface and provides an alternate route for electronic relaxation. In monolayer films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots, chemical treatment with either hydrazine or 1,2-ethanedithiol results in strong and tunable electronic coupling between neighboring quantum dots

  17. Surface energies of metals in both liquid and solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Although during the last years one has seen a number of systematic studies of the surface energies of metals, the aim and the scientific meaning of this research is to establish a simple and a straightforward theoretical model to calculate accurately the mechanical and the thermodynamic properties of metal surfaces due to their important application in materials processes and in the understanding of a wide range of surface phenomena. Through extensive theoretical calculations of the surface tension of most of the liquid metals, we found that the fraction of broken bonds in liquid metals (f) is constant which is equal to 0.287. Using our estimated f value, the surface tension (γ m ), surface energy (γ SV ), surface excess entropy (-dγ/dT), surface excess enthalpy (H s ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α m and α b ), sound velocity (c m ) and its temperature coefficient (-dc/dT) have been calculated for more than sixty metals. The results of the calculated quantities agree well with available experimental data.

  18. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  19. The appearance of liquid surfaces and layers in routine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, A.E.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1986-01-01

    As has been demonstrated, the interfaces between a gas and a body fluid or a contrast medium may be visualized in the radiographic image as various kinds of boundaries, as also may interfaces between a contrast medium and a body fluid. These can provide little diagnostic information. Data of clinical value are usually derived from boundaries that represent bounding surfaces of anatomic structures touched by the roentgen rays. In the interpretation of the radiographic image it is important to recognize whether a boundary represents an anatomic structure, a liquid surface or a diffusion layer. It is a traditional view that a liquid surface is visualized by a horizontal beam as a straight horizontal boundary and that the imaged surface is then also horizontal. As has been shown in the earlier investigations and the present one, this is not always the case, for these boundaries are usually curved with an upward concavity. It is important to bear in mind that also rays departing considerably from the horizontal may still touch the liquid surface in its meniscoid. Even a vertical beam will form a boundary when touching a meniscoid. It would also appear that the simple layering phenomenon can present difficulty in interpretation. Examples of this phenomenon that illustrate particularly important situations have been presented. Ambiguity associated with the interpretation of images produced by a vertical beam may be resolved with the aid of supplementary films exposed with a horizontal beam. (orig.)

  20. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D; Bean, Vern E

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 10 6 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 10 6 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 10 6 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects

  1. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  2. Rupture of thin liquid films on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S; Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Kabov, Oleg A

    2011-10-01

    We investigate stability and breakup of a thin liquid film on a solid surface under the action of disjoining pressure. The solid surface is structured by parallel grooves. Air is trapped in the grooves under the liquid film. Our mathematical model takes into account the effect of slip due to the presence of menisci separating the liquid film from the air inside the grooves, the deformation of these menisci due to local variations of pressure in the liquid film, and nonuniformities of the Hamaker constant which measures the strength of disjoining pressure. Both linear stability and strongly nonlinear evolution of the film are analyzed. Surface structuring results in decrease of the fastest growing instability wavelength and the rupture time. It is shown that a simplified description of film dynamics based on the standard formula for effective slip leads to significant deviations from the behavior seen in our simulations. Self-similar decay over several orders of magnitude of the film thickness near the rupture point is observed. We also show that the presence of the grooves can lead to instability in otherwise stable films if the relative groove width is above a critical value, found as a function of disjoining pressure parameters.

  3. Plasmonic Heterodimers with Binding Site-Dependent Hot Spot for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Shuai, Zhenhua; Shen, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shufen; Song, Chunyuan; Zhao, Baomin; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-05-07

    A novel plasmonic heterodimer nanostructure with a controllable self-assembled hot spot is fabricated by the conjugation of individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes (Au@Ag NCs) and varisized gold nanospheres (GNSs) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction from the ensemble to the single-assembly level. Due to their featured configurations, three types of heterogeneous nanostructures referred to as Vertice, Vicinity, and Middle are proposed and a single hot spot forms between the nanocube and nanosphere, which exhibits distinct diversity in surface plasmon resonance effect. Herein, the calculated surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of the three types of heterodimers show a narrow distribution and can be tuned in orders of magnitude by controlling the size of GNSs onto individual Au@Ag NCs. Particularly, the Vertice heterodimer with unique configuration can provide extraordinary enhancement of the electric field for the single hot spot region due to the collaborative interaction of lightning rod effect and interparticle plasmon coupling effect. This established relationship between the architecture and the corresponding optical properties of the heterodimers provides the basis for creating controllable platforms which can be exploited in the applications of plasmonic devices, electronics, and biodetection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquidsaturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as special cases.

  6. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS HOT SPOT IN PKS 1421-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bicknell, G. V.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Gelbord, J.; Schwartz, D. A.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Georganopoulos, M.; Perlman, E. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z = 0.663 broadline radio galaxy PKS 1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hot spot at a projected distance of ∼40 kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hot spot, L 2-10keV = 3 x 10 44 ergs s -1 , is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS 0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hot spot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (α ∼ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically important magnetic field in the jet. There is a change in the slope of the hotspot radio spectrum at GHz frequencies, which we model by incorporating a cutoff in the electron energy distribution at γ min ∼ 650, with higher values implied if the hotspot emission is Doppler beamed. We show that a sharp decrease in the electron number density below a Lorentz factor of 650 would arise from the dissipation of bulk kinetic energy in an electron/proton jet with a Lorentz factor Γ jet ∼> 5.

  7. Structure and dynamics at the liquid surface of benzyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietter, J.; Morgner, H.

    1999-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid layer of benzyl alcohol has been performed in order to compare the results with those obtained in experimental studies of our group. The main result of the experimental work was a strong orientational ordering of the benzyl alcohol molecules in the surface as well as an exceptionally large surface potential of ca. 0.6 V. According to the experiments the surface molecules orientate in such a way that the benzene ring points toward the vapor phase while the CH 2 group and the OH group are directed towards the bulk of the liquid. The simulation confirms this orientation of the surface molecules. The surface potential resulting from the simulation is 350 mV. The simulation reveals that the rather large surface potential can be understood as a consequence of the mean orientation of the molecular dipole moment in the surface region. The mean orientation of the molecules themselves in the surface is due to the tendency of the system to maintain the hydrogen bonding structure of the bulk in the surface region as well. The preferential orientation of the surface molecules causes a change of the dynamics of the individual components of the molecules when switching from bulk to surface which depends on the separation of these components from the polar group. This becomes most obvious in case of the reorientation dynamics of the molecular axes, e.g. the reorientation of the benzene ring is faster than the reorientation of the OH group. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Impact of plasma-sprayed metal particles on hot and cold glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, A.; Lamontagne, M.; Moreau, C.; Chandra, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed molten molybdenum and amorphous steel particles (38-55 μm diameter) were photographed during impact (velocity 120-200 m/s) and spreading on a smooth glass surface that was maintained at either room temperature or 400 deg. C. Droplets approaching the surface were identified by a photodetector and after a known delay, a 5-ns laser pulse was triggered to illuminate the spreading splat and photograph it with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A rapid two-color pyrometer was used to collect thermal radiation from particles during flight and impact to follow the evolution of their temperature and size. Particles that impacted the surface at room temperature ruptured and splashed, leaving a small central solidified core on the substrate. On a surface held at 400 deg. C, there was no splashing and a circular, disk-like splat remained on the surface. Splats on a glass surface held at room temperature had a maximum spread diameter almost three times that on a hot surface. A simple analysis was done to estimate the area of the splat in contact with the non-heated glass surface during spreading. The analysis supports the hypothesis that only a portion of the splat is in good contact with the surface at room temperature, while the rest of the fluid is separated from the substrate by a gas barrier

  9. Ignitability of hydrogen/oxygen/diluent mixtures in the presence of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.K.; Koroll, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    In the licensing process for CANDU nuclear power stations it is necessary to demonstrate tolerance to a wide range of low-probability accidents. These include loss of moderator accidents that may lead to the formation of flammable mixtures of deuterium, oxygen, helium, and steam in the reactor calandria vessel. Uncovered adjuster or control rods are considered as possible sources of ignition when a flammable mixture is present. A knowledge of the minimum hot-surface temperature required for ignition is important in assessing the reactor safety. These hot surface temperatures were measured using electrically heated adjuster rod simulators in a large spherical vessel (2.3-m internal diameter). Whereas the effects of geometry on ignition temperature were studied in the large-scale apparatus, some of the effects, such as those produced by a strong radiation field, were studied using a small-scale apparatus. Investigations carried our over a range of hydrogen and diluent concentrations indicated that, although the ignition temperatures were fairly insensitive to the hydrogen concentration, they were strongly affected by the presence of steam The addition of 30% steam to a dry combustible mixture increased the minimum surface temperature required for ignition by approximates 100 degrees C of the diluents investigated, steam had the most effect on ignition. The effect of initial temperature of the mixture on the ignition temperature was small, whereas the effect of initial pressure was significant. The effect of substituting deuterium for hydrogen on ignition temperature was small. The effect of a high-intensity gamma-radiation field on the minimum hot-surface temperature required for ignition was investigated using a 2-dm 3 ignition vessel placed in a linear accelerator. Radiation had no measurable effect on ignition temperature

  10. Reducing Friction with a Liquid Film on the Body Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Klyuev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A flow of a thin layer of liquid is simulated on a flat surface of a body located in a stream of air. Liquid film on the surface of the body reduces frictional resistance and can be used as a boundary layer control element. The paper presents a mathematical model of the film flow on a half-plane, located at an angle to the horizon. The fluid flow is determined by the force of gravity and friction from the external air current. A model of an incompressible viscous fluid is used in the boundary-layer approximation. The terms of the motion equation are averaged over the film thickness according to the Leibniz rule. In the cross section of the film, a quadratic law is adopted for the distribution of the longitudinal velocity, taking into account friction on the film surface. An analytical solution of the problem is obtained in the form of series in powers of the small parameter for determining the film thickness and the average longitudinal velocity along the length of the plate. It is shown that the friction decreases with flow around a half-plane with a film of liquid on the surface.

  11. Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen McHale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the wetting of a solid by a liquid it is often assumed that the substrate is rigid. However, for an elastic substrate the rigidity depends on the cube of its thickness and so reduces rapidly as the substrate becomes thinner as it approaches becoming a thin sheet. In such circumstances, it has been shown that the capillary forces caused by a contacting droplet of a liquid can shape the solid rather than the solid shaping the liquid. A substrate can be bent and folded as a (pinned droplet evaporates or even instantaneously and spontaneously wrapped on contact with a droplet. When this effect is used to create three dimensional shapes from initially flat sheets, the effect is called capillary origami or droplet wrapping.In this work, we consider how the conditions for the spontaneous, capillary induced, folding of a thin ribbon substrate might be altered by a rigid surface structure that, for a rigid substrate, would be expected to create Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel effects. For smooth thin substrates, droplet wrapping can occur for all liquids, including those for which the Young’s law contact angle (defined by the interfacial tensions is greater than 90° and which would therefore normally be considered relatively hydrophobic. However, consideration of the balance between bending and interfacial energies suggests that the tendency for droplet wrapping can be suppressed for some liquids by providing the flexible solid surface with a rigid topographic structure. In general, it is known that when a liquid interacts with such a structure it can either fully penetrate the structure (the Wenzel case or it can bridge between the asperities of the structure (the Cassie–Baxter case.In this report, we show theoretically that droplet wrapping should occur with both types of solid–liquid contact. We also derive a condition for the transition between the Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel type droplet wrapping and relate it to the same transition condition

  12. Instability of flow of liquid film over a heated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental concepts and basic equations of a flowing thin liquid film cooling a heated surfaced by its vaporization and the effect of dry patches were treated. Stable film flow prior to the appearance of dry patches on the heated surface is maintained by a balance of various forces due to surface tension, shear stress, heat and mass transfer, and gravity. Film splitting at a critical film thickness produces dry patches due to perturbation by waves on a perfect surface, and often by surface imperfection and uneven heating. This work is primarily motivated by the design of next-generation nuclear reactors, which employ many novel passive heat-removal systems via natural circulation. These systems are design to prevent damage to the reactor core and containment without action by the reactor operators during or after a design basis accident such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a main steam-line break (MSLB) accident

  13. Study on surface wave characteristics of free surface flow of liquid metal lithium for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoashi, Eiji; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) presents an intense neutron source to develop fusion reactor materials. The free surface flow of a liquid metal Lithium (Li) is planned as a target irradiated by two deuteron beams to generate intense neutrons and it is thus important to obtain knowledge of the surface wave characteristic for the safety and the efficiency of system in the IFMIF. We have been studying on surface wave characteristics experimentally using the liquid metal Li circulation facility at Osaka University and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FLUENT. This paper reports the results of the surface fluctuation, the wave height and the surface velocity in the free surface flow of the liquid metal Li examined experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, an electro-contact probe apparatus was used to obtain the surface fluctuation and the wave height, and a high speed video was used to measure the surface velocity. We resulted in knowledge of the surface wave growth mechanism. On the other hand, a CFD simulation was also conducted to obtain information on the relation of the free surface with the inner flow. In the simulation, the model included from a two-staged contraction nozzle to a flow channel with a free surface flow region and simulation results were compared with the experimental data. (author)

  14. Time-Dependent Liquid Transport on a Biomimetic Topological Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cunlong; Li, Chuxin; Gao, Can; Dong, Zhichao; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Lei

    2018-05-02

    Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance. Motived by this strange behavior, we construct a large-scaled peristome-mimetic surface in a 3D profile, demonstrating the ability to reduce the need to mop or to squeegee drops that form during the drop impacting process on pipes or other curved surfaces in food processing, moisture transfer, heat management, etc.

  15. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-03-01

    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed `smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that form surface structures upon the actuation by light. The coating oscillates between a flat surface and a surface with pre-designed 3D micro-patterns by modulating a light source. With recent developments in solid state lighting, light is an attractive trigger medium as it can be integrated in a device for local control or can be used remotely for flood or localized exposure. The basic principle of formation of surface topographies is based on the change of molecular organization in ordered liquid crystal polymer networks. The change in order leads to anisotropic dimensional changes with contraction along the director and expansion to the two perpendicular directions and an increase in volume by the formation of free volume. These two effects work in concert to provide local expansion and contraction in the coating steered by the local direction of molecular orientation. The surface deformation, expressed as the height difference between the activated regions and the non-activated regions divided by the initial film thickness, is of the order of 20%. Switching occurs immediately when the light is switched `on' and `off' and takes several tens of seconds.

  16. Theory of the surface dipole layer and of surface tension in liquids of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the surface density profiles and of the surface tension of a two-component liquid of charged particles in equilibrium with its vapour is examined. The exact equilibrium conditions for the profiles are given in terms of the inverse response functions of the inhomogeneous fluid, and alternative exact expressions for the surface tension are derived. The use of a density gradient expansion reduces the problem to knowledge of properties of a homogeneous charged fluid on a uniform neutralizing background, in which the total particle density and the charge density are independent variables. Additional simplifications are discussed for special cases for which a perturbative treatment of the surface charge density profile can be developed, and in particular for nearly symmetric ionic liquids and for simple liquid metals. (author)

  17. Behavior of a Liquid Bridge between Nonparallel Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Mohammadmehdi; Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2017-12-26

    When a liquid bridge is formed between two nonparallel identical surfaces, it can move along the surfaces. Literature indicates that the direction of bridge movement is governed by the wettability of surfaces. When the surfaces are hydrophilic, the motion of the bridge is always toward the cusp (intersection of the plane of the two bounding surfaces). On the other hand, the movement is hitherto thought to be always pointing away from the cusp when the surfaces are hydrophobic. In this study, through experiments, numerical simulations, and analytical reasoning, we demonstrate that for hydrophobic surfaces, wettability is not the only factor determining the direction of the motion. A new geometrical parameter, i.e., confinement (cf), was defined as the ratio of the distance of the farthest contact point of the bridge to the cusp, and that of the closest contact point to the cusp. The direction of the motion depends on the amount of confinement (cf). When the distance between the surfaces is large (resulting in a small cf), the bridge tends to move toward the cusp through a pinning/depinning mechanism of contact lines. When the distance between the surfaces is small (large cf), the bridge tends to move away from the cusp. For a specific system, a maximum cf value (cf max ) exists. A sliding behavior (i.e., simultaneous advancing on the wider side and receding on the narrower side) can also be seen when a liquid bridge is compressed such that the cf exceeds the cf max . Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) is identified as an underpinning phenomenon that together with cf fundamentally explains the movement of a trapped liquid between two hydrophobic surfaces. If there is no CAH, however, i.e., the case of ideal hydrophobic surfaces, the cf will be a constant; we show that the bridge slides toward the cusp when it is stretched, while it slides away from the cusp when it is compressed (note sliding motion is different from motion due to pinning/depinning mechanism of contact

  18. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field

  19. Annual absorbed dose rate at the surface of 38 hot and mineral springs in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Orougi, M.H.; Sadeghzadeh, A.; Aghamir, A.; Jomehzadeh, A.; Zare, H. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences, Medical Physics Dep., Faculty of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Measurement of background radiation is very important from different points of view especially to human health. In some cases exposure rate near hot and mineral springs are higher than those of normal areas. The high background radiation of hot and mineral springs is primarily due to the presence of very high amounts of Ra 226 and its decay products. In this research, environmental gamma radiation of hot and mineral springs in Khorasan, Mazandaran and Sareeyn town in Ardabil province have been measured. Equipment used in this work included: a survey meter (R.D.S. -110), a tripod and an aluminium frame to hold the survey meter horizontally.R.D.S. -110 is a microprocessor controlled detector. This survey meter has been designed for monitoring X and rays and radiation. Measurements were carried out at one meter above water level in the vicinity of hot and mineral springs. Dose rates were recorded for one hour. The average of all recorded dose rates over one hour period was taken as the exposure rate for each station. The results indicate that in Khorasan province the highest and lowest annual absorbed dose rates were equal to 10.80 mSv/y at Shanigarmab and 0.52 mSv/y at Nasradin source respectively. In Mazandaran province maximum and minimum exposure rates equal to 54.4 and 0.53 mSv/y were obtained at the surface of Talleshmahalleh and Ghormerz sources. Exposure rates at the vicinity of Sarein sources were not very different and ranged from 1.39 to 1.59 mSv/y. The results indicate that in Khorasan province Shahingarmab hot spring has the highest annual absorbed dose rate (10.80 mSv/y) and Nasraddin in Sarbisheh has the lowest level of radiation (0.62 mSv/y). In Mazandaran province Taleshmahalleh hot mineral spring has the highest annual absorbed dose rate (54.41 mSv/y) and Ghormerz mineral spring has the lowest radiation level (0.53 mSv/y). Also in Sareeyn (in Ardabil province) Abechashm source has the highest annual absorbed dose

  20. Warm electrons on the liquid 4He surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Motohiko

    1977-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis of non-Ohmic transport of electrons on the liquid 4 He surface is given. The correct form of the electron-ripplon scattering as well as the electron- 4 He gas scattering is taken into account. A characteristic electric field at which electron mobility deviates from the Ohmic value is estimated as a function of temperature and the holding field on the basis of the electron effective temperature approximation. (auth.)

  1. Solvent-accessible surface area: How well can be applied to hot-spot detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João M; Ramos, Rui M; Pimenta, António C; Moreira, Irina S

    2014-03-01

    A detailed comprehension of protein-based interfaces is essential for the rational drug development. One of the key features of these interfaces is their solvent accessible surface area profile. With that in mind, we tested a group of 12 SASA-based features for their ability to correlate and differentiate hot- and null-spots. These were tested in three different data sets, explicit water MD, implicit water MD, and static PDB structure. We found no discernible improvement with the use of more comprehensive data sets obtained from molecular dynamics. The features tested were shown to be capable of discerning between hot- and null-spots, while presenting low correlations. Residue standardization such as rel SASAi or rel/res SASAi , improved the features as a tool to predict ΔΔGbinding values. A new method using support machine learning algorithms was developed: SBHD (Sasa-Based Hot-spot Detection). This method presents a precision, recall, and F1 score of 0.72, 0.81, and 0.76 for the training set and 0.91, 0.73, and 0.81 for an independent test set. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10{sup −6} for 445 nm illumination.

  3. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  4. Monochromator on a synchrotron undulator source for liquid surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Freund, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    For liquid surface studies a monochromatic beam of relative bandwidth between 0.1% and 1% at a variable angle in the vertical plane between 0-degrees and 10-degrees is needed. The beam should be like a sheet some tens of mu-m thick and some mm wide, and as intense as possible. We discuss a monoch......For liquid surface studies a monochromatic beam of relative bandwidth between 0.1% and 1% at a variable angle in the vertical plane between 0-degrees and 10-degrees is needed. The beam should be like a sheet some tens of mu-m thick and some mm wide, and as intense as possible. We discuss......% of the useful x rays, in full agreement with diffraction theory including secondary extinction. Heat load experiments reported elsewhere in this conference prove that Be crystals can withstand high beam power density and that the thermal deformation is small compared to the mosaic spread. The results...... of the flux calculations are most encouraging: a gain of order 10(3) to 10(4) can be expected as compared to existing liquid surface spectrometers....

  5. Stability of thin liquid films containing surface active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashankar, Hariharan; Kalpathy, Sreeram; Dixit, Harish

    2017-11-01

    The stability and dynamics of thin liquid films(industrial settings like coating and printing processes and extraction of oil from porous rocks. In this study a hydrodynamic model is introduced to capture the long term evolution of a Newtonian liquid film containing insoluble surfaceactive particles.We consider here the possibility of four distinct interaction regimes based on the surface rheological effects of the particles, such that either, both or neither of Marangoni and surface viscosity effects would be present at the leading order in the governing equations. The liquid film is bounded by a rigid impermeable solid below and covered by passive air phase above.A standard linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations are performed on the set of highly coupled partial differential evolution equations. Linear stability analysis gives insights on whether a particular imposed perturbationwavenumber will grow or decay in time and also evaluating the fastest growing wavenumber. Parametric studies for all four regimes provides a strong confirmation that surface viscosity and Marangoni effects are indeed rupture delaying effects.

  6. Modelling of hot surface ignition within gas turbines subject to flammable gas in the intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Duedahl; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Controlling risks associated with fires and explosions from leaks of flammable fluids at oil and gas facilities is paramount to ensuring safe operations. The gas turbine is a significant potential source of ignition; however, the residual risk is still not adequately understood. A model has been...... but decreases with increase in initial mixture temperature and pressure. The model shows a great potential in reliable prediction of the risk of hot surface ignition within gas turbines in the oil and gas industry. In the future, a dedicated experimental study will be performed not only to improve...

  7. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  8. Static phenomena at the charged surface of liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, A.A.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Mezhov-Deglin, L.P.; Mikhjlov, M.G.; Trusov, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The shape evolution of the equipotentially charged surface of liquid hydrogen layer covering the lower plate of a horizontally arranged diode in external electric fields has been studied experimentally for the first time. A reconstruction phenomenon (the formation of a stationary hump) at the flat charged surface at voltages higher than a certain critical U c1 was observed under the conditions of total compensation of the electric field in the bulk liquid by a surface charge. It is shown that the transition of the flat charged surface into the reconstructed state is a phase transition closed to the second order phase transition. The height of the hump increased with increasing the voltage and at U c2 > 1,2 U c1 the reconstructed surface lost the stability, and a stream discharge pulse was observed. The shape evolution of a changed droplet of constant volume suspended at the upper plate of the diode when the stretching electric field and gravity forces act in the same direction was studied as the voltage was increased up to the discharge

  9. A material based approach to creating wear resistant surfaces for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sailesh

    Tools and dies used in metal forming are characterized by extremely high temperatures at the interface, high local pressures and large metal to metal sliding. These harsh conditions result in accelerated wear of tooling. Lubrication of tools, done to improve metal flow drastically quenches the surface layers of the tools and compounds the tool failure problem. This phenomenon becomes a serious issue when parts forged at complex and are expected to meet tight tolerances. Unpredictable and hence uncontrolled wear and degradation of tooling result in poor part quality and premature tool failure that result in high scrap, shop downtime, poor efficiency and high cost. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a computer-based methodology for analyzing the requirements hot forging tooling to resist wear and plastic deformation and wear and predicting life cycle of forge tooling. Development of such is a system is complicated by the fact that wear and degradation of tooling is influenced by not only the die material used but also numerous process controls like lubricant, dilution ratio, forging temperature, equipment used, tool geometries among others. Phenomenological models available u1 the literature give us a good thumb rule to selecting materials but do not provide a way to evaluate pits performance in field. Once a material is chosen, there are no proven approaches to create surfaces out of these materials. Coating approaches like PVD and CVD cannot generate thick coatings necessary to withstand the conditions under hot forging. Welding cannot generate complex surfaces without several secondary operations like heat treating and machining. If careful procedures are not followed, welds crack and seldom survive forging loads. There is a strong need for an approach to selectively, reliably and precisely deposit material of choice reliably on an existing surface which exhibit not only good tribological properties but also good adhesion to the substrate

  10. Techniques for hot embossing microstructures on liquid silicone rubbers with fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    Embossing is an established process for the thermoplastic elastomers but not yet for the thermosetting elastomers. It has already been shown that hot embossing is a viable technology for imprinting microstructures in addition to curing thin silicone films at their gel point. It is one of the simp......Embossing is an established process for the thermoplastic elastomers but not yet for the thermosetting elastomers. It has already been shown that hot embossing is a viable technology for imprinting microstructures in addition to curing thin silicone films at their gel point. It is one...

  11. Experimental study of liquid drop impact onto a powder surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Ng, Waikiong; Tan, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    The initial dynamics of liquid drop impact onto powder surfaces is studied experimentally using high-speed photography. For a range of bed packing fractions, φ, liquid physical properties and impact velocities, ui, we observe a variety of phenomena that can be representative of a hydrophobic surface, a rough surface or a porous medium. The solids packing fraction in the bed, 0.38≤φ≤0.65, and the impact Weber number, 3.5≤We=ρDui 2/φ≤750, (where ρ, D and φ are the drop density, diameter and surface tension respectively) are shown to be the critical parameters governing the outcome of an impact. For high packing fractions, φ≳0.5, we show that the observed spreading, rebound and splashing can be broadly characterised in terms of the Weber number while for looser packing fractions, φ≲0.5, we observe powder ejectas and provide a qualitative description of the granule nucleation at the centre of the impact sites. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Experimental study of liquid drop impact onto a powder surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2010-11-01

    The initial dynamics of liquid drop impact onto powder surfaces is studied experimentally using high-speed photography. For a range of bed packing fractions, φ, liquid physical properties and impact velocities, ui, we observe a variety of phenomena that can be representative of a hydrophobic surface, a rough surface or a porous medium. The solids packing fraction in the bed, 0.38≤φ≤0.65, and the impact Weber number, 3.5≤We=ρDui 2/φ≤750, (where ρ, D and φ are the drop density, diameter and surface tension respectively) are shown to be the critical parameters governing the outcome of an impact. For high packing fractions, φ≳0.5, we show that the observed spreading, rebound and splashing can be broadly characterised in terms of the Weber number while for looser packing fractions, φ≲0.5, we observe powder ejectas and provide a qualitative description of the granule nucleation at the centre of the impact sites. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Methodology for the investigation of ignition near hot surfaces in a high-pressure shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegemann, P.; Fikri, M.; Wlokas, I.; Röder, M.; Schulz, C.

    2018-05-01

    Autoignition of fuel/air mixtures is a determining process in internal combustion engines. Ignition can start either homogeneously in the gas phase after compression or in the vicinity of hot surfaces. While ignition properties of commercial fuels are conventionally described by a single quantity (octane number), it is known that some fuels have a varying propensity to the two processes. We present a new experimental concept that generates well-controlled temperature inhomogeneities in the shock-heated gases of a high-pressure shock tube. A shock-heated reactive mixture is brought into contact with a heated silicon nitride ceramic glow plug. The glow-plug temperature can be set up to 1200 K, higher than the post-reflected-shock gas temperatures (650-1050 K). High-repetition-rate chemiluminescence imaging is used to localize the onset of ignition in the vicinity of the hot surface. In experiments with ethanol, the results show that in most cases under shock-heated conditions, the ignition begins inhomogeneously in the vicinity of the glow plug and is favored because of the high wall temperature. Additionally, the interaction of geometry, external heating, and gas-dynamic effects was investigated by numerical simulations of the shock wave in a non-reactive flow.

  14. Liquid-gas phase transition in hot nuclei: correlation between dynamical and thermodynamical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivet, M.F.; Borderie, B.; Desesquelles, P.; Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bougault, R.; Le Neindre, N. [Caen Univ, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Guiot, B.; Wieleczko, J.P. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Parlog, M.; Tabacaru, G. [Nat. Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The dynamics and thermodynamics of phase transition in hot nuclei are studied through experimental results on multifragmentation of heavy systems (A(projectile) + A(target) > 200) formed in central heavy ion collisions. Different signals such as negative heat capacity and spinodal decomposition, indicative of a phase transition studied in the INDRA collaboration are presented and their consistency is stressed. (authors)

  15. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge

  16. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  17. Dissolution-Induced Nanowire Synthesis on Hot-Dip Galvanized Surface in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaretti Kaleva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a rapid treatment method for producing a needle-like nanowire structure on a hot-dip galvanized sheet at a temperature of 50 °C. The processing method involved only supercritical carbon dioxide and water to induce a reaction on the zinc surface, which resulted in growth of zinc hydroxycarbonate nanowires into flower-like shapes. This artificial patina nanostructure predicts high surface area and offers interesting opportunities for its use in industrial high-end applications. The nanowires can significantly improve paint adhesion and promote electrochemical stability for organic coatings, or be converted to ZnO nanostructures by calcining to be used in various semiconductor applications.

  18. Development of a novel infrared-based visualization technique to detect liquid-gas phase dynamics on boiling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Dae

    2011-01-01

    Complex two-phase heat transfer phenomena such as nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, quenching and condensation govern the thermal performance of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) under normal operation and during transients/accidents. These phenomena are typically characterized by the presence of a liquid vapor- solid contact line on the surface from/to which the heat is transferred. For example, in nucleate boiling, a significant fraction of the energy needed for bubble growth comes from evaporation of a liquid meniscus, or microlayer, underneath the bubble itself. As the liquid vapor- solid line at the edge of the meniscus retreats, a circular dry patch in the middle of the bubble is exposed; the speed of the triple line retreat is a measure of the ability of the surface to transfer heat to the bubble. At very high heat fluxes, near the upper limit of the nucleate boiling regime, also known as Critical Heat Flux (CHF), the situation is characterized by larger dry areas on the surface, dispersed within an interconnected network of liquid menisci. In quenching heat transfer, which refers to the rapid cooling of a very hot object by immersion in a cooler liquid, the process is initially dominated by film boiling. In film boiling a continuous vapor film completely separates the liquid phase from the solid surface: however, as the temperature gets closer to the Leidenfrost point, intermittent and short-lived liquid-solid contacts occur at discrete locations on the surface, thus creating liquid vapor- solid interfaces once again. Ultimately, if bubble nucleation ensues at such contact points, the vapor film is disrupted and the heat transfer regime transitions from film boiling to transition boiling. Finally, in dropwise condensation, the phase transition from vapor to liquid occurs via formation of discrete droplets on the surface, and the resulting liquid-vapor-solid triple line is where heat transfer is most intense. To gain insight into and enable mechanistic

  19. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  20. Effects of surface coating on weld growth of resistance spot-welded hot-stamped boron steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang Wook; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yang Do; Jo, Il Guk; Choi, Il Dong; Park, Yeong Do

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-silicon-based and zinc-based metallic coatings have been widely used for hot-stamped boron steel in automotive applications. In this study, resistance spot weldability was explored by investigating the effects of the properties of metallic coating layers on heat development and nugget growth during resistance spot welding. In the case of the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel, the intermetallic coating transformed into a liquid film that covered the faying interface. A wide, weldable current range was obtained with slow heat development because of low contact resistance and large current passage. In the case of the zinc-coated hot-stamped boron steel, a buildup of liquid and vapor formation under large vapor pressure was observed at the faying interface because of the high contact resistance and low vaporization temperature of the intermetallic layers. With rapid heat development, the current passage was narrow because of the limited continuous layer at the faying interface. A more significant change in nugget growth was observed in the zinc coated hot-stamped boron steel than in the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel.

  1. Alphas and surface backgrounds in liquid argon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Christopher J.

    Current observations from astrophysics indicate the presence of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the universe. One of the leading theories for dark matter is that it is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). One of the ways we try to discover WIMPs is by directly detecting their interaction with regular matter. This can be done using a scintillator such as liquid argon, which gives off light when a particle interacts with it. Liquid argon (LAr) is a favorable means of detecting WIMPs because it has an inherent property that enables a technique called pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). PSD can distinguish a WIMP signal from the constant background of electromagnetic signals from other sources, like gamma rays. However, there are other background signals that PSD is not as capable of rejecting, such as those caused by alpha decays on the interior surfaces of the detector. Radioactive elements that undergo alpha decay are introduced to detector surfaces during construction by radon gas that is naturally present in the air, as well as other means. When these surface isotopes undergo alpha decay, they can produce WIMP-like signals in the detector. We present here two LAr experiments. The first (RaDOSE) discovered a property of an organic compound that led to a technique for rejecting surface alpha decays in LAr detectors with high efficiency. The second (DarkSide-50) is a dark matter experiment operated at LNGS in Italy and is the work of an international collaboration. A detailed look is given into alpha decays and surface backgrounds present in the detector, and projections are made of alpha-related backgrounds for 500 live days of data. The technique developed with RaDOSE is applied to DarkSide-50 to determine its effectiveness in practice. It is projected to suppress the surface background in DarkSide-50 by more than a factor of 1000.

  2. Atomic-scale features of phase boundaries in hot deformed Nd–Fe–Co–B–Ga magnets infiltrated with a Nd–Cu eutectic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, T.G.; Ramasse, Q.M.; Hrkac, G.; Shoji, T.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2014-01-01

    Hot deformed Nd–Fe–Co–B–Ga magnets were infiltrated with a Nd–Cu eutectic liquid, resulting in a 71% increase in coercivity to μ 0 H c = 2.4 T without the use of Dy, and a 22% decrease in remanence, attributed to the dilution effect. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy have been used to reveal the structure and chemical composition of phase boundaries in the magnets on the atomic scale. The results showed that the Nd–Cu liquid penetrated the ≈1 nm thick intergranular regions. The coercivity increase following infiltration was therefore attributed to improved volume fraction and distribution of the intergranular phases. Co enrichment in the outermost 1–2 unit cells at several {0 0 1} and {1 1 0} surfaces of the Nd 2 (Fe, Co) 14 B crystals was shown for the infiltrated sample. The as-deformed sample did not appear to show this Co enrichment. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the distorted layer at an {0 0 1} surface of a Nd 2 (Fe, Co) 14 B grain was significantly thicker with higher Co surface enrichment. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy may be reduced in such distorted regions, which could have a detrimental effect on coercivity. Such features may therefore play a role in limiting coercivity to a fraction of the anisotropy field. Interfacial segregation of Cu between Nd 2 (Fe, Co) 14 B and the Nd-rich intergranular phase occurred in the infiltrated sample. Step defects in Nd 2 (Fe, Co) 14 B {0 0 1} surfaces, a half or a whole unit cell in height, were also observed

  3. Anomalous magnetotransport of a surface electron layer above liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.N.; Kovdrya, Yu.Z.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Kirichek, O.I.; Shcherbachenko, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetoconductivity σ xx of a surface electron layer above liquid helium has been measured at temperatures between 0.5-1.6 K, for concentrations up to about 4x10 8 cm -2 , in magnetic fields up to 25 kOe. As was observed, σ xx first decreases with lowering temperature, then has a minimum and at T xy , the earlier ascertained anomalous behaviour of the magnetoresistance ρ xx taken into consideration. The calculated dependence of ρ xx on T is in satisfactory agreement with the anomalous dependence ρ xx (T) found earlier by experiment

  4. Surface passivation of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Mo, L.; Edmondson, M.

    1995-10-01

    Passivation of the liquid phase epitaxial GaAs surface was attempted using aqueous P 2 S 5 -NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 S x and plasma nitrogenation and hydrogenation. Results indicate that plasma nitrogenation with pretreatment of plasma hydrogenation produced consistent reduction in reverse leakage current at room temperature for all p and n type Schottky diodes. Some diodes showed an order of magnitude improvement in current density. (NH 4 ) 2 S x passivation also results in improved I-V characteristics, though the long term stability of this passivation is questionable. 26 refs., 6 figs

  5. Surface-bonded ionic liquid stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Verónica; Afonso, Ana M

    2012-02-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of ionic, nonmolecular solvents which remain in liquid state at temperatures below 100°C. ILs possess a variety of properties including low to negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, miscibility with water or a variety of organic solvents, and variable viscosity. IL-modified silica as novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phases have attracted considerable attention for their differential behavior and low free-silanol activity. Indeed, around 21 surface-confined ionic liquids (SCIL) stationary phases have been developed in the last six years. Their chromatographic behavior has been studied, and, despite the presence of a positive charge on the stationary phase, they showed considerable promise for the separation of neutral solutes (not only basic analytes), when operated in reversed phase mode. This aspect points to the potential for truly multimodal stationary phases. This review attempts to summarize the state-of-the-art about SCIL phases including their preparation, chromatographic behavior, and analytical performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) of food surfaces employing chip-based nano-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikel, Daniel; Henion, Jack

    2011-08-30

    An automated surface-sampling technique called liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA), coupled with infusion nano-electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), is described and applied to the qualitative determination of surface chemical residues resulting from the artificial spraying of selected fresh fruits and vegetables with representative pesticides. Each of the targeted pesticides was readily detected with both high-resolution and full-scan collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra. In the case of simazine and sevin, a mass resolution of 100,000 was insufficient to distinguish the isobaric protonated molecules for these compounds. When the surface of a spinach leaf was analyzed by LESA, trace levels of diazinon were readily detected on the spinach purchased directly from a supermarket before they were sprayed with the five-pesticide mixture. A 30 s rinse under hot running tap water appeared to quantitatively remove all remaining residues of this pesticide. Diazinon was readily detected by LESA analysis on the skin of the artificially sprayed spinach. Finally, incurred pyrimethanil at a level of 169 ppb in a batch slurry of homogenized apples was analyzed by LESA and this pesticide was readily detected by both high-resolution mass spectrometry and full-scan CID mass spectrometry, thus showing that pesticides may also be detected in whole fruit homogenized samples. This report shows that representative pesticides on fruit and vegetable surfaces present at levels 20-fold below generally allowed EPA tolerance levels are readily detected and confirmed by the title technologies making LESA-MS as interesting screening method for food safety purposes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Determination of surface energies of hot-melt extruded sugar-starch pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2018-02-01

    Hot-melt extruded sugar-starch pellets are an alternative for commercial sugar spheres, but their coating properties remain to be studied. Both the European Pharmcopoeia 8.6 and the United States Pharmacopoeia 40 specify the composition of sugar-starch pellets without giving requirements for the manufacturing process. Due to various fabrication techniques, the physicochemical properties of pellets may differ. Therefore, the adhesion energies of three coating dispersions (sustained, enteric and immediate release) on different types of pellets were investigated. In this context, the surface energies of various kinds of corn starch (normal, waxy, high-amylose) and sucrose pellets were analyzed using the sessile drop method, whereas the surface tensions of the coating dispersions were examined using the pendant drop method. The adhesion forces were calculated from the results of these studies. Furthermore, sugar spheres were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, porosity and specific surface area. An increase of the pellets' sucrose content leads to a more porous surface structure, which gives them an enhanced wetting behavior with coating dispersions. The adhesion energies of extruded sugar-starch pellets are similar to those of commercial sugar spheres, which comply with pharmacopeial requirements. Both types of pellets are equally suited for coating.

  8. [A method of temperature measurement for hot forging with surface oxide based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Qi, Yan-de; Fu, Xian-bin

    2012-05-01

    High temperature large forging is covered with a thick oxide during forging. It leads to a big measurement data error. In this paper, a method of measuring temperature based on infrared spectroscopy is presented. It can effectively eliminate the influence of surface oxide on the measurement of temperature. The method can measure the surface temperature and emissivity of the oxide directly using the infrared spectrum. The infrared spectrum is radiated from surface oxide of forging. Then it can derive the real temperature of hot forging covered with the oxide using the heat exchange equation. In order to greatly restrain interference spectroscopy through included in the received infrared radiation spectrum, three interference filter system was proposed, and a group of optimal gap parameter values using spectral simulation were obtained. The precision of temperature measurement was improved. The experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the surface temperature of high temperature forging covered with oxide. It meets the requirements of measurement accuracy, and the temperature measurement method is feasible according to the experiment result.

  9. An empirical method for estimating surface area of aggregates in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Panda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen requirement in hot mix asphalt (HMA is directly dependent on the surface area of the aggregates in the mix, which in turn has effect on the asphalt film thickness and the flow characteristics. The surface area of aggregate blend in HMA is calculated using the specific surface area factors assigned to percentage passing through some specific standard sieve sizes and the imaging techniques. The first process is less capital intensive, but purely manual and labour intensive and prone to human errors. Imaging techniques though eliminating the human errors, still have limited use due to capital intensiveness and requirement of well-established laboratories with qualified technicians. Most of the developing countries like India are shortage of well-equipped laboratories and qualified technicians. To overcome these difficulties, the present mathematical model has been developed to estimate the surface area of aggregate blend of HMA from physical properties of aggregates evaluated using simple laboratory equipment. This model has been validated compared with the existing established methods of calculations and can be used as one of the tools in different developing and under developed countries for proper design of HMA.

  10. Cladding nuclear steels - the application of plasma-arc hot wire surfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trarbach, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of one and two layer plasma-arc hot wire cladding on the HAZ microstructure of the fine grained structural steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7, which is similar to ASTM A 508, class 2, and steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5, similar to ASTM A 533, grade B, class 1 is determined. Attention is directed particularly to the behaviour of the susceptible region, and the consumables considered are cladding materials X 2 CrNiNb 19 9, similar to ER 347 Elc, and S-NiCr 20 Nb, similar to ER NiCr-3 (Inconel 82). Results of corrosion resistance tests show that this cladding technique can be recommended for manufacture of equipment for the chemical industry to avoid corrosion failure. Plasma-arc hot wire surfacing is also shown to be capable of depositing single or double clad layers to meet the highest safety requirements and could be applied to nuclear power plants for the special manufacture of wear resistant parts and for protection of equipment subject to a variety of corrosive environments. (U.K.)

  11. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  12. Biaxial potential of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheev, Anatoly; Pozhidaev, Evgeny; Rudyak, Vladimir; Emelyanenko, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2018-04-01

    A biaxial surface potential Φs of smectic-C* surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals (SSFLCs) is introduced in this paper to explain the experimentally observed electric-field dependence of polarization P˜cell(E ) , in particular the shape of the static hysteresis loops. Our potential consists of three independent parts. The first nonpolar part Φn describes the deviation of the prime director n (which is the most probable orientation of the long molecular axes) from the easy alignment axis R , which is located in the boundary surface plane. It is introduced in the same manner as the uniaxial Rapini potential. The second part Φp of the potential is a polar term associated with the presence of the polar axis in a FLC. The third part Φm relates to the inherent FLC biaxiality, which has not been taken into consideration previously. The Φm part takes into account the deviations of the secondary director m (which is the most probable orientation of the short molecular axes) from the normal to the boundary surface. The overall surface potential Φs, which is a sum of Φn,Φp , and Φm, allows one to model the conditions when either one, two, or three minima of the SSFLC cell free energy are realized depending on the biaxiality extent. A monodomain or polydomain structure, as well as the bistability or monostability of SSFLC cells, depends on the number of free-energy minima, as confirmed experimentally. In this paper, we analyze the biaxiality impact on the FLC alignment. We also answer the question of whether the bistable or monostable structure can be formed in an SSFLC cell. Our approach is essentially based on a consideration of the biaxial surface potential, while the uniaxial surface potential cannot adequately describe the experimental observations in the FLC.

  13. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO 2 - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and Dismantlement

  14. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  15. Dielectrophoretic deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns on dielectric substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns at the solid–liquid interface quantitatively by experiments and numerical simulations. We deposited a surface charge distribution on dielectric substrates by applying potential differences between a conductive liquid

  16. Critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear matter and three-body force effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Woo; Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at ±25 μm displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 ± 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  18. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  19. In-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatographic determination of synthetic pyrethroids in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed S. Albaseer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An indigenously fabricated in laboratory glass syringe was used for in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (is-DLLME and preconcentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs from surface waters suitable for their determination by high performance liquid chromatography. In contrast to classical DLLME, is-DLLME allows the use of lighter-than-water organic solvents and the analysis of environmental contaminants’ samples without prior filtration, which is of great importance due to the high affinity of pyrethroids to adsorb to solid particulates present in environmental samples. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized systemically using one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT and statistically using full factorial design (24. Three SPs (viz.; cypermethrin, resmethrin and permethrin were analyzed. The method showed good accuracy with RSD% in the range of of 4.8–6.9%. The method detection limits of the three pesticides ranged from 0.14 to 0.16 ng mL-1. The proposed method was applied for the determination of synthetic pyrethroids in lake water

  20. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  1. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  2. Effect of the Surface Layer of Iron Casting on the Growth of Protective Coating During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the growth of protective coating on the surface of ductile iron casting during the hot-dip galvanizing treatment. Ductile iron of the EN-GJS-600-3 grade was melted and two moulds made by different technologies were poured to obtain castings with different surface roughness parameters. After the determination of surface roughness, the hot-dip galvanizing treatment was carried out. Based on the results of investigations, the effect of casting surface roughness on the kinetics of the zinc coating growth was evaluated. It was found that surface roughness exerts an important effect on the thickness of produced zinc coating.

  3. Characteristics of Corn Stover Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water and Fed-Batch Semi-Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism. PMID:24763192

  4. Experimental study of the form of "hot" steel particles on the ignition characteristics of liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharevich, Arkadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of laws governing the ignition of liquid propellants (kerosene, diesel fuel and petroleum residue) by the single spherical steel particle heated to high temperatures are presented. Is carried out the comparison of the ignition delay times of the investigated flammable substances by the particles in the sphere and disk forms. It is established that the particle shape does not exert a substantial influence on the ignition process characteristics.

  5. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing grain-surface chemistry in massive hot-core regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, S. E.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; de Wachter, E. B. M.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We study the chemical origin of a set of complex organic molecules thought to be produced by grain surface chemistry in high mass young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods: A partial submillimeter line-survey was performed toward 7 high-mass YSOs aimed at detecting H2CO, CH3OH, CH2CO, CH3CHO, C2H5OH, HCOOH, HNCO and NH2CHO. In addition, lines of CH3CN, C2H5CN, CH3CCH, HCOOCH3, and CH3OCH3 were observed. Rotation temperatures and beam-averaged column densities are determined. To correct for beam dilution and determine abundances for hot gas, the radius and H2 column densities of gas at temperatures >100 K are computed using 850 μm dust continuum data and source luminosity. Results: Based on their rotation diagrams, molecules can be classified as either cold (100 K). This implies that complex organics are present in at least two distinct regions. Furthermore, the abundances of the hot oxygen-bearing species are correlated, as are those of HNCO and NH2CHO. This is suggestive of chemical relationships within, but not between, those two groups of molecules. Conclusions: .The most likely explanation for the observed correlations of the various hot molecules is that they are "first generation" species that originate from solid-state chemistry. This includes H2CO, CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOCH3, CH3OCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, and possibly CH3CN, and C2H5CN. The correlations between sources implies very similar conditions during their formation or very similar doses of energetic processing. Cold species such as CH2CO, CH3CHO, and HCOOH, some of which are seen as ices along the same lines of sight, are probably formed in the solid state as well, but appear to be destroyed at higher temperatures. A low level of non-thermal desorption by cosmic rays can explain their low rotation temperatures and relatively low abundances in the gas phase compared to the solid state. The CH3CCH abundances can be fully explained by low temperature gas phase chemistry. No cold N-containing molecules are found

  7. Electrified Liquid Jets from Nanostructured Surfaces for Phase Change Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need exists to dissipate up to 1kW/cm2 with minimum cooling power overhead and a minimum weight. Using micro and nanostructures on hot surfaces recently emerged...

  8. Butanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) with high solids content: part I – comparison of liquid hot water pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies we pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) using liquid hot water (LHW) or dilute H2SO4 (2 g·L-1) at 190 deg C for zero min (as soon as temperature reached 190 deg C, cooling was started) to reduce generation of sugar degradation fermentation inhibiting products such as furfural and ...

  9. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  10. Ionic liquid nanotribology: stiction suppression and surface induced shear thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Rubén Álvarez; Cranston, Emily D; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2012-07-03

    The friction and adhesion between pairs of materials (silica, alumina, and polytetrafluoroethylene) have been studied and interpreted in terms of the long-ranged interactions present. In ambient laboratory air, the interactions are dominated by van der Waals attraction and strong adhesion leading to significant frictional forces. In the presence of the ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) the van der Waals interaction is suppressed and the attractive/adhesive interactions which lead to "stiction" are removed, resulting in an at least a 10-fold reduction in the friction force at large applied loads. The friction coefficient for each system was determined; coefficients obtained in air were significantly larger than those obtained in the presence of EAN (which ranged between 0.1 and 0.25), and variation in the friction coefficients between systems was correlated with changes in surface roughness. As the viscosity of ILs can be relatively high, which has implications for the lubricating properties, the hydrodynamic forces between the surfaces have therefore also been studied. The linear increase in repulsive force with speed, expected from hydrodynamic interactions, is clearly observed, and these forces further inhibit the potential for stiction. Remarkably, the viscosity extracted from the data is dramatically reduced compared to the bulk value, indicative of a surface ordering effect which significantly reduces viscous losses.

  11. Hot Press as a Sustainable Direct Recycling Technique of Aluminium: Mechanical Properties and Surface Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Nur Kamilah; Lajis, Mohd Amri; Ahmad, Azlan

    2017-08-03

    Meltless recycling technique has been utilized to overcome the lack of primary resources, focusing on reducing the usage of energy and materials. Hot press was proposed as a novel direct recycling technique which results in astoundingly low energy usage in contrast with conventional recycling. The aim of this study is to prove the technical feasibility of this approach by characterizing the recycled samples. For this purpose, AA6061 aluminium chips were recycled by utilizing hot press process under various operating temperature (T s = 430, 480, and 530 °C) and holding times (t s = 60, 90, and 120 min). The maximum mechanical properties of recycled chip are Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 266.78 MPa, Elongation to failure (ETF) = 16.129%, while, for surface integrity of the chips, the calculated microhardness is 81.744 HV, exhibited at T s = 530 °C and t s = 120 min. It is comparable to theoretical AA6061 T4-temper where maximum UTS and microhardness is increased up to 9.27% and 20.48%, respectively. As the desired mechanical properties of forgings can only be obtained by means of a final heat treatment, T5-temper, aging after forging process was employed. Heat treated recycled billet AA6061 (T5-temper) are considered comparable with as-received AA6061 T6, where the value of microhardness (98.649 HV) at 175 °C and 120 min of aging condition was revealed to be greater than 3.18%. Although it is quite early to put a base mainly on the observations in experimental settings, the potential for significant improvement offered by the direct recycling methods for production aluminium scrap can be clearly demonstrated. This overtures perspectives for industrial development of solid state recycling processes as environmentally benign alternatives of current melting based practices.

  12. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  13. ABOUT RATIONING MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFECT DEPTH ON THE SURFACE OF STEEL BILLETS IN PRODUCTION OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARUSOV E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Significant influence on the quality of rolled steel have various defects on its surface, which in its turn inherited from surface defects of billet and possible damage to the surface of rolled steel in the rolling mill line. One of the criteria for assessing the quality indicators of rolled steel is rationing of surface defects [1; 2; 3; 6; 7]. Current status of the issue. Analyzing the different requirements of regulations to the surface quality of the rolled high-carbon steels, we can conclude that the maximum allowable depth of defects on the surface of billet should be in the range of 2.0...5.0 mm (depending on the section of the billet, method of its production and further the destination Purpose. Develop a methodology for calculating the maximum allowable depth of defects on the steel billet surface depending on the requirements placed on the surface quality of hot-rolled steel. Results. A simplified method of calculation, allowing at the rated depth of defects on the surface of the hot-rolled steel to make operatively calculation of the maximum allowable depth of surface defects of steel billets before heating the metal in the heat deformation was developed. The findings shows that the maximum allowable depth of surface defects is reduced with increasing diameter rolled steel, reducing the initial section steel billet and degrees of oxidation of the metal in the heating furnace.

  14. VOF Simulations of Countercurrent Gas-Liquid Flow in a PWR Hot Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murase

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate flow patterns and CCFL (countercurrent flow limitation characteristics in a PWR hot leg under reflux condensation, numerical simulations have been done using a two-fluid model and a VOF (volume of fluid method implemented in the CFD software, FLUENT6.3.26. The two-fluid model gave good agreement with CCFL data under low pressure conditions but did not give good results under high pressure steam-water conditions. On the other hand, the VOF method gave good agreement with CCFL data for tests with a rectangular channel but did not give good results for calculations in a circular channel. Therefore, in this paper, the computational grid and schemes were improved in the VOF method, numerical simulations were done for steam-water flows at 1.5 MPa under PWR full-scale conditions with the diameter of 0.75 m, and the calculated results were compared with the UPTF data at 1.5 MPa. As a result, the calculated flow pattern was found to be similar to the flow pattern observed in small-scale air-water tests, and the calculated CCFL characteristics agreed well with the UPTF data at 1.5 MPa except in the region of a large steam volumetric flux.

  15. Surface alignment of liquid crystal multilayers evaporated on a photoaligned polyimide film observed by surface profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oo, T.N.; Iwata, T.; Kimura, M.; Akahane, T.

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of the surface alignment of liquid crystal (LC) multilayers evaporated on a photoaligned polyimide vertical alignment (PI-VA) film was carried out by means of a novel three-dimensional (3-D) surface profiler. The photoinduced anisotropy of the partially UV-exposed PI-VA film can be visualized as a topological image of LC multilayers. It seems that the topology of LC multilayers is indicating the orientational distribution of LC molecules on the treated film. Moreover, it was shown that the surface profiler can be used to produce non-contact images with high vertical resolution (∼ 0.01 nm). Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  16. Flux threshold measurements of He-ion beam induced nanofuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F W; Hijazi, H; Bannister, M E; Unocic, K A; Garrison, L M; Parish, C M

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of flux thresholds and incubation fluences for He-ion induced nano-fuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces at UHV conditions over a wide energy range using real-time sample imaging of tungsten target emissivity change to monitor the spatial extent of nano-fuzz growth, corroborated by ex situ SEM and FIB/SEM analysis, in conjunction with accurate ion-flux profile measurements. The measurements were carried out at the multicharged ion research facility (MIRF) at energies from 218 eV to 8.5 keV, using a high-flux deceleration module and beam flux monitor for optimizing the decel optics on the low energy MIRF beamline. The measurements suggest that nano-fuzz formation proceeds only if a critical rate of change of trapped He density in the W target is exceeded. To understand the energy dependence of the observed flux thresholds, the energy dependence of three contributing factors: ion reflection, ion range and target damage creation, were determined using the SRIM simulation code. The observed energy dependence can be well reproduced by the combined energy dependences of these three factors. The incubation fluences deduced from first visual appearance of surface emissivity change were (2–4) × 10 23 m −2 at 218 eV, and roughly a factor of 10 less at the higher energies, which were all at or above the displacement energy threshold. The role of trapping at C impurity sites is discussed. (paper)

  17. Investigations of Surface Topography of Hot Working Tool Steel Manufactured with the Use of 3D Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobelny Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of 3D printing of chosen hot working tool steel for manufacturing ready made parts. Results of examination of the surface topography of material manufactured by the technology Laser CUSING®B (Laser melting with metals on the machine, Concept Laser M1 3D printing of metal parts has the potential to revolutionize the market of manufacturing and supplying parts. It makes it possible to dissipate manufacturing and to produce parts on request at lower cost and less energy consumption. The parameters of the surface topography of the hot working tool steel directly after printing can differ depending on the distance from the base plate. The differences of surface roughness values can amount from 32% to 85% for Ra and from 59% to 85% for Rz in comparison of the sample bottom to its top.

  18. Effect of micrometric hot spots on surface temperature measurement and flux calculation in the middle and long infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E; Counsell, G; Kirk, A

    2009-01-01

    The non-uniformity of the target temperature due to micrometric hot spots (Hermann et al 2004 Phys. Scr. T 111 98) is an explanation for the experimental fact that near-infrared measurements yield higher temperature values than mid-infrared measurements (Hildebrandt et al 2003 InfraMation 2003 Proc. (Las Vegas, USA, October 2003), Delchambre et al 2005 J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 1069). The issue of micrometric hot spot disturbance in the surface temperature (T surf ) measurement and heat load calculation is addressed in this paper. The theoretical investigation at 3, 5 and 12 μm and experiments in the range 3.5-5 μm indicate that the surface state can play an important role in the non-uniform heating surface and consequently in the overestimation of the bulk temperature. The contribution of the hot spots to temperature measurements and flux calculations has been simulated at different wavelengths. Calculations show that (1) the overestimation of the bulk temperature decreases with the wavelength and (2) the overestimation depends on the temperature difference, ΔT, between the bulk and the micrometric hot spots. In addition, experiments have been carried out in order to compare the flux calculations at different wavelengths on different graphite (polished, dusty). The results obtained are very sensitive to the surface state pointing out the difficulties in improving the heat flux calculation model, since the surface state can change during the plasma discharges. This paper shows that the problem of non-homogenous surface temperature can be significantly diminished on working at longer wavelengths.

  19. Development and Hot-fire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Christopher S.; Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder-bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. NASA's efforts include a 4K lbf thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber and subscale thrust chambers for 1.2K lbf LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications that have been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25-35K lbf main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  20. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  1. Method of driving liquid flow at or near the free surface using magnetic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Evanston, IL; Belkin, Maxim V [Woodridge, IL

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of driving liquid flow at or near a free surface using self-assembled structures composed of magnetic particles subjected to an external AC magnetic field. A plurality of magnetic particles are supported at or near a free surface of liquid by surface tension or buoyancy force. An AC magnetic field traverses the free surface and dipole-dipole interaction between particles produces in self-assembled snake structures which oscillate at the frequency of the traverse AC magnetic field. The snake structures independently move across the free surface and may merge with other snake structures or break up and coalesce into additional snake structures experiencing independent movement across the liquid surface. During this process, the snake structures produce asymmetric flow vortices across substantially the entirety of the free surface, effectuating liquid flow across the free surface.

  2. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    OpenAIRE

    Kannikar Kwanming; Pairote Klinpituksa; Wae-asae Waehamad

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR) was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR) prior obtained from LNR with formic...

  3. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  4. Improved method for detection of “hot spots” in microelectronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov V. M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available New method of liquid crystal thermography of “hot spots” in crystals of microelectronic products have been developed. The method is based on the use of local cholesteric phase image of “hot spot” in transparent smectic phase of cholesteric liquid crystal against a background of clearly visible topological elements on the surface of microelectronic device crystal. Examples of “hot spot” images in crystals of different types of integrated circuits are shown.

  5. Features of surface enhanced Raman scattering in the systems with «hot spots»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyeva E.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate the features of SERS on the substrates with «hot spots» on the example of system «diaminostilbene - colloidal silver». We found that «hot spots» forming on aggregated nanoparticles exist on the metal substrates only at low concentration of ligand. This effect caused by the gradual filling of first monolayer by adsorbate molecules. Significantly higher enhancement factor is obtained for substrates with «hot spots», for which the participation of resonance processes in the formation of SERS signal is revealed also.

  6. Crystallization of glass-forming liquids: Specific surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Abyzov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation for the melt-crystal specific interfacial energy is developed in terms of the generalized Gibbs approach extending its standard formulation to thermodynamic non-equilibrium states. With respect to crystal nucleation, this relation is required in order to determine the parameters of the critical crystal clusters being a prerequisite for the computation of the work of critical cluster formation. As one of its consequences, a relation for the dependence of the specific surface energy of critical clusters on temperature and pressure is derived applicable for small and moderate deviations from liquid-crystal macroscopic equilibrium states. Employing the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation, general expressions for the size and the work of formation of critical crystal clusters are formulated. The resulting expressions are much more complex as compared to the respective relations obtained via the classical Gibbs theory. Latter relations are retained as limiting cases of these more general expressions for moderate undercoolings. By this reason, the formulated, here, general relations for the specification of the critical cluster size and the work of critical cluster formation give a key for an appropriate interpretation of a variety of crystallization phenomena occurring at large undercoolings which cannot be understood in terms of the Gibbs’ classical treatment.

  7. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraack, H.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.; Pershan, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A 2 /mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A 2 /mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A 2 /mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  8. Physics of foam formation on a solid surface in carbonated liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidberg, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The amount and size of bubbles in a foam layer that have originated from a solid surface in a gas supersaturated solution is largely determined by the physical properties of that solid and liquid surface and the supersaturation level of the gas in the liquid. The presence of pre-existent

  9. The surface tension of pure liquids. Thermodynamic components and corresponding states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    1999-01-01

    From the temperature dependency of surface and interfacial tensions the surface excess energy and entropy per unit area can be obtained. The excess energy is a liquid-specific property; it varies over about three decades between liquid helium and molten metals. On the other hand, the excess entropy

  10. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  11. Tetra point wetting at the free surface of liquid Ga-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O.G.; Pershan, P.S.; Ocko, B.M.; Di Masi, E.; Deutsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous surface wetting transition, pinned to a solid-liquid-liquid-vapor tetra coexistence point, is studied by x-ray reflectivity in liquid Ga-Bi binary alloys. The short-range surface potential is determined from the measured temperature evolution of the wetting film. The thermal fluctuations are shown to be insufficient to induce a noticeable breakdown of mean-field behavior, expected in short-range-interacting systems due to their d u =3 upper critical dimensionality

  12. Mobile Interfaces: Liquids as a Perfect Structural Material for Multifunctional, Antifouling Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinthal, A; Aizenberg, J

    2014-01-14

    Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design and fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions able to operate in harsh, changing environments not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. With nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.

  13. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Localization of burn mark under an abnormal topography on MOSFET chip surface using liquid crystal and emission microscopy tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C K; Sim, K S; Tso, C P

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the localization of burn mark in MOSFET and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection on the defect location. When a suspect abnormal topography is shown on the die surface, further methods to pin-point the defect location is necessary. Fault localization analysis becomes important because an abnormal spot on the chip surface may and may not have a defect underneath it. The chip surface topography can change due to the catastrophic damage occurred at layers under the chip surface, but it could also be due to inconsistency during metal deposition in the wafer fabrication process. Two localization techniques, liquid crystal thermography and emission microscopy, were performed to confirm that the abnormal topography spot is the actual defect location. The tiny burn mark was surfaced by performing a surface decoration at the defect location using hot hydrochloric acid. SEM imaging, which has the high magnification and three-dimensional capabilities, was used to capture the images of the burn mark. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calorimetry by immersion into liquid nitrogen and liquid argon: a better way to determine the internal surface area of micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ricardo; Llewellyn, Philip; Rouquerol, Françoise; Denoyel, Renaud; Rouquerol, Jean

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the internal surface area of a set of samples (either carbons or oxides, either porous or nonporous, either microporous or mesoporous) by microcalorimetry via immersion into liquid nitrogen or argon. We have made use of an isothermal, heat-flux microcalorimeter, initially designed and built in our laboratory for the sake of gas adsorption experiments at 77 or 87 K. It seems that immersion calorimetry into liquid nitrogen and argon makes it possible to go one step further in the determination of the internal surface area of micropores.

  16. Fluorination effects on the thermodynamic, thermophysical and surface properties of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, N.S.M.; Luís, A.; Reis, P.M.; Carvalho, P.J.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Freire, M.G.; Pereiro, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of fluorinated ionic liquids. • Thermophysical properties of fluorinated ionic liquids. • Thermal properties and thermodynamic functions. - Abstract: This paper reports the thermal, thermodynamic, thermophysical and surface properties of eight ionic liquids with fluorinated alkyl side chain lengths equal or greater than four carbon atoms. Melting and decomposition temperatures were determined together with experimental densities, surface tensions, refractive indices, dynamic viscosities and ionic conductivities in a temperature interval ranging from (293.15 to 353.15) K. The surface properties of these fluorinated ionic liquids were discussed and several thermodynamic functions, as well as critical temperatures, were estimated. Coefficients of isobaric thermal expansion, molecular volumes and free volume effects were calculated from experimental values of density and refractive index and compared with previous data. Finally, Walden plots were used to evaluate the ionicity of the investigated ionic liquids.

  17. Effect of potential attraction term on surface tension of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, N.; Khordad, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of attraction term of molecular potential on surface tension of ionic liquids (ILs). For this purpose, we have introduced two different potential models to obtain analytical expressions for the surface tension of ILs. The introduced potential models have different attraction terms. The obtained surface tensions in this work have been compared with other theoretical methods and also experimental data. Using the calculated surface tension, the sound velocity is also estimated. We have studied the structural effects on the surface tensions of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. It is found that the cation alkyl chain length and the anion size play important roles to the surface tension of the selected ionic liquids. The calculated surface tensions show a good harmony with experimental data. It is clear that the attraction term of molecular potential has an important role on surface tension and sound velocity of our system.

  18. Hydrogenation of nitriles on a well-characterized nickel surface: From surface science studies to liquid phase catalytic activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardin, Denis Emmanuel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Nitrile hydrogenation is the most commonly used method for preparing diverse amines. This thesis is aimed at the mechanism and factors affecting the performance of Ni-based catalysts in nitrile hydrogenations. Surface science techniques are used to study bonding of nitriles and amines to a Ni(111) surface and to identify surface intermediates. Liquid-phase hydrogenations of cyclohexene and 1-hexene on a Pt foil were carried out successfully. Finally, knowledge about the surface structure, surface chemical bond, dynamics of surface atoms (diffusion, growth), and reactivity of metal surfaces from solid-gas interface studies, is discussed.

  19. Hot Structure Control Surface Progress for X-37 Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P. G.; Meyer, David L. (Editor); Snow, Holly (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been leading the development of technologies that will enable the development, fabrication, and flight of the automated X-37 Orbital Vehicle (OV). With the Administration s recent announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA placed the X-37 OV design on hold while developing detailed requirements for a Crew Exploration Vehicle, but has continued funding the development of high-risk, critical technologies for potential future space exploration vehicle applications. Hot Structure Control Surfaces (HSCS) technology development is one of the high-priority areas being funded at this time. The goal of HSCS research is to mitigate risk by qualifying the lightest possible components that meet the stringent X-37 OV weight and performance requirements, including Shuttle-type reen- try environments with peak temperatures of 2800 OF. The small size of the X-37 OV (25.7-feet long and 14.9-foot wingspan) drives the need for advanced HSCS because the vehicle's two primary aerodynamic surfaces, the flaperons and ruddervators, have thicknesses ranging from approximately 5 in. down to 1 in. Traditional metallic or polymer-matrix composites covered with tile or blanket thermal protection system (TPS) materials cannot be used as there is insufficient volume to fabricate such multi-component structures. Therefore, carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbodsilicon-carbide (C-SiC) composite HSCS structures are being developed in parallel by two teams supporting the X-37 prime contractor (The Boeing Company). The Science Applications International Coy. (SAIC) and Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT) team is developing the C-C HSCS, while the General Electric Energy Power Systems Composites (GE-PSC) and Materials Research and Design (MRD) team is developing the C-SiC HSCS. These two teams were selected to reduce the high level of risk associated with developing advanced control surface components. They have continued HSCS

  20. Novel method for the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Srinivasan, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Hare's apparatus generally used for the determination of density of liquids has been modified by replacing its vertical arms (glass tubes) with capillary tubes of 30 cm length and 0.072 cm diameter. When the columns of liquids are drawn through the capillary tubes with reduced pressure at the top of the liquid columns and kept at equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid surface outside the capillary tubes, the downward pressure due to gravity of the liquid columns has to be coupled with the pressure arising due to the effect of surface tension of the liquids. A fresh expression for the density and surface tension of liquids has been arrived at while equating the pressure balancing system for the two individual liquid columns of the modified Hare's apparatus. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is precise and accurate in the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids, with an error of less than 5%

  1. Preparation and evaluation of surface-bonded tricationic ionic liquid silica as stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-29

    Two tricationic ionic liquids were prepared and then bonded onto the surface of supporting silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry as new stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained columns of tricationic ionic liquids were evaluated respectively in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode, and possess ideal column efficiency of 80,000 plates/m in the RPLC mode with naphthalene as the test solute. The tricationic ionic liquid stationary phases exhibit good hydrophobic and shape selectivity to hydrophobic compounds, and RPLC retention behavior with multiple interactions. In the HILIC mode, the retention and selectivity were evaluated through the efficient separation of nucleosides and bases as well as flavonoids, and the typical HILIC retention behavior was demonstrated by investigating retention changes of hydrophilic solutes with water volume fraction in mobile phase. The results show that the tricationic ionic liquid columns possess great prospect for applications in analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  3. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Miranda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  4. Phase transition detection by surface photo charge effect in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, O.; Petrov, M.; Naradikian, H.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    The surface photo charge effect (SPCE) was applied for the first time at structure and phase transitions study of hydrogen bonded in dimer liquid crystals (HBDLCs). Due to the high sensitivity of this method, besides first-order phase transitions, characteristic for the p,n-octyloxibenzoic acids (8OBA), an order transition was definitely detected within the nematic range. We state that the SPCE, arising at the solid-HBDLCs interface due to the double electrical layer, is invariably concomitant with solid surface-liquid interfaces, and indicates that the changes of the characteristics of this layer, under incident optical irradiation, induce surface charge rearrangement and alternating potential difference. A mechanism of induction of the SPCE at the interface of solid surface-anisotropic liquids is proposed. We also indicate that this mechanism can be adapted for solid surface-isotropic liquid interface, including colloids (milk) and fog (aerosols)-condensed medium.

  5. Analysis of spatial and temporal spectra of liquid film surface in annular gas-liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Heinz, Oksana; Kharlamov, Sergey; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2013-09-01

    Wavy structure of liquid film in annular gas-liquid flow without liquid entrainment consists of fast long-living primary waves and slow short-living secondary waves. In present paper, results of spectral analysis of this wavy structure are presented. Application of high-speed LIF technique allowed us to perform such analysis in both spatial and temporal domains. Power spectra in both domains are characterized by one-humped shape with long exponential tail. Influence of gas velocity, liquid Reynolds number, liquid viscosity and pipe diameter on frequency of the waves is investigated. When gravity effect is much lesser than the shear stress, similarity of power spectra at different gas velocities is observed. Using combination of spectral analysis and identification of characteristic lines of primary waves, frequency of generation of secondary waves by primary waves is measured.

  6. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  7. Influence of surface treatment of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal with hot isostatic pressing on cyclic fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Toshihiko; Homma, Shinya; Sekine, Hideshi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing processed yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (HIP Y-TZP) has the potential for application to implants due to its high mechanical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of surface treatment of HIP Y-TZP on cyclic fatigue strength. HIP Y-TZP specimens were subjected to different surface treatments. Biaxial flexural strength was determined by both static and cyclic fatigue testing. In the cyclic fatigue test, the load was applied at a frequency of 10 Hz for 10(6) cycles in distilled water at 37°C. The surface morphology, roughness, and crystal phase of the surfaces were also evaluated. The cyclic fatigue strength (888 MPa) of HIP Y-TZP with sandblasting and acid-etching was more than twice that of Y-TZP as specified in ISO 13356 for surgical implants (320 MPa), indicating the clinical potential of this material.

  8. Levitation of Liquid Microdroplets Above A Solid Surface Subcooled to the Leidenfrost Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of liquid microdroplets that fall on a solid surface with the temperature of below the Leidenfrost temperature is studied. It has been found out that sufficiently small liquid droplets of about 10 microns can suspend at some distance from the surface (levitate and do not reach the surface; at that, the rate of droplet evaporation is reduced by an order as compared to microdroplets, which touch the surface. It is determined that in contrast to microdroplets, which touch the surface, the specific evaporation rate of levitating droplets is constant in time.

  9. Quasiclassical Studies of Eley-Rideal and Hot Atom Reactions on Surface: H(D)→D(H)+Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vurdu, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Randomly distributed hydrogen adsorbates on the surface of Cu(1 1 1) are used to form 0.50, 0.25 and 0.15 monolayers of coverages to simulate D(H)→H(D) + Cu(111) system at 30 K and 94 K surface temperatures. The interaction of this system is mimicked by a LEPS function which is parameterized by using the energy points which were calculated by a density-functional theory method and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy for various configurations of one a,nd two hydrogen atoms on the Cu(111) surface. Our results on H 2 , D 2 , and HD formations via Eley-Redial and hot-atom mechanisms will be presented at these temperatures. Probabilities for the rotational, vibrational, total and translational energy distributions of the products are calculated. In addition traping onto the surface, inelastic reflection of the incident projectile and penetration of the adsorbate or projectile atom into the slab is analyzed. Hot-atom pathways for product formations are shown to make significant contributions

  10. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  11. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  12. Direct mass spectrometric screening of antibiotics from bacterial surfaces using liquid extraction surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Marco; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga; Singh, Sheo B; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-10-30

    There is a need to find new antibiotic agents to fight resistant pathogenic bacteria. To search successfully for novel antibiotics from bacteria cultivated under diverse conditions, we need a fast and cost-effective screening method. A combination of Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA), automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and high-resolution mass or tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL was tested as the screening platform. Actinobacteria, known to produce well-recognized thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, were cultivated on a plate of solid medium and the antibiotics were extracted by organic solvent mixtures from the surface of colonies grown on the plate and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). LESA combined with high-resolution MS is a powerful tool with which to extract and detect thiazolyl peptide antibiotics from different Actinobacteria. Known antibiotics were correctly detected with high mass accuracy (antibiotics in particular and natural products in general. The method described in this paper is suitable for (1) screening the natural products produced by bacterial colonies on cultivation plates within the first 2 min following extraction and (2) detecting antibiotics at high mass accuracy; the cost is around 2 Euro per sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  14. Relation between bulk compressibility and surface energy of electron-hole liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singwi, K.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1979-08-01

    Attention is drawn to the existence of an empirical relation chiσ/asup(*)sub(B) approximately 1 between the compressibility, the surface energy and the excitonic radius in electron-hole liquids. (author)

  15. Axial propagation of free surface boiling into superheated liquids in vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.; Fauske, H.K.

    1974-01-01

    A unique free surface boiling phenomenon has been observed as a result of rapid depressurization of an initially saturated or slightly subcooled stagnant liquid column in the absence of wall and bulk nucleation sites. Closeup high-speed photographs of water, refrigerant-11, and methyl alcohol in tubes from 0.2 to 15 in. dia reveal that the initiation of violent free surface flashing (vapor plus entrained liquid) follows from the development of Marangoni-type surface waves. The rate of propagation of the flashing surface shows evidence of choked flow limitations and proceeds at a rate which is several orders of magnitude greater than surface evaporation (vapor only) alone. The onset of free surface flashing was found to be dependent upon both the degree of initial liquid superheat and the tube diameter. (U.S.)

  16. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)

  17. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  18. He-ion and self-atom induced damage and surface-morphology changes of a hot W target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F W; Hijazi, H; Bannister, M E; Dadras, J; Krstic, P S; Meyer, H M III; Parish, C M

    2014-01-01

    We report results of measurements on the evolution of the surface morphology of a hot tungsten surface due to impacting low-energy (80–12 000 eV) He ions and of simulations of damage caused by cumulative bombardment of 1 and 10 keV W self-atoms. The measurements were performed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility, while the simulations were done at the Kraken supercomputing facility of the University of Tennessee. At 1 keV, the simulations show strong defect-recombination effects that lead to a saturation of the total defect number after a few hundred impacts, while sputtering leads to an imbalance of the vacancy and interstitial number. On the experimental side, surface morphology changes were investigated over a broad range of fluences, energies and temperatures for both virgin and pre-damaged W-targets. At the lowest accumulated fluences, small surface-grain features and near-surface He bubbles are observed. At the largest fluences, individual grain characteristics disappear in focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) scans, and the entire surface is covered by a multitude of near-surface bubbles with a broad range of sizes, and disordered whisker growth, while in top-down SEM imaging the surface is virtually indistinguishable from the nano-fuzz produced on linear plasma devices. These features are evident at progressively lower fluences as the He-ion energy is increased. (paper)

  19. Liquid crystal elastomer coatings with programmed response of surface profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhanova, G.; Turiv, T.; Guo, Y.; Hendrikx, M.; Wei, Q.H.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Broer, D.J.; Lavrentovich, O.D.

    2018-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive liquid crystal elastomers with molecular orientation coupled to rubber-like elasticity show a great potential as elements in soft robotics, sensing, and transport systems. The orientational order defines their mechanical response to external stimuli, such as thermally activated

  20. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  1. Correlation between hydrogen release and degradation of limestone concrete exposed to hot liquid sodium in inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Kannan, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Concrete is used as a structural material in a Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) plant for the construction of its foundation, containment, radiation shield and equipment support structures. An accidental leakage of hot sodium on these civil structures can bring about thermo-chemical reactions, with concrete producing hydrogen gas and causing structural degradation. The concrete damage and hydrogen generation take place concurrently due to conduction of heat from sodium into the concrete and migration of steam / moisture in counter current direction towards sodium. In a series of experiments conducted with limestone concrete for two different types of design corresponding to composition and geometry, were exposed to liquid sodium (∼2 kg) at initial temperatures varying from 180 deg. C to 500 deg. C in an inerted test vessel (Capacity = 203 L). Immersion heater was employed to heat the sodium pool on the concrete cavity during the test period in some test runs. On-line continuous measurement of pressure, temperature, hydrogen gas and oxygen gas was carried out. Pre- and post- test nondestructive testing such as colour photography, spatial profiling of ultrasonic pulse velocity and measurement of dimensions were also conducted. Solid samples were collected from sodium debris by manual core drilling machine and from concrete block by hand held electric drilling machine. These samples were subjected to chemical analysis for the determination of free and bound water along with unburnt and burnt sodium. The hydrogen generation parameters such as average and peak release rate as well as release efficiency are derived from measured test variables. These test variables include temperature, pressure and hydrogen concentration in the argon atmosphere contained in the test vessel. The concrete degradation parameters encompass percentage reduction in ultrasonic pulse velocity, depth of physical and chemical dehydration and sodium penetration. These

  2. Structures of simple liquids in contact with nanosculptured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swarn Lata; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, S

    2015-03-01

    We present a density functional study of Lennard-Jones liquids in contact with a nanocorrugated wall. The corresponding substrate potential is taken to exhibit a repulsive hard core and a Van der Waals attraction. The corrugation is modeled by a periodic array of square nanopits. We have used the modified Rosenfeld density functional in order to study the interfacial structure of these liquids which with respect to their thermodynamic bulk state are considered to be deep inside their liquid phase. We find that already considerably below the packing fraction of bulk freezing of these liquids, inside the nanopits a three-dimensional-like density localization sets in. If the sizes of the pits are commensurate with the packing requirements, we observe high-density spots separated from each other in all spatial directions by liquid of comparatively very low density. The number, shape, size, and density of these high-density spots depend sensitively on the depth and width of the pits. Outside the pits, only layering is observed; above the pit openings these layers are distorted with the distortion reaching up to a few molecular diameters. We discuss quantitatively how this density localization is affected by the geometrical features of the pits and how it evolves upon increasing the bulk packing fraction. Our results are transferable to colloidal systems and pit dimensions corresponding to several diameters of the colloidal particles. For such systems the predicted unfolding of these structural changes can be studied experimentally on much larger length scales and more directly (e.g., optically) than for molecular fluids which typically call for sophisticated x-ray scattering.

  3. Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanyun [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Chunjing, E-mail: chunjing.li@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Qunying [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

  4. Effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Parvizi, Shaghayegh; Keshvad, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics reinforced by leucite or lithium disilicate crystals. Forty glass ceramic disks (14-mm diameter, 2-mm thick) consisting of 20 leucite-based ceramic disks (IPS Empress) and 20 lithia disilicate-based ceramic (IPS Empress 2) were produced by hot-pressing technique. All specimens were polished and then cleaned ultrasonically in distilled water. Ten specimens of each ceramic group were then etched with 9% hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel for 2 minutes and cleaned ultrasonically again. The biaxial flexural strength was measured by the piston-on-three-ball test in a universal testing machine. Data based on ten specimens in each group were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Microstructure of ceramic surfaces before and after acid etching was also examined by a scanning electron microscope. The mean biaxial flexural strength values for each group tested were (in MPa): nonetched IPS Empress = 118.6 +/- 25.5; etched IPS Empress = 102.9 +/- 15.4; nonetched IPS Empress 2 = 283.0 +/- 48.5; and etched IPS Empress 2 = 250.6 +/- 34.6. The results showed that the etching process reduced the biaxial flexural strengths significantly for both ceramic types (p= 0.025). No significant interaction between the ceramic type and etching process was found (p= 0.407). From the results, it was concluded that surface HF acid etching could have a weakening effect on hot-pressed leucite or lithia disilicate-based glass ceramic systems.

  5. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  6. On the Surface Breakup of a Non-turbulent Round Liquid Jet in Cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Mohsen; Ashgriz, Nasser

    2011-11-01

    The atomization of a non-turbulent liquid jet injected into a subsonic cross-flow consists of two parts: (1) primary breakup and (2) secondary breakup. Two distinct regimes for the liquid jet primary breakup have been recognized; the so called column breakup and surface breakup. In the column breakup mode, the entire liquid jet undergoes disintegration into large liquid lumps. Quiet differently in the surface breakup regime, liquid fragments with various sizes and shapes are separated from the surface of the jet. Despite many experimental studies the mechanisms of jet surface breakup is not fully understood. Thus this study aims at providing useful observations regarding the underlying physics involving the surface breakup mechanism of a liquid jet in cross-flow, using detailed numerical simulations. The results show that a two-stage mechanism can be responsible for surface breakup. In the first stage, a sheet-like structure extrudes towards the downstream, and in the second stage it disintegrates into ligaments and droplets due to aerodynamic instability.

  7. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmen, A.; Romdhane, F.F.; Ben Ouada, H.; Gharbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results

  8. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmen, A. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia)]. E-mail: asma_abderrahmen@yahoo.fr; Romdhane, F.F. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Gharbi, A. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results.

  9. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  10. A new facility for studying plasma interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, X.; Ou, W.; Tian, S.; Wang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, J.; Gou, F.; Yang, D.; Chen, S.

    2014-01-01

    A new facility to study plasmas interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface was designed and is constructing in Sichuan University. The integrated setup includes the liquid lithium circulating part and linear high density plasma generator. The circulating part is consisted of main loop, on-line monitor system, lithium purification system and temperature programmed desorption system. In our group a linear high density plasma generator was built in 2012. Three coils were mounted along the vessel to produce an axial magnetic field inside. The magnetic field strength is up to 0.45 T and work continuously. Experiments on plasmas interacting with free flowing liquid lithium surface will be performed

  11. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dan; Backus, Ellen H G; Hunger, Johannes; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-06-06

    In nature, aqueous solutions often move collectively along solid surfaces (for example, raindrops falling on the ground and rivers flowing through riverbeds). However, the influence of such motion on water-surface interfacial chemistry is unclear. In this work, we combine surface-specific sum frequency generation spectroscopy and microfluidics to show that at immersed calcium fluoride and fused silica surfaces, flow leads to a reversible modification of the surface charge and subsequent realignment of the interfacial water molecules. Obtaining equivalent effects under static conditions requires a substantial change in bulk solution pH (up to 2 pH units), demonstrating the coupling between flow and chemistry. These marked flow-induced variations in interfacial chemistry should substantially affect our understanding and modeling of chemical processes at immersed surfaces. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Theoretical calculations of the surface tension of Ag(1-x)-Cu(x) liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A thermodynamic model for calculating the surface tension, and its temperature and composition dependences, of liquid binary alloys is described. → The model does not require the prior knowledge of the surface concentration and Gibbs energy. → The surface tension of the liquid Ag-Cu binary alloys has been calculated as a function of temperature and concentration. → The calculated values agree well with existing experimental data. - Abstract: The surface tension of silver-copper binary liquid alloys is calculated, in the frame work of Eyring theory. The calculations were made for different compositions (mole fraction, x Cu = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), in the temperature range 1100-1800 K. The surface tension decreases with temperature increase, at a fixed copper fraction x Cu , and increases with increasing copper content. The calculated results are appropriately compared with existing literature data.

  13. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  14. X-Ray Reflectivity from the Surface of a Liquid Crystal:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pershan, P.S.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1984-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity from the surface of a nematic liquid crystal is interpreted as the coherent superposition of Fresnel reflection from the surface and Bragg reflection from smectic order induced by the surface. Angular dependence of the Fresnel effect yields information on surface structure....... Measurement of the intensity of diffuse critical scattering relative to the Fresnel reflection yields the absolute value of the critical part of the density-density correlation function....

  15. Transmission-lattice based geometric phase analysis for evaluating the dynamic deformation of a liquid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenxiong; Huang, Xianfu; Liu, Zhanwei

    2014-05-05

    Quantitatively measuring a dynamic liquid surface often presents a challenge due to high transparency, fluidity and specular reflection. Here, a novel Transmission-Lattice based Geometric Phase Analysis (TLGPA) method is introduced. In this method, a special lattice is placed underneath a liquid to be tested and, when viewed from above, the phase of the transmission-lattice image is modulated by the deformation of the liquid surface. Combining this with multi-directional Newton iteration algorithms, the dynamic deformation field of the liquid surface can be calculated from the phase variation of a series of transmission-lattice images captured at different moments. The developed method has the advantage of strong self-adaption ability to initial lattice rotational errors and this is discussed in detail. Dynamic 3D ripples formation and propagation was investigated and the results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  16. Investigation of surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid–liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid–liquid interfaces. (paper)

  17. Structural and spectroscopic analysis of hot filament decomposed ethylene deposited at low temperature on silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, F.-K.; Perevedentseva, E.; Chou, P.-W.; Cheng, C.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The deposition of decomposed ethylene on silicon wafer at lower temperature using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method was applied to compose thin film of carbon and its compounds with silicon and hydrocarbon structures. The films were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The structure and morphology of the early stage of the film deposition was analyzed. The obtaining of SiC as well as diamond-like structure with this method and catalytic influence of chemical admixtures on the film structure and properties are discussed

  18. Task 15 - Remediation of Organically Contaminated Soil Using Hot/Liquid (Subcritical) Water. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996-- March 31,1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, Steven B.

    1997-01-01

    This activity will perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the use of hot/liquid water for the removal of organic contaminants from soil at the pilot (20 to 40 kg) scale. Lab-scale studies will be performed to determine the optimum temperature, contact time, and flow rates for removal of the organic contaminants. Initial investigations into using carbon sorbents to clean the extractant water for recycle use and to concentrate the extracted contaminants in a small volume for disposal will also be performed

  19. Formation of coatings from a liquid phase on the surface of iron-base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tatarek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the present state of the art regarding the technology and investigations of the phenomena that take place during the formation and growth of aluminum and zinc coatings hot-dip formed on iron products. In its cognitive aspect, the study offers an in-depth analysis of the partial processes that proceed in metal bath at the solid body – liquid metal interface. It is expected that the present study will help in a more detailed description of the respective phenomena and in full explanation of the mechanism of the coating growth, taking as an example the growth of aluminum coatings. The obtained results can serve as a background for some general conclusions regarding the thickness evolution process in other hot-dip coatings.

  20. VUV/XUV measurements of impurity emission in plasmas with liquid lithium surfaces on LTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael; Stutman, Dan; Bell, Ronald E; Boyle, Dennis; Kaita, Robert; Kozub, Tom; Lucia, Matthew; Majeski, Richard; Merino, Enrique; Schmitt, John; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Clementson, Joel; Kubota, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The VUV/XUV spectrum has been measured on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) using a transmission grating imaging spectrometer (TGIS) coupled to a direct-detection x-ray charge-coupled device camera. TGIS data show significant changes in the ratios between the lithium and oxygen impurity line emission during discharges with varying lithium wall conditions. Lithium coatings that have been passivated by lengthy exposure to significant levels of impurities contribute to a large O/Li ratio measured during LTX plasma discharges. Furthermore, previous results have indicated that a passivated lithium film on the plasma facing components will function as a stronger impurity source when in the form of a hot liquid layer compared to a solid lithium layer. However, recent TGIS measurements of plasma discharges in LTX with hot stainless steel boundary shells and a fresh liquid lithium coating show lower O/Li impurity line ratios when compared to discharges with a solid lithium film on cool shells. These new measurements help elucidate the somewhat contradictory results of the effects of solid and liquid lithium on plasma confinement observed in previous experiments. (paper)

  1. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Role of Transient Absorption in Surface Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze and compare surface- and vol ume-based internal photoelectric effects from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expression s for the photoemission rate in both cases. Similar to results for a flat metal surface, one can show that the surface mechanism preva ils, since it is un...

  2. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  3. Microstructure Evolution and Surface Cracking Behavior of Superheavy Forgings during Hot Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superheavy forgings that are manufactured from 600 t grade ingots have been applied in the latest generation of nuclear power plants to provide good safety. However, component production is pushing the limits of the current free-forging industry. Large initial grain sizes and a low strain rate are the main factors that contribute to the deformation of superheavy forgings during forging. In this study, 18Mn18Cr0.6N steel with a coarse grain structure was selected as a model material. Hot compression and hot tension tests were conducted at a strain rate of 10−4·s−1. The essential nucleation mechanism of the dynamic recrystallization involved low-angle grain boundary formation and subgrain rotation, which was independent of the original high-angle grain boundary bulging and the presence of twins. Twins were formed during the growth of dynamic recrystallization grains. The grain refinement was not obvious at 1150°C. A lowering of the deformation temperature to 1050°C resulted in a fine grain structure; however, the stress increased significantly. Crack-propagation paths included high-angle grain boundaries, twin boundaries, and the insides of grains, in that order. For superheavy forging, the ingot should have a larger height and a smaller diameter.

  4. Rate-Dependent Slip of Newtonian Liquid at Smooth Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingxi; Granick, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2--4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks

  5. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid surface. II. Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-11-01

    The rates of evaporation and condensation of methanol under the vapor-liquid equilibrium condition at the temperature of 300 and 350 K are investigated with a molecular dynamics computer simulation. Compared with the argon system (reported in part I), the ratio of self-reflection is similar (˜10%), but the ratio of molecule exchange is several times larger than the argon, which suggests that the conventional assumption of condensation as a unimolecular process completely fails for associating fluids. The resulting total condensation coefficient is 20%-25%, and has a quantitative agreement with a recent experiment. The temperature dependence of the evaporation-condensation behavior is not significant.

  6. Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading on surfaces with slanted micro-pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric silicone-fabricated nanostructured surfaces has recently been reported. In this work, uniformly deflected polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars covered with silver films were fabricated. Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading behaviors in a preferential direction were observed on the slanted micro-pillar surfaces and a micro-scale thin liquid film advancing ahead of the bulk liquid droplet was clearly observed by high-speed video imaging. It is found that the slanted micro-pillar array is able to promote or inhibit the propagation of this thin liquid film in different directions by the asymmetric capillary force. The spreading behavior of the bulk liquid was guided and finally controlled by this micro-scale liquid film. Different spreading regimes are defined by the relationship between the liquid intrinsic contact angle and the critical angles, which were determined by the pillar height, pillar deflection angle and inter-pillar spacing. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  7. Electrostatics in liquids: from electrolytes and suspensions towards emulsions and patchy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    These lecture notes describe ionic screening of liquid-immersed charged surfaces within the linear and the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann theory. The classic Gouy–Chapman description of a single charged planar surface is extensively described, as well as its linearised version and the connection with

  8. Newtonian liquid jet impaction on a high-speed moving surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, B.; Green, S.I.; Davy, M.H.; Eadie, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied experimentally the interaction of a liquid jet with a moving surface. ► Decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash. ► The Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. ► The jet impingement angle had only a small effect on the splash. ► Increasing the surface roughness substantially decreased the splash threshold. - Abstract: In the railroad industry a friction modifying agent may be applied to the rail or wheel in the form of a liquid jet. In this mode of application the interaction between the high-speed liquid jet and a fast moving surface is important. Seven different Newtonian liquids with widely varying shear viscosities were tested to isolate the effect of viscosity from other fluid properties. Tests were also done on five surfaces of different roughness heights to investigate the effects of surface roughness. High-speed video imaging was employed to scrutinize the interaction between the impacting jet and the moving surface. For all surfaces, decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash and consequently enhanced the transfer efficiency. At the elevated Weber numbers of the testing, the Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. The ratio of the surface velocity to the jet velocity has only a small effect on the splash, whereas increasing the roughness-height-to-jet-diameter ratio substantially decreased the splash threshold.

  9. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  10. Ballistic Evaporation and Solvation of Helium Atoms at the Surfaces of Protic and Hydrocarbon Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexis M; Lancaster, Diane K; Faust, Jennifer A; Hahn, Christine; Reznickova, Anna; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2014-11-06

    Atomic and molecular solutes evaporate and dissolve by traversing an atomically thin boundary separating liquid and gas. Most solutes spend only short times in this interfacial region, making them difficult to observe. Experiments that monitor the velocities of evaporating species, however, can capture their final interactions with surface solvent molecules. We find that polarizable gases such as N2 and Ar evaporate from protic and hydrocarbon liquids with Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distributions. Surprisingly, the weakly interacting helium atom emerges from these liquids at high kinetic energies, exceeding the expected energy of evaporation from salty water by 70%. This super-Maxwellian evaporation implies in reverse that He atoms preferentially dissolve when they strike the surface at high energies, as if ballistically penetrating into the solvent. The evaporation energies increase with solvent surface tension, suggesting that He atoms require extra kinetic energy to navigate increasingly tortuous paths between surface molecules.

  11. Numerical simulation of liquid film flow on revolution surfaces with momentum integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The momentum integral method is applied in the frame of safety analysis of pressure water reactors under hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions to simulate numerically film condensation, rewetting and vaporization on the inner surface of pressure water reactor containment. From the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a liquid film arising from condensation of steam upon the inner of the containment during a LOCA in a pressure water reactor plant, an integro-differential equation is derived, referring to an arbitrary axisymmetric surface of revolution. This equation describes the velocity distribution of the liquid film along a meridian of a surface of revolution. From the integro-differential equation and ordinary differential equation of first order for the film velocity is derived and integrated numerically. From the velocity distribution the film thickness distribution is obtained. The solution of the enthalpy equation for the liquid film yields the temperature distribution on the inner surface of the containment. (authors)

  12. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  13. Hot-Fire Test Results of Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. To supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the main injector of the integrated test article, existing subscale preburner injectors from a previous NASA-funded oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine development program were utilized. For the integrated test article, existing and newly designed and fabricated inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. However, before one of the preburners was used in the integrated test article, it was first hot-fire tested at length to prove it could provide the hot exhaust gas mean temperature, thermal uniformity and combustion stability necessary to perform in the integrated test article experiment. This paper presents results from hot-fire testing of several preburner injectors in a representative combustion chamber with a sonic throat. Hydraulic, combustion performance, exhaust gas thermal uniformity, and combustion stability data are presented. Results from combustion stability modeling of these test results are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF conference, while hot-fire test results of the preburner injector in the integrated test article are described in another companion paper.

  14. Control of morphology and surface wettability of anodic niobium oxide microcones formed in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Habazaki, Hiroki; Fujii, Takashi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Skeldon, Peter; Thompson, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anodic niobium oxide microcones with nanofiber morphology are formed simply by anodizing. → The cone size and its tip angle are controlled by anodizing condition. → The surface shows extremely high contact angle for water after coating with a fluoroalkyl layer. - Abstract: We report the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with a hierarchical morphology by self-organized anodizing process. Simply by anodizing of niobium metal in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolyte, niobium oxide microcones, consisting of highly branched oxide nanofibers, develop on the surface. The size of the microcones and their tip angles are controlled by changing the applied potential difference in anodizing and the water content in the electrolyte. Reduction of the water content increases the size of the microcones, with the nanofibers changing to nanoparticles. The size of microcones is also reduced by increasing the applied potential difference, without influencing the tip angle. The hierarchical oxide surfaces are superhydrophilic, with static contact angles close to 0 o . Coating of the anodic oxide films with a monolayer of fluoroalkyl phosphate makes the surfaces superhydrophobic with a contact angle for water as high as 175 o and a very small contact angle hysteresis of only 2 o . The present results indicate that the larger microcones with smaller tip angles show the higher contact angle for water.

  15. Defect inspection in hot slab surface: multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Xiaodong; Xiao, Hong; Huang, Chao

    2016-09-01

    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection method and make the automation of robust image region of interests(ROI) delineation strategy a reality in production line, a multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method is proposed for hot slab surface quality assessment. The applicability of the presented method and the devised system are mainly tied to the surface quality inspection for strip, billet and slab surface etcetera. In this work we take into account the complementary advantages in two common machine vision (MV) systems(line array CCD traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging)), and through establishing the model of fuzzy-rough sets in the detection system the seeds for relative fuzzy connectedness(RFC) delineation for ROI can placed adaptively, which introduces the upper and lower approximation sets for RIO definition, and by which the boundary region can be delineated by RFC region competitive classification mechanism. For the first time, a Multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets strategy is attempted for CC-slab surface defects inspection that allows an automatic way of AI algorithms and powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field.

  16. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, L.S.; Ng, E.Y.K.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. ► Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. ► Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. ► More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. ► Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  17. Effect of electrolytes on surface tension and surface adsorption of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, Ensieh; Najafi, Mojgan; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Felegari, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Surface and bulk properties of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C 6 mim][Cl] as an ionic liquid (IL) have been investigated by surface tension and electrical conductivity techniques at various temperatures. Results reveal that the ionic liquid behaves as surfactant-like and aggregates in aqueous solution. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) values obtained by conductivity and surface tension measurements are in good agreement with values found in the literature. A series of important and useful adsorption parameters including cac, surface excess concentration (Γ), and minimum surface area per molecule (A min ) at the air + water interface were estimated from surface tension in the presence and absence of different electrolytes. Obtained data show that the surface tension as well as the cac of [C 6 mim][Cl] is reduced by electrolytes. Also, values of surface excess concentration (Γ) show that the IL ions in the presence of electrolyte have much larger affinity to adsorption at the surface and this affinity increased in aqueous electrolyte solution in the order of I - > Br - > Cl - for counter ion of salts that was explained in terms of a larger repulsion of chloride anions from interface to the bromide and iodide anion as well as difference in their excess polarizability.

  18. Structure in a confined smectic liquid crystal with competing surface and sample elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idziak, S.H.; Koltover, I.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Safinya, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    We report on studies using the x-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) to compare the structure of a liquid crystal confined between hard surfaces and, for the first time, between soft surfaces that can deform due to the stresses imposed by the confined fluid. We find that the alignment of smectic domains in confined films depends critically on both the shape and compliance of the confining walls or surfaces: open-quote open-quote Soft surfaces close-quote close-quote exhibit a critical gap thickness of 3.4 μm for the liquid crystal studied at which maximum alignment occurs, while open-quote open-quote hard surfaces close-quote close-quote do not exhibit gap-dependent alignment. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. US assessment of free surface liquid metal divertors -- Design analysis and R and D needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of the restructured US Fusion Energy Sciences Program is to identify and evaluate new high performance concepts for advanced technology with high neutron wall load capability and attractive safety and environmental features. One promising technology specified by the Advanced Technologies and Materials Working Group is liquid plasma-facing surfaces for divertors. Some of the possible advantages of using liquid surfaces in divertors, relative to conventional solid surface approaches, include higher surface heat flux capability, continuously renewable surfaces, and higher temperature operation. A planning activity has been undertaken to identify the work to be performed over approximately three years to evaluate liquid surface concepts on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasmas, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety, and R and D requirements. A group, known as the Advanced Liquid Plasma-facing Surface (ALPS) planning group, was organized to prepare a plan for the activities needed to conduct such an evaluation. This paper will summarize the work of the ALPS group including recommendations on specific activities and a tentative schedule

  20. Extreme Wetting-Resistant Multiscale Nano-/Microstructured Surfaces for Viscoelastic Liquid Repellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoythip Chunglok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate exceptional wetting-resistant surfaces capable of repelling low surface tension, non-Newtonian, and highly viscoelastic liquids. Theoretical analysis and experimental result confirm that a higher level of multiscale roughness topography composed of at least three structural length scales, ranging from nanometer to supermicron sizes, is crucial for the reduction of liquid-solid adhesion hysteresis. With Cassie-Baxter nonwetting state satisfied at all roughness length scales, the surface has been proven to effectively repel even highly adhesive liquid. Practically, this high-level hierarchical structure can be achieved through fractal-like structures of silica aggregates induced by siloxane oligomer interparticle bridges. The induced aggregation and surface functionalization of the silica particles can be performed simultaneously within a single reaction step, by utilizing trifunctional fluoroalkylsilane precursors that largely form a disordered fluoroalkylsiloxane grafting layer under the presence of sufficient native moisture preadsorbed at the silica surface. Spray-coating deposition of a particle surface layer on a precoated primer layer ensures facile processability and scalability of the fabrication method. The resulting low-surface-energy multiscale roughness exhibits outstanding liquid repellent properties, generating equivalent lotus effect for highly viscous and adhesive natural latex concentrate, with apparent contact angles greater than 160°, and very small roll-off angles of less than 3°.

  1. AFM imaging of bacteria in liquid media immobilized on gelatin coated mica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, M.J.; Sullivan, C.J.; Hoyt, P.R.; Pelletier, D.A.; Wu, S.; Allison, D.P

    2003-10-15

    Immobilization of particulates, especially biomolecules and cells, onto surfaces is critical for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper, gelatin coated mica surfaces are shown to be suitable for immobilizing and imaging both gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram negative, Escherichia coli, bacteria in both air and liquid environments. Gelatin coated surfaces are shown to be superior to poly-L-lysine coated surfaces that are commonly used for the immobilization of cells. This cell immobilization technique is being developed primarily for live cell imaging of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The genome of R. palustris has been sequenced and the organism is the target of intensive studies aimed at understanding genome function. Images of R. palustris grown both aerobically and anaerobically in liquid media are presented. Images in liquid media show the bacteria is rod shaped and smooth while images in air show marked irregularity and folding of the surface. Significant differences in the vertical dimension are also apparent with the height of the bacteria in liquid being substantially greater than images taken in air. In air immobilized bacterial flagella are clearly seen while in liquid this structure is not visible. Additionally, significant morphological differences are observed that depend on the method of bacterial growth.

  2. Stability conditions of stationary rupture of liquid layers on an immiscible fluid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, A. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria; Kostarev, K.; Shmyrov, A.; Zuev, A. [Inst. of Continuous Media Mechanics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The stationary equilibrium shape of a 3-phase liquids-gas system was investigated. The system consisted of a horizontal liquid layer with an upper free boundary placed on the immiscible fluid interface. The study investigated the stability conditions of rupture of the liquid layer surface. The dependence of rupture parameters on the experimental cuvette diameter and layer thickness was investigated, as well as the difference in the values of surface tension of the examined fluids. The 2-layer system of horizontal fluid layers was formed in a glass cylindrical cuvette. The liquid substrate was tetrachloride carbon (CCI{sub 4}), while upper layers included water, glycerine, ethyleneglycol, and aqueous solutions of 1,4-butanediol C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O{sub 2} and isopropanol C{sub 3H8L}. Initially, the surface of the substrate fluid was overlaid with a horizontal liquid layer. The rupture was formed by subjecting the layer surface to short-time actions of a narrow directional air jet. After rupture formation, the layer thickness increased gradually. The measurements demonstrated that the rupture diameter depends on the initial thickness of the upper layer as well as the diameter of the cuvette, and the difference in the values of the surface tension of the examined fluids. Analysis of the experimental relationships indicated that the critical thickness of the breaking layer is a constant value for any specific pairs of fluids. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. The Role of Nano-TiO2 Lubricating Fluid on the Hot Rolled Surface and Metallographic Structure of SS41 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nano-TiO2lubricating fluid was chosen as an advanced rolling lubricant to investigate its effect on the hot rolled surface and metallographic structure of SS41 steel strips. The tribological performances of nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid were measured by a four-ball tribotester. The hot rolling experiments under different lubrication conditions were carried out by a four-high rolling mill. The surface morphology, oxide scales and metallographic structure after hot rolling were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The composition of surface attachments was analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicate that the nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid has a better tribological performance. The surface defects on the hot rolled surface could be decreased. The phase composition of the surface still appears as a mixture of ferrite and pearlite. The surface of steel strips is not micro-alloyed with titanium as predicted. Additionally, the grain size of rolled steel strips which were lubricated with the nano-TiO2lubricating fluid decreased by nearly 50%, compared with traditional lubricating fluid. Furthermore, it was found that the thickness of the oxide layers on the surface reduced, whilst the Rockwell hardness of the oxide layers was enhanced as nano-TiO2 lubricating fluid was applied.

  4. Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on variou...

  5. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  6. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  7. Abundance and characteristics of lignin liquid intermediates in wood (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) during hot water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the conditions of hot water extraction (HWE) on abundance, properties, and structure of lignin depolymerization products. HWE of extracted softwood (ponderosa pine) was conducted using temperatures from 140 to 320°C for 90 min. HWE materials were then subjected to a soxhlet...

  8. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  9. Apparent Contact Angle and Contact Angle Hysteresis on Liquid Infused Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  10. Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H. L.; Meyer, R. B.; Hurd, A. J.; Karn, A. J.; Arakelian, S. M.; Shen, Y. R.; Sanda, P. N.; Dove, D. B.; Jansen, S. A.; Hoffmann, R.

    We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition.

  11. Drop Impact on Superheated Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tuan; Staat, Erik-Jan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    At the impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated above the liquid’s boiling point, the droplet either immediately boils when it contacts the surface (“contact boiling”), or without any surface contact forms a Leidenfrost vapor layer towards the hot surface and bounces back (“gentle film

  12. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannikar Kwanming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR prior obtained from LNR with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the ratio of 2:1 by weight in toluene at 80oC for 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 hrs. It was found that the percentage of acrylate grafted onto liquid natural rubber depended on the reaction time. Surface coating was performed by using acrylated liquid natural rubber and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA or tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA as a crosslinker and Irgarcure 184 or Irgarcure 651 as a photoinitiator under UV exposure for 30, 60, and 90 seconds. The hardness test of cured products was investigated using the Pencil hardness test at pencil level of 2B to 6H. It was found that the highest hardness of surface coating was at pencil level of 4H for the product using TPGDA and Irgacure 651 in the ratio of 80:10 parts per hundred of rubber (phr. The cured products were able to resist to 2% H2SO4 and distilled water for more than 24 hrs.

  13. Metallic glasses: viable tool materials for the production of surface microstructures in amorphous polymers by micro-hot-embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henann, David L; Srivastava, Vikas; Taylor, Hayden K; Hale, Melinda R; Hardt, David E; Anand, Lallit

    2009-01-01

    Metallic glasses possess unique mechanical properties which make them attractive materials for fabricating components for a variety of applications. For example, the commercial Zr-based metallic glasses possess high tensile strengths (≈2.0 GPa), good fracture toughnesses (≈10–50 MPa√m) and good wear and corrosion resistances. A particularly important characteristic of metallic glasses is their intrinsic homogeneity to the nanoscale because of the absence of grain boundaries. This characteristic, coupled with their unique mechanical properties, makes them ideal materials for fabricating micron-scale components, or high-aspect-ratio micro-patterned surfaces, which may in turn be used as dies for the hot-embossing of polymeric microfluidic devices. In this paper we consider a commercially available Zr-based metallic glass which has a glass transition temperature of T g ≈ 350 °C and describe the thermoplastic forming of a tool made from this material, which has the (negative) microchannel pattern for a simple microfluidic device. This tool was successfully used to produce the microchannel pattern by micro-hot-embossing of the amorphous polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) (T g ≈ 115 °C) and Zeonex-690R (T g ≈ 136 °C) above their glass transition temperatures. The metallic glass tool was found to be very robust, and it was used to produce hundreds of high-fidelity micron-scale embossed patterns without degradation or failure

  14. Laser-induced surface modification of metals and alloys in liquid argon medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, V S; Kazakevich, P V; Yaresko, P S; Kamynina, D A

    2016-01-01

    Micro and nanostructuring of metals and alloys surfaces (Ti, Mo, Ni, T30K4) was considered by subnanocosecond laser radiation in stationary and dynamic mode in the liquid argon, ethanol and air. Depending of structures size on the samples surface from the energy density and the number of pulses were built. Non-periodic (NSS) and periodic (PSS) surface structures with periods about λ-λ/2 were obtained. PSS formation took place as at the target surface so at the NSS surface. (paper)

  15. Hot-electron-assisted femtochemistry at surfaces: A time-dependent density functional theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Rubio, Angel; Olsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Using time-evolution time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the adiabatic local-density approximation, we study the interactions between single electrons and molecular resonances at surfaces. Our system is a nitrogen molecule adsorbed on a ruthenium surface. The surface is modele...... resonance and the lowering of the resonance energy due to an image charge effect. Finally we apply the TDDFT procedure to only consider the decay of molecular excitations and find that it agrees quite well with the width of the projected density of Kohn-Sham states....

  16. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgner, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications

  17. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgner, H., E-mail: hmorgner@rz.uni-leipzig.de

    2014-12-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications.

  18. Holographic optical tweezers for object manipulations at an air-liquid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesacher, Alexander; Fürhapter, Severin; Maurer, Christian; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2006-06-26

    We investigate holographic optical tweezers manipulating micro-beads at a suspended air-liquid interface. Axial confinement of the particles in the two-dimensional interface is maintained by the interplay between surface tension and gravity. Therefore, optical trapping of the micro-beads is possible even with a long distance air objective. Efficient micro-circulation of the liquid can be induced by fast rotating beads, driven by the orbital angular momentum transfer of incident Laguerre-Gaussian (doughnut) laser modes. Our setup allows various ways of creating a tailored dynamic flow of particles and liquid within the surface. We demonstrate examples of surface manipulations like efficient vortex pumps and mixers, interactive particle flow steering by arrays of vortex pumps, the feasibility of achieving a "clocked" traffic of micro beads, and size-selective guiding of beads along optical "conveyor belts".

  19. Model of a liquid droplet impinging on a high-temperature solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulikov, A.V.; Berlin, I.I.; Karpyshev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The model of the collision of the liquid droplet, vertically falling on the heated solid surface, is presented. The wall temperature is predeterminated so that the droplet interaction with the wall proceeds through the gas interlayer (T≥400 Deg C). The droplet liquid is incompressible, nonviscous. The droplet surface is assigned as free one. The pressure is composed of two components. The first component is the surface tension. The record component is the steam pressure between the droplet and the wall. The liquid motion inside the droplet is assumed to be potential, axisymmetric. The calculation of the droplet collision are carried out with application of the above model. The obtained results are compared with the data of other authors [ru

  20. Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquids drive transport without surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Muller, Koen; Shardt, Orest; Afkhami, Shahriar; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    Mixing and spreading of different liquids are omnipresent in nature, life and technology, such as oil pollution on the sea, estuaries, food processing, cosmetic and beverage industries, lab-on-a-chip devices, and polymer processing. However, the mixing and spreading mechanisms for miscible liquids remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that a fully soluble liquid drop deposited on a liquid surface remains as a static lens without immediately spreading and mixing, and simultaneously a Marangoni-driven convective flow is generated, which are counterintuitive results when two liquids have different surface tensions. To understand the dynamics, we develop a theoretical model to predict the finite spreading time and length scales, the Marangoni-driven convection flow speed, and the finite timescale to establish the quasi-steady state for the Marangoni flow. The fundamental understanding of this solutal Marangoni flow may enable driving bulk flows and constructing an effective drug delivery and surface cleaning approach without causing surface contamination by immiscible chemical species.

  1. Inorganic Surface Coating with Fast Wetting-Dewetting Transitions for Liquid Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Zhang, Liaoliao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Xinwei; Duan, Libing; Wang, Nan; Xiao, Fajun; Xie, Yanbo; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-06-06

    Liquid manipulation is a fundamental issue for microfluidics and miniaturized sensors. Fast wetting-state transitions by optical methods have proven being efficient for liquid manipulations by organic surface coatings, however rarely been achieved by using inorganic coatings. Here, we report a fast optical-induced wetting-state transition surface achieved by inorganic coating, enabling tens of second transitions for a wetting-dewetting cycle, shortened from an hour, as typically reported. Here, we demonstrate a gravity-driven microfluidic reactor and switch it to a mixer after a second-step exposure in a minimum of within 80 s of UV exposure. The fast wetting-dewetting transition surfaces enable the fast switchable or erasable smart surfaces for water collection, miniature chemical reaction, or sensing systems by using inorganic surface coatings.

  2. Thermodynamic and surface properties of liquid Co–Cr–Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.; Delsante, S.; Borzone, G.; Zivkovic, D.; Novakovic, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid phases of Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni were modelled by the Quasi Chemical Approximation for regular solutions. • The excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the liquid Co–Cr–Ni phase is estimated by the three thermodynamic models. • Prediction of structure can compensate the lack of structural data of Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni melts. • Thermodynamic modelling of the surface properties of Co–Cr–Ni melts. • Weak effects of short range ordering among nearest neighbours in Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni liquid alloys can be deduced. -- Abstract: Direct measurements of bulk and surface properties of liquid alloys at elevated temperatures are often technically difficult or even impossible, and therefore, theoretical models can be used to estimate missing property values. The energetics of mixing in liquid Co–Cr, Cr–Ni and Co–Ni systems has been analysed through the study of the concentration dependence of various thermodynamic, surface (surface tension and surface composition) and structural properties (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) by the first or the Quasi-Chemical Approximation (QCA) for regular solutions, developed by Bhatia and Singh, in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with the Quasi-Lattice Theory (QLT). The results obtained for these binary systems have been extended to study the thermodynamics and surface properties of ternary Co–Cr–Ni liquid alloys

  3. Effects of self-affine surface roughness on the friction coefficient of rubbers in the presence of a liquid interlayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we investigate how the friction coefficient is affected by the presence of a liquid layer in between a self-affine rough surface and a sliding rubber surface. The liquid layer will reduce energy dissipation from the small surface asperities and cavities of lateral sizes smaller than

  4. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaehee; Jung, Taeyong; Choi, Haecheon; Kim, John

    2016-11-01

    Recently a superhydrophobic surface has drawn much attention as a passive device to achieve high drag reduction. Despite the high performance promised at ideal conditions, maintaining the interface in real flow conditions is an intractable problem. A non-wetting surface, known as the slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) or the lubricant-impregnated surface (LIS), has shown a potential for drag reduction, as the working fluid slips at the interface but cannot penetrate into the lubricant layer. In the present study, we perform direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface to investigate the effects of this surface on the interfacial slip and drag reduction. The flow rate of water is maintained constant corresponding to Reτ 180 in a fully developed turbulent channel flow, and the lubricant layer is shear-driven by the turbulent water flow. The lubricant layer is also simulated with the assumption that the interface is flat (i.e. the surface tension effect is neglected). The solid substrate in which the lubricant is infused is modelled as straight ridges using an immersed boundary method. DNS results show that drag reduction by the liquid-infused surface is highly dependent on the viscosity of the lubricant.

  5. Ionic liquids influence on the surface properties of electron beam irradiated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Doroftei, Florica; Parparita, Elena; Vasile, Cornelia [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Department, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi (Romania)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Wood veneers impregnated with three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and irradiated with electron beam were studied by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX, AFM, contact angle and image analysis. • ILs preserve the surface properties of the wood (surface energy, roughness, color) upon irradiation, in comparison with the reference wood, but the surface composition is changed by treatment with IL-s, mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. • Under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) on the structure and surface properties of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) veneers submitted to electron beam irradiation with a dose of 50 kGy has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as image, scanning electron microscopy/SEM/EDX, atomic force microscopy and contact angle analysis. The experimental results have proven that the studied ionic liquids determine a better preservation of the structural features of wood (cellulose crystallinity index and lignin concentration on the surface) as well as some of surface properties such as surface energy, roughness, color upon irradiation with electron beam, in comparison with the reference wood, but surface composition is changed by treatment with imidazolium-based ionic liquids mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Also, under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface.

  6. Acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Bo; Zhang Jian-Run; Li Pu

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic pressure model of bubble bursting is proposed. An experiment studying the acoustic characteristics of the bursting bubble at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid is reported. It is found that the sudden bursting of a bubble at the high-viscosity liquid surface generates N-shape wave at first, then it transforms into a jet wave. The fundamental frequency of the acoustic signal caused by the bursting bubble decreases linearly as the bubble size increases. The results of the investigation can be used to understand the acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.; Fetzer, J.R.; Batta, A.; Class, A.G.; Wetzel, Th.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  8. A simple laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid in contact with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger; Esteban, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    A simple and accurate laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of liquids has been developed, which is well suited to teach the behaviour of liquids to first- or second-year students of physics, engineering or chemistry. The experimental setup requires relatively inexpensive equipment usually found in physics and chemistry laboratories, since it consists of a used or recycled burette, an analytical balance and a stereoscopic microscope or a micrometer. Experimental data and error analysis show that the surface tension of distilled water, 1-butanol and glycerol can be determined with accuracy better than 1.4%. (paper)

  9. Effect of Tooling Material on the Internal Surface Quality of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao; Song, Bo; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Wu; Xue, Pengju; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    For the net-shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process, control of the internal surface roughness of as-HIPped parts remains a challenge for practical engineering. To reveal the evolution mechanism of the internal surface of the parts during the HIP process, the effect of different tooling materials (H13, T8, Cr12 steel, and graphite) as internal cores on the interfacial diffusion and surface roughness was systematically studied.

  10. Standard reference data for the air-liquid and vapor-liquid surface tension of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 356, October (2013), s. 329-337 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benzene * surface tension * experimental data * standard reference data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381213004196

  11. Effect of copper, tin, phosphorous and arsenic on the surface cracking of a 18-8 stainless steel during hot compression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, J.; Fernandez, M.T.; Fernandez de Castillo, I.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of certain different concentrations of Cu, Sn, P and As on the surface cracking of 18-8 austenitic stainless steel hot compressed specimens has been studied, at 1,123 and 1,273 K, in an oxidizing atmosphere (air). A procedure for determining surface cracking has been established, and the cracking factor obtained in this ways is correlated with the chemical composition of the materials at both temperatures. The cracking factors obtained at 1,273 K have been compared with the reduction of area drops obtained by hot tension tests at the same temperature. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Observation of OH radicals produced by pulsed discharges on the surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Kawano, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Furuki, Takashi; Akamine, Shuichi; Ichiki, Ryuta; Ohkubo, Toshikazu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Kocik, Marek; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy, E-mail: skana@cc.oita-u.ac.jp [Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences Fiszera 14, 80-952, Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays an important role in plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure. OH radicals have a higher oxidation potential compared with other oxidative species such as free radical O, atomic oxygen, hydroperoxyl radical (HO{sub 2}), hydrogen peroxide(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and ozone. In this study, surface discharges on liquids (water and its solutions) were investigated experimentally. A pulsed streamer discharge was generated on the liquid surface using a point-to-plane electrode geometry. The primary generation process of OH radicals is closely related to the streamer propagation, and the subsequent secondary process after the discharge has an influence on the chemical reaction. Taking into account the timescale of these processes, we investigated the behavior of OH radicals using two different diagnostic methods. Time evolution of the ground-state OH radicals above the liquid surface after the discharge was observed by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. In order to observe the ground-state OH, an OH [A {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}(v' = 1) <- X {sup 2}{Pi}(v'' = 0)] system at 282 nm was used. As the secondary process, a portion of OH radicals diffused from gas phase to the liquid surface and dissolved in the liquid. These dissolved OH radicals were measured by a chemical probe method. Terephthalic acid was used as an OH radical trap and fluorescence of the resulting 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid was measured. This paper directly presents visualization of OH radicals over the liquid surface by means of LIF, and indirectly describes OH radicals dissolved in water by means of a chemical method.

  13. Observation of OH radicals produced by pulsed discharges on the surface of a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Kawano, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Furuki, Takashi; Akamine, Shuichi; Ichiki, Ryuta; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Kocik, Marek; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2011-06-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays an important role in plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure. OH radicals have a higher oxidation potential compared with other oxidative species such as free radical O, atomic oxygen, hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) and ozone. In this study, surface discharges on liquids (water and its solutions) were investigated experimentally. A pulsed streamer discharge was generated on the liquid surface using a point-to-plane electrode geometry. The primary generation process of OH radicals is closely related to the streamer propagation, and the subsequent secondary process after the discharge has an influence on the chemical reaction. Taking into account the timescale of these processes, we investigated the behavior of OH radicals using two different diagnostic methods. Time evolution of the ground-state OH radicals above the liquid surface after the discharge was observed by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. In order to observe the ground-state OH, an OH [A 2∑+(v' = 1) <-- X 2Π(v'' = 0)] system at 282 nm was used. As the secondary process, a portion of OH radicals diffused from gas phase to the liquid surface and dissolved in the liquid. These dissolved OH radicals were measured by a chemical probe method. Terephthalic acid was used as an OH radical trap and fluorescence of the resulting 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid was measured. This paper directly presents visualization of OH radicals over the liquid surface by means of LIF, and indirectly describes OH radicals dissolved in water by means of a chemical method.

  14. Liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V pre-placed with chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahedi Nemani, Alireza, E-mail: alireza_vahedi@ut.ac.ir; Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh; Amadeh, A.A.; Ghaffari, Mahya

    2016-08-01

    In this study, liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V was carried out by pre-placing of chromium powder on the substrate and subsequent Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surface melting. The effect of the application of low and high heat inputs on the microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the treated layers were studied. Surface alloying with chromium in a nitrogen containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of hard intermetallic compounds such as TiN, Cr{sub 2}N and TiCr{sub 2}. Moreover, the presence of beta stabilizer chromium together with the application of high heat input during surface treatment resulted in the presence of beta phase at room temperature. However, applying low heat input could not prevent transformation of beta to martensite. The hardness of the layers fabricated at high and low heat inputs were respectively 1050 and 1200 HV{sub 0.3} compared to average 280 HV{sub 0.3} for the as-received material. Liquid phase surface treatment of titanium at the aforementioned conditions improved the wear resistance. The lowest weight loss belonged to the specimen with the beta phase matrix. The formation of the fairly ductile bcc-β phase hindered crack nucleation during wear. The weight loss in this condition was 7 times lower than that of the base material. - Highlights: • Liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V was carried out by TIG surface melting. • Cr powder was pre-placed on the surface as the beta stabilizer alloying element. • The treated layers were characterized by OM, SEM and X-ray diffraction pattern. • Hardness of the layers increased up to 3 times higher than that of the base alloy. • Liquid phase surface alloying improved the wear resistance.

  15. Technology development for metallic hot structures in aerodynamic control surfaces of reusable launchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudmeijer, K.J.; Wentzel, C.; Lefeber, B.M.; Kloosterman, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a summary is presented of the technology development in the Netherlands focussed on the design and development of a metallic aerodynamic control surface for the future European reusable launcher. The applied materials are mainly Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys produced by

  16. Effect of liquid film on near-threshold laser ablation of a solid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongsik; Oh, Bukuk; Lee, Ho

    2004-01-30

    Enhancement of material ablation and photoacoustic excitation by an artificially deposited liquid film in the process of pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) is investigated in this paper. Ablation threshold, ablation rate, surface topography, and acoustic-transient emission are also measured for dry and liquid film-coated surfaces. The physical mechanisms of enhanced ablation in the liquid-assisted process are analyzed at relatively low laser fluences with negligible effect of laser-produced plasma. Particularly, correlation between material ablation and acoustic-transient generation is examined. In the experiment, aluminum thin-films and bulk foils are ablated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses. The dependence of ablation rate and laser-induced topography on liquid film thickness and chemical composition is also examined. Photoacoustic emission is measured by the probe beam deflection method utilizing a CW HeNe laser and a microphone. In comparison with a dry ablation process, the liquid-assisted ablation process results in substantially augmented ablation efficiency and reduced ablation threshold. The results indicate that both increased laser-energy coupling, i.e., lowered reflectance, and amplified photoacoustic excitation in explosive vaporization of liquid are responsible for the enhanced material ablation.

  17. Ultrasonic pumping of liquids in the two directions of a vertical tube by a vibrating surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    of the oscillations of the vibrating horizontal surface determine the direction in which the liquid is pumped. In addition, the size of the gap is also a relevant factor, which has to be significantly small. The carried out numerical simulations show that the Lagrangian excess pressure and the density of linear......It has been reported that it is possible to pump a liquid into the interior of a vertical pipe when its lower end is facing a vibrating plane surface immersed in the liquid. The column of liquid pumped in a thin pipe can be higher than 2 m if the gap between the pipe end and the vibrating...... horizontal surface is very small, around 0.01 mm. In this paper we present experimental results showing that, with a similar set up as the one mentioned above, it is also possible to pump liquids in the opposite direction, from the interior of the pipe through the gap. The general objective of the work has...

  18. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  19. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  20. Molar Surface Gibbs Energy of the Aqueous Solution of Ionic Liquid [C4mim][Oac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jing; ZHENG Xu; TONG Jian; QU Ye; LIU Lu; LI Hui

    2017-01-01

    The values of density and surface tension for aqueous solution of ionic liquid(IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate([C4mim][OAc]) with various molalities were measured in the range of 288.15-318.15 K at intervals of 5 K.On the basis of thermodynamics,a semi-empirical model-molar surface Gibbs energy model of the ionic liquid solution that could be used to predict the surface tension or molar volume of solutions was put forward.The predicted values of the surface tension for aqueous [C4im][OAc] and the corresponding experimental ones were highly correlated and extremely similar.In terms of the concept of the molar Gibbs energy,a new E(o)tv(o)s equation was obtained and each parameter of the new equation has a clear physical meaning.

  1. One - step nanosecond laser microstructuring, sulfur hyperdoping, and annealing of silicon surfaces in liquid carbondisulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luong, Nguyen; Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, P. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Saraeva, I. N.; Смirnov, H. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    We perform a single-shot IR nanosecond laser processing of commercial silicon wafers in ambient air and under a 2 mm thick carbon disulfide liquid layer. We characterize the surface spots modified in the liquid ambient and the spots ablated under the same conditions in air in terms of its surface topography, chemical composition, band-structure modification, and crystalline structure by means of SEM and EDX microscopy, as well as of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. These studies indicate that single-step microstructuring and deep (up to 2-3% on the surface) hyperdoping of the crystalline silicon in its submicron surface layer, preserving via pulsed laser annealing its crystallinity and providing high (103 - 104 cm-1) spectrally at near- and mid-IR absorption coefficients, can be obtained in this novel approach, which is very promising for thin - film silicon photovoltaic devices

  2. Single-Step Fabrication of High-Density Microdroplet Arrays of Low-Surface-Tension Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Welle, Alexander; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    A facile approach for surface patterning that enables single-step fabrication of high-density arrays of low-surface-tension organic-liquid microdroplets is described. This approach enables miniaturized and parallel high-throughput screenings in organic solvents, formation of homogeneous arrays of hydrophobic nanoparticles, polymer micropads of specific shapes, and polymer microlens arrays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Surface properties and wetting behavior of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarchuk V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension and density measurements of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were carried out over a wide temperature range by using the sessile drop method. The surface tension experimental data were analyzed by the Butler thermodynamic model in the regular solution approximation. The wetting characteristics of these alloys on Cu and Ni substrates have been also determined. The new experimental results were compared with the calculated values as well as with data available in the literature.

  4. Sensory and Postural Input in the Occurrence of a Gender Difference in Orienting Liquid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Michele; Longpre, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    In the water-level task, both spatial skill and physical knowledge contribute to representing the surface of a liquid as horizontal irrespective of the container's tilt. Under the standard visual format of the task, men systematically surpass women at drawing correct water lines in outlines of tilted containers. The present exploratory experiments…

  5. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  6. Thermocapillary migration of liquids on patterned surfaces : design concept for microfluidic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Davis, J.M.; Reisner, W.W.; Troian, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel method of fluidic transport on the open surface of a chemically patterned substrate using thermocapillary actuation. Our experimental and numerical studies provide the desired correlations between the microstream flow rate and tunable parameters like the liquid sample volume,

  7. Perfect Composition Depth Profiling of Ionic Liquid Surfaces Using High-Resolution RBS/ERDA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakajima, K.; Zolboo, E.; Ohashi, T.; Lísal, Martin; Kimura, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 10 (2016), s. 1089-1094 ISSN 0910-6340 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12291S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : surface structure * ionic liquid * hydrogen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.228, year: 2016

  8. Method for controlling a coolant liquid surface of cooling system instruments in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To prevent coolant inventory within a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant from being varied depending on loads thereby relieving restriction of varied speed of coolant flow rate to lowering of a liquid surface due to short in coolant. Structure: Instruments such as a superheater, an evaporator, and the like, which constitute a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant, have a plurality of free liquid surface of coolant. Portions whose liquid surface is controlled and portions whose liquid surface is varied are adjusted in cross-sectional area so that the sum total of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as a superheater provided with an annulus portion in the center thereof and an inner cylindrical portion and a down-comer in the side thereof comes equal to that of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as an evaporator similar to the superheater. which is provided with an overflow pipe in its inner cylindrical portion or down-comer, thereby minimizing variation in coolant inventory of the entire coolant due to loads thus minimizing variation in varied speed of the coolant. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Experiment and model for the surface tension of amine–ionic liquids aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Fu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface tensions of MEA/DEA–ionic liquids aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using a thermodynamic equation. • The temperature dependence of the surface tension was illustrated. • The effects of the mass fractions of MEA/DEA and ionic liquids were demonstrated. - Abstract: The surface tension (γ) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF 4 ])–monoethanolamine (MEA), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim][Br])–MEA, [Bmim][BF 4 ]–diethanolamine (DEA) and [Bmim][Br]–DEA aqueous solutions was measured by using the BZY-1 surface tension meter. The temperature ranged from (293.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction of amines and ionic liquids (ILS) respectively ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and 0.05 to 0.10. A thermodynamic equation was proposed to model the surface tension of amines–ILS aqueous solutions and the calculated results agreed well with the experiments. The effects of temperature, mass fraction of amines and ILS on the surface tension were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations

  10. Surface Quality Improvement of AA6060 Aluminum Extruded Components through Liquid Nitrogen Mold Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 6xxx aluminum alloys are suitable for the realization of both structural applications and architectural decorative elements, thanks to the combination of high corrosion resistance and good surface finish. In areas where the aesthetic aspects are fundamental, further improvements in surface quality are significant. The cooling of the extrusion mold via internal liquid nitrogen fluxes is emerging as an important innovation in aluminum extrusion. Nowadays, this innovation is providing a large-scale solution to obtain high quality surface finishes in extruded aluminum semi-finished products. These results are also coupled to a significant increase in productivity. The aim of the work is to compare the surface quality of both cooled liquid nitrogen molds and classically extruded products. In this work, adhesion phenomena, occurring during the extrusion between the mold and the flowing material, have been detected as the main causes of the presence of surface defects. The analysis also highlighted a strong increase in the surface quality whenever the extrusion mold was cooled with liquid nitrogen fluxes. This improvement has further been confirmed by an analysis performed on the finished products, after painting and chromium plating. This work on the AA6060 alloy has moreover proceeded to roughness measurements and metallographic analyses, to investigate the eventual occurrence of other possible benefits stemming from this new extrusion mold cooling technology.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, Arslanbey Campus, 41285, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface. (paper)

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface. (paper)

  13. Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Dyugaev, A. M.; Lebedeva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T < 0.5, when the He vapor concentration is exponentially small. We also study the effect of depopulation of the lowest energy subband, which leads to an increase in the electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium

  14. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaska, M.; Beyer, W.; Neumann, E.; Finger, F.; Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO x :H/intrinsic a-SiO x :H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO x :H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO x :H/a-SiO x :H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO x :H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  15. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin film liquid Argon on nanostructured surface in nano-scale confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Sabah, Arefiny; Ahmed, Jannat; Kuri, Subrata Kumar; Rakibuzzaman, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of Molecular level phase change phenomena are becoming important in heat and mass transfer research at a very high rate, driven both by the need to understand certain fundamental phenomena as well as by a plethora of new and forthcoming applications in the areas of micro- and nanotechnologies. Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to go through the evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in Nano-scale confinement. In the present study, a cuboid system is modeled for understanding the Nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation. The cuboid system consists of hot and cold parallel platinum plates at the bottom and top ends. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Three different simulation domains have been created here: (i) Both platinum plates are considered flat, (ii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of low height and (iii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of bigger height. Considering hydrophilic nature of top and bottom plates, two different high temperatures of the hot wall was set and an observation was made on normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For all the structures, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall is set to two different temperatures like 110 K and 250 K for all three models to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). For vaporization, higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the liquid argon as a cluster moving from hot wall to cold wall. But excessive temperature causes explosive boiling which seems not good for heat transportation because of less phase change. In case of condensation, an observation was made which indicates that the nanostructured transverse slots facilitate condensation. Two factors affect the rate of

  16. Evaporation of a Volatile Liquid Lens on the Surface of an Immiscible Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-06-21

    The evaporation behavior of toluene and hexane lenses on the surface of deionized (DI) water is studied. The toluene and hexane lenses during evaporation experience an advancing stage and a receding stage. There exists a significant difference of the evaporation behavior between the toluene lenses and the hexane lenses. The lifetime and largest diameter of both the toluene and hexane lenses increase with increasing the initial volume of the lenses. For the evaporation of the toluene lenses, the lifetime and largest diameter of the lenses decrease with increasing the temperature of DI water. The effect of the residual of the oil molecules on the evaporation of toluene lenses at a temperature of 21 °C is investigated via the evaporation of a series of consecutive toluene lenses being placed on the same position of the surface of DI water. The temporal evolution of the toluene lenses placed after the first toluene lens deviates significantly from that of the first toluene lens. Significant increase of the receding speed occurs at the dimensionless time in a range 0.7-0.8.

  17. Image-Processing-Based Study of the Interfacial Behavior of the Countercurrent Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Hot Leg of a PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial behavior during countercurrent two-phase flow of air-water and steam-water in a model of a PWR hot leg was studied quantitatively using digital image processing of a subsequent recorded video images of the experimental series obtained from the TOPFLOW facility, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR, Dresden, Germany. The developed image processing technique provides the transient data of water level inside the hot leg channel up to flooding condition. In this technique, the filters such as median and Gaussian were used to eliminate the drops and the bubbles from the interface and the wall of the test section. A Statistical treatment (average, standard deviation, and probability distribution function (PDF of the obtained water level data was carried out also to identify the flow behaviors. The obtained data are characterized by a high resolution in space and time, which makes them suitable for the development and validation of CFD-grade closure models, for example, for two-fluid model. This information is essential also for the development of mechanistic modeling on the relating phenomenon. It was clarified that the local water level at the crest of the hydraulic jump is strongly affected by the liquid properties.

  18. Liquid lithium surface control and its effect on plasma performance in the HT-7 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, G.Z.; Ren, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, J.S., E-mail: hujs@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Z.; Yang, Q.X.; Li, J.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zakharov, L.E. [Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ruzic, David N. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Strong interaction between plasma and Li would cause strong Li emission and lead to disruptive plasmas, and probable reasons were analyzed. • Serious Li would be emitted from the free statics surface mainly due to J × B force leading to plasma instable and disruptions. • CPS surface would partially suppress the emission and be beneficial for plasma operation. • Li emission from flowing LLLs on free surfaces on SS trenches and on SS plate were compared. - Abstract: Experiments with liquid lithium limiters (LLLs) have been successfully performed in HT-7 since 2009 and the effects of different limiter surface structures on the ejection of Li droplets have been studied and compared. The experiments have demonstrated that strong interaction between the plasma and the liquid surface can cause intense Li efflux in the form of ejected Li droplets – which can, in turn, lead to plasma disruptions. The details of the LLL plasma-facing surface were observed to be extremely important in determining performance. Five different LLLs were evaluated in this work: two types of static free-surface limiters and three types of flowing liquid Li (FLLL) structures. It has been demonstrated that a FLLL with a slowly flowing thin liquid Li film on vertical flow plate which was pre-treated with evaporated Li was much less susceptible to Li droplet ejection than any of the other structures tested in this work. It was further observed that the plasmas run against this type of limiter were reproducibly well-behaved. These results provide technical references for the design of FLLLs in future tokamaks so as to avoid strong Li ejection and to decrease disruptive plasmas.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of room temperature ionic liquids with water at mica surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs could impose significant effects on their interfacial properties at a charged surface. Although the interfaces between RTILs and mica surfaces exhibit rich microstructure, the influence of water content on such interfaces is little understood, in particular, considering the fact that RTILs are always associated with water due to their hygroscopicity. In this work, we studied how different types of RTILs and different amounts of water molecules affect the RTIL-mica interfaces, especially the water distribution at mica surfaces, using molecular dynamics (MD simulation. MD results showed that (1 there is more water and a thicker water layer adsorbed on the mica surface as the water content increases, and correspondingly the average location of K+ ions is farther from mica surface; (2 more water accumulated at the interface with the hydrophobic [Emim][TFSI] than in case of the hydrophilic [Emim][BF4] due to the respective RTIL hydrophobicity and ion size. A similar trend was also observed in the hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules. Moreover, the 2D number density map of adsorbed water revealed that the high-density areas of water seem to be related to K+ ions and silicon/aluminum atoms on mica surface. These results are of great importance to understand the effects of hydrophobicity/hydrophicility of RTIL and water on the interfacial microstructure at electrified surfaces. Keywords: Room temperature ionic liquids, Hydrophobicity/hydrophicility, Water content, Electrical double layer, Mica surface

  20. Quantum corrected Langevin dynamics for adsorbates on metal surfaces interacting with hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the importance of including quantized initial conditions in Langevin dynamics for adsorbates interacting with a thermal reservoir of electrons. For quadratic potentials the time evolution is exactly described by a classical Langevin equation and it is shown how to rigorously obtain...... quantum mechanical probabilities from the classical phase space distributions resulting from the dynamics. At short time scales, classical and quasiclassical initial conditions lead to wrong results and only correctly quantized initial conditions give a close agreement with an inherently quantum...... mechanical master equation approach. With CO on Cu(100) as an example, we demonstrate the effect for a system with ab initio frictional tensor and potential energy surfaces and show that quantizing the initial conditions can have a large impact on both the desorption probability and the distribution...

  1. Surface science and model catalysis with ionic liquid-modified materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrück, H-P; Libuda, J; Wasserscheid, P; Cremer, T; Kolbeck, C; Laurin, M; Maier, F; Sobota, M; Schulz, P S; Stark, M

    2011-06-17

    Materials making use of thin ionic liquid (IL) films as support-modifying functional layer open up a variety of new possibilities in heterogeneous catalysis, which range from the tailoring of gas-surface interactions to the immobilization of molecularly defined reactive sites. The present report reviews recent progress towards an understanding of "supported ionic liquid phase (SILP)" and "solid catalysts with ionic liquid layer (SCILL)" materials at the microscopic level, using a surface science and model catalysis type of approach. Thin film IL systems can be prepared not only ex-situ, but also in-situ under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions using atomically well-defined surfaces as substrates, for example by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Due to their low vapor pressure, these systems can be studied in UHV using the full spectrum of surface science techniques. We discuss general strategies and considerations of this approach and exemplify the information available from complementary methods, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy and surface vibrational spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to solid surfaces under liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szlavik, Julie; Soares Paiva, Dionísio; Mørk, Nils

    2012-01-01

    .001) was observed but not of interactions between surface-shear stress. No correlation between surface hydrophobicity and IAR was observed. Addition of 5% NaCl during propagation resulted in a decrease in IAR whilst propagation in low nutrient media caused an increase indicating a general change in surface......Some strains of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes persist in food processing environments. The exact reason behind this phenomenon is not known, but strain differences in the ability to adhere to solid surfaces could offer an explanation. In the present work, initial adhesion of nine...... strains of L. monocytogenes was investigated under liquid flow at two levels of shear stress on six different surfaces using a flow chamber set-up with microscopy measurements. The surfaces tested were glass and PVC, and glass coated with beef extract, casein, and homogenised and unhomogenised milk...

  3. Improvement in Surface Characterisitcs of Polymers for Subsequent Electroless Plating Using Liquid Assisted Laser Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Metallization of polymers is a widely used process in the electronic industry that involves their surface modification as a pre-treatment step. Laser-based surface modification is one of the commonly used techniques for polymers due to its speed and precision. The process involves laser heating...... of the polymer surface to generate a rough or porous surface. Laser processing in liquid generates superior surface characteristics that result in better metal deposition. In this study, a comparison of the surface characteristics obtained by laser processing in water vis-à-vis air along with the deposition...... characteristics are presented. In addition, a numerical model based on the finite volume method is developed to predict the temperature profile during the process. Based on the model results, it is hypothesized that physical phenomena such as vapor bubble generation and plasma formation may occur in the presence...

  4. An experimental study of the surface chemistry and evaporation kinetics of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    The evaporation rate and internal energy distribution of Na 2 evaporating from clean liquid Na and liquid Na exposed separately to O 2 and benzene were investigated by laser spectroscopy. The evaporating Na 2 was always found to be in thermal equilibrium with the surface. Oxygen increased the evaporation rate while benzene diminished it. A 3 keV Ar + beam was used to examine the surface by monitoring secondary ion emission. Ion emission from clean and oxygen exposed Na was extremely low; only limits could be established. Ion emission from sodium exposed to benzene could be observed only at lowered temperatures. The secondary ion emission, as well as visual observations of Na( 2 P-> 2 S) emission, are found to correspond to the evaporation rate behavior indicating that the Na surface remains very metal rich even while reacting with impinging oxygen at high (10 monolayers/s) rates. (orig.)

  5. Tracking Traction Force Changes of Single Cells on the Liquid Crystal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration.

  6. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  7. Dependence of partial molecules surface area on the third component in lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, H.G.; Ghazaryan, Kh.M.; Yayloyan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Free surface of one amphiphilic molecule head of a lyotropic liquid crystal has been investigated by X-Ray diffraction method, at small and large angles, in the presence of the third component. The pentadecilsulphonat-water system in the presence of cholesterol as well as the lecithin-water system in the presence of decanol were investigated. It is shown that the above mentioned free surface decreases if the cholesterol concentration increases, while this surface increases in the case of water concentration increase. However, it increases slower than in the case of the two-component system. The same is observed for the lecithin-water-decanol system

  8. Quasi-one-dimensional electron transport over the surface of a liquid-helium film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Sviatoslav; Studart, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional mobility of surface electrons over a liquid-helium suspended film is studied for a conducting channel. The electron mobility is calculated taking into account the electron scattering by helium atoms in the vapor phase, ripplons, and surface defects of the film substrate both in one-electron regime and in the so-called complete-control limit where the influence of inter-electron collisions on the electron distribution function is taken into account. It is shown that the mobility for low temperatures is dominated by the surface-defect scattering and its temperature dependence is essentially different from that of the electron-ripplon scattering

  9. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, E P [Integrated Materials and Microstructures Laboratory, Electronic Imaging Products, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650-2121 (United States)

    2005-01-07

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties.

  10. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2005-01-01

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties

  11. Equilibrium and surface stability of liquid dielectric interface in electrical and gravitational fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ievlev, I I; Isers, A B

    1976-01-01

    An examination is made of the problem of locating the stable equilibrium surface shape of the interface between two liquid, uniform, isotropic, ideal dielectrics subject to the force of gravity, surface tension, and electrical forces. The conditions for the equilibrium and surface stability of the interface were obtained from the minimum free energy principle. These conditions are used for solving problems on locating the stable equilibrium interface boundary between two dielectrics positioned between infinite charged vertical plates, between infinite vertical coaxial cylinders, between infinite grounded plates and two horizontal charged thin cylinders placed between them. 8 references, 4 figures.

  12. Equilibrium configurations of the conducting liquid surface in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a conducting liquid deformed by a nonuniform external electric field are investigated. The liquid rests on an electrode that has the shape of a dihedral angle formed by two intersecting equipotential half-planes (conducting wedge). It is assumed that the problem has plane symmetry: the surface is invariant under shift along the edge of the dihedral angle. A one-parametric family of exact solutions for the shape of the surface is found in which the opening angle of the region above the wedge serves as a parameter. The solutions are valid when the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the liquid is zero. For an arbitrary pressure difference, approximate solutions to the problem are constructed and it is demonstrated the approximation error is small. It is found that, when the potential difference exceeds a certain threshold value, equilibrium solutions are absent. In this case, the region occupied by the liquid disintegrates, the disintegration scenario depending on the opening angle.

  13. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.roke@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jena, Kailash C. [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001 (India); Brown, Matthew A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-14

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  14. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Roke, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  15. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena

  16. Undulations on the surface of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Thome, J. R.; Stone, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the undulations appearing on the surface of long bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows. CFD simulations of the flow are performed with a self-improved version of the open-source solver ESI OpenFOAM (release 2.3.1), for Ca =0.002 -0.1 and Re =0.1 -1000 , where Ca =μ U /σ and Re =2 ρ U R /μ , with μ and ρ being, respectively, the viscosity and density of the liquid, σ the surface tension, U the bubble velocity, and R the tube radius. A model, based on an extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory, accounting for inertia and for the curvature of the tube's wall, is adopted to better understand the CFD results. The thickness of the liquid film, and the wavelength and decay rate of the undulations extracted from the CFD simulations, agree well with those obtained with the theoretical model. Inertial effects appear when the Weber number of the flow We =Ca Re =O (10-1) and are manifest by a larger number of undulation crests that become evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. This study demonstrates that the necessary bubble length for a flat liquid film region to exist between the rear and front menisci rapidly increases above 10 R when Ca >0.01 and the value of the Reynolds number approaches 1000.

  17. Coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yan; YANG Yan-Hua; XU Ji-Jun

    2003-01-01

    Extremely rapid evaporation could occur when high-temperature particles contact withlow-temperature liquid. This kind of phenomenon is associated with the engineering safety and the problems inhigh-transient multi-phase fluid and heat transfer. The aim of our study was to design and build an observable ex-periment facility. The first series of experiments were performed by pouring one or six high-temperature particles intoa low saturated temperature liquid pool. The particle's falling-down speed was recorded by a high-speed camera, thuswe can find the special resistant feature of the moving high-temperature particles, which is induced by the high-speedevaporation surrounding the particles. The study has experimentally verified the theory of evaporation drag model.

  18. Visualization of high speed liquid jet impaction on a moving surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Green, Sheldon

    2015-04-17

    Two apparatuses for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device (for examining surface speeds between 0 and 25 m/sec) and a spinning disk device (for examining surface speeds between 15 and 100 m/sec). The air cannon linear traverse is a pneumatic energy-powered system that is designed to accelerate a metal rail surface mounted on top of a wooden projectile. A pressurized cylinder fitted with a solenoid valve rapidly releases pressurized air into the barrel, forcing the projectile down the cannon barrel. The projectile travels beneath a spray nozzle, which impinges a liquid jet onto its metal upper surface, and the projectile then hits a stopping mechanism. A camera records the jet impingement, and a pressure transducer records the spray nozzle backpressure. The spinning disk set-up consists of a steel disk that reaches speeds of 500 to 3,000 rpm via a variable frequency drive (VFD) motor. A spray system similar to that of the air cannon generates a liquid jet that impinges onto the spinning disc, and cameras placed at several optical access points record the jet impingement. Video recordings of jet impingement processes are recorded and examined to determine whether the outcome of impingement is splash, splatter, or deposition. The apparatuses are the first that involve the high speed impingement of low-Reynolds-number liquid jets on high speed moving surfaces. In addition to its rail industry applications, the described technique may be used for technical and industrial purposes such as steelmaking and may be relevant to high-speed 3D printing.

  19. High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps. [tapered bore seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated.

  20. Surface functionalization by fine ultraviolet-patterning of nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Renguo; Zhang, Hedong; Komada, Suguru; Mitsuya, Yasunaga; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present fine UV-patterning of nm-thick liquid films for surface functionalization. • The patterned films exhibit both a morphological pattern and a functional pattern of different surface properties. • The finest pattern linewidth was 0.5 μm. • Fine patterning is crucial for improving surface and tribological properties. - Abstract: For micro/nanoscale devices, surface functionalization is essential to achieve function and performance superior to those that originate from the inherent bulk material properties. As a method of surface functionalization, we dip-coated nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films onto solid surfaces and then patterned the lubricant films with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation through a photomask. Surface topography, adhesion, and friction measurements demonstrated that the patterned films feature a concave–convex thickness distribution with thicker lubricant in the irradiated regions and a functional distribution with lower adhesion and friction in the irradiated convex regions. The pattern linewidth ranged from 100 to as fine as 0.5 μm. The surface functionalization effect of UV-patterning was investigated by measuring the water contact angles, surface energies, friction forces, and depletion of the patterned, as-dipped, and full UV-irradiated lubricant films. The full UV-irradiated lubricant film was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 102.1°, and had lower surface energy, friction, and depletion than the as-dipped film, which was hydrophilic with a water contact angle of 80.7°. This demonstrates that UV irradiation substantially improves the surface and tribological properties of the nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films. The UV-patterned lubricant films exhibited superior surface and tribological properties than the as-dipped film. The water contact angle increased and the surface energy, friction, and depletion decreased as the pattern linewidth decreased. In particular, the 0.5-μm patterned lubricant

  1. A Metabolomics-Guided Exploration of the Phytochemical Constituents of Vernonia fastigiata with the Aid of Pressurized Hot Water Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masike, Keabetswe; Khoza, Bradley S; Steenkamp, Paul A; Smit, Elize; Dubery, Ian A; Madala, Ntakadzeni E

    2017-07-27

    Vernonia fastigiata is a multi-purpose nutraceutical plant with interesting biological properties. However, very little is known about its phytochemical composition and, thus the need for its phytochemical characterization. In the current study, an environmentally friendly method, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE), was used to extract metabolites from the leaves of V. fastigiata at various temperatures (50 °C, 100 °C, 150 °C and 200 °C). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS) analysis in combination with chemometric methods, particularly principal component analysis (PCA) and liquid/gas chromatography mass spectrometry (XCMS) cloud plots, were used to descriptively visualize the data and identify significant metabolites extracted at various temperatures. A total of 25 different metabolites, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, clovamide, deoxy-clovamide and flavonoids, were noted for the first time in this plant. Overall, an increase in extraction temperature resulted in an increase in metabolite extraction during PHWE. This study is the first scientific report on the phytochemical composition of V. fastigiata , providing insight into the components of the chemo-diversity of this important plant.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  3. Orientations of Liquid Crystals in Contact with Surfaces that Present Continuous Gradients of Chemical Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, B.; Efimenko, K.; Fischer, D.; Genzer, J.; Abbott, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the formation of continuous spatial gradients in the density of grafted semifluorinated chains on silicon oxide surfaces by vapor-phase diffusion of semifluorinated silanes. We quantify the orientations of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl on these surfaces as a function of local surface composition obtained by using NEXAFS. These measurements demonstrate that it is possible to obtain the full range of tilt angles of a LC on these surfaces. We also use the data provided by these gradient surfaces to test hypotheses regarding the nature of the interaction between the LC and surfaces that give rise to the range of tilted orientations of the LC. We conclude that the orientations of the LC are not determined solely by the density of grafted semifluorinated chains or by the density of residual hydroxyl groups presented at these surfaces following reactions with the silanes. Instead, our results raise the possibility that the tilt angles of the semifluorinated chains on these surfaces (which are a function of the density of the grafted chains) may influence the orientation of the LC. These results, when combined, demonstrate the potential utility of gradient surfaces for screening surface chemistries that achieve desired orientations of LCs as well as for rapidly assembling experimental data sets that can be used to test propositions regarding mechanisms of anchoring LCs at surfaces

  4. A thermodynamic perturbation theory for the surface tension and ion density profile of a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.; Kumaravadivel, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple scheme for determining the ion density profile and the surface tension of a liquid metal is described. Assuming that the interaction between metallic pseudo-ions is of the form introduced by Evans, an approximate expression for the excess free energy of the system is derived using the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Weeks, Chandler and Anderson. This excess free energy is then minimized with respect to a parameter which specifies the ion density profile, and the surface tension is given directly. From a consideration of the dependence of the interionic forces on the electron density it is predicted that the ions should take up a very steep density profile at the liquid metal surface. This behaviour is contrasted with that to be expected for rare-gas fluids in which the interatomic forces are density-independent. The values of the surface tension calculated for liquid Na, K and Al from a simplified version of the theory are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (author)

  5. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  6. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  7. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  8. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  9. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  10. Measurement of surface temperature profiles on liquid uranium metal during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Surface temperature distributions of liquid uranium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured. Evaporation surface was imaged by a lens through a band-path filter (650{+-}5 nm) and a double mirror system on a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The video signals of the recorded image were connected to an image processor and converted to two-dimensional spectral radiance profiles. The surface temperatures were obtained from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the evaporation surface and a freezing point of uranium and/or a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The maximum temperature exceeded 3000 K and had saturation tendency with increasing electron beam input. The measured surface temperatures agreed with those estimated from deposition rates and data of saturated vapor pressure of uranium. (author)

  11. Surface tension anomalies in room temperature ionic liquids-acetone solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Murata, Keisuke; Kiyokawa, Shota; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Surface tension anomalies were observed in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-acetone solutions. The RTILs are 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazorium iodide with [Cnmim][I] in a [Cnmim][I]-x mol% acetone. The maximum value of the surface tension appeared at 40 mol% acetone, although density decreased monotonically with an increase in acetone concentration. A small alkyl chain length effect of the Cnmim+ cations was observed in the surface tension. By the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, it was found that I- anion-mediated surface structure became dominant above 40 mol%. In the different [Cnmim][TFSI]-acetone mixtures, normal decay of the surface tension was observed on the acetone concentration scale, where TFSI- is bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

  12. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  13. Analysis of a bending test on a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow containing a surface crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delliou, P. le [Electricite de France, EDF, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. MTC; Julisch, P.; Hippelein, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France, EDF, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Direction Production Transport

    1998-11-01

    EDF, in co-operation with Framatome, has conducted a large research programme on the mechanical behaviour of thermally aged cast duplex stainless steel elbows, which are part of the main primary circuit of French PWR. One important task of this programme consisted of testing a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow. The elbow contained a semi-elliptical circumferential notch machined on the outer surface of the intrados as well as casting defects located on the flanks. To simulate the end-of-life condition of the component regarding material toughness, it had undergone a 2400 hours ageing heat treatment at 400 C. The test preparation and execution, as well as the material characterization programme, were committed to MPA. The test was conducted under constant internal pressure and in-plane bending (opening mode) at 200 C. For safety reasons, it took place on an open air-site: the Meppen military test ground. At the maximum applied moment (6000 kN.m), the notch did not initiate. This paper presents the experimental results and the fracture mechanics analysis of the test, based on finite element calculations. (orig.)

  14. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes.

  15. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  16. Liquid-bridge stability and breakup on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J

    2016-08-10

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis (CAH) under zero-gravity conditions. Non-ideal surfaces exhibit CAH because of surface imperfections, by which the constraints on three-phase contact lines are influenced. Given that interfacial instabilities are constraint-sensitive, understanding how CAH affects the stability and breakup of liquid bridges is crucial for predicting the drop size in contact-drop dispensing. Unlike ideal surfaces on which contact lines are always free irrespective of surface wettability, contact lines may undergo transitions from pinned to free and vice versa during drop deposition on non-ideal surfaces. Here, we experimentally and theoretically examine how stability and breakup are affected by CAH, highlighting cases where stability is lost during a transition from a pinned-pinned (more constrained) to pinned-free (less constrained) interface-rather than a critical state. This provides a practical means of expediting or delaying stability loss. We also demonstrate how the dynamic contact angle can control the contact-line radius following stability loss.

  17. Biomimetic Implant Surface Functionalization with Liquid L-PRF Products: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lollobrigida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots and membranes are autologous blood concentrates widely used in oral surgical procedures; less is known, however, about the liquid formulations of such products. The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the behavior of different implant surfaces when in contact with two liquid leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF products. Methods. Six commercial pure titanium discs, of 9.5 mm diameter and 1.5 mm thickness, were used. Three of these samples had a micro/nano-rough surface; three were machined. Three different protocols were tested. Protocols involved the immersion of the samples in (1 a platelets, lymphocytes, and fibrinogen liquid concentrate (PLyF for 10 minutes, (2 an exudate obtained from L-PRF clots rich in fibronectin and vitronectin for 5 minutes, and (3 the fibronectin/vitronectin exudate for 2 minutes followed by immersion in the PLyF concentrate for further 8 minutes. After these treatments, the samples were fixed and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. Under microscopic observation, (1 the samples treated with the PLyF concentrate revealed a dense fibrin network in direct contact with the implant surface and a significant number of formed elements of blood; (2 in the samples treated with the fibronectin/vitronectin exudates, only a small number of white and red blood cells were detectable; and (3 in samples exposed to the combined treatment, there was an apparent increase in the thickness of the fibrin layer. When compared to the machined surface, the micro/nano-rough samples showed an overall increased retention of fibrin, leading to a thicker coating. Conclusions. Liquid L-PRF products promote the formation of a dense fibrin clot on micro/nano-rough implant surfaces in vitro. The adjunctive treatment of surfaces with the fibronectin/vitronectin exudate could provide support to contact of the fibrin with the surface, though it is not essential for the clot

  18. A high-performance lab-on-a-chip liquid sensor employing surface acoustic wave resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustanovich, K.; Yantchev, V.; Kirejev, V.; Jeffries, G. D. M.; Lobovkina, T.; Jesorka, A.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate herein a new concept for lab-on-a-chip in-liquid sensing, through integration of surface acoustic wave resonance (SAR) in a one-port configuration with a soft polymer microfluidic delivery system. In this concept, the reflective gratings of a one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator are employed as mass loading-sensing elements, while the SAW transducer is protected from the measurement environment. We describe the design, fabrication, implementation, and characterization using liquid medium. The sensor operates at a frequency of 185 MHz and has demonstrated a comparable sensitivity to other SAW in-liquid sensors, while offering quality factor (Q) value in water of about 250, low impedance and fairly low susceptibility to viscous damping. For proof of principle, sensing performance was evaluated by means of binding 40 nm neutravidin-coated SiO2 nanoparticles to a biotin-labeled lipid bilayer deposited over the reflectors. Frequency shifts were determined for every step of the affinity assay. Demonstration of this integrated technology highlights the potential of SAR technology for in-liquid sensing.

  19. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakulski, P; Pietrowicz, S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen. (paper)

  20. Terahertz particle-in-liquid sensing with spoof surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a highly sensitive microfluidic sensing technique for the terahertz (THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs. By integrating a microfluidic channel in a spoof SPP waveguide, we take advantage of these highly confined electromagnetic modes to create a platform for dielectric sensing of liquids. Our design consists of a domino waveguide, that is, a series of periodically arranged rectangular metal blocks on top of a metal surface that supports the propagation of spoof SPPs. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the transmission of spoof SPPs along the waveguide is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of a liquid flowing through a microfluidic channel crossing the waveguide to give an interaction volume on the nanoliter scale. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the insensitivity of the domino waveguide’s fundamental spoof SPP mode to the lateral width of the metal blocks, we design a tapered waveguide able to achieve further confinement of the electromagnetic field. Using this approach, we demonstrate the highly sensitive detection of individual subwavelength micro-particles flowing in the liquid. These results are promising for the creation of spoof SPP based THz lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices that are suitable for the analysis of biological liquids such as proteins and circulating tumour cells in buffer solution.

  1. The evolution of droplet impacting on thin liquid film at superhydrophilic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zheng, Yi; Lan, Zhong; Xu, Wei; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-12-01

    Thin films are ubiquitous in nature, and the evolution of a liquid film after droplet impact is critical in many industrial processes. In this paper, a series of experiments and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the distribution and evolution features of local temperature as the droplet impacts a thin film on the superhydrophilic surface by the thermal tracing method. A cold area is formed in the center after droplet impacts on heated solid surfaces. For the droplet impact on thin heated liquid film, a ring-shaped low temperature zone is observed in this experiment. Meanwhile, numerical simulation is adopted to analyze the mechanism and the interaction between the droplet and the liquid film. It is found that due to the vortex velocity distribution formed inside the liquid film after the impact, a large part of the droplet has congested. The heating process is not obvious in the congested area, which leads to the formation of a low-temperature area in the results.

  2. Measuring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of hot spots formed between an individual Ag nanowire and a single Ag nanocube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Pedro H C; Cobley, Claire M; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic study of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of hot spots formed between a Ag nanowire and a Ag nanocube with sharp corners. We investigated two distinct dimer structures: (i) a nanocube having one side face nearly touching the side face of a nanowire, and (ii) a nanocube having one edge nearly touching the side face of a nanowire. The field enhancements for the dimers displayed a strong dependence on laser polarization, and the strongest SERS intensities were observed for polarization along the hot-spot axis. Moreover, the detected SERS intensities were dependent on the hot-spot structure, i.e., the relative orientation of the Ag nanocube with respect to the nanowire's side face. When the dimer had a face-to-face configuration, the enhancement factor EF dimer was 1.4 x 10 7 . This corresponds to 22-fold and 24-fold increases compared to those for individual Ag nanowires and nanocubes, respectively. Conversely, when the dimer had an edge-to-face configuration, EF dimer was 4.3 x 10 6 . These results demonstrated that the number of probe molecules adsorbed at the hot spot played an important role in determining the detected SERS intensities. EF dimer was maximized when the dimer configuration allowed for a larger number of probe molecules to be trapped within the hot-spot region.

  3. Surface, dynamic and structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R.; Giuranno, D.; Ricci, E.; Tuissi, A.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Egry, I.

    2012-01-01

    The systems containing highly reactive element such as Ti are the most difficult to be determined experimentally and therefore, it is often necessary to estimate the missing values by theoretical models. The thermodynamic data of the Al-Ti system are scarce, its phase diagram is still incomplete and there are very few data on the thermophysical properties of Al-Ti melts. The study on surface, dynamic and static structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys has been carried out within the framework of the Compound Formation Model. In spite of the experimental difficulties, the surface tension of liquid Al-2 at.%Ti alloy has been measured over a temperature range by the pinned drop method.

  4. Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlmann, Diedrich

    2013-04-01

    Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars Diedrich T.F. Möhlmann DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D - 12489 Berlin, Germany dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de Interfacial water films and numerous brines are known to remain liquid at temperatures far below 0° C. The physical processes behind are described in some detail. Deliquescence, i.e. the liquefaction of hygroscopic salts at the threshold of a specific "Deliquescence Relative Humidity", is shown to be that process, which on present Mars supports the formation of stable interfacial water and bulk liquids in form of temporary brines on and in a salty upper surface of present Mars in a diurnally temporary and repetitive process. Temperature and relative humidity are the governing conditions for deliquescence (and the counterpart "efflorescence") to evolve. The current thermo-dynamical conditions on Mars support these processes to evolve on present Mars. The deliquescence-driven presence of liquid brines in the soil of the upper surface of Mars can expected to be followed by physical and chemical processes like "surface cementation", down-slope flows, and physical and chemical weathering processes. A remarkable and possibly also biologically relevant evolution towards internally interfacial water bearing structures of dendritic capillaries is related to their freezing - thawing driven formation. The internal walls of these network-pores or -tubes can be covered by films of interfacial water, providing that way possibly habitable crack-systems in soil and rock. These evolutionary processes of networks, driven by their tip-growth, can expected to be ongoing also at present.

  5. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angl...

  6. Surface-induced ordering of a liquid crystal in the isotropic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, K.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed account of a measurement of order parameter of a liquid crystal at the boundary by means of the wall-induced pretransitional birefringence is given. Several surface treatments were studied including surfactants and evaporated films. Although all treatments produced good alignment in the nematic phase, the boundary order parameter (hence the strength of the aligning force) in the isotropic phase differed very much depending on the treatment, indicating the diverse nature of the alignment process

  7. Propagation of liquid surface waves over finite graphene structured arrays of cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the multiple scattering method,this paper investigates a benchmark problem of the propagation of liquid surface waves over finite graphene (or honeycomb) structured arrays of cylinders.Comparing the graphene structured array with the square structured and with triangle structured arrays,it finds that the finite graphene structure can produce more complete band gaps than the other finite structures,and the finite graphene structure has less localized ability than the other finite structures.

  8. Effects of airway surface liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Tauanne D; da Silva, Jafferson K L; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2014-12-21

    Experimental techniques aimed at measuring the concentration of signaling molecules in the airway surface liquid (ASL) often require an unrealistically large ASL volume to facilitate sampling. This experimental limitation, prompted by the difficulty of pipetting liquid from a very shallow layer (~15 μm), leads to dilution and the under-prediction of physiologic concentrations of signaling molecules that are vital to the regulation of mucociliary clearance. Here, we use a computational model to describe the effect of liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in the airway surface liquid coating respiratory epithelia. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion equation with boundary conditions that represent the enzymatic reactions occurring on the epithelial surface. The simulations reproduce successfully the kinetics of extracellular ATP following hypotonic challenge for ASL volumes ranging from 25 μl to 500 μl in a 12-mm diameter cell culture. The model reveals that [ATP] and [ADO] reach 1200 nM and 2200 nM at the epithelial surface, respectively, while their volumetric averages remain less than 200 nM at all times in experiments with a large ASL volume (500 μl). These findings imply that activation of P2Y2 and A2B receptors is robust after hypotonic challenge, in contrast to what could be concluded based on experimental measurements of volumetric concentrations in large ASL volumes. Finally, given the central role that ATP and ADO play in regulating mucociliary clearance, we investigated which enzymes, when inhibited, provide the greatest increase in ATP and ADO concentrations. Our findings suggest that inhibition of NTPDase1/highTNAP would cause the greatest increase in [ATP] after hypotonic challenge, while inhibition of the transporter CNT3 would provide the greatest increase in [ADO]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Ceramic Shell Strength on Hot Tearing during Investment Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norouzi, Saeid; Farhangi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ceramic shell strength on hot tearing susceptibility during solidification was inspected practicing investment casting of the cobalt-base superalloy samples with the same casting conditions, but different ceramic shell systems. Results showed that the lower the ceramic shell strength upon using polymer additives, the lower the hindered contraction rate, and the lower the hindered contraction rate, the smaller the hot tearing tendency. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy scanning revealed that the hot tear propagated along the last solidified interdendritic phase, and that the hot tear surface had two major modes: 1) the ductile region in the outer layer; and 2) the inner region of liquid embrittlement.

  10. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail: nasim@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad, E-mail: shavik@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail: rabbi35.me10@gmail.com; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: mominulmarup@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  11. Evaluation of a method for assaying sulfonamide antimicrobial residues in cheese: hot-water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Giorgio; Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganá, Aldo

    2006-06-28

    Several sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAAs) are largely used in veterinary medicine. A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining 12 SAAs in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique followed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. Target compounds were extracted from Mozzarella, Asiago, Parmigiano, Emmenthal, and Camembert cheese samples by 6 mL of water modified with 10% methanol and heated at 120 degrees C. The addition of methanol to hot water served to improve remarkably extraction yields of the most lipophilic SAAs, that is, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline. After acidification and filtration, 100 microL of the aqueous extract was injected in the LC column. MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Methanol-modified hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recovery ranged between 67 and 88%. Using sulfamoxole as surrogate analyte, recovery of the 12 analytes spiked in the five types of cheese considered at the 50 ng/g level ranged between 75 and 105% with RSD not higher than 11%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not affected by the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. The accuracy of the method was determined at three spike levels, that is, 20, 50, and 100 ng/g, and varied between 73 and 102% with relative standard deviations ranging between 4 and 12%. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantification were estimated to be <1 ng/g.

  12. Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind-wave effects in a scattering atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere-ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region

  13. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhibo

    2018-04-04

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  14. Measurement of the airway surface liquid volume with simple light refraction microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter R; Tarran, Robert; Garoff, Stephen; Myerburg, Mike M

    2011-09-01

    In the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, the airway surface liquid (ASL) volume is depleted, impairing mucus clearance from the lung and leading to chronic airway infection and obstruction. Several therapeutics have been developed that aim to restore normal airway surface hydration to the CF airway, yet preclinical evaluation of these agents is hindered by the paucity of methods available to directly measure the ASL. Therefore, we sought to develop a straightforward approach to measure the ASL volume that would serve as the basis for a standardized method to assess mucosal hydration using readily available resources. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells cultured at an air-liquid interface develop a liquid meniscus at the edge of the culture. We hypothesized that the size of the fluid meniscus is determined by the ASL volume, and could be measured as an index of the epithelial surface hydration status. A simple method was developed to measure the volume of fluid present in meniscus by imaging the refraction of light at the ASL interface with the culture wall using low-magnification microscopy. Using this method, we found that primary CF HBE cells had a reduced ASL volume compared with non-CF HBE cells, and that known modulators of ASL volume caused the predicted responses. Thus, we have demonstrated that this method can detect physiologically relevant changes in the ASL volume, and propose that this novel approach may be used to rapidly assess the effects of airway hydration therapies in high-throughput screening assays.

  15. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhibo; Wang, Qixing; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Zheng, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhuo; Lin, Tingting; Chi, Dongzhi; Ding, Zijing; Huang, Yu Li; Thye Shen Wee, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48 ) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  16. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...... antiferroelectric double layers develop that can be distinguished from the bulk single layer structure. A model is developed that separates the electron density in a contribution from the molecular form factor, and from the structure factor of the mono- and the bilayers, respectively. It shows that (i) the first...

  17. Basic research on nonlinear instability phenomena of liquid surface. Fiscal year 1996 report on preceding basic engineering field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

    1997-03-01

    Various nonlinear behaviors caused by nonlinear boundary conditions have been observed, and it is feared that in large vessels like FBRs, the instability phenomena such as self-exciting sloshing may occur in the free liquid surface of coolant. In this research, the nonlinear instability phenomena in free liquid surface were examined by the basic experiment and the analysis. As to the self-exciting oscillation 'jet flutter' of upward plane jet that collides against liquid surface, in order to know the mechanism of determining the frequency and supplying energy, the amplitude and phase relation of various variable quantities were investigated. The simplified model for calculating the displacement of jet was made, and compared with the experiment. The jet flutter phenomena are explained. The interaction of free liquid surface and turbulent flow, which is important for considering the nonlinearity in free liquid surface, was measured by LDV and visualization, and the turbulent flow phenomena in free liquid surface were investigated. In the experiment, turbulent flow energy was given to the free liquid surfaces of water and polymers, and the effect that the Toms effect exerted to interface turbulent flow was observed. The results of these studies are reported. (K.I.) studies are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Surface tension and density of liquid In-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Using the dilatometric method, measurements of the density of liquid alloys of the ternary system In-Sn-Zn in four sections with a constant ratio Sn:In = 24:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, for various Zn additions (5, 10, 14, 20, 3 5, 50 and 75 at.% Zn) were performed at the temperature ranges of 500-1150 K. Density decreases linearly for all compositions. The molar volume calculated from density data exhibits close to ideal dependence on composition. Measurements of the surface tension of liquid alloys have been conducted using the method of maximum pressure in the gas bubbles. There were observed linear dependences on temperature with a negative gradients dσ/dT. Generally, with two exceptions, there was observed the increase of surface tension with increasing content of zinc. Using the Butler's model, the surface tension isotherms were calculated for temperatures T = 673 and 1073 K. Calculations show that only for high temperatures and for low content of zinc (up to about 35 at.%), the modeling is in very good agreement with experiment. Using the mentioned model, the composition of the surface phase was defined at two temperatures T = 673 and 973 K. Regardless of the temperature and of the defined section, the composition of the bulk is very different in comparison with the composition of the surface.

  19. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  20. Crassostrea gigas OYSTERS SMOKING: THE HOT AND WITH LIQUID SMOKE DEFUMAÇÃO DE OSTRAS Crassostrea gigas: A QUENTE E COM FUMAÇA LÍQUIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza de Rodrigues de Souza

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective evaluates two techniques of traditional smoking the hot and with use of the liquid smoke, tends as control the Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas cooked. They were appraised the sensorial characteristics and revenue of the processing. The animals were distributed in three treatments and the experimental design was completely randomized, with nine repetitions. For the sensorial analysis 30 fitting room were used, where each one was considered a block. There was not significant difference among the independent of the applied technique smoky oysters (T1 = 8.42% and T2 = 7.61%, but they differed of the control (T3 = 16.25%.In agreement with the applied methodology and with the results obtained in the sensorial analysis, the smoke oysters (independent of the applied technique are products with great acceptability and increased your sensorial characteristics. KEY-WORDS: Crassostrea gigas, oysters, hot smoking, liquid smoke. valiaram-se duas técnicas de defumação – tradicional a quente e com utilização da fumaça líquida –, tendo testemunha o cozimento de ostras do Pacífico Crassostrea gigas. Para tanto, examinaram-se as características sensoriais e rendimento do processamento. Distribuíram-se animais aleatoriamente, em três tratamentos, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e nove repetições. Para a análise sensorial, empregaram-se trinta provadores, considerando-se cada um deles um bloco. Não houve diferença significativa de rendimento entre as ostras defumadas, independentemente da técnica aplicada (T1 = 8,42% e T2 = 7,61%, mas elas diferiram da testemunha (T3 = 16,25%. De acordo com a metodologia aplicada e com os resultados obtidos nas análises sensoriais, as ostras defumadas (independentemente da técnica aplicada constituíram os produtos com maior aceitabilidade e houve incremento de suas características sensoriais. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Crassostrea gigas, defumação a

  1. Effect of metal surface composition on deposition behavior of stainless steel component dissolved in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Deposition behavior of corrosion products has been investigated to clarify the effect of metal surface composition on the deposition process in liquid sodium. For the study a sodium loop made of Type 304 stainless steel was employed. Deposition test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, iron, nickel or Inconel 718, were immersed in the sodium pool of the test pot. Corrosion test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, 50 at% Fe-50 at%Mn and Inconel 718, were set in a heater pin assembly along the axial direction of the heater pin surface. Sodium temperatures at the outlet and inlet of the heater pin assembly were controlled at 943 and 833 K, respectively. Sodium was purified at a cold trap temperature of 393 K and the deposition test was carried out for 4.3 x 10 2 - 2.9 x 10 4 ks. Several crystallized particles were observed on the surface of the deposition test pieces. The particles had compositions and crystal structures which depended on both the composition of deposition test pieces and the concentration of iron and manganese in sodium. Only iron-rich particles having a polyhedral shape deposited on the iron surface. Two types of particles, iron-rich α-phase and γ-phase with nearly the same composition as stainless steel, were deposited on Type 304 stainless steel. A Ni-Mn alloy was deposited on the nickel surface in the case of a higher concentration of manganese in sodium. On the other hand, for a lower manganese concentration, a Fe-Ni alloy was precipitated on the nickel surface. Particles deposited on nickel had a γ-phase crystal structure similar to the deposition test piece of nickel. Hence, the deposition process can be explained as follows: Corrosion products in liquid sodium were deposited on the metal surface by forming a metal alloy selectively with elements of the metal surface. (author)

  2. Evaluation of filters in RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) in OPAL research reactor at ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) using Gamma Spectrometry System and Liquid Scintillation Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jim In; Foy, Robin; Jung, Seong Moon; Park, Hyeon Suk; Ye, Sung Joon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization(ANSTO) has a research reactor, OPAL (Open Pool Australian Lightwater reactor) which is a state-of-art 20 MW reactor for various purposes. In OPAL reactor, there are many kinds of radionuclides produced from various reactions in pool water and those should be identified and quantified for the safe use of OPAL. To do that, it is essential to check the efficiency of filters which are able to remove the radioactive substance from the reactor pool water. There are two main water circuits in OPAL which are RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) water circuits. The reactor service pool is connected to the reactor pool via a transfer canal and provides a working area and storage space for the spent and other materials. Also, HWL is the upper part of the reactor pool water and it minimize radiation dose rates at the pool surface. We collected water samples from these circuits and measured the radioactivity by using Gamma Spectrometry System (GSS) and Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to evaluate the filters. We could evaluate the efficiency of filters in RSPCS and HWL in OPAL research reactor. Through the measurements of radioactivity using GSS and LSC, we could conclude that there is likely to be no alpha emitter in water samples, and for beta and gamma activity, there are very big differences between inlet and outlet results, so every filter is working efficiently to remove the radioactive substance.

  3. Electrochemical Impedance Response of the surface treated FMS in Liquid Sodium Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    HT9 and Gr.92 are known as compatible in sodium environment because the usual refueling time of SFRs is designed about 54 months. It is very important to investigate the corrosion-related behavior such as surface corrosion rate, carburization, decarburization and mechanical properties for its operation time. SiC and Si 3 N 4 CVD coating for decarburization barrier on the surface of FMS is considered in this study. The decarburization process where dissolved carbon near the specimen surface disused in to the liquid sodium. This process can originate from the difference between dissolved carbon in the material and liquid sodium. A compatibility test the cladding tube revealed that a decrease of the mechanical property instigated by the aging proves governed the whole mechanical property. To monitor the corrosion behavior of these candidate materials in sodium environment, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method is first introduced and investigated in this study. The compatibility of cladding and structural materials with sodium has to be carefully investigated, as sodium could promote corrosion of cladding and structural materials in two ways. One is produced by the dissolution of alloy constituents into the sodium, and the other is produced through a chemical reaction with impurities (especially oxygen and carbon) in the sodium environment. EIS test with pre-oxidized Gr. 92 specimen in 200 .deg. C liquid sodium environment was carried out in this study. A clear Nyquist and Bode plots were obtained in liquid metal environment and the resistance of sodium and the oxide, and the capacitance of the oxide were measured from this result

  4. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  5. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  6. Predicting the minimum liquid surface tension activity of pseudomonads expressing biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I U; Deeni, Y; Hapca, S M; McLaughlin, K; Spiers, A J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a variety of biosurfactants capable of significantly reducing liquid (aqueous) surface tension (γ) with a range of biological roles and biotechnological uses. To determine the lowest achievable surface tension (γMin ), we tested a diverse collection of Pseudomonas-like isolates from contaminated soil and activated sludge and identified those expressing biosurfactants by drop-collapse assay. Liquid surface tension-reducing ability was quantitatively determined by tensiometry, with 57 isolates found to significantly lower culture supernatant surface tensions to 24·5-49·1 mN m(-1) . Differences in biosurfactant behaviour determined by foaming, emulsion and oil-displacement assays were also observed amongst isolates producing surface tensions of 25-27 mN m(-1) , suggesting that a range of structurally diverse biosurfactants were being expressed. Individual distribution identification (IDI) analysis was used to identify the theoretical probability distribution that best fitted the surface tension data, which predicted a γMin of 24·24 mN m(-1) . This was in agreement with predictions based on earlier work of published mixed bacterial spp. data, suggesting a fundamental limit to the ability of bacterial biosurfactants to reduce surface tensions in aqueous systems. This implies a biological restriction on the synthesis and export of these agents or a physical-chemical restriction on their functioning once produced. Numerous surveys of biosurfactant-producing bacteria have been conducted, but only recently has an attempt been made to predict the minimum liquid surface tension these surface-active agents can achieve. Here, we determine a theoretical minimum of 24 mN m(-1) by statistical analysis of tensiometry data, suggesting a fundamental limit for biosurfactant activity in bacterial cultures incubated under standard growth conditions. This raises a challenge to our understanding of biosurfactant expression, secretion and function, as well as

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  8. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  9. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  10. Pressure and surface tension of soild-liquid interface using Tarazona density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tarazona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this resarch we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is plotted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. A variational model of disjoining pressure: Liquid film on a nonplanar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Virnovsky, G.

    2009-06-01

    Variational methods have been successfully used in modelling thin liquid films in numerous theoretical studies of wettability. In this paper, the variational model of the disjoining pressure is extended to the general case of a two-dimensional solid surface. The Helmgoltz free energy functional depends both on the disjoining pressure isotherm and the shape of the solid surface. The augmented Young-Laplace equation (AYLE) is a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation. A number of solutions describing wetting films on spherical grains have been obtained. In the case of cylindrical films, the phase portrait technique describes the entire variety of mathematically feasible solutions. It turns out that a periodic solution, which would describe wave-like wetting films, does not satisfy the Jacobi's condition of the classical calculus of variations. Therefore, such a solution is nonphysical. The roughness of the solid surface significantly affects liquid film stability. AYLE solutions suggest that film rupture is more likely at a location where the pore-wall surface is most exposed into the pore space and the curvature is positive.

  12. Thermally induced delay and reversal of liquid film dewetting on chemically patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpathy, Sreeram K; Francis, Lorraine F; Kumar, Satish

    2013-10-15

    A thin liquid film resting on a solid substrate that is heated or cooled from below experiences surface tension gradients, which lead to Marangoni flows. We explore the behavior of such a film on a chemically patterned substrate which drives film dewetting in order to determine how surface patterning and applied temperature gradients can be designed to influence the behavior of thin-film coatings. A nonlinear partial differential equation for the film height based on lubrication theory is solved numerically for a broad range of problem parameters. Uniform cooling of the substrate is found to significantly delay dewetting that is driven by wettability gradients. Uniform heating speeds up dewetting but can destroy the near-perfect templating imposed by the surface patterning. However, localized heating and cooling together can accelerate dewetting while maintaining templating quality. Localized heating and cooling can also be used to drive liquid onto areas that it would dewet from in the absence of heating. Overall, these results indicate that applied temperature gradients can significantly influence dewetting driven by surface patterning, and suggest strategies for the creation of spatially patterned thin-film coatings and flow control in microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei on environmental surfaces using spray-applied, common liquid disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, M W; Wendling, M

    2015-11-01

    Five commercially available liquid antimicrobials were evaluated for their ability to decontaminate common environmental surface materials, contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei, using a spray-based disinfectant delivery procedure. Tests were conducted at both an ambient temperature (c. 20°C) and a lower temperature (c. 12°C) condition. Nonporous materials (glass and aluminium) were more easily decontaminated than porous materials (wood, concrete and carpet). Citric acid (1%) demonstrated poor efficacy in all test conditions. Bleach (pH-adjusted), ethanol (70%), quaternary ammonium and PineSol®, demonstrated high (>6 log10 reduction) efficacies on glass and aluminium at both temperatures, but achieved varying results for wood, carpet and concrete. Temperature had minimal effect on decontamination efficacy during these tests. Much of the antimicrobial efficacy data for pathogenic micro-organisms are generated with testing that utilizes hard nonporous surface materials. These data are not directly translatable for decontaminant selection following an incident whereby complex and porous environmental surfaces are contaminated. This study presents efficacy data for spray-applied antimicrobial liquids, when used to decontaminate common environmental surfaces contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei. These data can help responders develop effective remediation strategies following an environmental contamination incident involving B. pseudomallei. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Experimental Study of gas-liquid two-phase flow affected by wall surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Hibiki, T.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of wall surface wettability on the characteristics of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe, an experimental study was performed using three test pipes: an acrylic pipe, a hydrophilic pipe and a hydrophobic pipe. Basic flow characteristics such as flow patterns, pressure drop and void fraction were measured in these three pipes. In the hydrophilic pipe, a slug to churn flow transition boundary was shifted to a higher gas velocity at a given liquid velocity, whereas a churn to annular flow transition boundary was shifted to a lower gas velocity at a given liquid velocity. In the hydrophobic pipe, an inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe, while a droplet flow regime was observed in the region where an annular flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe. At a high gas flow rate, the mean void fraction in the hydrophobic pipe was higher than in the acrylic pipe. The effect of surface wettability on frictional pressure loss was confirmed to be insignificant under the present experimental conditions

  15. Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boaz, M.; Efthimion, P.; Jones, B.; Hoffman, D.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Munsat, T.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Antar, G.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Maiorano, M.; Smith, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance

  16. Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

    2002-01-18

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

  17. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  18. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smooth perfluorinated surfaces with different chemical and physical natures: their unusual dynamic dewetting behavior toward polar and nonpolar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dalton F; Masheder, Benjamin; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-09-10

    The effects of surface chemistry and the mobility of surface-tethered functional groups of various perfluorinated surfaces on their dewetting behavior toward polar (water) and nonpolar (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, and n-decane) liquids were investigated. In this study, three types of common smooth perfluorinated surfaces, that is, a perfluoroalkylsilane (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl-dimethylchlorosilane, FAS17) monomeric layer, an amorphous fluoropolymer film (Teflon AF 1600), and a perfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-terminated polymer brush film (Optool DSX), were prepared and their static/dynamic dewetting characteristics were compared. Although the apparent static contact angles (CAs) of these surfaces with all probe liquids were almost identical to each other, the ease of movement of liquid drops critically depended on the physical (solidlike or liquidlike) natures of the substrate surface. CA hysteresis and substrate tilt angles (TAs) of all probe liquids on the Optool DSX surface were found to be much lower than those of Teflon AF1600 and FAS17 surfaces due to its physical polymer chain mobility at room temperature and the resulting liquidlike nature. Only 6.0° of substrate incline was required to initiate movement for a small drop (5 μL) of n-decane, which was comparable to the reported substrate TA value (5.3°) for a superoleophobic surface (θ(S) > 160°, textured perfluorinated surface). Such unusual dynamic dewetting behavior of the Optool DSX surface was also markedly enhanced due to the significant increase in the chain mobility of PFPE by moderate heating (70 °C) of the surface, with substrate TA reducing to 3.0°. CA hysteresis and substrate TAs rather than static CAs were therefore determined to be of greater consequence for the estimation of the actual dynamic dewetting behavior of alkane probe liquids on these smooth perfluorinated surfaces. Their dynamic dewettability toward alkane liquids is in the order of Optool DSX > Teflon AF1600

  20. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-09

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles.

  1. What happens when iron becomes wet? Observation of reactions at interfaces between liquid and metal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, M

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation has been applied to investigation of interfaces between liquid and metal surfaces, with a special attention to corrosion. Three topics are shown: (1) nano structures of rusts formed on steel after atmospheric corrosion. Evolution of 'Fe(O, OH) sub 6 network' is the key to understand how the durable rusts prevent from formation of more rusts. (2) In situ observation of reactions at the interface has been carried out for localized corrosion of stainless steel. It is shown that change in states of Cr sup 3 sup + and Br sup - ions near the interface is deeply related with a breakout of the passivation film. (3) A structural phase transformation on a Cu sub 3 Au(001) surface was investigated. Ordering remains even at a temperature higher than the bulk-critical temperature, showing surface-induced ordering. These approaches gives us crucial information for a new steel-product. (author)

  2. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  3. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  4. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  5. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  6. Theory of the surface-induced magnetism in liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jichu, Hisao; Kuroda, Yoshihiro

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the surface-induced magnetism of liquid 3 He confined in a restricted geometry is presented. In a general model, three different types of contributions to the effective exchange interactions among spins of the 3 He atoms in a solid layer adsorbed on a substrate are distinguished on the basis of the second order perturbation theory; one is from a direct process and the others are mediated by the spins of the 3 He atoms in the remaining bulk liquid. By using a simplified model, the exchange constants are calculated to find that an RKKY-type indirect exchange interaction appears to be most dominant and to explain the observed ferromagnetic tendency. (author)

  7. High-resolution bistable nematic liquid crystal device realized on orientational surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The four-fold symmetry of a checkerboard-like surface alignment consisted of square domains arrived at the macroscopic orientational bistability of nematic liquid crystals. Switching between the two orientations took place with an appropriate electric field. Here the threshold field of bistable switching decreased as temperature increased, and the light could heat only the selected region in the cell including a light-absorbing medium. Irradiating the laser concurrently with an electric field, we addressed a selected region in the alignment pattern without the disturbance of neighboring regions. Extending this process, we realized an extremely fine bistable device of nematic liquid crystal with a pixel size down to about 2 μm

  8. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior

  9. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  10. Silver Nanoparticle-Decorated Shape-Memory Polystyrene Sheets as Highly Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates with a Thermally Inducible Hot Spot Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Zebasil Tassew; Yang, Jyisy

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a thermally inducible hot spot effect for sensitive measurement of Raman-active molecules was successfully fabricated from silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated shape-memory polystyrene (SMP) sheets. To prepare the SERS substrate, SMP sheets were first pretreated with n-octylamine for effective decoration with AgNPs. By varying the formulation and condition of the reduction reaction, AgNP-decorated SMP (Ag@SMP) substrates were successfully prepared with optimized particle gaps to produce inducible hot spot effects on thermal shrink. High-quality SERS spectra were easily obtained with enhancement factors higher than 10 8 by probing with aromatic thiols. Several Ag@SMP substrates produced under different reaction conditions were explored for the creation of inducible hot spot effects. The results indicated that AgNP spacing is crucial for strong hot spot effects. The suitability of Ag@SMP substrates for quantification was also evaluated according to the detection of adenine. Results confirmed that prepared Ag@SMP substrates were highly suitable for quantitative analysis because they yielded an estimated limit of detection as low as 120 pg/cm 2 , a linear range of up to 7 ng/cm 2 , and a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9959. Ag@SMP substrates were highly reproducible; the average relative standard deviation for all measurements was less than 10%.

  11. Comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of surface plasmon polariton modes at uniaxial liquid crystal-metal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yin-Ray; Lee, Tsun-Hsiun; Wu, Zheng-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hung, Yu-Ju

    2015-12-14

    This paper describes the derivation of surface plasmon polariton modes associated with the generalized three-dimensional rotation of liquid crystal molecules on a metal film. The calculated dispersion relation was verified by coupling laser light into surface plasmon polariton waves in a one-dimensional grating device. The grating-assisted plasmon coupling condition was consistent with the formulated k(spp) value. This provides a general rule for the design of liquid-crystal tunable plasmonic devices.

  12. The effect of changing the contact surface area between pleural liquid and pleura on the turnover of pleural liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Hara, H; Ijima, F; Arai, T; Kira, S

    1984-03-01

    To study the dynamics of pleural liquid, 250 ml of saline labeled with markers were injected into the pleural cavity of anesthetized dogs. For 3 h, liquid volume and concentration of these markers were measured. In a control group of dogs, the turnover rate of pleural liquid was 19.6 +/- 5.6 ml/min and lymphatic flow was 0.58 +/- 0.07 ml/min. In a group of pneumonectomized dogs, the turnover rate and lymphatic flow fell to about one fourth of those in the control group. When the left pulmonary artery was occluded, the turnover rate was halved, but lymphatic flow was not significantly different from that in the control group. These results suggest that the turnover rate of pleural liquid is dependent on the area of contact between pleural liquid and pleura and on the blood flow of the pleura. In addition, it appears that changes in pleural liquid volume are dependent on lymphatic flow.

  13. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  14. Inhibition of ice nucleation by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter W; Lu, Weizhe; Xu, Haojun; Kim, Philseok; Kreder, Michael J; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-14

    Ice repellent coatings have been studied and keenly sought after for many years, where any advances in the durability of such coatings will result in huge energy savings across many fields. Progress in creating anti-ice and anti-frost surfaces has been particularly rapid since the discovery and development of slippery, liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS). Here we use SLIPS-coated differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans to investigate the effects of the surface modification on the nucleation of supercooled water. This investigation is inherently different from previous studies which looked at the adhesion of ice to SLIPS surfaces, or the formation of ice under high humidity conditions. Given the stochastic nature of nucleation of ice from supercooled water, multiple runs on the same sample are needed to determine if a given surface coating has a real and statistically significant effect on the nucleation temperature. We have cycled supercooling to freezing and then thawing of deionized water in hydrophilic (untreated aluminum), hydrophobic, superhydrophobic, and SLIPS-treated DSC pans multiple times to determine the effects of surface treatment on the nucleation and subsequent growth of ice. We find that SLIPS coatings lower the nucleation temperature of supercooled water in contact with statistical significance and show no deterioration or change in the coating performance even after 150 freeze-thaw cycles.

  15. Pore and surface diffusion in multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Whitley, R.D.; Wang, N.H.L.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized parallel pore and surface diffusion model for multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography is formulated and solved numerically. Analytical solution for first- and second-order central moments for a pulse on a plateau input is used as benchmarks for the numerical solutions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for two systems: ion-exchange of strontium, sodium, and calcium in a zeolite and competitive adsorption of two organics on activated carbon. In a linear isotherm region of single-component systems, both surface and pore diffusion cause symmetric spreading in breakthrough curves. In a highly nonlinear isotherm region, however, surface diffusion causes pronounced tailing in breakthrough curves; the larger the step change in concentration, the more pronounced tailing, in contrast to relatively symmetric breakthroughs due to pore diffusion. If only a single diffusion mechanism is assumed in analyzing the data of parallel diffusion systems, a concentration-dependent apparent surface diffusivity or pore diffusivity results; for a convex isotherm, the apparent surface diffusivity increases, whereas the apparent pore diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration. For a multicomponent nonlinear system, elution order can change if pore diffusion dominates for a low-affinity solute, whereas surface diffusion dominates for a high-affinity solute

  16. Contact-angle hysteresis on periodic microtextured surfaces: Strongly corrugated liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    We study numerically the shapes of a liquid meniscus in contact with ultrahydrophobic pillar surfaces in Cassie's wetting regime, when the surface is covered with identical and periodically distributed micropillars. Using the full capillary model we obtain the advancing and the receding equilibrium meniscus shapes when the cross-sections of the pillars are both of square and circular shapes, for a broad interval of pillar concentrations. The bending of the liquid interface in the area between the pillars is studied in the framework of the full capillary model and compared to the results of the heterogeneous approximation model. The contact angle hysteresis is obtained when the three-phase contact line is located on one row (block case) or several rows (kink case) of pillars. It is found that the contact angle hysteresis is proportional to the line fraction of the contact line on pillars tops in the block case and to the surface fraction for pillar concentrations 0.1-0.5 in the kink case. The contact angle hysteresis does not depend on the shape (circular or square) of the pillars cross-section. The expression for the proportionality of the receding contact angle to the line fraction [Raj et al., Langmuir 28, 15777 (2012)LANGD50743-746310.1021/la303070s] in the case of block depinning is theoretically substantiated through the capillary force, acting on the solid plate at the meniscus contact line.

  17. Effect of liquid surface tension on circular and linear hydraulic jumps; theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Rajesh Kumar; Jha, Narsing Kumar; Linden, Paul F.; Wilson, David Ian

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump has attracted considerable attention since Rayleigh published his account in 1914. Watson (1964) proposed the first satisfactory explanation of the circular hydraulic jump by balancing the momentum and hydrostatic pressure across the jump, but this solution did not explain what actually causes the jump to form. Bohr et al. (1992) showed that the hydraulic jump happens close to the point where the local Froude number equals to one, suggesting a balance between inertial and hydrostatic contributions. Bush & Aristoff (2003) subsequently incorporated the effect of surface tension and showed that this is important when the jump radius is small. In this study, we propose a new account to explain the formation and evolution of hydraulic jumps under conditions where the jump radius is strongly influenced by the liquid surface tension. The theory is compared with experiments employing liquids of different surface tension and different viscosity, in circular and linear configurations. The model predictions and the experimental results show excellent agreement. Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, St. John's college, University of Cambridge.

  18. Measurement and modeling of surface temperature dynamics of the NSTX liquid lithium divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A.G., E-mail: mclean@fusion.gat.com [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gan, K.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T.K.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R.E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Dual-band infrared (IR) measurements of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) are reported that demonstrate liquid Li is more effective at removing plasma heat flux than Li-conditioned graphite. Extended dwell of the outer strike point (OSP) on the LLD caused an incrementally larger area to be heated above the Li melting point through the discharge leading to enhanced D retention and plasma confinement. Measurement of T{sub surface} near the OSP demonstrates a significant reduction of the LLD surface temperature compared to that of Li-coated graphite at the same major radius. Modeling of these data with a 2-D simulation of the LLD structure in the DFLUX code suggests that the structure of the LLD was successful at handling up to q{sub ⊥,peak} = 5 MW/m{sup 2} inter-ELM and up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} during ELMs from its plasma-facing surface as intended, and provide an innovative method for inferring the Li layer thickness.

  19. Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.; Cimpeanu, Radu; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Petropoulos, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  20. Flow boiling heat transfer on nanowire-coated surfaces with highly wetting liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Choi, Geehong; Kim, Beom Seok; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in nanotechnology, one significant progress in energy technology is increased cooling ability. It has recently been shown that nanowires can improve pool boiling heat transfer due to the unique features such as enhanced wetting and enlarged nucleation sites. Applying such nanowires on a flow boiling, which is another major class of boiling phenomenon that is associated with forced convection, is yet immature and scarce despite its importance in various applications such as liquid cooling of energy, electronics and refrigeration systems. Here, we investigate flow boiling heat transfer on surfaces that are coated with SiNWs (silicon nanowires). Also, we use highly-wetting dielectric liquid, FC-72, as a working fluid. An interesting wetting behavior is observed where the presence of SiNWs reduces wetting and wicking that in turn leads to significant decrease of CHF (critical heat flux) compared to the plain surface, which opposes the current consensus. Also, the effects of nanowire length and Reynolds number on the boiling heat transfer are shown to be highly nonmonotonic. We attempt to explain such an unusual behavior on the basis of wetting, nucleation and forced convection, and we show that such factors are highly coupled in a way that lead to unusual behavior. - Highlights: • Observation of suppressed wettability in the presence of surface roughness (nanowires). • Significant reduction of critical heat flux in the presence of nanowires. • Nonmonotonic behavior of heat transfer coefficient vs. nanowire length and Reynolds number

  1. Modeling Replenishment of Ultrathin Liquid Perfluoro polyether Z Films on Solid Surfaces Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeed, M.S.; Kato, T.

    2014-01-01

    Applying the reptation algorithm to a simplified perfluoro polyether Z off-lattice polymer model an NVT Monte Carlo simulation has been performed. Bulk condition has been simulated first to compare the average radius of gyration with the bulk experimental results. Then the model is tested for its ability to describe dynamics. After this, it is applied to observe the replenishment of nano scale ultrathin liquid films on solid flat carbon surfaces. The replenishment rate for trenches of different widths (8, 12, and 16 nms for several molecular weights) between two films of perfluoro polyether Z from the Monte Carlo simulation is compared to that obtained solving the diffusion equation using the experimental diffusion coefficients of Ma et al. (1999), with room condition in both cases. Replenishment per Monte Carlo cycle seems to be a constant multiple of replenishment per second at least up to 2 nm replenished film thickness of the trenches over the carbon surface. Considerable good agreement has been achieved here between the experimental results and the dynamics of molecules using reptation moves in the ultrathin liquid films on solid surfaces.

  2. Surface tensions of binary mixtures of ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the common anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.B.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Cabeza, O.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Freire, M.G.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel data for the surface tensions of mixtures [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ] + [C 4 C 1 mim]/[C 3 mpy]/[C 3 mpyr]/[C 3 mpip][NTf 2 ] are presented. • γ were determined at a fixed temperature, 298.2 K, and at atmospheric pressure, for the whole composition range. • Surface tension deviations showed the near ideal behavior of the selected mixtures. • Gibbs adsorption isotherms showed the surface preferential adsorption of one ionic liquid over the other. -- Abstract: While values for thermophysical properties of ionic liquids are becoming widely available, data for ionic liquid mixtures are still scarce. In an effort to overcome this limitation and understand the behavior of ionic liquid mixtures, novel data for the surface tension of mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ], with other ionic liquids with a common anion, namely 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C 4 C 1 mim] + , 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium, [C 3 mpy] + , 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, [C 3 mpyr] + , and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium, [C 3 mpip] + , were measured at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. From the surface tension deviations derived from the experimental results, it was possible to infer that the cation alkyl chain length of the second ionic liquid constituting the mixture has a stronger influence in the ideal mixture behavior than the type of family the ionic liquid cation belongs to. The Gibbs adsorption isotherms, estimated from the experimental values, show that the composition of the vapor–liquid interface is not the same as that of the bulk and that the interface is richer in the ionic liquid with the lowest surface tension, [C 4 mim][NTf 2

  3. Detection of ligand binding hot spots on protein surfaces via fragment-based methods: application to DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, Melissa R.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Hoang, Quyen Q.; Ju, Shulin; Caaveiro, Jose M.M.; Orwig, Susan D.; Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Beglov, Dmitry; Vajda, Sandor; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; (BU-M); (Brandeis); (GIT)

    2010-08-04

    The identification of hot spots, i.e., binding regions that contribute substantially to the free energy of ligand binding, is a critical step for structure-based drug design. Here we present the application of two fragment-based methods to the detection of hot spots for DJ-1 and glucocerebrosidase (GCase), targets for the development of therapeutics for Parkinson's and Gaucher's diseases, respectively. While the structures of these two proteins are known, binding information is lacking. In this study we employ the experimental multiple solvent crystal structures (MSCS) method and computational fragment mapping (FTMap) to identify regions suitable for the development of pharmacological chaperones for DJ-1 and GCase. Comparison of data derived via MSCS and FTMap also shows that FTMap, a computational method for the identification of fragment binding hot spots, is an accurate and robust alternative to the performance of expensive and difficult crystallographic experiments.

  4. Effect of liquid environment on the titanium surface modification by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nisar, E-mail: chnisarali@gmail.com [Laser Laboratories, Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Department of Basic Science and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Faisalabad Campus, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Laser Laboratories, Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, 1-Church Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Department of Physics, GC University, Kachehri Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia [Laser Laboratories, Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, 1-Church Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Umm-i-Kalsoom [Laser Laboratories, Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Laser Laboratories, Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, 1-Church Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Department of Physics, GC University, Kachehri Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Department of Basic Science and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Kala Shah Kaku Campus, Lahore (Pakistan); Begum, Narjis [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore (Pakistan); Husinsky, Wolfgang [Laser Laboratories, Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Liquid assisted ablation effects on the titanium under varying number of laser pulses is investigated. • SEM analysis reveals the growth of various features like ripples, dendritic structures, pores, grains and craters. • Raman and XRD analyses shows the presence of TiO{sub 2} & TiH in both media whereas, TiC, TiCxOy are only identified in propanol. • Hardness of ablated Ti explored by Nano indentation is found to decrease with increasing number of pulses in both media. • Relationship between surface, structural and mechanical modifications is established. - Abstract: The effect of liquid environment (de-ionized water and propanol) on surface, structural and mechanical properties of femtosecond laser ablated titanium has been investigated. For this purpose, Ti: sapphire laser (800 nm, 30 fs, 1 kHz) has been employed, at a fluence of 3.6 J/cm{sup 2} in ambient environments of de-ionized water, and propanol for various number of laser pulses i.e. 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000. The surface features, chemical composition, structural analysis and mechanical properties of irradiated targets have been evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X -ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Nano-hardness tester. Various features like dendritic structures, globules, porous granular morphology, cones, crater, circular ripples and thermal stress cracking are observed at the ablated area after irradiation. These features are instigated by various thermal and chemical phenomena induced by laser heating at the solid–liquid interface. Decrease in nano-hardness observed in both ambient environments is attributable to the formation of hydrides after irradiation in both media.

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation from a supercooled ionic liquid on a carbon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxia; Shen, Yan; Hung, Francisco R; Santiso, Erik E

    2016-12-07

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the nucleation of the crystal phase of the ionic liquid [dmim + ][Cl - ] from its supercooled liquid phase, both in the bulk and in contact with a graphitic surface of D = 3 nm. By combining the string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)], with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso and Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)], we computed minimum free energy paths, the approximate size of the critical nucleus, the free energy barrier, and the rates involved in these nucleation processes. For homogeneous nucleation, the subcooled liquid phase has to overcome a free energy barrier of ∼85 kcal/mol to form a critical nucleus of size ∼3.6 nm, which then grows into the monoclinic crystal phase. This free energy barrier becomes about 42% smaller (∼49 kcal/mol) when the subcooled liquid phase is in contact with a graphitic disk, and the critical nucleus formed is about 17% smaller (∼3.0 nm) than the one observed for homogeneous nucleation. The crystal formed in the heterogeneous nucleation scenario has a structure that is similar to that of the bulk crystal, with the exception of the layers of ions next to the graphene surface, which have larger local density and the cations lie with their imidazolium rings parallel to the graphitic surface. The critical nucleus forms near the graphene surface separated only by these layers of ions. The heterogeneous nucleation rate (∼4.8 × 10 11 cm -3 s -1 ) is about one order of magnitude faster than the homogeneous rate (∼6.6 × 10 10 cm -3 s -1 ). The computed free energy barriers and nucleation rates are in reasonable agreement with experimental and simulation values obtained for the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of other systems (ice, urea, Lennard-Jones spheres, and oxide

  6. Bonding two surfaces by exposing to actinic radiation an epoxide liquid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing a film adhesive from an epoxide resin is described. A liquid containing an epoxide resin and a photopolymerizable compound is polymerized to form a solid continuous film by exposure to actinide radiation. A catalyst can be used but no thermal crosslinking should be allowed to occur. The film so obtained is used to bond surfaces together by the application of heat and pressure. The period of heating can be very short, as there need be no solvent to evaporate and the films need not be thick, typically 20 to 250 μm. (O.T.)

  7. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

  8. Optimization of enzymatic esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol in ionic liquid using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Somayeh; Lasekan, Ola; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Wei, Leong Sze

    2017-05-26

    Developing an efficient lipophilization reaction system for phenolic derivatives could enhance their applications in food processing. Low solubility of phenolic acids reduces the efficiency of phenolic derivatives in most benign enzyme solvents. The conversion of phenolic acids through esterification alters their solubility and enhances their use as food antioxidant additives as well as their application in cosmetics. This study has shown that lipase-catalyzed esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide) was the best approach for esterification reaction. In order to achieve the maximum yield, the process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on a five-level and four independent variables such as: dosage of enzyme; hexanol/dihydrocaffeic acid mole ratio; temperature and reaction time. The optimum esterification condition (Y = 84.4%) was predicted to be obtained at temperature of 39.4 °C, time of 77.5 h dosage of enzyme at 41.6% and hexanol/dihydrocaffeic acid mole ratio of 2.1. Finally, this study has produced an efficient enzymatic esterification method for the preparation of hexyl dihydrocaffeate in vitro using a lipase in an ionic liquid system. Concentration of hexanol was the most significant (p < 0.05) independent variable that influenced the yield of hexyl dihydrocaffeate. Graphical abstract Synthesis of different Hexyl dihydrocaffeates in ionic liquid.

  9. Protein conformational transitions at the liquid-gas interface as studied by dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, Boris A

    2014-04-01

    Experimental results on the dynamic dilational surface elasticity of protein solutions are analyzed and compared. Short reviews of the protein behavior at the liquid-gas interface and the dilational surface rheology precede the main sections of this work. The kinetic dependencies of the surface elasticity differ strongly for the solutions of globular and non-globular proteins. In the latter case these dependencies are similar to those for solutions of non-ionic amphiphilic polymers and have local maxima corresponding to the formation of the distal region of the surface layer (type I). In the former case the dynamic surface elasticity is much higher (>60 mN/m) and the kinetic dependencies are monotonical and similar to the data for aqueous dispersions of solid nanoparticles (type II). The addition of strong denaturants to solutions of bovine serum albumin and β-lactoglobulin results in an abrupt transition from the type II to type I dependencies if the denaturant concentration exceeds a certain critical value. These results give a strong argument in favor of the preservation of the protein globular structure in the course of adsorption without any denaturants. The addition of cationic surfactants also can lead to the non-monotonical kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity indicating destruction of the protein tertiary and secondary structures. The addition of anionic surfactants gives similar results only for the protein solutions of high ionic strength. The influence of cationic surfactants on the local maxima of the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity for solutions of a non-globular protein (β-casein) differs from the influence of anionic surfactants due to the heterogeneity of the charge distribution along the protein chain. In this case one can use small admixtures of ionic surfactants as probes of the adsorption mechanism. The effect of polyelectrolytes on the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity of protein

  10. Electro-osmosis of nematic liquid crystals under weak anchoring and second-order surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Antarip; Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystal flows has attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electro-osmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation mechanisms through narrow confinements. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of an ordered nematic fluid with ionic inclusions, taking into account the influences from surface-induced elasticity and electrical double layer (EDL) phenomena. Toward this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free-energy analysis, considering the contributions from first- and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, charged surface polarization, ionic and entropic energies. The present study focuses on the influence of surface charge and elasticity effects in the resulting linear electro-osmosis through a slit-type microchannel whose surfaces are chemically treated to display a homeotropic-type weak anchoring state. An optical periodic stripe configuration of the nematic director has been observed, especially for higher electric fields, wherein the Ericksen number for the dynamic study is restricted to the order of unity. Contrary to the isotropic electrolytes, the EDL potential in this case was found to be dependent on the external field strength. Through a systematic investigation, we brought out the fact that the wavelength of the oscillating patterns is dictated mainly by the external field, while the amplitude depends on most of the physical variables ranging from the anchoring strength and the flexoelectric coefficients to the surface charge density and electrical double layer thickness.

  11. Shapes of an Air Taylor Bubble in Stagnant Liquids Influenced by Different Surface Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertnuwat, B.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an empirical model for predicting shapes of a Taylor bubble, which is a part of slug flows, under different values of the surface tension in stagnant liquids by employing numerical simulations. The k - Ɛ turbulence model was used in the framework of finite volume method for simulating flow fields in a unit of slug flow and also the pressure distribution on a Taylor bubble surface. Assuming that an air pressure distribution inside the Taylor bubble must be uniform, a grid search method was exploited to find an appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble for six values of surface tension. It was found that the shape of a Taylor bubble would be blunter if the surface tension was increased. This was because the surface tension affected the Froude number, controlling the flow around a Taylor bubble. The simulation results were also compared with the Taylor bubble shape, created by the Dumitrescu-and-Taylor model and former studies in order to ensure that they were consistent. Finally, the empirical model was presented from the simulation results.

  12. Thermal hydraulic numerical investigation of the heavy liquid metal free surface of MYRRHA spallation target experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first advanced design of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is currently being built in SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium): MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications). The experiment investigates the free surface design of the MYRRHA target. The free surface lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal experiment is a full-scale model of the concentric MYRRHA target. The design of the target is combined with CFD simulations using a volume of fluid method accounting for mass transfer across the free surface. The model used has been validated with water experimental results. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. In the current work, we present numerical results of Star- CD simulations employing a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme in conjunction with the cavitation model for the nominal operation conditions. Thermal hydraulic of the target is considered for the nominal flow rate and nominal heat load. Results show that the target has a very stable free surface configuration for the considered flow rate and heat load

  13. Lattice Boltzmann model for thermal free surface flows with liquid-solid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, Elham; Koerner, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this work is to develop an algorithm to use the Lattice Boltzmann method for solving free surface thermal flow problems with solid/liquid phase changes. Approach: A multi-distribution function model is applied to simulate hydrodynamic flow and the coupled thermal diffusion-convection problem. Findings: The free surface problem, i.e. the reconstruction of the missing distribution functions at the interface, can be solved by applying a physical transparent momentum and heat flux based methodology. The developed method is subsequently applied to some test cases in order to assess its computational potentials. Practical implications: Many industrial processes involve problems where non-isothermal motion and simultaneous solidification of fluids with free surface is important. Examples are all castings processes and especially foaming processes which are characterized by a huge and strongly changing surface. Value: A reconstruction algorithm to treat a thermal hydrodynamic problem with free surfaces is presented which is physically transparent and easy to implement.

  14. Surface conditioning of a cold-rolled dual-phase steel by annealing in nitriding atmospheres prior to hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, F.; Beste, D.; Bleck, W. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (IEHK), RWTH Aachen (Germany); Dimyati, A.; Mayer, J. [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    The development of steel grades for automotive applications in the recent years has been driven on by two trends: lightweight and improved crash safety. By using steels like DP (dual phase) the goals of passenger safety, fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness can be met at reasonable price. The favorite corrosion protection method for sheet steels in the car industry is the hot-dip galvanizing process. Here, an approach was made to reduce the surface enrichment of critical alloying elements of a dual phase steel grade by reactive annealing in ammonia containing atmospheres. The effects of this treatment on mechanical properties and hot-dip coating behavior are reported. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Ionic liquid based vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for the determination of bisphenols in thermal papers with the aid of response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Ankita; Satyanarayana, G N V; Panchal, Smita; Thakur, Ravindra Singh; Ansari, Nasreen G; Patel, Devendra K

    2017-08-04

    A sensitive, rapid and efficient ionic liquid-based vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-VALLME) with Liquid Chromatography Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is proposed for the determination of bisphenols in thermal paper. Extraction factors were systematically optimized by response surface methodology. Experimental factors showing significant effects on the analytical responses were evaluated using design of experiment. The limit of detection for Bisphenol-A (BPA) and Bisphenol-S (BPS) in thermal paper were 1.25 and 0.93μgkg -1 respectively. The dynamic linearity range for BPA was between 4 and 100μgkg -1 and the determination of coefficient (R 2 ) was 0.996. The values of the same parameters were 3-100μgkg -1 and 0.998 for BPS. The extraction recoveries of BPA and BPS in thermal paper were 101% and 99%. Percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) for matrix effect and matrix match effects were not more than 10%, for both bisphenols. The proposed method uses a statistical approach for the analysis of bisphenols in environmental samples, and is easy, rapid, requires minimum organic solvents and efficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculating the Maximum Density of the Surface Packing of Ions in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislenko, S. A.; Moroz, Yu. O.; Karu, K.; Ivaništšev, V. B.; Fedorov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum density of monolayer packing on a graphene surface is calculated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) for ions of characteristic size and symmetry: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM]+, tetrabutylammonium [TBA]+, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, dicyanamide [DCA]-, and bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [TFSI]-. The characteristic orientations of ions in a closely packed monolayer are found. It is shown that the formation of a closely packed monolayer is possible for [DCA]- and [BF4]- anions only at surface charges that exceed the limit of the electrochemical stability of the corresponding ionic liquids. For the [TBA]+ cation, a monolayer structure can be observed at the charge of nearly 30 μC/cm2 attainable in electrochemical experiment.

  17. Influence of Surface Geometry of Grating Substrate on Director in Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wenjiang; Xing Hongyu; Yang Guochen; Zhang Zhidong; Sun Yubao; Chen Guoying; Xuan Li

    2011-01-01

    The director in nematic liquid crystal cell with a weak anchoring grating substrate and a strong anchoring planar substrate is relative to the coordinates x and z. The influence of the surface geometry of the grating substrate in the cell on the director profile is numerically simulated using the two-dimensional finite-difference iterative method under the condition of one elastic constant approximation and zero driven voltage. The deepness of groove and the cell gap affect the distribution of director. For the relatively shallow groove and the relatively thick cell gap, the director is only dependent on the coordinate z. For the relatively deep groove and the relatively thin cell gap, the director must be dependent on the two coordinates x and z because of the increased elastic strain energy induced by the grating surface. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  18. Cavitation induced by high speed impact of a solid surface on a liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Tinguely, Marc; Rouvinez, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    A solid surface may suffer from severe erosion if it impacts a liquid jet at high speed. The physics behind the erosion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of a gun bullet on a laminar water jet with the help of a high speed camera. The bullet has a flat front and 11 mm diameter, which is half of jet diameter. The impact speed was varied between 200 and 500 ms-1. Immediately after the impact, a systematic shock wave and high speed jetting were observed. As the compression waves reflect on the jet boundary, a spectacular number of vapour cavities are generated within the jet. Depending on the bullet velocity, these cavities may grow and collapse violently on the bullet surface with a risk of cavitation erosion. We strongly believe that this transient cavitation is the main cause of erosion observed in many industrial applications such as Pelton turbines.

  19. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-10-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.

  20. Time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    A finite element analysis is given for time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces. Consideration is given to a two-dimensional shallow trough with vertical walls maintained at different temperatures. The spatial formulation incorporates mixed Lagrangian approximations to the velocity, pressure, temperature, and interface position. The time integration method is performed using the Trapezoid Rule with step-size control. The Galerkin method is employed to reduce the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Calculations are performed for conditions relevant to the electron beam vaporization of refractory metals. The Prandtl number is 0.015, and Grashof numbers are in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. The results reveal the effects of flow intensity, surface-tension gradients, and mesh and time-step refinement

  1. Arsenic species determination in human scalp hair by pressurized hot water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morado Piñeiro, Andrés; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2013-02-15

    Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic and arsenic species (mainly As(III) and As(V)) in human scalp hair have been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS have been used for total arsenic and arsenic species determination, respectively. The proposed methods include a "green", fast, high efficient and automated species leaching procedure by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The operating parameters for PHWE including modifier concentration, extraction temperature, static time, extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio and flush volume were studied using design of experiments (Plackett-Burman design PBD). Optimum condition implies a modifier concentration (acetic acid) of 150 mM and powdered hair samples fully mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) as a dispersing agent at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 5. The extraction has been carried out at 100°C and at an extraction pressure of 1500 psi for 5 min in four extraction step. Under optimised conditions, limits of quantification of 7.0, 6.3 and 50.3 ng g(-1) for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively were achieved. Repeatability of the overall procedure (4.4, 7.2 and 2.1% for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively) was achieved. The analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material was used for validation. The optimised method has been finally applied to several human scalp hair samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A rapid method based on hot water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analyzing tetracycline antibiotic residues in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Coradazzi, Cristina; Di Corcia, Antonio; Lagana, Aldo; Sergi, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining residues of 4 widely used tetracycline antibiotics and 3 of their 4-epimers in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After dispersing samples of mozzarella, asiago, parmigiano, gruyere, emmenthal, and camembert on sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 6 mL water heated at 70 degrees C. After acidification and filtration, 200 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the LC column. For analyte identification and quantification, MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting 2 precursor ion-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recoveries were no lower than 78%. Using demeclocycline as a surrogate analyte, recoveries of analyte added to the 6 types of cheeses at the 30 ng/g level were 96-117%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) not higher than 9%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not dependent on the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates that this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. At the lowest concentration considered, i.e., 10 ng/g, the accuracy of the method ranged between 90 and 107%, with RSDs not larger than 12%. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantitation were estimated to be 1-2 ng/g.

  3. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-01-01

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were ∼ 4 x 10 -7 cm 2 /s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10 -5 to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form

  4. Uniform hexagonal graphene flakes and films grown on liquid copper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dechao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Chen, Jianyi; Yu, Gui; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yunqi

    2012-05-22

    Unresolved problems associated with the production of graphene materials include the need for greater control over layer number, crystallinity, size, edge structure and spatial orientation, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we report a chemical vapor deposition approach that allows the direct synthesis of uniform single-layered, large-size (up to 10,000 μm(2)), spatially self-aligned, and single-crystalline hexagonal graphene flakes (HGFs) and their continuous films on liquid Cu surfaces. Employing a liquid Cu surface completely eliminates the grain boundaries in solid polycrystalline Cu, resulting in a uniform nucleation distribution and low graphene nucleation density, but also enables self-assembly of HGFs into compact and ordered structures. These HGFs show an average two-dimensional resistivity of 609 ± 200 Ω and saturation current density of 0.96 ± 0.15 mA/μm, demonstrating their good conductivity and capability for carrying high current density.

  5. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-12-14

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  6. Measurement and modeling of surface temperature dynamics of the NSTX liquid lithium divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A. G.; Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Nygren, R. E.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Dual-band infrared (IR) measurements of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) are reported that demonstrate liquid Li is more effective at removing plasma heat flux than Li-conditioned graphite. Extended dwell of the outer strike point (OSP) on the LLD caused an incrementally larger area to be heated above the Li melting point through the discharge leading to enhanced D retention and plasma confinement. Measurement of Tsurface near the OSP demonstrates a significant reduction of the LLD surface temperature compared to that of Li-coated graphite at the same major radius. Modeling of these data with a 2-D simulation of the LLD structure in the DFLUX code suggests that the structure of the LLD was successful at handling up to q⊥,peak = 5 MW/m2 inter-ELM and up to 10 MW/m2 during ELMs from its plasma-facing surface as intended, and provide an innovative method for inferring the Li layer thickness.

  7. Surface-modified reduced graphene oxide electrodes for capacitors by ionic liquids and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Seok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide surface was modified by introduction of ionic liquids. • Microstructure and capacitance of modified electrode were dependent on the ionic liquids contents. • Modification gives electrode better charge transport and higher specific capacitance. • Modified electrode showed the better capacitive performance such as rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ionic liquids (IL) composites with different weight ratios of IL to rGO were synthesized by a simple method. In these composites, IL contributed to the exfoliation of rGO sheets and to the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the resulting composites by enhancing the ion diffusion and charge transport. The structure of the composites was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that IL was coated on the surface of rGO in a translucent manner. The electrochemical analysis of the prepared composites was carried out by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Among the prepared composites, the one with a weight ratio of rGO to IL of 1:7 showed the highest specific capacitance of 147.5 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 . In addition, the rate capability and cycle performance of the composites were enhanced compared to pristine rGO. These enhanced properties make the composites suitable as electrode materials for the better performance supercapacitors

  8. Model non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer from a hot gold surface to an alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Barnes, George L; Yan, Tianying; Hase, William L

    2010-05-07

    Model non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented of heat transfer from a hot Au {111} substrate to an alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer (H-SAM) to assist in obtaining an atomic-level understanding of experiments by Wang et al. (Z. Wang, J. A. Carter, A. Lagutchev, Y. K. Koh, N.-H. Seong, D. G. Cahill, and D. D. Dlott, Science, 2007, 317, 787). Different models are considered to determine how they affect the heat transfer dynamics. They include temperature equilibrated (TE) and temperature gradient (TG) thermostat models for the Au(s) surface, and soft and stiff S/Au(s) models for bonding of the S-atoms to the Au(s) surface. A detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium heat transfer at the heterogeneous interface is presented. There is a short time temperature gradient within the top layers of the Au(s) surface. The S-atoms heat rapidly, much faster than do the C-atoms in the alkylthiolate chains. A high thermal conductivity in the H-SAM, perpendicular to the interface, results in nearly identical temperatures for the CH(2) and CH(3) groups versus time. Thermal-induced disorder is analyzed for the Au(s) substrate, the S/Au(s) interface and the H-SAM. Before heat transfer occurs from the hot Au(s) substrate to the H-SAM, there is disorder at the S/Au(s) interface and within the alkylthiolate chains arising from heat-induced disorder near the surface of hot Au(s). The short-time rapid heating of the S-atoms enhances this disorder. The increasing disorder of H-SAM chains with time results from both disorder at the Au/S interface and heat transfer to the H-SAM chains.

  9. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids used as additives in the nanolubrication of silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Amorim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS, the demand for efficient lubricants of silicon surfaces intensified. Although the use of ionic liquids (ILs as additives to base oils in the lubrication of steel/steel or other types of metal/ metal tribological pairs has been investigated, the number of studies involving Si is very low. In this work, we tested imidazolium-based ILs as additives to the base oil polyethylene glycol (PEG to lubricate Si surfaces. The friction coefficients were measured in a nanotribometer. The viscosity of the PEG + IL mixtures as well as their contact angles on the Si surface were measured. The topography and chemical composition of the substrates surfaces were determined with atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. Due to the hygroscopic properties of PEG, the first step was to assess the effect of the presence of water. Then, a series of ILs based on the cations 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [EMIM], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM], 1-ethyl-3-vinylimidazolium [EVIM], 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium [C2OHMIM] and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium [AMIM] combined with the anions dicyanamide [DCA], trifluoromethanesulfonate [TfO], and ethylsulfate [EtSO4] were added to dry PEG. All additives (2 wt % led to a decrease in friction coefficient as well as an increase in viscosity (with the exception of [AMIM][TfO] and improved the Si wettability. The additives based on the anion [EtSO4] exhibited the most promising tribological behavior, which was attributed to the strong interaction with the Si surface ensuring the formation of a stable surface layer, which hinders the contact between the sliding surfaces.

  10. Non-genomic estrogen regulation of ion transport and airway surface liquid dynamics in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Saint-Criq

    Full Text Available Male cystic fibrosis (CF patients survive longer than females and lung exacerbations in CF females vary during the estrous cycle. Estrogen has been reported to reduce the height of the airway surface liquid (ASL in female CF bronchial epithelium. Here we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the airway surface liquid height and ion transport in normal (NuLi-1 and CF (CuFi-1 bronchial epithelial monolayers. Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy revealed that airway surface liquid height was significantly higher in the non-CF cells compared to the CF cells. 17β-estradiol (0.1-10 nM reduced the airway surface liquid height in non-CF and CF cells after 30 min treatment. Treatment with the nuclear-impeded Estrogen Dendrimer Conjugate mimicked the effect of free estrogen by reducing significantly the airway surface liquid height in CF and non-CF cells. Inhibition of chloride transport or basolateral potassium recycling decreased the airway surface liquid height and 17β-estradiol had no additive effect in the presence of these ion transporter inhibitors. 17β-estradiol decreased bumetanide-sensitive transepithelial short-circuit current in non-CF cells and prevented the forskolin-induced increase in ASL height. 17β-estradiol stimulated an amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current and increased ouabain-sensitive basolateral short-circuit current in CF cells. 17β-estradiol increased PKCδ activity in CF and non-CF cells. These results demonstrate that estrogen dehydrates CF and non-CF ASL, and these responses to 17β-estradiol are non-genomic rather than involving the classical nuclear estrogen receptor pathway. 17β-estradiol acts on the airway surface liquid by inhibiting cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in non-CF cells and increasing sodium absorption via the stimulation of PKCδ, ENaC and the Na(+/K(+ATPase in CF cells.

  11. Numerical analysis of high-speed liquid lithium free-surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Sergej; Heinzel, Volker; Stieglitz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The free surface behavior of a high speed lithium jet is investigated by means of a CFD LES analysis. ► The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique. ► The Osaka University experiments with liquid lithium jet have been simulated. ► Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. ► Calculation results show a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: The free-surface stability of the target of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is one of the crucial issues, since the spatio-temporal behavior of the free-surface determines the neutron flux to be generated. This article investigates the relation between the evolution of a wall boundary layer in a convergent nozzle and the free surface shape of a high speed lithium jet by means of a CFD LES analysis using the Osaka University experiments. The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique to analyze the individual flow phenomena observed. Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. First analyses of calculation results show that the simulation exhibits a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data, which allows in the future a more realistic prediction of the IFMIF target behavior.

  12. Influence of liquid temperature and flow rate on enamel erosion and surface softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenburger, M; Addy, M

    2003-11-01

    Enamel erosion and softening are based on chemical processes which could be influenced by many factors including temperature and acid flow rate. Knowledge of the influence of these variables could have relevance to research experiments and clinical outcomes. Both parameters were investigated using an ultrasonication and profilometry method to assess erosion depth and surface softening of enamel. The influence of temperature was studied by eroding polished human enamel samples at 4, 20, 35 or 50 degrees C for 2 h. Secondly, different liquid flow conditions were established by varying acid agitation. Additionally, a slow laminar flow and a jet of citric acid, to simulate drinking through a straw, were applied to specimens. Erosion depth increased significantly with acid temperature from 11.0 microm at 4 degrees C to 35.8 microm at 50 degrees C. Surface softening increased much more slowly and plateaued at 2.9 microm to 3.5 microm after 35 degrees C. A strong dependence of erosion on liquid flow was revealed. In unstirred conditions only 8.6 microm erosion occurred, which increased to 22.2 microm with slow stirring and 40.9 microm with fast stirring. Surface softening did not increase correspondingly with its largest extent at slow stirring at 3.4 microm.The implication of these data are: first, the conditions for erosion experiments in vitro or in situ need to be specified for reliable comparisons between studies. Secondly, erosion of teeth by soft drinks are likely to be influenced both by the temperature of the drink and individual drinking habits.

  13. Determination of the heating temperature of potholes surface on road pavement in the process of repairs using hot asphalt concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of roads construction the necessary transport and operational characteristics should be achieved, which depend on the quality of the applied, material and technologies. Under the loads of transport means and the influence of weather conditions on the road pavement deformations and destructions occur, which lead to worsening of transport and operational characteristics, decrease of operational life of the road and they are often the reason of road accidents. According to the data of the Strategic Research Center of "Rosgosstrah" more than 20 % of road accidents in Russia occur due to bad quality of road pavement. One of the main directions in traffic security control and prolongation of operational life for road pavement of non-rigid type is road works, as a result of which defects of pavement are eliminated and in case of timely repairs of high quality the operational life of the road increases for several years. The most widely used material for non-rigid pavement repairs is hot road concrete mixes and in case of adherence to specifications they provide high quality of works. The authors investigate the problems of hot asphalt concrete mixes for repairs of road surfaces of non-rigid type. The results of the study hot asphalt concrete mix’s temperature regimes are offered in case of repair works considering the temperature delivered to the work site and the ambient temperature depending on the type of mix and class of bitumen.

  14. Femtosecond-laser induced dynamics of CO on Ru(0001): Deep insights from a hot-electron friction model including surface motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Robert; Floß, Gereon; Saalfrank, Peter; Füchsel, Gernot; Lončarić, Ivor; Juaristi, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin model accounting for all six molecular degrees of freedom is applied to femtosecond-laser induced, hot-electron driven dynamics of Ru(0001)(2 ×2 ):CO. In our molecular dynamics with electronic friction approach, a recently developed potential energy surface based on gradient-corrected density functional theory accounting for van der Waals interactions is adopted. Electronic friction due to the coupling of molecular degrees of freedom to electron-hole pairs in the metal are included via a local density friction approximation, and surface phonons by a generalized Langevin oscillator model. The action of ultrashort laser pulses enters through a substrate-mediated, hot-electron mechanism via a time-dependent electronic temperature (derived from a two-temperature model), causing random forces acting on the molecule. The model is applied to laser induced lateral diffusion of CO on the surface, "hot adsorbate" formation, and laser induced desorption. Reaction probabilities are strongly enhanced compared to purely thermal processes, both for diffusion and desorption. Reaction yields depend in a characteristic (nonlinear) fashion on the applied laser fluence, as well as branching ratios for various reaction channels. Computed two-pulse correlation traces for desorption and other indicators suggest that aside from electron-hole pairs, phonons play a non-negligible role for laser induced dynamics in this system, acting on a surprisingly short time scale. Our simulations on precomputed potentials allow for good statistics and the treatment of long-time dynamics (300 ps), giving insight into this system which hitherto has not been reached. We find generally good agreement with experimental data where available and make predictions in addition. A recently proposed laser induced population of physisorbed precursor states could not be observed with the present low-coverage model.

  15. Liquid entrainment and off-take from the two-phase mixture surface in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; No, Hee Cheon

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the bleed capacity of the Safety Depressurization System (SDS) of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) in the case of Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW), we performed an experimental study of liquid entrainment and liquid off-take from the swelled two-phase mixture surface in a vessel. A total of 220 experimental data on the entrainment and off-take are obtained using a test vessel with a height of 2.0m and an inner diameter of 0.3m, and a top break with a diameter of 0.05m. Two-phase mixture levels are measured by an ultrasonic sensor within ±1.77% with respect to the visual level data. Droplet entrainment data are obtained with and without the top break and are compared with the existing pool entrainment data. The present droplet entrainment data have higher values than those of the existing pool entrainment due to (a) the pulling toward the break of the liquid deentrained on the top wall of the vessel and (b) gas acceleration in the vicinity of the break. In the present experiment, droplet entrainment, Efg, strongly depends upon jg/h and is proportional to the 7th power of jg/h in the same way as the off-take data. The empirical correlation for the onset of off-take is developed in terms of the Froude number (Frg) at the break and the non-dimensional inception height (hb/d). This correlation shows agreement with the present experimental data within ±15%. The present off-take quality data show agreement with Schrock's off-take quality correlation with the r.m.s. error of 15.8%

  16. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.S.

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin's resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  18. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric Scott [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin`s resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  19. The effects of surface topography control using liquid crystal elastomers on bodies in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Michael; Guin, Tyler; Beblo, Richard; White, Timothy; Reich, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Surface topography control has use across many applications including delayed separation of flow via selective boundary-layer tripping. Recently, advances with liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) have been leveraged for controlled, repeatable, out-of-plane deformations that could enable these topographical changes. An aligned LCE deforms when heated, associated with a loss in order. Circumferential patterns fabricated through the thickness of the LCE film yield a predictable conical out-of-plane deformation that can control surface topography. This study focuses on the experimental investigation of LCE behavior for flow control. Initially, the deformations of LCE samples 1/2" in diameter and 50 µm thick were characterized using Digital Image Correlation under uniform positive and negative gauge pressures at various temperatures. Surface topography showed strong dependence on boundary conditions, sample dimensions, and pattern location relative to the applied boundary conditions, informing adjustment of the LCE of the chemistry to produce higher modulus and glassy materials. As an initial demonstration of the ability to control flow, Then, to demonstrate the potential for flow control, 3D printed cylinders with varying arrangements of representative topographical features were characterized in a wind tunnel with Particle Image Velocimetry. Results showed that features with a maximum deflection height of 1.5 mm in a two-row arrangement can form an asymmetric wake about a 73 mm diameter cylinder that reduces drag while generating lift. These results inform subsequent investigation of active LCE elements on a cylinder that are currently under examination.

  20. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)