WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot laboratory processes

  1. Development and efficiency assessment of process lubrication for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, S.; Artyukh, Viktor; Ignatovich, I.; Dikareva, Varvara

    2017-10-01

    The article considers innovative technologies in testing and production of process lubricants for hot bulk forging. There were developed new compositions of eco-friendly water-graphite process lubricants for hot extrusion and forging. New approaches to efficiency assessment of process lubricants are developed and described in the following article. Laboratory and field results are presented.

  2. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  3. Laboratory simulation of Hot Jupiters atmosphere expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Ponomarenko, A. G.

    2017-11-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJ) are exoplanets, gas giants with low orbits (≤ 0.1 a.u.). The stellar X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation energy deposition result in heating ionization and the consequent expansion of planetary atmosphere. Expansion of upper atmosphere under certain conditions could be so large that the majority of light atmospheric constituents overcome the gravitational binding and escape from the planet in a form of hydrodynamic wind. Besides interaction of two counter-streaming plasma flows (stellar wind and ionized upper layers of planet atmosphere), each of this flows interact with planetary magnetic field. In such complex situation laboratory simulation can provide data that can’t be obtained by computer simulation or observation. Experiment was carried out on KI-1 facility: high-vacuum chamber 5m long, 1.2 m in diameter with pressure ∼ 10-6 Torr. Magnetic dipole with two attached laser targets played the role of a planet, and background plasma from θ-pinch used for simulation of stellar wind. As a result, data on a behavior of plasma density and magnetic field were obtained. The novel phenomenon was registered: magnetic field is transferred by the cloud of laser plasma, which was not observed before in experiments or calculations.

  4. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...... will increasingly be driven by business process models. Consequently business process modelling and improvement is becoming a serious challenge. The aim of this paper is to establish a conceptual framework for business process innovation (BPI) in the supply chain based on advanced EIS. The challenge is thus...... to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models...

  5. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  6. Polymer Processing and Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to process and evaluate polymers for use in nonlinear optical, conductive and structural Air Force applications. Primary capabilities are extrusion of...

  7. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, e-mail: lainetti@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  8. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  9. Optimization Of Laboratory Hot Rolling Of Brittle Fe-40at.%Al-Zr-B Aluminide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of the protective steel capsules enabled to manage the laboratory hot flat rolling of the extremely brittle as-cast aluminide Fe-40at.%Al-Zr-B with the total height reduction of almost 70 %. The hot rolling parameters were optimized to obtain the best combination of deformation temperature (from 1160°C up to 1240°C and rolling speed (from 0.14 m·s−1 to 0.53 m·s−1. The resistance against cracking and refinement of the highly heterogeneous cast microstructure were the main criteria. Both experiments and mathematical simulations based on FEM demonstrated that it is not possible to exploit enhanced plasticity of the investigated alloy at low strain rates in the hot rolling process. The heat flux from the sample to the working rolls is so intensive at low rolling speed that even the protective capsule does not prevent massive appearance of the surface transverse cracking. The homogeneity and size of product’s grain was influenced significantly by temperature of deformation, whereas the effect of rolling speed was relatively negligible. The optimal forming parameters were found as rolling temperature 1200°C and the rolling speed 0.35 m·s−1. The effective technology of the iron aluminide Fe-40at.% Al-Zr-B preparation by simple processes of melting, casting and hot rolling was thus established and optimized.

  10. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  11. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  12. Laboratory spectra of hot molecules: Data needs for hot super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of stars are now thought to support exoplanets. Many of those exoplanets discovered thus far are categorized as rocky objects with an atmosphere. Most of these objects are however hot due to their short orbital period. Models suggest that water is the dominant species in their atmospheres. The hot temperatures are expected to turn these atmospheres into a (high pressure) steam bath containing remains of melted rock. The spectroscopy of these hot rocky objects will be very different from that of cooler objects or hot gas giants. Molecules suggested to be important for the spectroscopy of these objects are reviewed together with the current status of the corresponding spectroscopic data. Perspectives of building a comprehensive database of linelist/cross sections applicable for atmospheric models of rocky super-Earths as part of the ExoMol project are discussed. The quantum-mechanical approaches used in linelist productions and their challenges are summarized.

  13. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  14. Fatigue Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and analyses the results of an experimental trial on the fatigue resistance of recycled hot mix asphalt for road pavements. Based on the gyratory compaction and the indirect tensile strength test, the mix design procedure has optimized nine different mixes, considering both conventional limestone and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, the latter used at different quantities, up to 40% by weight of the aggregate. A standard bitumen and two polymer modified binders were used for the production of the mixes. The fatigue study was carried out with four-point bending tests, each one performed at 20°C and 10 Hz. The empirical stiffness reduction method, along with the energy ratio approach, based on the dissipated energy concept, was adopted to elaborate the experimental data. Unaged and aged specimens were checked, to analyse the ageing effects on the fatigue performance. In comparison with the control mixes, produced only with limestone, improved fatigue performance was noticed for the mixtures prepared with RAP, especially when made with polymer modified binders, under both aged and unaged conditions. Both the approaches adopted for the experimental data analysis have outlined the same ranking of the mixes.

  15. Vibrationally Hot HCN in the Laboratory and IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John C.; Yu, Shanshan; Gupta, Harshal; Drouin, Brian J.

    2011-06-01

    HCN has historically been used as a tracer of the dense gas in the in interstellar medium. The envelopes of carbon rich asymptotic giant branch stars are generally rich in HCN; however, the large and generally variable infrared flux emitted by the star enormously complicates the interpretation. HCN in IRC+10216 shows an enormous number of masers and lasers pumped by the central star and often enhanced by line overlaps with other abundant molecules such as acetylene in the infrared. A total of seven laser transitions including two previously unreported transitions associated with the 040-011 interacting bands have been observed. To understand the astronomical observations a study of the radio frequency discharge plasma of CH_4 and N_2 was performed. Rotational transitions of HCN in vibrational states up to 15,000 Cm-1 have been observed including inverted levels and a number of previously undetected states. The spectra from IRC+10216 and the laboratory are presented.

  16. KINETICS PROCESSES OF DEHYDRATION AND HEATING FISH DURING FRYING, DURING SEMI HOT AND HOT SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokholchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Calculated methods of graphing of curves for kinetics of dehydration and fish heating during the processes of frying, semi hot smoking and hot smoking have been developed. The offered methods of calculating are based on the basic regularities of heat and mass exchanges of these processes. Based on the research of the regularities of dehydration on the kinetic curves, critical points were identified, that characterize the transition from the moisture removal with lower energy of its bond with material to the removal of one with higher energy bond, also the influence of the product shrinkage on the velocity of the moisture removal. These points are characteristic for the temperature curves as well. It’s suggested for the temperature curve to be replaced by broken line that consists of three straight lines that are crossing in points, corresponded with the critical moistures and critical temperatures. Significant amount of the experimental material of the research of the kinetics of dehydration and fish heating under different modes is shown by authors in the form of generalized dependencies. The method allows modeling the processes of heating and dehydrating of fish and choosing the most rational modes based on the calculated data. The proposed technique makes it possible to construct the curves of the kinetics of heating and dehydration kinetics in processes of roasting, semi hot and hot smoked fish, which allows to optimize a particular process, design more efficient in terms of consumption of raw materials and energy technology, as well as to create better machines or upgrade existing equipment into account the relationship of heat and mass transfer processes.

  17. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  18. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  19. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  20. Research on optimization of the hot embossing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Fu, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Zi-Chen

    2007-12-01

    The hot embossing of polymer was studied to improve product quality. The finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the embossing step, the cooling step and the demolding step with respect to product quality. The numerical simulation results show that profile precision is largely influenced by the topological structure of the mold during the embossing step. Inadequate holding time will result in low pattern fidelity. Inappropriate demolding temperature could induce a large thermal stress at the bottom of the micro pattern, while keeping imprint pressure during the cooling step will aggravate this phenomenon. Fracture, necking and pattern distortion can easily be induced by adhesion between the polymer and the mold when high aspect ratio patterns are demolded. The hot embossing process was optimized and an improved hot embossing system with an automatic demolding device was designed based on the simulation analysis. Successful fabrication of fine patterns with a high aspect ratio verified the improvements.

  1. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  2. Residence time modeling of hot melt extrusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Elena; Podhaisky, Helmut; Ely, David; Thommes, Markus

    2013-11-01

    The hot melt extrusion process is a widespread technique to mix viscous melts. The residence time of material in the process frequently determines the product properties. An experimental setup and a corresponding mathematical model were developed to evaluate residence time and residence time distribution in twin screw extrusion processes. The extrusion process was modeled as the convolution of a mass transport process described by a Gaussian probability function, and a mixing process represented by an exponential function. The residence time of the extrusion process was determined by introducing a tracer at the extruder inlet and measuring the tracer concentration at the die. These concentrations were fitted to the residence time model, and an adequate correlation was found. Different parameters were derived to characterize the extrusion process including the dead time, the apparent mixing volume, and a transport related axial mixing. A 2(3) design of experiments was performed to evaluate the effect of powder feed rate, screw speed, and melt viscosity of the material on the residence time. All three parameters affect the residence time of material in the extruder. In conclusion, a residence time model was developed to interpret experimental data and to get insights into the hot melt extrusion process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José eGutiérrez-Cobo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI, or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through cool (i.e., not emotionally laden and hot (i.e., emotionally laden laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test. We identified twenty-six eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities.

  4. Hot mold casting process of ancient East India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Mandal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ancient casting process for production of brass or bronze utensils and icons were made in hot molds using clay molded investment casting or piece mold process, as presumed by archaeologists. Piece mold process is still traditionally practiced in many parts of Eastern India and Bangladesh along with investment casting process. Incidentally, Bengal artisans are more accustomed to piece mold process unlike tribal artisans who practiced investment casting process. This piece mold casting process has been reconstructed to get the idea of metal characteristics in order to investigate ancient casting process of Bengal and Bangladesh. The characterization of ancient archaeo-metal products come to a type of cast Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb type quaternary alloy produced by a slow freezing process. Though these alloys physically differ from the traditional cast alloy of binary Cu-Zn type brass, the physical characteristics are similar to the binary cast alloy character. This investigation throws light on the similarity of the production processes by which ancient artisans probably produced cast metal products.

  5. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [French Nuclear and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F RadioChemistry and Processes Department, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)

  6. Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R & D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R & D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy.

  7. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  8. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  9. A Virtual Laboratory for Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Chyi-Ren; Li, Yi-Hsung; Bai, Jin-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This work designs and implements a virtual digital signal processing laboratory, VDSPL. VDSPL consists of four parts: mobile agent execution environments, mobile agents, DSP development software, and DSP experimental platforms. The network capability of VDSPL is created by using mobile agent and wrapper techniques without modifying the source code…

  10. Metals Processing Laboratory User Center (MPLUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Metals Processing Laboratory User (MPLUS) Center was officially designated as a DOE User Facility in February, 1996. It`s primary purpose is to assist researchers in key U.S. industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency and enhancing U.S. competitiveness in the world market. The MPLUS Center provides users the unique opportunity to address technology-related issues to solve metals-processing problems from a fully integrated approach. DOE facilitates the process and catalyzes industrial interactions that enables technical synergy and financial leveraging to take place between the industrial sector identifying and prioritizing their technological needs, and MPLUS, which provides access to the technical expertise and specialized facilities to address these needs. MPLUS is designed to provide U.S. industries with access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals-processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals-processing technologies. As originated, MPLUS includes the following four primary user centers: Metals Processing, Metals Joining, Metals Characterization, and Metals Process Modeling. These centers are devoted to assisting U.S. industries in adjusting to rapid changes in the marketplace and in improving products and processes. This approach optimizes the complementary strengths of industry and government. Tremendous industrial response, has resulted in MPLUS expanding to meet the ever-growing technical needs and requests initiated by U.S. industry.

  11. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  12. Hot-rolled Process of Multilayered Composite Metal Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For multi-layer plate, it is a difficult problem to increase product yield rate and improve bonding interface quality. A high yield hot-rolled method of multilayered plate was proposed. The raw strips and plate were fixed by argon arc welding. The combined billet was put into a metal box and vacuum pumped, and then heated and rolled by multi passes at the temperature of 1000-1200℃. The 67 layered plate with the thickness of 2.5mm was successfully produced. The interfacial microstructures and diffusion behavior were investigated and analyzed by optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy. The tensile and shear strength were tested,and the shear fractures were analyzed. The results show that the multilayered plate yield rate is more than 90% by two steps billet combination method and rolling process optimization. The good bonding interface quality is obtained, the shear strength of multilayered plate reaches 241 MPa. Nickel interlayer between 9Cr18 and 1Cr17 can not only prevent the diffusion of carbon, but also improve the microstructure characteristics.

  13. [Laboratory accreditation: a long and useful process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadier, A

    2013-05-01

    The publication of the 13 th January 2010 order makes the official accreditation necessary for all the laboratories of medical biology in France. This accreditation is delivered by a single official authority: the Cofrac. This accreditation is the acknowledgement of the ability of the laboratory to perform medico-technical acts corresponding to the scope of the accreditation. It must satisfy normative standards (Standard 15189), specific application documents of the Cofrac (SH REF 02), and legislative and regulatory rules in order to guarantee the reliability of the medical biology tests performed and the quality of the offered services in the sole interest of the patients. The accreditation is a long lasting process, which appears in a first step as very constraining. In the long term, it is experienced by the personnel as an acknowledgement of their quality and efficiency. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Business Process Innovation using the Process Innovation Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    infrastructure therefore is critical. Today nearly every business relies on their Enterprise System (ES) for process integration and the future generations of enterprise systems will increasingly be driven by business process models. Consequently process modeling and improvement will become vital for business...... process innovation (BPI) in future organizations. There is a significant body of knowledge on various aspect of process innovation, e.g. on conceptual modeling, business processes, supply chains and enterprise systems. Still an overall comprehensive and consistent theoretical framework with guidelines...... process models and patterns of applications. The paper thus presents a new concept for business process innovation called the process innovation laboratory a.k.a. the ?-Lab. The ?-Lab is a comprehensive framework for BPI using advanced enterprise systems. The ?-Lab is a collaborative workspace...

  15. Investigation of the beryllia ceramics molding process by the hot casting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhapbasbaev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.; Sattinova, Z. K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of mathematical simulation of the ceramics molding process by the hot casting method are presented. The mathematical model describes the motion of beryllia liquid thermoplastic slurry in a form-building cavity subject to solidification. Velocity and temperature profiles providing homogeneous properties of the beryllia ceramics in the process of molding by the hot casting method are obtained.

  16. Development of a new bench for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in STAR hot laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitprez, B.; Silvestre, P.; Valenza, P.; Boulore, A.; David, T.

    2018-01-01

    A new device for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in commercial power plants has been designed by Fuel Research Department of CEA Cadarache in order to provide experimental data of high precision on fuel pins with various designs. It will replace the current set-up that has been used since 1998 in hot cell 2 of STAR facility with more than 200 rod puncturing experiments. Based on this consistent experimental feedback, the heavy-duty technique of rod perforation by clad punching has been preserved for the new bench. The method of double expansion of rod gases is also retained since it allows upgrading the confidence interval of volumetric results obtained from rod puncturing. Furthermore, many evolutions have been introduced in the new design in order to improve its reliability, to make the maintenance easier by remote handling and to reduce experimental uncertainties. Tightness components have been studied with Sealing Laboratory Maestral at Pierrelatte so as to make them able to work under mixed pressure conditions (from vacuum at 10-5 mbar up to pressure at 50 bars) and to lengthen their lifetime under permanent gamma irradiation in hot cell. Bench ergonomics has been optimized to make its operating by remote handling easier and to secure the critical phases of a puncturing experiment. A high pressure gas line equipped with high precision pressure sensors out of cell can be connected to the bench in cell for calibration purposes. Uncertainty analyses using Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in order to optimize capacity of the different volumes of the apparatus according to volumetric characteristics of the rod to be punctured. At last this device is composed of independent modules which allow puncturing fuel pins out of different geometries (PWR, BWR, VVER). After leak tests of the device and remote handling simulation in a mock-up cell, several punctures of calibrated specimens have been performed in 2016. The bench will be implemented soon in hot

  17. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  18. Process Development in the Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Leonard C.; Dana, Susanne M.

    1998-06-01

    Many experiences in high school and undergraduate laboratories are well-tested cookbook recipes that have already been designed to yield optimal results; the well-known synthesis of aspirin is such an example. In this project for advanced placement or second-year high school chemistry students, students mimic the process development in industrial laboratories by investigating the effect of varying conditions in the synthesis of aspirin. The class decides on criteria that should be explored (quantity of catalyst, temperature of reaction, etc.). The class is then divided into several teams with each team assigned a variable to study. Each team must submit a proposal describing how they will explore the variable before they start their study. After data on yield and purity has been gathered and evaluated, students discuss which method is most desirable, based on their agreed-upon criteria. This exercise provides an opportunity for students to review many topics from the course (rate of reaction, limiting reagents, Beer's Law) while participating in a cooperative exercise designed to imitate industrial process development.

  19. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Scott; Basili, Victor; Godfrey, Sally; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model is described. The term 'cleanroom' originates in the integrated circuit (IC) production process, where IC's are assembled in dust free 'clean rooms' to prevent the destructive effects of dust. When applying the clean room methodology to the development of software systems, the primary focus is on software defect prevention rather than defect removal. The model is based on data and analysis from previous cleanroom efforts within the SEL and is tailored to serve as a guideline in applying the methodology to future production software efforts. The phases that are part of the process model life cycle from the delivery of requirements to the start of acceptance testing are described. For each defined phase, a set of specific activities is discussed, and the appropriate data flow is described. Pertinent managerial issues, key similarities and differences between the SEL's cleanroom process model and the standard development approach used on SEL projects, and significant lessons learned from prior cleanroom projects are presented. It is intended that the process model described here will be further tailored as additional SEL cleanroom projects are analyzed.

  20. Laboratory Simulation of Haze/Aerosol formation in warm and hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib-Nezhad, Ehsan; Lyons, James R.; Wright, David P.

    2016-10-01

    During the transit of an exoplanet across its host star, transmitted starlight through exoplanet atmosphere is absorbed and scattered, and the recorded transit spectra reveal important chemical information. There are many detected exoplanets in which hazes/aerosols obscure the incident photons, and consequently, fewer photons are transmitted through the atmosphere, contributing to a flat/nearly flat transit spectrum. Here, we have carried out two complementary approaches to address haze formation. First, laboratory simulations of haze condensation in exoplanet atmospheres are carried out using an electric discharge tube. A mixture of likely gas species (i.e. H2, He, H2O, CH4, N2 and H2S) is inserted into a glass manifold on a vacuum line, at a pressure ~100-10 mbar, and depending on the exoplanet category (e.g., warm or hot Jupiters), the temperature is set. Applying a few kilovolts produces plasma in the discharge tube, and as a result, particles are formed. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the optical constants (complex refractive index) of the collected laboratory hazes. Then, chemical characterization is made using RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Second, we developed a transit modeling code by which the transit spectra are generated using observational and laboratory data as an input. The model accounts for Mie scattering from haze particles in the vis-NIR spectral region, and Rayleigh scattering which comes from gases and particles (effective in UV-vis). The measured refractive indexes (real and imaginary part) describe the absorption and scattering in the vis-NIR transmission region, and, by generating transit spectra close to the observed ones from exoplanets, constraints on atmospheric chemical characterization can be revealed. Our laboratory results show that haze particles formed in the presence of water and with the solar C/O ratio = 0.5. The other outcome of our experiment is that

  1. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  2. Tackling a Hot Paradox: Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Gerard M.; Urban, David L.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The last place you want to be in traffic is behind the bus or truck that is belching large clouds of soot onto your freshly washed car. Besides looking and smelling bad, soot is a health hazard. Particles range from big enough to see to microscopic and can accumulate in the lungs, potentially leading to debilitating or fatal lung diseases. Soot is wasted energy, and therein lies an interesting paradox: Soot forms in a flame's hottest regions where you would expect complete combustion and no waste. Soot enhances the emissions of other pollutants (carbon monoxide and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) from flames and radiates unwanted heat to combustion chambers (a candle's yellowish glow is soot radiating heat), among other effects. The mechanisms of soot formation are among the most important unresolved problems of combustion science because soot affects contemporary life in so many ways. Although we have used fire for centuries, many fundamental aspects of combustion remain elusive, in part because of limits imposed by the effects of gravity on Earth. Hot or warm air rises quickly and draws in fresh cold air behind it, thus giving flames the classical teardrop shape. Reactions occur in a very small zone, too fast for scientists to observe, in detail, what is happening inside the flame. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiments aboard STS-107 will use the microgravity environment of space to eliminate buoyancy effects and thus slow the reactions inside a flame so they can be more readily studied. 'Laminar' means a simple, smooth fuel jet burning in air, somewhat like a butane lighter. This classical flame approximates combustion in diesel engines, aircraft jet propulsion engines, and furnaces and other devices. LSP-2 will expand on surprising results developed from its first two flights in 1997. The data suggest the existence of a universal relationship, the soot paradigm, that, if proven, will be used to model and control combustion systems on Earth. STS-107

  3. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of thermal protective clothing performance upon hot liquid splash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamreza, Farzan; Song, Guowen

    2013-07-01

    This study provides an understanding of heat and mass transfer through materials exposed to hot liquid splash, a relatively unexplored hazard in the safety clothing industry. Selected fabrics and layered systems were exposed to three hot liquids to study the effects of hot liquids and configuration. To explore the energy transfer mechanisms, a modified apparatus (based on ASTM F 2701-08) was developed to assess the protection performance provided by a fabric when exposed to a hot liquid. The modified test method allows measurement of the energy absorbed by the sensor, and with the use of a skin model, the time required to produce a second-degree burn injury was predicted. The preliminary testing demonstrated that mass transfer of the hot liquid through the fabric is the main factor contributing to burn injury. Key factors that determine the level of protection that a fabric system provides are summarized.

  5. Numerical Prediction of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties During the Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Dongbin; Liu, Lizhong; Hu, Ping; Ma, Ning; Shen, Guozhe; Han, Xiaoqiang; Ying, Liang

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation and prediction of microstructures and mechanical properties of products is very important in product development of hot stamping parts. With this method we can easily design changes of hot stamping products' properties prior to the manufacturing stage and this offers noticeable time and cost savings. In the present work, the hot stamping process of a U-channel with 22MnB5 boron steels is simulated by using a coupled thermo-mechanical FEM program. Then with the temperature evolution results obtained from the simulation, a model is applied to predict the microstructure evolution during the hot stamping process and mechanical properties of this U-channel. The model consists of a phase transformation model and a mechanical properties prediction model. The phase transformation model which is proposed by Li et al is used to predict the austenite decomposition into ferrite, pearlite, and bainite during the cooling process. The diffusionless austenite-martensite transformation is modeled using the Koistinen and Marburger relation. The mechanical properties prediction model is applied to predict the products' hardness distribution. The numerical simulation is evaluated by comparing simulation results with the U-channel hot stamping experiment. The numerically obtained temperature history is basically in agreement with corresponding experimental observation. The evaluation indicates the feasibility of this set of methods to be used to guide the optimization of hot stamping process parameters and the design of hot stamping tools.

  6. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  7. Heterogeneous processes: Laboratory, field, and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lamont R.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Jones, Rod L.; Wahner, Andreas; Calvert, Jack G.; Leu, M.-T.; Fried, A.; Molina, Mario J.; Hampson, Robert F.; Pitts, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiencies of chemical families such as ClO(x) and NO(x) for altering the total abundance and distribution of stratospheric ozone are controlled by a partitioning between reactive (active) and nonreactive (reservoir) compounds within each family. Gas phase thermodynamics, photochemistry, and kinetics would dictate, for example, that only about 1 percent of the chlorine resident in the lower stratosphere would be in the form of active Cl or ClO, the remainder existing in the reservoir compounds HCl and ClONO2. The consistency of this picture was recently challenged by the recognition that important chemical transformations take place on polar regions: the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASA). Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, Solomon et al. suggested that the heterogeneous chemical reaction: ClONO2(g)+HCl(s) yields Cl2(g)+HNO3(s) could play a key role in converting chlorine from inactive forms into a species (Cl2) that would rapidly dissociate in sunlight to liberate atomic chlorine and initiate ozone depletion. The symbols (s) and (g) denote solid phase, or adsorbed onto a solid surface, and gas phase, respectively, and represent the approach by which such a reaction is modeled rather than the microscopic details of the reaction. The reaction was expected to be most important at altitudes where PSC's were most prevalent (10 to 25 km), thereby extending the altitude range over which chlorine compounds can efficiently destroy ozone from the 35 to 45 km region (where concentrations of active chlorine are usually highest) to lower altitudes where the ozone concentration is at its peak. This chapter will briefly review the current state of knowledge of heterogeneous processes in the stratosphere, emphasizing those results obtained since the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) conference. Sections are included on laboratory investigations of heterogeneous reactions, the

  8. Effects of press sizes on internal steam pressure during particleboard hot-pressing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael Birkeland; James M. Wescott; Jane O' Dell; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2009-01-01

    Internal steam pressure produced during the hot-pressing cycle in particleboard production is critical to the newly developed bond strength that will determine the overall performance of particleboard. The difference between the accumulation of internal steam pressure for small panels made in the laboratory and that of large commercial-sized panels makes it difficult...

  9. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  10. Modeling and FE Simulation of Quenchable High Strength Steels Sheet Metal Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Zhang, Dejin; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel (HSS) sheet metal hot forming process is investigated by means of numerical simulations. With regard to a reliable numerical process design, the knowledge of the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties is essential. In this article, tensile tests are performed to examine the flow stress of the material HSS 22MnB5 at different strains, strain rates, and temperatures. Constitutive model based on phenomenological approach is developed to describe the thermo-mechanical properties of the material 22MnB5 by fitting the experimental data. A 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to simulate the HSS sheet metal hot forming process for U-channel part. The ABAQUS/explicit model is used conduct the hot forming stage simulations, and ABAQUS/implicit model is used for accurately predicting the springback which happens at the end of hot forming stage. Material modeling and FE numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the processing parameters on the hot forming process. The processing parameters have significant influence on the microstructure of U-channel part. The springback after hot forming stage is the main factor impairing the shape precision of hot-formed part. The mechanism of springback is advanced and verified through numerical simulations and tensile loading-unloading tests. Creep strain is found in the tensile loading-unloading test under isothermal condition and has a distinct effect on springback. According to the numerical and experimental results, it can be concluded that springback is mainly caused by different cooling rats and the nonhomogengeous shrink of material during hot forming process, the creep strain is the main factor influencing the amount of the springback.

  11. Bioremediation process on Brazil shoreline. Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Anabela P; Triguis, Jorge A

    2007-11-01

    Bioremediation technique can be considered a promising alternative to clean oil spills using microbial processes to reduce the concentration and/or the toxicity of pollutants. To understand the importance of this work we must know that there is only little research performed to date using bioremediation techniques to clean oil spills in tropical countries. So, the main objective of this work is to analyze the behavior of a laboratory's bioremediation test using nutrients on coastal sediments. The bioremediation process is followed through geochemical analysis during the tests. This organic material is analyzed by medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. By microbial counting, the number of total bacteria and degrading bacteria is determined during the experiments, in order to confirm the effectiveness of the bioremediation process. The seawater obtained throughout the bioremediation process is analyzed for nutrients grade (phosphate and ammonium ions) and also for its toxicity (Microtox tests) due the presence of hydrocarbons and fertilizer. The results from the geochemical analyses of the oil show a relative decrease in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction that is compensated by a relative enrichment on polar compounds. It's confirmed by the fingerprint evaluation where it is possible to see a complete reduction of the normal alkanes followed by isoprenoids. Seawater analysis done by toxicity and nutrients analysis, such as microbial counting (total and degrading bacteria), confirm the fertilizer effectiveness during the bioremediation process. Results from simulating test using NPK, a low-price plant fertilizer, suggest that it's able to stimulate the degradation process. Results from medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), done at two different depths (surface and subsurface), show different behavior during the biodegradation process where the later is seen

  12. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  13. Simulation and analysis of hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarefdoust, M.; Kadkhodayan, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators is simulated and analyzed. An increase in demand of industrial locking gear elevators with better quality and lower price caused the machining process to be replaced by hot forging process. Production of industrial locking gear elevators by means of hot forging process is affected by many parameters such as billet temperature, geometry of die and geometry of pre-formatted billet. In this study the influences of billet temperature on effective plastic strain, radius of die corners on internal stress of billet and thickness of flash on required force of press are investigated by means of computer simulation. Three-dimensional modeling of initial material and die are performed by Solid Edge, while simulation and analysis of forging are performed by Super Forge. Based on the computer simulation the required dies are designed and the workpieces are formed. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data demonstrates great compatibility.

  14. A CNC milling machine in NRG's Hot Cell Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjoa, G.L.; Thoor, C.M.E.; Boekhout, P.f. Van

    2001-07-01

    Preparations are in progress to install a new milling machine in the NRG's hot cells facility in the course of this year. The milling machine is CNC controlled and adapted for use in a hot cell environment. Special arrangements are made to comply for this purpose. Since a number of components are not fully resistant to radiation, the machine is wheeled allowing it to be removed from the hot cell if not needed. Some technical specifications from the various manufacturers will be discussed which finally lead to the selected supplier. Primary, this only concerns the flexibility of the total equipment to adapt for remote control and not the general technical aspects of the equipment. The machine will be used mainly to manufacture mechanical testing samples form irradiated materials, obtained from both welding experiments and other irradiated components. Special auxiliary tools are made for this purpose to facilitate the machining of the samples. Next the convenience to program the system for machining mechanical testing samples to meet the specified requirements is also important. Before installing the equipment in the hot cell a try out is performed to evaluate the system. (Author)

  15. A study on the influence of hot press forming process parameters on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence an attempt is made in this work to improve the mechanical properties of green composites by optimizing the hot press forming process parameters using Taguchi experimental design. Process parameters such as temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling system and recrystallization soak time were chosen for ...

  16. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  17. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  18. Process Design for Hot Forging of Asymmetric to Symmetric Rib-web Shaped Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The process design of hot forging, asymmetric to symmetric rib-web shaped steel, which is used for the turnout of express rails has been studied. Owing to the great difference in shape between the initial billet and the final forged product, it is impossible to hot forge the rail in a single stage operation. Therefore, multi stage forging and also die design for each stage are necessary for the production process. The numerical simulation for hot forging of asymmetric shape to symmetric shape was carried out using commercial FEM code, DEFORMTM-2D. Modification of the design and repeated simulation was carried out on the basis of the simulation results. For comparison with the simulation results, a flow analysis experiment using plasticine was also carried out. The results of the flow analysis experiment showed good agreement with those of the simulation.

  19. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical Development of Hot Laboratories. From April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1994, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel rods irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of ATR fuel assemblies and segment fuel assemblies irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods from the Halden reactor and TMI-2 debris samples. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation have been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author).

  20. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1996, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel assemblies irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of assembly materials irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods and ROX fuel rods. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation has been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author)

  1. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11) with a ......The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...... of manufacturing the master structure, e.g. a black silicon wafer. It is a further advantage of the present invention that it provides an advantageous way of making tools capable of producing self-cleaning surfaces without the need for chemical coating....

  2. Polycarbonate as an Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Simulation of the Microstructure Hot Imprint Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Šakalys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC, as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc. must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  3. The Simulation and Analysis of the Closed Die Hot Forging Process by A Computer Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipakkumar Gohil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the variation of various parameters such as stress, strain, temperature, force, etc. during the closed die hot forging process. A computer simulation modeling approach has been adopted to transform the theoretical aspects in to a computer algorithm which would be used to simulate and analyze the closed die hot forging process. For the purpose of process study, the entire deformation process has been divided in to finite number of steps appropriately and then the output values have been computed at each deformation step. The results of simulation have been graphically represented and suitable corrective measures are also recommended, if the simulation results do not agree with the theoretical values. This computer simulation approach would significantly improve the productivity and reduce the energy consumption of the overall process for the components which are manufactured by the closed die forging process and contribute towards the efforts in reducing the global warming.

  4. Evaluating the effects of compaction of hot mix asphalt on selected laboratory tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, SL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available the durability of HMA (although not directly related to permanent deformation, but often a consequence of design for rut prevention), including field and laboratory procedures and acceptance criteria for permeability. Based on the need for research on HMA, a.... The laboratory design mixed is represented by short-term aged mixed and design mix (fresh mix in the laboratory). The type of mix discussed in this study is summarised in Tables 1 and 2 and Figure 1. Detailed information about the mix is discussed in Denneman...

  5. Laboratory investigation of the performance properties of hot mix asphalt containing waste glass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CSIR is currently undertaking a study on potential utilization of crushed glass as a substitute material to natural aggregate in asphalt mixes. As part of the study, laboratory investigation is needed to determine the performance characteristics...

  6. Hot corrosion behavior of TC11 titanium alloy treated by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yinqun; Bai, Yuchuan; Ye, Yunxia; Xue, Qing; Liu, Haixia; Chen, Ruifang; Chen, Kangmin

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research is to improve the hot corrosion resistance of TC11 titanium alloy by laser shock processing. Specimens were treated by laser shock processing on the whole surface. The hot corrosion resistance beneath Na2SO4 containing 20 wt.% NaCl salt deposits at 650 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in air was investigated. The effects of LSP impacts on surface microstructure, residual stress, and microstructure after hot corrosion were investigated by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction technology, and scanning electron microscope. Results show that laser shock processing can induce -295 MPa compressive residual stresses. The microstructure after LSP was characterized by a high amount of twins and highly tangled and dense dislocation arrangements. We even observed nano-crystallization. More protective oxidation films were remained on the surface of laser shocked specimens after hot corrosion, and it mainly consists of TiO2, Al2O3, MoO3, etc. The average corrosion rate of TC11 titanium alloy treated by laser shock processing is more than 50% lower than that of the untreated alloy.

  7. Autoignition and flame stabilisation processes in turbulent non-premixed hot coflow flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines stabilisation processes in turbulent non-premixed jet flames, created by injecting gaseous fuel into a co-flowing stream of hot, low-oxygen combustion products. Being able to predict whether and how a flame achieves stable and reliable combustion is a matter of great

  8. Layout and process hot carrier optimization of HV-nLEDMOS transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinsong, Qian; Haisong, Li; Weifeng, Sun; Yangbo, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Two layout and process key parameters for improving high voltage nLEDMOS (n-type lateral extended drain MOS) transistor hot carrier performance have been identified. Increasing the space between Hv-pwell and n-drift region and reducing the n-drift implant dose can dramatically reduce the device hot carrier degradations, for the maximum impact ionization rate near the Bird Beak decreases or its location moves away from the Si/SiO2 interface. This conclusion has been analyzed in detail by using the MEDICI simulator and it is also confirmed by the test results.

  9. A senior manufacturing laboratory for determining injection molding process capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Plocinski, David

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This subject material is directed at an upper level undergraduate/graduate student in an Engineering or Engineering Technology program. It is assumed that the student has a thorough understanding of the process and quality control. The format of this laboratory does not follow that which is normally recommended because of the nature of process capability and that of the injection molding equipment and tooling. This laboratory is instead developed to be used as a point of departure for determining process capability for any process in either a quality control laboratory or a manufacturing environment where control charts, process capability, and experimental or product design are considered important topics.

  10. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This is an annual report in a fiscal year of 2001 that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, PIEs including destructive and nondestructive tests were performed on a BWR fuel assembly and/or its fuel rod irradiated in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and a fuel assembly with UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In addition, 34 fuel assemblies irradiated in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were conveyed from Mutsu Establishment, and re-assembly and PIEs for the assemblies were carried out. In WASTEF, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of disposal of waste, high temperature tests for evaluating stable on TRansUraniums (TRU) nitrides, leaching tests on Rock-like OXide (ROX) fuels were performed. The slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) apparatuses were installed for investigation of Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) on light water structural materials, and characterization tests for the apparatus were performed. In RHL, PIEs for light water reactor materials, fusion materials, and target materials of Proton Accelerator Facilities were carried out for laboratories in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. PIEs for zirconium alloys for ultra-high burn-up irradiated in the Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Station Unit-5 were also performed. In order to investigate roots cause of pipe rupture in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company, several examinations including SEM observation, EPMA, and Vickers hardness test were performed in those three facilities. The data from the examinations greatly contribute to clarify roots cause of the pipe rupture. (author)

  11. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Hestehave; Munro, Gordon; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    . In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing...... the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P... as with subcutaneous administration, and had a later onset. It is advised to administer the oral formulation of buprenorphine in Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration....

  12. High-Frequency Microwave Processing of Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts research on high-frequency microwave processing of materials using a highpower, continuous-wave (CW), 83-GHz, quasi-optical beam system for rapid,...

  13. PROCESS MODELLING OF ROCK SAMPLE HANDLING IN PETROPHYSICAL LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaleta Perković

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyday procedures carried out in petrophysical laboratory can be defined as a complete cycle of business processes. Sample handling process is one of the most significant and demanding procedures. It starts with sample receiving in laboratory and then subsequently, series of analyses and measurements are carrying out resulting in petrophysical parameters. Sample handling process ends with sample storage and archiving of obtained measurement data. Process model is used for description of repeating activities. Sample handling process is presented by graphical method and use of eEPC diagram (extended Event-Driven Process Chain which describe process based on events. Created process model jointly binds static laboratory resources (measuring instruments, computers and data, speeds up process with increasing the user’s efficiency and with improvements of data and information exchange. Besides flow of activity, model of data sample handling includes information about system components (laboratory equipment and software applications that carry out activities. Described model, with minor modifications and adaptations, can be used in any laboratory that is dealing with samples (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katz, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

  15. Effect of hot-dip galvanizing processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zheng, Zhi-wang; Wang, Min-li; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Shen-gen

    2017-12-01

    A C-Mn dual-phase steel was soaked at 800°C for 90 s and then either rapidly cooled to 450°C and held for 30 s (process A) or rapidly cooled to 350°C and then reheated to 450°C (process B) to simulate the hot-dip galvanizing process. The influence of the hot-dip galvanizing process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 600-MPa hot-dip galvanized dual-phase steel (DP600) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. The results showed that, in the case of process A, the microstructure of DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, and a small amount of bainite. The granular bainite was formed in the hot-dip galvanizing stage, and martensite islands were formed in the final cooling stage after hot-dip galvanizing. By contrast, in the case of process B, the microstructure of the DP600 was composed of ferrite, martensite, bainite, and cementite. In addition, compared with the yield strength (YS) of the DP600 annealed by process A, that for the DP600 annealed by process B increased by approximately 50 MPa because of the tempering of the martensite formed during rapid cooling. The work-hardening coefficient ( n value) of the DP600 steel annealed by process B clearly decreased because the increase of the YS affected the computation result for the n value. However, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation ( A 80) of the DP600 annealed by process B exhibited less variation compared with those of the DP600 annealed by process A. Therefore, DP600 with excellent comprehensive mechanical properties (YS = 362 MPa, UTS = 638 MPa, A 80 = 24.3%, n = 0.17) was obtained via process A.

  16. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-qing Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis.

  17. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory; Vigilancia y proteccion radiologica en el Laboratorio de Celdas Calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  18. Laser Hot Wire Process: A Novel Process for Near-Net Shape Fabrication for High-Throughput Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Michael; Zhang, Shenjia; McGuffin-Cawley, James; Denney, Paul; Narayanan, Badri K.

    2015-03-01

    The laser hot wire process has gained considerable interest for additive manufacturing applications, leveraging its high deposition rate, low dilution, thermal stability, and general metallurgical control including the ability to introduce and preserve desired meta-stable phases. Recent advancements in closed-loop process control and laser technology have increased productivity, process stability, and control of deposit metallurgy. The laser hot wire process has shown success in several applications: repairing and rejuvenating casting dies, depositing a variety of alloys including abrasion wear-resistant overlays with solid and tubular wires, and producing low-dilution (<5%) nickel alloy overlays for corrosion applications. The feasibility of fabricating titanium buildups is being assessed for aerospace applications.

  19. Imaging-based optical caliper for objects in hot manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Howard [OG Technologies, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-03

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as OC) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT's current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that the synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were fabricated

  20. Application of a hot-melt granulation process to enhance fenofibrate solid dose manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rakesh Singh; Amankwaa, Edward; Kumar, Sandeep; Hu, Tom; Chan, Mohamed; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of hot-melt granulation of fenofibrate and croscarmellose sodium and its cooling time for the molten mass in a ratio of 55:45 was conducted to assess the manufacturing process capability to produce an acceptable granulation which flows well on Korsch PH300 tablet compression machine. The formation of the drug-polymer eutectic mixture was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The physical properties of the hot-melt was determined by examining the milled blocks after solidification and milling after cooling periods of 10, 20 and 30 d. The milled material was assessed for the effect of hold time of the blend on the solid dose compression characteristics. The impact of cooling on the processing of the blocks was assessed after 10, 20 and 30 d of cooling. The study suggests that after the hot-melt formed the fenofibrate crystallized independently and a solid solution with croscarmellose sodium was not formed. The age of the blocks determined the hardness of the crystals, changing the processing nature of the granules with respect to compression and powder flow characteristics. The blocks processed after 20 d and beyond produced granules with a characteristic suitable for holding the blend for 14 d in the bin with no impact on flow properties and compressibility of the blend. There was no chipping, capping, sticking or picking observed and a higher compression speed was achieved.

  1. Improving the Desulphurization in COREX Process by Adjusting the Hot Metal Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laixin; Wu, Shengli; Kou, Mingyin; Du, Binbin; Lu, Yanan; Gu, Kai

    2017-11-01

    The COREX process, which has many advantages, still has high and fluctuating sulfur levels in the hot metal. To overcome the desulfurization problems, several measures were proposed, and the adjustments of chemical compositions of hot metal were explained in the current study. Theoretical calculations and experimental results showed that increments in either of or both silicon and manganese levels were beneficial to the desulfurization from the thermodynamic viewpoint. However, high silicon content would increase the costs of the coal of COREX process and did not meet the requirements of dephosphorization and low slag content in steelmaking. Besides, superfluous manganese was also unnecessary as it would increase the costs of COREX. Therefore, the existing silicon content should be decreased (< 1.5 pct), and the manganese content should be increased in a suitable range (from 0.6 to 0.8 pct) for COREX-3000 in China.

  2. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  3. Research on automatic loading & unloading technology for vertical hot ring rolling process

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokai Wang; Dehui Wang; Xuesong Mei; Lin Hua; Yutong Dai; Jian Wu

    2015-01-01

    The automatic loading & unloading technology is the key to the automatic ring production line. In this paper, the automatic vertical hot ring rolling (VHRR) process is taken as the target, the method of the loading & unloading for VHRR is proposed, and the mechanical structure of loading & unloading system is designed, The virtual prototype model of VHRR mill and loading & unloading mechanism is established, and the coordinated control method of VHRR mill and loading & unloading auxiliaries i...

  4. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential in tomato pastes as affected by hot and cold break process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Kadiroğlu, Pınar; Kola, Osman; Kesen, Songul; Uçar, Burçak; Çetiner, Başak

    2017-04-01

    The effects of hot and cold break industrial tomato paste production steps on phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) and other quality parameters of tomato pastes were investigated in this study. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, and HMF analyses were performed with LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and LC-DAD-RID was used for the sugar analyses. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacities of tomato pastes were assessed via the DPPH and ABTS methods. The increase of phenol acids at the processing steps of cold break production method was higher than the hot break production method. According to PCA analyses, phenolic acids characterized cold break tomato pastes while hot break tomato pastes were characterized by flavanols and flavanones. The total amount of organic acids decreased with processing and the loss of organic acids was lower in cold break pastes. Heating and evaporation were determined as the most important processing steps in which the amount of different quality parameters change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams for 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhou; Wu, Xin; Li, Guangyao

    2013-08-01

    Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steels possesses many superior characteristics over conventional room temperature forming process and is fairly attractive in improving strength and reducing weight of vehicle body product. However, the mechanical and failure behavior of hot stamping boron steel 22MnB5 are both strongly affected by strain hardening, temperature, strain rate, and microstructure. In this paper, the material yield and flow behavior of 22MnB5 within the temperature and strain rate range of hot stamping are described by an advanced anisotropic yield criterion combined with two different hardening laws. The elevated temperature forming limit diagram (ET-FLD) is constructed using the M-K theoretical analysis. The developed model was validated by comparing our predicted result with experimental data in the literature under isothermal conditions. Based on the verified model, the influence of temperature and strain rate on the forming limit curve for 22MnB5 steel under equilibrium isothermal condition are discussed. Furthermore, the transient forming limit diagram is developed by performing a transient forming process simulation under non-isothermal transient condition.

  6. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  7. Research on automatic loading & unloading technology for vertical hot ring rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokai Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic loading & unloading technology is the key to the automatic ring production line. In this paper, the automatic vertical hot ring rolling (VHRR process is taken as the target, the method of the loading & unloading for VHRR is proposed, and the mechanical structure of loading & unloading system is designed, The virtual prototype model of VHRR mill and loading & unloading mechanism is established, and the coordinated control method of VHRR mill and loading & unloading auxiliaries is studied, the movement trace and dynamic characteristic of the critical components are obtained. Finally, a series of hot ring rolling tests are conducted on the VHRR mill, and the production rhythm and the formed rings' geometric precision are analysed. The tests results show that the loading & unloading technology can meet the high quality and high efficiency ring production requirement. The research conclusions have practical significance for the large-scale automatic ring production.

  8. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes.

  9. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  10. Process Analytical Quality Control of Tailored Drug Release Formulation Prepared via Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Bom; Lee, Beom-Jin; Kang, Chin-Yang; Repka, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the influence of Eudragit® RS PO and RL PO blends on the release of water-soluble and insoluble drugs from hot-melt extruded formulations. In addition, we aimed to evaluate drug content uniformity and distribution by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging. Theophylline (TP) and carbamazepine (CBZ) were selected as the water-soluble and insoluble model drugs, respectively. Eudragit® RS PO and RL PO were selected as the polymeric matrices. FT-IR chemical imaging clearly demonstrated the content uniformity and distribution for both drugs in the extrudates, which was confirmed by HPLC. Increasing the ratio of Eudragit® RL PO led to an increase in the in vitro drug release, whereas an increase in the ratio of Eudragit® RS PO sustained the drug release for up to 12 h. The hot-melt extrusion of TP and CBZ with varying ratios of Eudragit® RS PO and RL PO can be employed to tailor the drug release profiles. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, the use of FT-IR chemical imaging as a process analytical technique to determine the drug content uniformity and distribution. Our data correlated well with the results of HPLC analysis in the study of tailored drug release from the prepared hot-melt extruded formulation.

  11. Special wettable nanostructured copper mesh achieved by a facile hot water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Nawzat S.; Hassan, Laylan B.; Brozak, Matt; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a special wettable copper mesh with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity properties is reported using a low-cost, eco-friendly, rapid, and scalable synthesis method. Hot water treatment (HWT) method is used to integrate the micro-textured copper mesh surface with a nanoscale roughness to achieve a hierarchical micro-nano structured surface. The surface energy of the nanoscale roughened copper mesh reduced by coating the hot water treated mesh with polymer ligands containing thiol or fluorine functional groups of low energy. Surface morphology characterization showed the formation of copper oxide nanostructures on the mesh surface by hot water process performed at 95 °C and under a low dissolved oxygen condition. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the development of stable, uniformly distributed, and compactly arranged, cubic and plate-like nanostructures of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) on the copper mesh surface. The surface wettability of the as-prepared copper mesh was assessed by contact angle (CA) measurement for water and several oils and organic solvents. CA values showed the formation of special wettable copper mesh surface with superhydrophobic property with water contact angle of about 157° and superoleophilic property with oil contact angle as low as 0°. In addition, the effect of the mesh’s geometry on the wetting property was examined through correlations between wire diameter, pore size, and optimal values for the highest water CA.

  12. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  13. Accreditation of Medical Laboratories – System, Process, Benefits for Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One and key of the priorities in laboratory medicine is improvement of quality management system for patient safety. Quality in the health care is tightly connected to the level of excellence of the health care provided in relation to the current level of knowledge and technical development. Accreditation is an effective way to demonstrate competence of the laboratory, a tool to recognize laboratories world-wide, is linked to periodical audits, to stimulate the maintenance and improvement of the quality, which leads to high standard of services for clients (patients, health care providers, etc.. The strategic plans of IFCC and EFLM include focusing on accreditation of labs based on ISO standards and cooperation with European Accreditation and national accreditation bodies. IFCC and EFLM recognised that ISO 15189:2012 Medical laboratories – Requirements for quality and competence, encompasses all the assessment criteria specified in the policy of quality. The last version is oriented to process approach with detailed division and clearly defined requirements. The accreditation of labs improves facilitation of accurate and rapid diagnostics, efficiency of treatment and reduction of errors in the laboratory process. Accreditation is not about who the best is, but who has a system of standard procedures with aim to improve the quality and patient safety. Quality system is about people, with people and for people.

  14. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  15. Processing and development of aluminum-silicon powder metallurgy alloys for hot forging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Winston G. E.

    The growing field of aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) brings promise to an economical and environmental demand for the production of high strength, light weight aluminum engine components. To tackle the limited selection of readily available light alloy blends, an experimental hypoeutectic AlSi alloy was chosen for study. The optimal processing route for this alloy was determined and the mechanical properties were examined. In an effort to further enhance the mechanical properties of the alloys, post sinter forging was investigated. This body of work consists of an introduction to relevant topics in PM, aluminum alloys, and forging followed by three sections of results and discussion. Each represents an accepted or submitted Journal Manuscript intended for journal publication. These sections deliver detailed experimental procedures, results and discussion for the development of the experimental PM alloy Al-65i, a comparison of hot deformation behaviours of Al-65i and Alumix-231 Al5i PM alloys, and their mechanical properties observed upon hot densification. A final section was added to summarize the important findings from each experiment. In the development of Al-65i, the alloy was able to achieve a high sintered density approaching 98%, and a yield strength of 232 MPa in the T6 condition. Upon hot upset forging, the experimental alloy achieved an average density of 99.6% (+/- 0.2%) while the commercial alloy (Alumix-231) achieved 98.3% (+/- 0.6%) of its theoretical density. It was found that the experimentally obtained peak flow stresses for each material studied could be very closely approximated using the semi-empirical Zener-Hollomon models. Upon hot densification it was found that all the mechanical properties of the Al-65i alloy were significantly enhanced. However, due to the fracturing of 5i particles during deformation, Alumix-231 experienced a reduction in density and UT5, while making improvements in ductility.

  16. Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings: Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-11

    In 2006, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) signed the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), along with 21 other agencies. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exceeding this requirement and, currently, about 25 percent of its buildings are High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The pages that follow document the Guiding Principles conformance effort for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at PNNL. The RPL effort is part of continued progress toward a building inventory that is 100 percent compliant with the Guiding Principles.

  17. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A Erman

    2016-03-25

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  19. Hot-pressed transparent PLZT ceramics from low cost chemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Santos

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT ceramics were obtained with high transmittance in the visible range by a combination of an inexpensive chemical processing and hot pressing. Optical, microstructural, pyroelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties characterized in this study attested the applicability of the employed method in the production of PLZT transparent ferroelectric ceramics. In fact, the corresponding analyzed physical parameters are in very good agreement with those obtained in samples traditionally prepared by other methods. Furthermore, due to high sample quality, a phenomenological analysis of the PLZT 10/65/35 relaxor features was performed in these ceramics.

  20. High–Precise Micro Bonding Process using a Focused Stream of Hot Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Bissacco, Giuliano; Giouroudi, I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to adhesive microbonding which can overcome restrictions or drawbacks of the conventional MEMS bonding techniques. The main advantages of this technique are: low process temperature, multi material applicability, partial reversibility and partial biocompatibility....... In proposed technique, the adhesive is deposited on the substrate and the micro-component is brought and placed at the requested position. Afterwards, the stream of hot air is applied in order to soften the glue and to emboss the micropart. After cooling down at room temperature, the glue hardens and final...

  1. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  2. Physical simulation of hot deformation and microstructural evolution of AISI 1016 steel using processing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Dikovits, M. [IWS—Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Chaudhari, G.P., E-mail: chaudfmt@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Poletti, C. [IWS—Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Warchomicka, F. [IWS—Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); IMST—Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/E308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pancholi, V.; Nath, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2013-12-10

    The hot deformation behavior of AISI 1016 steel is studied by performing hot compression tests in the Gleeble{sup ®} 3800 physical simulator in the temperature range 750–1050 °C after austenitization at 1050 °C for 5 min. The strain rates used vary from 0.01 to 80 s{sup −1} and the total true strain achieved is 0.7. The microstructural evolution is described based on light optical and scanning electron microscopy of the deformed and water quenched samples. An EBSD measurement on selected sample in the two-phase field is used to determine the microstructural changes in the ferritic phase. Then, processing windows are created using dynamic materials model, modified dynamic materials model, and strain rate sensitivity maps, which are correlated with the microstructural development. In order to determine the flow instability ranges produced by flow localization, different instability parameters are employed and compared. The processing map obtained using the power dissipation efficiency, η, correlates well with microstructural changes observed due to the dependency of this parameter on strain rate sensitivity m. Although instability zones predicted by the instability parameter κ{sub j} are similar to these predicted by flow localization parameter α, the latter approach is physically explained by the thermal softening due to adiabatic flow at high strain rates. Using sinh type constitutive equation, the average apparent activation energy for hot deformation of AISI 1016 steel is 290 kJ/mol and the stress exponent n is 3.8, indicating plastic deformation by dislocation gliding and climbing.

  3. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Implementing a lessons learned process at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik D.; Drewien, Celeste A.; Eras, Kenneth; Hartwig, Ronald Craig; Post, Debra S.; Stoecker, Nora Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Lessons Learned Process Improvement Team was tasked to gain an understanding of the existing lessons learned environment within the major programs at Sandia National Laboratories, identify opportunities for improvement in that environment as compared to desired attributes, propose alternative implementations to address existing inefficiencies, perform qualitative evaluations of alternative implementations, and recommend one or more near-term activities for prototyping and/or implementation. This report documents the work and findings of the team.

  5. Model Building and Optimization Analysis of MDF Continuous Hot-Pressing Process by Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a one-layer neural network for solving a class of constrained optimization problems, which is brought forward from the MDF continuous hot-pressing process. The objective function of the optimization problem is the sum of a nonsmooth convex function and a smooth nonconvex pseudoconvex function, and the feasible set consists of two parts, one is a closed convex subset of Rn, and the other is defined by a class of smooth convex functions. By the theories of smoothing techniques, projection, penalty function, and regularization term, the proposed network is modeled by a differential equation, which can be implemented easily. Without any other condition, we prove the global existence of the solutions of the proposed neural network with any initial point in the closed convex subset. We show that any accumulation point of the solutions of the proposed neural network is not only a feasible point, but also an optimal solution of the considered optimization problem though the objective function is not convex. Numerical experiments on the MDF hot-pressing process including the model building and parameter optimization are tested based on the real data set, which indicate the good performance of the proposed neural network in applications.

  6. Hot deformation characteristics of AZ80 magnesium alloy: Work hardening effect and processing parameter sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Wan, L.; Guo, Z. H.; Sun, C. Y.; Yang, D. J.; Zhang, Q. D.; Li, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Isothermal compression experiment of AZ80 magnesium alloy was conducted by Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator in order to quantitatively investigate the work hardening (WH), strain rate sensitivity (SRS) and temperature sensitivity (TS) during hot processing of magnesium alloys. The WH, SRS and TS were described by Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) coupling of deformation parameters. The relationships between WH rate and true strain as well as true stress were derived from Kocks-Mecking dislocation model and validated by our measurement data. The slope defined through the linear relationship of WH rate and true stress was only related to the annihilation coefficient Ω. Obvious WH behavior could be exhibited at a higher Z condition. Furthermore, we have identified the correlation between the microstructural evolution including β-Mg17Al12 precipitation and the SRS and TS variations. Intensive dynamic recrystallization and homogeneous distribution of β-Mg17Al12 precipitates resulted in greater SRS coefficient at higher temperature. The deformation heat effect and β-Mg17Al12 precipitate content can be regarded as the major factors determining the TS behavior. At low Z condition, the SRS becomes stronger, in contrast to the variation of TS. The optimum hot processing window was validated based on the established SRS and TS values distribution maps for AZ80 magnesium alloy.

  7. Investigation of the Hot-Stamping Process for Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheet by Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Xing, Z. W.; Bao, J.; Song, B. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Hot forming is a new way to manufacture complex-shaped components of advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) sheet with a minimum of spring-back. Numerical simulation is an effective way to examine the hot-forming process, particularly to determine thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics and their dependencies on temperature, strain and strain rate. The flow behavior of the 22MnB5 AHSS is investigated through hot tensile tests. A 3D finite element (FE) model of hot-stamping process for the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part is built under the ABAQUS/Explicit environment based on the solutions of several key problems, such as treatment of contact between blank and tools, determination of material characteristics and meshing, etc. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the influence of blank holder force (BHF) and die gap on the hot-forming process for the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part. Numerical results show the FE model is effective in simulation of hot-forming process. Large BHF reduces the amount of spring-back and improves the contact of flange with tools while avoiding cracking of stamped part. Die gap has a considerable influence on the distribution of temperature on side walls; the larger the die gap, higher is the temperature on the sidewall of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part.

  8. Variation of microstructures and mechanical properties of hot heading process of super heat resisting alloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Ko, Dae Chul; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Metal forming is the process changing shapes and mechanical properties of the workpiece without initial material reduction through plastic deformation. Above all, because of hot working carried out above recrystallization temperature can be generated large deformation with one blow, it can produce with forging complicated parts or heat resisting super alloy such as Inconel 718 has the worst forgeability. In this paper, we established optimal variation of hot heading process of the Inconel 718 used in heat resisting component and evaluated mechanical properties hot worked product. Die material is SKD61 and initial temperature is 300 .deg. C. Initial billet temperature and punch velocity changed, relatively. Friction coefficient is 0.3 as lubricated condition of hot working. CAE is carried out using DEFORM software before marking the tryout part, and it is manufactured 150 ton screw press with optimal condition. It is know that forming load was decreased according to decreasing punch velocity.

  9. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  10. Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Si-Mn Killed Steels During Hot-Rolling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Guo, Changbo; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Chao

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of oxide inclusions in Si-Mn killed steels refined by slags of different basicity during a four-pass industrial hot-rolling process was investigated using an automated microscopy system. High-basicity refining slag induced the formation of CaO- and Al2O3-containing inclusions, while refining slag with 0.8 basicity induced dominant inclusions of SiO2 and MnO-SiO2. CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions mainly formed endogenously during solidification and cooling of Ca-containing steels, where Ca originated from slag-steel reactions. However, the larger-sized higher-CaO inclusions originated from slag entrainment. Different inclusions presented different hot-rolling behaviors. The inclusion composition changed by deformation and new phase formation. The dominant oxide types were unchanged under refinement by low-basicity slag; however, they changed under refinement with high-basicity slag. The deformation index of inclusions decreased with increasing accumulated reduction (AR) of the steel. The difference in deformation index between different inclusion types was the largest in the first rolling stage and decreased in subsequent stages. SiO2-CaO and SiO2-MnO-CaO inclusions had larger deformation indices during hot rolling but smaller indices in the last two stages. High-basicity slag increased inclusion complexity; from the perspective of cold-drawing performance, low-basicity refining slag is better for the industrial production of tire-cord steels.

  11. Simulation of Flow Stress Characteristic During Two-stage Hot Deformation Process in AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xiaohu; Hu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Hongyang; Ju, Dongying

    2017-01-01

    A 2-D CA model has been developed to simulate two-stage hot deformation processing of magnesium (Mg) alloy. Based on the fact that Mg has an HCP crystal structure with six-fold symmetry, the model employs hexagonal CA lattice. The physically-based model has integrated the effects of individual metallurgical phenomena related with the hot deformation, including dynamic recrystallization (DRX), static recovery, static recrystallization (SRX), meta-dynamic recrystallization (MDRX) and grain grow...

  12. Monitoring of a Hot Melt Coating Process via a Novel Multipoint Near-Infrared Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Roland; Scheibelhofer, Otto; Stocker, Elena; Behzadi, Sharareh Salar; Haack, Detlev; Koch, Kai; Kerschhaggl, Peter; Lochmann, Dirk; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a PAT strategy for the supervision of hot melt coating processes. Optical fibers were placed at various positions in the process chamber of a fluid bed device. Experiments were performed to determine the most suitable position for in-line process monitoring, taking into account such requirements as a good signal to noise ratio, the mitigation of dead zones, the ability to monitor the product over the entire process, and reproducibility. The experimental evidence suggested that the position at medium fluid bed height, looking towards the center, i.e., normal to particle movement, proved to be the most reliable position. In this study, the advantages of multipoint monitoring are shown, and an in-line-implementation was created. This enabled the real-time supervision of the process, including the fast detection of inhomogeneities and disturbances in the process chamber, and the compensation of sensor malfunction. In addition, a model for estimating the particle size distribution via NIR was successfully created. This ensures that the quality of the product and the endpoint of the coating process can be determined correctly.

  13. Process simulation and experimental validation of Hot Metal Gas Forming with new press hardening steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Reuther, F.; Neumann, S.; Albert, A.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    One field in the work of the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in Chemnitz is industry applied research in Hot Metal Gas Forming, combined with press hardening in one process step. In this paper the results of investigations on new press hardening steels from SSAB AB (Docol®1800 Bor and Docol®2000 Bor) are presented. Hot tensile tests recorded by the project partner (University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering) were used to create a material model for thermo-mechanical forming simulations. For this purpose the provided raw data were converted into flow curve approximations of the real stress-real strain-curves for both materials and afterwards integrated in a LS-DYNA simulation model of Hot Metal Gas Forming with all relevant boundary conditions and sub-stages. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using a tool at room temperature to permit evaluation of the forming behaviour of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor tubes as well as validation of the simulation model. Using this demonstrator geometry (outer diameter 57 mm, tube length 300 mm, wall thickness 1.5 mm), the intention was to perform a series of tests with different furnace temperatures (from 870 °C to 1035 °C), maximum internal pressures (up to 67 MPa) and pressure build-up rates (up to 40 MPa/s) to evaluate the formability of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor. Selected demonstrator parts produced in that way were subsequently analysed by wall thickness and hardness measurements. The tests were carried out using the completely modernized Dunkes/AP&T HS3-1500 hydroforming press at the Fraunhofer IWU. In summary, creating a consistent simulation model with all relevant sub-stages was successfully established in LS-DYNA. The computation results show a high correlation with the experimental data regarding the thinning behaviour. The Hot Metal Gas Forming of the demonstrator geometry was successfully established as well. Different hardness values

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrBe alloys processed by hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z.H.; Xia, C.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jing, R. [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Jiang, X.J. [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Zhou, Y.K.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, X.Y.; Ma, M.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P., E-mail: riping@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-06-14

    In the present study, the effects of Be content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot rolled ZrBe binary alloys were investigated. Microstructures, i.e. the phases present in the alloys, were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At the same processing temperature, the volume fraction of α' martensite and Be{sub 2}Zr compound gradually increases but the volume fraction of α phase decreases with increasing Be content. This can be attributed to the low solubility of Be in Zr alloys and the decrease of α to β phase transition temperature. Simultaneously, the average Be{sub 2}Zr particles size shows an increasing trend with adding Be content. With increasing Be content, the tensile strength increases but ductility decreases. The alloy with 1.0 wt% Be possessed highest ultimate tensile strength (892 MPa) with an elongation of 7.06%. The strengthening and toughening mechanisms of hot-rolled ZrBe alloys were also discussed.

  15. Optimum design of a hot extrusion process for AISI type 304L stainless steel using a model for the evolution of microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Mannan, S. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    2002-05-01

    The deformation behaviour of 304L stainless steel was evaluated, under compression in the temperature range of 600-1200 °C and strain-rate range of 0.001-100 s-1 from the viewpoint of establishing processing-microstructure relationships during hot working. Ferrite forms at temperatures above 1150 °C during deformation. The material exhibits a dynamic recrystallization (DRX) domain in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain-rate range of 0.01-5 s-1, which is the optimum one for hot working. The development of microstructure in 304L stainless steel during industrial hot-forming operations such as press forging, rolling, extrusion, and hammer forging at different temperatures in the range 600-1200 °C, was studied and compared with the results of the laboratory tests for assessing the applicability of simulative tests in the optimization of processing parameters. In order to control the final microstructure of the product, an analytical model for the evolution of microstructure during hot working (in the DRX domain) was obtained. Using the above model, the optimum strain, strain-rate, and temperature trajectories were arrived at for obtaining a grain size of 35 µm in an extruded product. Process control parameters, such as ram velocity, die profile, and billet temperature, which achieve the optimal trajectories were calculated using a process model. Extrusion trials were conducted at optimal conditions and a good agreement with those results predicted in the design stage has been achieved.

  16. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  17. Sintering and characterization of processed YSZ using hot pressing; Sinterizacao e caracterizacao de YSZ processada por prensagem a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R.; Oliveira, W.S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: r009722@dac.unicamp.br; Abrantes, J.C.C. [UIDM, ESTG, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo (Portugal); CICECO, Departamento de Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: jabrantes@estg.ipvc.pt

    2010-11-15

    The hot pressing was used for sintering of Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and the consequent effects on microstructure and electric properties were evaluated. For comparison, a sample of YSZ conventionally processed was sintered (sintered at 1500 deg C with no pressure applied for 4 hours) as opposed to samples by hot pressing, sintered at 1200 deg C, 75 MPa for 4 hours too. The average sizes of grains had differences of about one order of magnitude: 0.373 {mu}m for hot pressing and 2.932 {mu}m for the obtained conventionally, maintaining both a densification near 100% density theoretical zirconia. In the samples, the total ionic conductivity had not significant differences, only a lower grain boundary conductivity of sample by hot pressing, due to the reduction of grain size. This difference is inlighted by brick layer model. (author)

  18. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  20. Infrared characterization of hot spots in solar cells with high precision due to signal treatment processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, A.; Jouglar, J.; Mergui, M.; Jourlin, Y.; Bouille, A.; Vuillermoz, P.L.; Laugier, A. [Institute National des Sciences Appliquees, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere-UMR, Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-02-27

    In this paper we show how to improve greatly the resolution of IR thermography by using two different signal treatment methods: a static treatment and a dynamical treatment. This signal processing allows the study of 100 cm{sup 2} cells under low-forward or reverse-polarization conditions. Static and dynamical methods have both good resolutions: static has the advantage of being fast, and dynamical method does not need any reference image nor cooling system. We have shown that IR thermography is an interesting method for investigating shunts in solar cells. Thermal maps and I-V characterization of the hot spots show that the origin and the behavior of the shunts are varied and their influence on the efficiency is probably more important than what is usually thought

  1. A new integration of hot pressing and carbon partition process to produce high strength steel components with better toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shi-hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel one step method for hot pressing and quench & partition (Q&P integration – hot Pressing-dynamic partitioning (HP-DP process is presented, which can be processed by regular hot pressing equipment and process. The HP-DP formed steel is an upgrade of the existing hot pressed steel especially suitable for making high strength components with superior crashworthiness due to better toughness. Corresponding steel sheet based on conventional 22MnB5 is designed and prepared. After that, the physical simulation experiments for HP-DP are carried out on thermal-mechanical simulator. Microstructure of the steel subjected to HP-DP treatment, with a typical Q&P treated feature, is mainly composed of initial quenched martensite phase, final quenched martensite phase and retained austenite phase, which indicate the occurrence of carbon diffusion concomitantly with martensite transformation. Compared with conventional hot pressed samples, the HP-DP samples show both better tensile property especially elongation and impact energy absorption ability. The effect of HP-DP parameters on the stability of retained austenite and mechanical property is also discussed. The paper illustrates the promising application potential of the HP-DP process.

  2. Information use differences in hot and cold risk processing: When does information about probability count in the Columbia Card Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eMarkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain with its probability and outcome two (often a loss with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, decision maker could potentially narrow focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameter(s influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot as compared to cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount and loss amount or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability, we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability, but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual’s CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus

  3. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  4. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  5. [Biogeochemical processes in the algal-bacterial mats of the Urinskii alkaline hot spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianskaia, A V; Namsaraev, Z B; Kalashnikova, O M; Barkhutova, D D; Namsaraev, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2006-01-01

    The structure and production characteristics of microbial communities from the Urinskii alkaline hot spring (Buryat Republic, Russia) have been investigated. A distinctive characteristic of this hot spring is the lack of sulfide in the issuing water. The water temperature near the spring vents ranged from 69 to 38.5 degrees C and pH values ranged from 8.8 to 9.2. The total mineralization of water was less than 0.1 g/liter. Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and biogeochemical processes occurring in the algal-bacterial mats of the Urinskii hot spring. The maximum diversity of the phototrophic community was observed at the temperatures 40 and 46 degrees C. A total of 12 species of cyanobacteria, 4 species of diatoms, and one species of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, have been isolated from mat samples. At temperatures above 40 degrees C, the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum was predominant; its cell number and biomass concentration were 95.1 and 63.9%, respectively. At lower temperatures, the biomass concentrations of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa and diatoms increased (50.2 and 36.4%, respectively). The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus, which is normally found in neutral or slightly acidic hydrothermal systems, was detected in microbial communities. As the diatom concentration increases, so does the dry matter concentration in mats, while the content of organic matter decreases. The concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates reached their maximum levels at 45-50 degrees C. The maximum average rate of oxygenic photosynthesis (2.1 g C/m2 day), chlorophyll a content (343.4 mg/m2), and cell number of phototrophic microorganisms were observed at temperatures from 45 to 50 degrees C. The peak mass of bacterial mats (56.75 g/m2) occurred at a temperature of 65-60 degrees C. The maximum biomass concentration of phototrophs (414.63 x 10(-6) g/ml) and the peak rate of

  6. Downstream processing from hot-melt extrusion towards tablets: A quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpré, W; Bostijn, N; Herck, S Van; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Nuhn, L; Rombouts, P; Beer, T De; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2017-10-05

    Since the concept of continuous processing is gaining momentum in pharmaceutical manufacturing, a thorough understanding on how process and formulation parameters can impact the critical quality attributes (CQA) of the end product is more than ever required. This study was designed to screen the influence of process parameters and drug load during HME on both extrudate properties and tableting behaviour of an amorphous solid dispersion formulation using a quality-by-design (QbD) approach. A full factorial experimental design with 19 experiments was used to evaluate the effect of several process variables (barrel temperature: 160-200°C, screw speed: 50-200rpm, throughput: 0.2-0.5kg/h) and drug load (0-20%) as formulation parameter on the hot-melt extrusion (HME) process, extrudate and tablet quality of Soluplus(®)-Celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions. A prominent impact of the formulation parameter on the CQA of the extrudates (i.e. solid state properties, moisture content, particle size distribution) and tablets (i.e. tabletability, compactibility, fragmentary behaviour, elastic recovery) was discovered. The resistance of the polymer matrix to thermo-mechanical stress during HME was confirmed throughout the experimental design space. In addition, the suitability of Raman spectroscopy as verification method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration in solid dispersions was evaluated. Incorporation of the Raman spectroscopy data in a PLS model enabled API quantification in the extrudate powders with none of the DOE-experiments resulting in extrudates with a CEL content deviating>3% of the label claim. This research paper emphasized that HME is a robust process throughout the experimental design space for obtaining amorphous glassy solutions and for tabletting of such formulations since only minimal impact of the process parameters was detected on the extrudate and tablet properties. However, the quality of extrudates and tablets can be optimized

  7. The Effect of Process and Model Parameters in Temperature Prediction for Hot Stamping of Boron Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models of the hot stamping and cold die quenching process for boron steel sheet were developed using either rigid or elastic tools. The effect of tool elasticity and process parameters on workpiece temperature was investigated. Heat transfer coefficient between blank and tools was modelled as a function of gap and contact pressure. Temperature distribution and thermal history in the blank were predicted, and thickness distribution of the blank was obtained. Tests were carried out and the test results are used for the validation of numerical predictions. The effect of holding load and the size of cooling ducts on temperature distribution during the forming and the cool die quenching process was also studied by using two models. The results show that higher accuracy predictions of blank thickness and temperature distribution during deformation were obtained using the elastic tool model. However, temperature results obtained using the rigid tool model were close to those using the elastic tool model for a range of holding load.

  8. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  9. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  10. Dynamic recrystallization and texture evolution of Mg–Y–Zn alloy during hot extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, L.B. [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Li, X. [Institut für Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH-Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Guangzhou Research Institute of Non-ferrous Metals, Guangzhou 510651 (China); Zhang, D.P.; Cheng, L.R.; Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, H.J., E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and texture evolution of Mg{sub 98.5}Y{sub 1}Zn{sub 0.5} and Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} (atomic percent) alloys during hot extrusion were systematically investigated. The coarse LPSO phases with higher volume fraction (∼ 57%) suppressed the twinning generation in the initial stage of extrusion, and accelerated the dynamic recrystallization through the particle deformation zones. Therefore, the volume fraction of DRXed grains in as-extruded Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} alloy was much higher than that of Mg{sub 98.5}Y{sub 1}Zn{sub 0.5} alloy. The intensive recrystallization process resulted in the conventional basal texture weakening, although the texture evolution was mainly dominated by flow behavior. The dynamic recrystallization behavior in Mg{sub 92.5}Y{sub 5}Zn{sub 2.5} alloy restricted the formation of deformation texture, and thus the more random texture was observed during the whole extrusion process. - Highlights: • The densely coarse LPSO phases suppressed the twinning deformation. • Coarse LPSO phases induced the particle stimulated nucleation effect. • Dynamic recrystallization resulted in the basal texture weakening effect.

  11. Coating Weight Model for the Continuous Hot-Dip Galvanizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadawy, E. A.; Hanumanth, G. S.; Balthazaar, A. K. S.; McDermid, J. R.; Hrymak, A. N.; Forbes, J. F.

    2007-06-01

    A coating weight model was developed to describe the pressure and wall shear stress distributions as functions of slot gap ( d) and impingement distance ( Z), for the air knife wiping of the liquid zinc coatings in continuous hot dip galvanizing at ratios of Z/ d ≤ 8. This model was then used in validation studies in order to predict the coating weight as a function of the process parameters. The model was based on improved correlations for pressure and shear stress developed by a combination of experimental and computation techniques, which has resulted in more accurate predictions of coating weight validated using industrial coil average coating weight data, particularly for coating weights of up to 75 g/m2. For this region, the maximum deviation between the predicted and measured coating weights was 8 pct. The coating weight model was further developed by incorporating a lumped heat-transfer analysis to predict the solidification “dry line” of the coating. For a typical continuous galvanizing process, the model predicts an 80 pct coating solid fraction for a coating weight of 130 g/m2 to occur at 15 m from the air knives, which agrees qualitatively with visual observations in continuous galvanizing lines.

  12. Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration and washing steps. In all cases little or no foam formed during normal operations of precipitation, concentration and washing. Foam was produced by purposely-introducing gas sub-surface into the slurry. Once produced, the IIT B52 antifoam was effective in defoaming the slurry. In separate foam column tests, all antifoam/defoam agents were effective in mitigating foam formation and in defoaming a foamed 10 wt % insoluble solids slurry. Based on the results in this report as well as foam column studies at IIT, it is recommended that IIT B52 antifoam at the 1000 ppmV level be used in subsequent STTPB work where foaming is a concern. This study indicates that the addition of antifoam agent hinders the recovery of NaTPB during washing. Washing precipitate with no antifoam agent added had the highest level of NaTPB recovery, but had the shortest overall washing time ({approximately}19 hours) compared to 26-28 hours for antifoam runs. The solubilities of the three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were measured in a 4.7 M sodium salt solution. The Surfynol DF-110D defoamer was essentially insoluble while the two IIT antifoamers; Particle Modifier (PM) and B52 were soluble to at least the 2000 ppmV level.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  14. On the behavior of phase transition shown in disassymbly processes of very hot and dilute finite nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa Benhao; Zheng Yuming; Zhang Xiaoze; Lu Zhaoqi; Xu Shuyan; Gross, D. H. E.

    1989-02-01

    The behaviors of phase transition shown in disassymbly process of very hot and dilute finite nuclear system have been exposed by using canonical (Microcanonical) ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. It is explained that they result from the competition between Coulomb interaction and the effect of finiteness.

  15. Application of heat treatment and hot extrusion processes to improve mechanical properties of the AZ91 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reguła

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of hot working (extrusion and hest treatment on room temperature mechanical properties of magnesium-based AZ91 alloy. The results were compared with as-cast condition. The examined material had been obtained by gravity casting to permanent moulds and subsequently subjected to heat treatment and/or processed by extrusion at 648 K. Microstructural and mechanical properties of properly prepared specimens were studied. Rm, Rp02 and A5 were determined from tensile tests. Brinell hardness tests were also conducted. The research has shown that hot working of AZ91 alloy provides high mechanical properties unattainable by cast material subjected to heat-treatment. The investigated alloy subjected to hot working and subsequently heat-treated has doubled its strength and considerably improved the elongation - compared with the as-cast material.

  16. Simulation of Flow Stress Characteristic During Two-stage Hot Deformation Process in AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Xiaohu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-D CA model has been developed to simulate two-stage hot deformation processing of magnesium (Mg alloy. Based on the fact that Mg has an HCP crystal structure with six-fold symmetry, the model employs hexagonal CA lattice. The physically-based model has integrated the effects of individual metallurgical phenomena related with the hot deformation, including dynamic recrystallization (DRX, static recovery, static recrystallization (SRX, meta-dynamic recrystallization (MDRX and grain growth, etc. The model is validated by simulating single-stage and two-stage hot compression tests of AZ31B. The effects of temperature, strain rate, the interval and pre-strain on stress-strain curves are investigated. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental findings in AZ31B Mg alloy, and the simulated results agree well with the experimental results and theoretical models.

  17. Potential of Laboratory Execution Systems (LESs) to Simplify the Application of Business Process Management Systems (BPMSs) in Laboratory Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Sebastian; Göde, Bernd; Gu, Xiangyu; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Modern business process management (BPM) is increasingly interesting for laboratory automation. End-to-end workflow automation and improved top-level systems integration for information technology (IT) and automation systems are especially prominent objectives. With the ISO Standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) 2.X, a system-independent and interdisciplinary accepted graphical process control notation is provided, allowing process analysis, while also being executable. The transfer of BPM solutions to structured laboratory automation places novel demands, for example, concerning the real-time-critical process and systems integration. The article discusses the potential of laboratory execution systems (LESs) for an easier implementation of the business process management system (BPMS) in hierarchical laboratory automation. In particular, complex application scenarios, including long process chains based on, for example, several distributed automation islands and mobile laboratory robots for a material transport, are difficult to handle in BPMSs. The presented approach deals with the displacement of workflow control tasks into life science specialized LESs, the reduction of numerous different interfaces between BPMSs and subsystems, and the simplification of complex process modelings. Thus, the integration effort for complex laboratory workflows can be significantly reduced for strictly structured automation solutions. An example application, consisting of a mixture of manual and automated subprocesses, is demonstrated by the presented BPMS-LES approach.

  18. Effect of Hot-Bending Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of K65 Submerged ARC Welded Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liming; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Xin; Wang, Yinbai

    Hot-bended pipes are essential parts in the construction of long distance pipeline. They are usually made from longitudinally submerged arc welding (LSAW) pipes subjected to hot bending process including quenching and tempering process, which often deteriorates the impact property of the welded pipe. A hot-bended LSAW pipe with a wall thickness of 30.8 mm was fabricated by double-sided four wires submerged arc welding with solid wire and fused flux. Microstructural and property of both as-weld and as-bended pipe were examined. The pipes in two states show a similar tensile strength of 665-670 MPa, and fail in the heat affected zone during the tensile test. The weld metal of as-welded pipe consists of acicular ferrite and small fraction bainite and M-A constituents, while mixture of polygonal ferrite, degenerate perlite and precipitated carbides of metal elements was found in the weld metal of the as-bended pipe. The hot bending process decreases the fraction of acicular ferrite from 66.4 to 47.5%, and the fraction of high angle grain boundary from 76.8 to 67.1%. Therefore, both the type of microstructure and the fraction of ductile microstructures were the influencing factors of weld metal impact toughness, which lead to a reduction from 162 J to 84 J at -40°C.

  19. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Aerotherm final report, 77-235. [Can washing in Campbell Soup plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Solar Industrial Process Hot Water Program are to design, test, and evaluate the application of solar energy to the generation and supply of industrial process hot water, and to provide an assessment of the economic and resource benefits to be gained. Other objectives are to stimulate and give impetus to the use of solar energy for supplying significant amounts of industrial process heat requirements. The plant selected for the design of a solar industrial process hot water system was the Campbell Soup facility in Sacramento, California. The total hot water demand for this plant varies between 500 and 800 gpm during regular production shifts, and hits a peak of over 1,000 gpm for approximately one hour during the cleanup shift. Most of the hot water is heated in the boiler room by a combination of waste heat recovery and low pressure (5 psi) steam-water heat exchangers. The hot water emerges from the boiler room at a temperature between 160/sup 0/F and 180/sup 0/F and is transported to the various process areas. Booster heaters in the process areas then use low pressure (5 psi) or medium pressure (20 psi) steam to raise the temperature of the water to the level required for each process. Hot water is used in several processes at the Campbell Soup plant, but the can washing process was selected to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar hot water system. A detailed design and economic analysis of the system is given. (WHK)

  20. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  1. An application of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hot particle methodology for determining the most effective beta particle energy in causing skin ulcers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, C.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare the effectiveness of hot particles with different energy betas in producing ulcers on skin. The sources were man-made hot particles similar in size and activity to those found in the commercial nuclear power industry. Four different particle types were used. These were thulium (Tm-170) with a 0.97 MeV maximum energy beta, ytterbium (Yb-175) with a maximum beta energy of 0.47 MeV, scandium (Sc-46) with a 0.36 MeV beta, which was used as a surrogate for cobalt-60 (0.31 MeV beta) and uranium (in the carbide form) with an average maximum beta energy of about 2.5 MeV. Since higher energy beta particles penetrate further in skin, they will affect a higher number and different populations of target cells. The experiments were designed as threshold studies such that the dose needed to produce ulcers ten percent of the time (ED 10%) for each particle type could be compared against each other.

  2. Influence of pre-alloying process on microstructure and components of 22MnB5 hot stamping steel coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using coating on the hot forming steel can effectively avoid the surface defects such as surface oxidation and decarburization in the thermoforming process, and make the workpiece have a certain degree of corrosion resistance after molding. This paper studies the effect of the variation of microstructure and heat treatment process in the heating process of 22MnB5 hot forming steel with Zn plating layer on coating microstructure and properties. The microstructure and morphology of 22MnB5 with zinc based coatings by different pre-alloying and austenitizing technology are analyzed by SEM, EDS, and glow spectrum analyzer. The results show that under the same pre-alloying time, with the temperature improved, the coating's phases change from ζ phase, δ phase, Γ1 phase and Γ phase to mainly Γ phase; under the same temperature, as the pre-alloying process time goes by, the contents of Fe gradually increases but Zn decreases, finally the Fe content could reach 88%, and Zn reaches 8% in the coating; the coating is almost all α-Fe (Zn with only a small amount of Γ phase on the surface, and the thickness of the coating is about 12 μm; high quality coatings could be obtained under the pre-alloying process of heating at 550 ℃ for 30 min and austenitizing at 920 ℃ for 4 min. The result provides important reference for developing new hot forming steel coating.

  3. Influence of blanching and grinding process with hot water on beany and non-beany flavor in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan-Chun; Song, Huan-Lu; Li, Xin; Wu, Liang; Guo, Shun-Tang

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8 beany odor-active compounds and 4 non-beany aroma-active compounds of traditional soymilk were identified through dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). To eliminate the beany flavors, soymilk was processed with hot water blanching and grinding for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min with a temperature between 80 and 100 °C. A total of 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds of this soymilk were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). As a result, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity gradually decreased by hot water treatment with time, and with the decrease of Lox activity, the 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds were significantly decreased. However, the reduction in non-beany flavor compounds was smaller than for beany odor compounds. Therefore, a balance between beany and non-beany flavors can be reached in soymilk. When the soaked soybeans were blanched and ground with hot water for 2 to 6 min, the LOX activity was between 38% and 57% of the beginning activity. For these processing times, the non-beany compounds could be largely maintained. The ratio of the total peak area of the 3 non-beany aroma compounds and 5 beany flavor compounds was between 0.07 and 0.12, and the sensory scores of the aromas were higher than that of the off-flavors. Practical Application: Beany flavors in soymilk could be reduced with hot water blanching and grinding at temperature above 80 °C. However, the treatment of hot water blanching affected the non-beany aromas of soymilk. A suitable blanching and grinding time is necessary to achieve a balance of soymilk flavors.

  4. Spectral induced polarization as a tool to map subsurface biogeochemical hot spots: a first laboratory evaluation in the Fe-S system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsiek, Sven; Gilfedder, Ben; Frei, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Zones of intense biogeochemical reactivity (hot spots) arise in the saturated subsurface at the interface between regions with oxidizing and reducing conditions. Hot spots are both sinks and sources of different chemical compounds, thus they are of particular importance for element cycling in the subsurface. However, the investigation of hot spot structures is difficult, because they are not directly identifiable from the surface and can only be investigated by invasive methods in the subsurface. Additionally, they often form in sensitive wetland ecosystems where only non-destructive measurements are applicable to avoid significant degradation of these sensitive environments. Under these circumstances, geophysical methods may provide useful tools to identify biogeochemically active regions. One of the most important biogeochemical reactions in wetlands is the reduction of sulphate and formation and accumulation of FexSy minerals (where x and y delineate mineral stoichiometry). These reactions only occur in specific hot spots where specific chemical and microbial conditions are met. Within a research project concerning biogeochemical transformations and turnover in wetlands, we investigate the applicability of the geoelectrical method of spectral induced polarization (SIP) to locate and monitor regions containing polarizing FexSy particles as indicator for biogeochemical hot spots. After developing and testing a sample holder and a set of non-polarizing electrodes for laboratory SIP measurements, we performed experiments on natural soil samples taken from the hyporheic zone of a local river channel. The collected material originates from a location known for biogeochemical activity. The sample contains a high percentage of dark grayish/black sediment interpreted as FexSy, and possibly pyrite (FeS2). The material was homogenized and split into four samples. The FexSy concentration was adjusted to three different levels by oxidation using H2O2. For all samples we

  5. Field and laboratory studies of the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of N2O: Corona discharge production, biomass burning, and ocean and "Arctic hot spot" emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boering, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    While inverse modeling studies of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations have narrowed uncertainties in the magnitudes, geographic distribution, and timing of N2O fluxes to the atmosphere that are needed to understand and to mitigate the rising concentration of this greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance in the atmosphere, significant uncertainties remain, including accounting for the return of N2O-depleted air from the stratosphere. Measurements of the average and site-specific nitrogen and the oxygen isotopic compositions of N2O can provide an additional means to attribute observed N2O variations to its various sources or stratospheric sink [e.g., Park et al., 2012]. In this presentation, we will highlight recent laboratory work determining the isotopic composition of N2O produced in a corona discharge (the process that produces N2O in thunderstorms), showing it has an isotopic fingerprint that is distinct from that for soil and ocean emissions, for biomass burning, and for the return of air from the stratosphere. Although N2O produced by lightning is only a small fraction of the global annual source of N2O to the atmosphere, the large and unique isotopic signature of corona discharge N2O now characterized completes the array needed to identify the origin, for example, of the unexplained N2O enhancements measured in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere during the 2009 HIPPO mission [Wofsy 2011]. Such N2O enhancements may also be consistent with inverse modeling studies [e.g., Hirsch et al., 2006; Huang et al., 2008] suggesting tropical N2O source(s) must be larger than expected from bottom-up inventories, so identifying the source of these enhancements is critical. Isotope compositions of N2O in a biomass burning plume in the tropical upper troposphere, from a Southern Ocean ship cruise, and from an Arctic peat circle `hot spot' will also be briefly compared and contrasted with the corona discharge results. Hirsch, A.I., et al., Glob

  6. The effects of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion process and downstream processing parameters on the moisture sorption properties of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Vo, Anh; Patil, Hemlata; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Pimparade, Manjeet B; Repka, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion and downstream processing parameters on the water uptake properties of amorphous solid dispersions. Three polymers and a model drug were used to prepare amorphous solid dispersions utilizing the hot melt extrusion technology. The sorption-desorption isotherms of solid dispersions and their physical mixtures were measured by the dynamic vapour sorption system, and the effects of polymer hydrophobicity, hygroscopicity, molecular weight and the hot melt extrusion process were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was performed to understand the phase separation driven by the moisture. Solid dispersions with polymeric carriers with lower hydrophilicity, hygroscopicity and higher molecular weight could sorb less moisture under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The water uptake ability of polymer-drug solid dispersion systems were decreased compared with the physical mixture after hot melt extrusion, which might be due to the decreased surface area and porosity. The FTIR imaging indicated that the homogeneity of the drug molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix was changed after exposure to high RH. Understanding the effect of formulation and processing on the moisture sorption properties of solid dispersions is essential for the development of drug products with desired physical and chemical stability. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Growth Process Conditions of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251874486; Geus, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Harks, P.P.R.M.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2011-01-01

    We report the growth conditions of nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO3−x) thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Two tungsten filaments were resistively heated to various temperatures and exposed to an air flow at various subatmospheric pressures. The oxygen partial pressure was

  8. Processing of low carbon steel plate and hot strip—an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    before due to increasing costs of alloying elements. The control that can ... properties in steel a stark reality not visualized previously. (Siemens .... is increased. Dynamic or static recovery follows with development of sub-grains within austenite (McQueen and. Jonas 1973). Alloying elements can increase the hot strength of ...

  9. Material development of molten metal bath hardware for continuous hot-dip processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Sherman A.

    Development of corrosion resistant materials to molten zinc attack for applications in galvanizing pots has long been desired, because better corrosion resistance could lead to a longer production campaign. The research objectives of this project were to develop new bulk materials and surface treatments/coatings for life improvement of molten metal bath hardware (bearings, sink roll, stabilizing rolls, corrector rolls, and also support roll arms and snout tip) in continuous hot-dip process used for coated steel strip. The ultimate goal of the project is to increase the molten Zn bath components life by an order of magnitude which results in large energy saving (estimated at 2 trillion BTU/year). Estimated cost saving would be approximately $46 million/year for the 57 lines operating in the United States of America. Extensive experimental studies were conducted on over 60 different samples of various materials (monolithic alloys with and without treatment, weld overlays, and ceramics) in molten Zn-0.16Al at 465°C. Test durations were 1h to over 9000h in the static condition, over 50h in the dynamic condition, and up to 24h in the wear condition. Data were recorded as weight change per unit area as a function of time and temperature. The reaction products were analyzed for phase composition and their distribution using SEM, EDS, XRD, and optical microscope. Corrosion rates for each selected alloys were calculated. The SS Type 316L results were used as a baseline. Comparisons between the corrosion behaviors of the stainless steel type 316L and the selected materials were made. Based on our static, dynamic, and wear immersion experimental data a mechanism for alloy corrosion in molten zinc was proposed. Alloys containing Fe, Cr, and Al as its major components results in the formation of (Fe, Cr, Al)XZnY intermetallic phases and oxides at the alloy/zinc interface when exposed to molten zinc in air. Most of the alloys studied in present investigation, corrosion

  10. Characterization of Sludge from the Process of Steel Tubes Chemical Treatment for Hot Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, U.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate industrial waste management in Croatia is reflected in the non-sanitary waste disposal, low recycling levels, negligible share of waste processing technologies, insufficient control of its flows, etc.Generated industrial wastes are most frequently disposed of at producers’ own, mostly illegal landfills. There are many such landfills on the Croatian territory, and the disposed types of waste often include those that can be hazardous and represent a considerable source of environmental pollution.Past waste management in all industrial branches can be characterized in this way, which at the same time may result in the harmful impact on human health and the environment. It also represents economic loss due to low utilisation of material and energy potential of some industrial wastes. The metallurgical industry collects its production waste separately. Only a part of the generated waste is returned to the production process and some waste is occasionally used by other industries as secondary raw materials, but the largest part of it ends at producers' own landfills on site. Hazardous wastes (dust containing heavy metals, waste oils etc. are mostly disposed of in a controlled and lawful manner. Past handling of metallurgical waste was unacceptable both from the environmental and economic point of view. Therefore a systematic resolving of this important issue was initiated at the beginning of this decade. Sisak Steelworks galvanized steel pipes in the hot-dip galvanizing procedure by immersing in molten zinc. Between 1970 and 2000 Sisak Steelworks produced approximately 900 000 tonnes of galvanized pipes this way and generated around 70 000 m3 of neutralisation sludge, which was subsequently disposed of in the landfill on site. The paper presents the results of examination of physical-chemical properties of neutralisation sludge generated as waste material in the process of neutralisation of waste sulphate acid bath used in Sisak

  11. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  12. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell; Laboratoire a tres haute activite de Saclay. Equipement et techniques radiometallurgiques du laboratoire a haute activite de Saclay. Description de cellules pour manipulation de sels de plutonium. Amenagement d'une cellule du laboratoire de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  13. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  14. What Can Be Learned from X-Ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in the Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Both solar wind charge exchange emission and diffuse thermal emission from the Local Bubble are strongly dominated in the soft X-ray band by lines from highly ionized elements. While both processes share many of the same lines, the spectra should differ significantly due to the different production mechanisms, abundances, and ionization states. Despite their distinct spectral signatures, current and past observatories have lacked the spectral resolution to adequately distinguish between the two sources. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy instrumentation proposed for future missions has the potential to answer fundamental questions such as whether there is any hot plasma in the Local Hot Bubble, and if so, what are the abundances of the emitting plasma and whether the plasma is in equilibrium. Such instrumentation will provide dynamic information about the solar wind including data on ion species which are currently difficult to track. It will also make possible remote sensing of the solar wind.

  15. Thermal Contact Resistance Estimation: Influence of the Pressure Contact and the Coating Layer during a Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhay, B.; Bourouga, B.; Dessain, C.

    2011-05-01

    The application of hot stamping in the automotive industry has experienced a fast growth due to the need for higher passive safety and weight reduction. Today, it is absolutely necessary to have reliable and accurate simulation predictions in order to assess the forming feasibility of a part as early as possible during the car design phase. In this paper, an original experimental procedure developed to estimate the thermal conductance at the Part-Tools interfaces during a hot stamping process, is presented. The tools set (punch and die) have been designed to form samples with an omega shape. Two types of material have been stamped: the Usibor 1500P® and the 22MnB5 galvanized steel. The object is to describe correctly the thermal boundary conditions at the Part-Tools interfaces; the adopted procedure consists in estimating accurately the thermal contact resistance TCR at different contact points for different contact pressure values.

  16. 21 CFR 111.315 - What are the requirements for laboratory control processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... processes? You must establish and follow laboratory control processes that are reviewed and approved by... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for laboratory control...

  17. Solar production of industrial-process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Co., Inc. solar facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    A solar heating system to provide hot water for curing concrete blocks is discussed. The objective is to operate, collect data, and evaluate the solar system for a 3 year period. The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 2000 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 1800 F to a rotorclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotorclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  18. Prevention of crack in stretch flanging process using hot stamping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq, Y. Mohd; Hamedon, Z.; Azila Aziz, Wan; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Demand for enhancing of passenger safety as well as weight reduction of automobiles has increased the use of high strength steel sheets. As a sheet metal is a lightweight having high strength is suitable for producing automotive parts such as white body panel. The stretch flanging of the high strength steel sheet is a problem due to high springback and easy to crack. This study uses three methods to stretch flange the sheets; using lubricants, shear-edge polishing and hot stamping. The effectiveness of these methods will be measured by comparing the flange length of each methods can achieved. For stretch flange with lubricant and polished sheared edge, the flange length failed to achieve the target 15 mm while hot stamping improved the formability of the sheet and preventing the occurrence of the springback and crack. Hot stamping not only improved formability of the sheet but also transformed the microstructure into martensite thus improve the hardness and the strength of the sheet after been quenched with the dies.

  19. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Brigati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading. T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading. While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  20. Facilitating improvements in laboratory report writing skills with less grading: a laboratory report peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigati, Jennifer R; Swann, Jerilyn M

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  1. European registration process for Clinical Laboratory Geneticists in genetic healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Carreira, Isabel M; Aktas, Dilek; Bakker, Egbert; Rodríguez de Alba, Marta; Coviello, Domenico A; Florentin, Lina; Scheffer, Hans; Rincic, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession 'European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)' based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows for harmonization in professional education. The 'European Board of Medical Genetics division - Clinical Laboratory Geneticist' provides now since 3 years the possibility to register as an ErCLG. Applicants may be from all European countries and since this year also from outside of Europe. Five subtitles reflect the exact specialty of each ErCLG, who can reregister every 5 years. A previously not possible statistics based on ~300 individuals from 19 countries as holders of an ErCLG title provides interesting insights into the professionals working in human genetics. It could be substantiated that there are around twice as many females than males and that a PhD title was achieved by 80% of registered ErCLGs. Also most ErCLGs are still trained as generalists (66%), followed by such ErCLGs with focus on molecular genetics (23%); the remaining are concentrated either on clinical (6%), tumor (4%) or biochemical genetics (1%). In conclusion, besides MDs and genetic counselors/nurses an EU-wide recognition system for Clinical Laboratory Geneticist has been established, which strengthens the status of specialists working in human genetic diagnostics in Europe and worldwide.

  2. Mixing Process in Ejector Nozzles Studied at Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been studying mixing processes in ejector nozzles for its High Speed Research (HSR) Program. This work is directed at finding ways to minimize the noise of a future supersonic airliner. Much of the noise such an airplane would generate would come from the nozzle, where a hot, high-speed jet exits the engine. Several different nozzle configurations were used to produce nozzle systems with different acoustical and aerodynamic characteristics. The acoustical properties were measured by an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber, and the aerodynamics were measured by traditional pressure and temperature instruments as well as by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), a technique for visualizing the airflow pattern without disturbing it. These measurements were put together and compared for different configurations to examine the relationships between mixing and noise generation. The mixer-ejector nozzle with the installed flow-visualization windows (foreground), the optical equipment and the supporting structure for the Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow visualization (midfield), and the sound-absorbing wedges used to create an anechoic environment for acoustic testing (background) is shown. The High Speed Research Program is a NASA-funded effort, in cooperation with the U.S. aerospace industry, to develop enabling technologies for a future supersonic airliner. One of the technological barriers being addressed is noise generated during near-airport operation. The mixer-ejector nozzle concept is being examined as a way to reduce jet noise while maintaining thrust. Ambient air is mixed with the high-velocity engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and hence the noise generated by the jet. The model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney under NASA contract. The test, completed in June 1995, was conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  4. Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223–1423 K and strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323–1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06–1 s−1.

  5. [The balanced scorecard used as a management tool in a clinical laboratory: internal business processes indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas La Casta, Maria; Flores Pardo, Emilio; Uris Selles, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    to propose a set of indicators as a management tool for a clinical laboratory, by using the balanced scorecard internal business processes perspective. indicators proposed are obtained from different sources; external proficiency testing of the Valencia Community Government, by means of internal surveys and laboratory information system registers. One year testing process proportion indicators results are showed. internal management indicators are proposed (process, appropriateness and proficiency testing). The process indicators results show gradual improvement since its establishment. after one years of using a conceptually solid Balanced Scorecard Internal business processes perspective indicators, the obtained results validate the usefulness as a laboratory management tool.

  6. Minimizing hot-press time in the manufacturing process of wood plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Motie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction in the hot press time using high thermally conductive fillers and the influenceof these fillers on physical and mechanical properties of end products was investigated. Variable factors in these treatments were type and content of fillers. Press time and other factors such as the amount of wood flour, board density, and other conditions of press were fixed. Composites were prepared from Beech (Fagus orientalis flour, Polypropylene, MAPP, and conductive fillers such as flake and powder graphite (carbonic fillers, and Alumina (ceramic filler. Fillers with contents of 5 and 10% in 15 and 20 minutes for press time were utilized. A thermocouple was utilized to measure the temperature in the core of composite and to determine the time being panel core as the same temperature as the hot press surface. It showed that fillers reduce press time as 2-4 minutes. Mechanical tests including tension, bending, impact and hardness were performed. Fillers except of flake graphite had no restriction in mechanical properties. Water uptake and swelling as physical properties were also measured and fillers didn’t have a significant effect on these tests. To validate the experimental results, thermal conductivity of composites was determined and the increase in this property was evaluated. The increase in samples contain flake and powder graphite was more remarkable than those contain Alumina.

  7. Towards a Toolbox for a Process Innovation Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jie; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the global competition, process Innovation has been a challenge to large enterprises for many years. The research in this paper discusses about the theory and methods of Business Process Innovation (BPI) in designing Intelligent Supply Chains (ISC) in inter-organizations. We first review...

  8. Towards a Toolbox for a Process Innovation Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jie; Møller, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the global competition, process Innovation has been a challenge to large enterprises for many years. The research in this paper discusses about the theory and methods of Business Process Innovation (BPI) in designing Intelligent Supply Chains (ISC) in inter-organizations. We first review...

  9. Effect of unit size on thermal fatigue behavior of hot work steel repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Dalong; Li, Zhongsheng; He, Qingbing; Chen, Dajun; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong

    2018-01-01

    AISI H13 hot work steel with fatigue cracks was repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting (BLR) process in the form of lattice units with different sizes. Detailed microstructural studies and microhardness tests were carried out on the units. Studies revealed a mixed microstructure containing martensite, retained austenite and carbide particles with ultrafine grain size in units. BLR samples with defect-free units exhibited superior thermal fatigue resistance due to microstructure strengthening, and mechanisms of crack tip blunting and blocking. In addition, effects of unit size on thermal fatigue resistance of BLR samples were discussed.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Warm- and Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures Based on Laboratory and Accelerated Pavement Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of warm-mix asphalt (WMA technologies are used to reduce the temperature at which the asphalt mixtures are produced and compacted, apparently without compromising the performance of the pavement. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the use of an innovative wax-based LEADCAP WMA additive influences the performance of the asphalt mixture, which is produced and compacted at significantly low temperatures. The WMA pavement using LEADCAP additive (WMA-LEADCAP along with a control HMA pavement was evaluated with respect to their performances of rutting resistance, crack resistance, and viscoelastic property based on the laboratory dynamic modulus test, indirect tensile strength test, and in-door accelerated pavement test (APT results. With the limited data carried out, the LEADCAP additive is effective in producing and paving asphalt mixture at approximately 30°C lower temperature than a control HMA mixture, and the performances of WMA-LEADCAP pavement are comparable to a control HMA pavement.

  11. Flow Stress and Processing Map of a PM 8009Al/SiC Particle Reinforced Composite During Hot Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Teng, Jie; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Hot compression tests of 8009Al alloy reinforced with 15% SiC particles (8009Al/15%SiCp composites) prepared by powder metallurgy (direct hot extrusion methods) were performed on Gleeble-3500 system in the temperature range of 400-550 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The processing map based on the dynamic material model was established to evaluate the flow instability regime and optimize processing parameters; the associated microstructural changes were studied by the observations of optical metallographic and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the flow stress increased initially and reached a plateau after peak stress value with increasing strain. The peak stress increased as the strain rate increased and deformation temperature decreased. The optimum parameters were identified to be deformation temperature range of 500-550 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-0.02 s-1 by combining the processing map with microstructural observation.

  12. Parameter Calibration of GTN Damage Model and Formability Analysis of 22MnB5 in Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liang; Liu, Wenquan; Wang, Dantong; Hu, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Hot forming of high strength steel at elevated temperatures is an attractive technology to achieve the lightweight of vehicle body. The mechanical behavior of boron steel 22MnB5 strongly depends on the variation of temperature which makes the process design more difficult. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to study the formability of 22MnB5 sheet at different temperatures. Firstly, the rheological behavior of 22MnB5 is analyzed through a series of hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. Then, a detailed process to calibrate the damage parameters is given based on the response surface methodology and genetic algorithm method. The GTN model together with the damage parameters calibrated is then implemented to simulate the deformation and damage evolution of 22MnB5 in the process of high-temperature Nakazima test. The capability of the GTN model as a suitable tool to evaluate the sheet formability is confirmed by comparing experimental and calculated results. Finally, as a practical application, the forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 at 700 °C is constructed using the Nakazima simulation and Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model, respectively. And the simulation integrated GTN model shows a higher reliability by comparing the predicted results of these two approaches with the experimental ones.

  13. Parameter Calibration of GTN Damage Model and Formability Analysis of 22MnB5 in Hot Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liang; Liu, Wenquan; Wang, Dantong; Hu, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Hot forming of high strength steel at elevated temperatures is an attractive technology to achieve the lightweight of vehicle body. The mechanical behavior of boron steel 22MnB5 strongly depends on the variation of temperature which makes the process design more difficult. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to study the formability of 22MnB5 sheet at different temperatures. Firstly, the rheological behavior of 22MnB5 is analyzed through a series of hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. Then, a detailed process to calibrate the damage parameters is given based on the response surface methodology and genetic algorithm method. The GTN model together with the damage parameters calibrated is then implemented to simulate the deformation and damage evolution of 22MnB5 in the process of high-temperature Nakazima test. The capability of the GTN model as a suitable tool to evaluate the sheet formability is confirmed by comparing experimental and calculated results. Finally, as a practical application, the forming limit diagram of 22MnB5 at 700 °C is constructed using the Nakazima simulation and Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model, respectively. And the simulation integrated GTN model shows a higher reliability by comparing the predicted results of these two approaches with the experimental ones.

  14. Software for biomedical engineering signal processing laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Willis J; Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990's we developed a special computer program called UW DigiScope to provide a mechanism for anyone interested in biomedical digital signal processing to study the field without requiring any other instrument except a personal computer. There are many digital filtering and pattern recognition algorithms used in processing biomedical signals. In general, students have very limited opportunity to have hands-on access to the mechanisms of digital signal processing. In a typical course, the filters are designed non-interactively, which does not provide the student with significant understanding of the design constraints of such filters nor their actual performance characteristics. UW DigiScope 3.0 is the first major update since version 2.0 was released in 1994. This paper provides details on how the new version based on MATLAB! works with signals, including the filter design tool that is the programming interface between UW DigiScope and processing algorithms.

  15. Investigating the Cuprammonium Rayon Process in a High School Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Lauren J.; Harris, Mary E.

    1999-01-01

    Claims that the technology required to produce common products can serve as the basis for student research projects. Describes the process for the creation of rayon from cellulose as a joint teacher/student investigation. (CCM)

  16. Signal and Image Processing Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Poyneer, L A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Carrano, C J; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V

    2009-06-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a large, multidisciplinary institution that conducts fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. Research programs at the Laboratory run the gamut from theoretical investigations, to modeling and simulation, to validation through experiment. Over the years, the Laboratory has developed a substantial research component in the areas of signal and image processing to support these activities. This paper surveys some of the current research in signal and image processing at the Laboratory. Of necessity, the paper does not delve deeply into any one research area, but an extensive citation list is provided for further study of the topics presented.

  17. Optimized cutting and forming parameters for a robust collar drawing process for hot-rolled complex-phase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, S.; Beier, T.; Woestmann, S.

    2017-09-01

    The demands on materials for automotive applications are steadily increasing. For chassis components, the trend is towards thinner and higher strength materials for weight and cost reduction. In view of attainable strengths of up to 1200 MPa for hot rolled materials, certain aspects need to be analysed and evaluated in advance in the development process using these materials. Collars in particular, for example in control arms, have been in focus for part and process design. Issues concerning edge and surface cracks are observed due to improper geometry and process layout. The hole expansion capability of the chosen material grade has direct influence on the achievable collar height. In general, shear cutting reduces the residual formability of blank edges and the hole expansion capability. In this paper, using the example of the complex phase steel CP-W® 800 of thyssenkrupp, it is shown how a suitable geometry of a collar and optimum shear cutting parameters can be chosen.

  18. Diamond-coated fiber Bragg grating through the hot filament chemical vapor process for chemical durability improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Nélia; José Kalinowski, Hypolito; Neto, Victor; Nogueira, Rogério

    2017-02-20

    In recent years, the coating of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with a specific material has opened up the possibility to broaden the limits of applicability of this technology. Diamond has a set of properties that makes it an attractive candidate to protect the optical fiber against chemically harsh environments, whose sensing is also a great challenge. One of the most used techniques to obtain these coatings is through the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD); in this process, the temperature reaches, typically, around 850°C-900°C. In this work, the regeneration of a seed FBG during its coating with a nanocrystalline diamond thin film through the HFCVD process is presented. Simultaneously, the thermal monitoring of the process was also performed using the same grating. The resistance test in a corrosive medium reveals an improvement on the durability of the sensing properties of the diamond-coated FBG compared with an uncoated FBG, foreseeing a vast range of applications.

  19. Control of Carbon Content in Steel by Introducing Proeutectoid Ferrite Transformation into Hot-Rolled Q&P Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-lei; Li, Yun-jie; Kang, Jian; Li, Cheng-ning; Yuan, Guo; Wang, Guo-dong

    2017-12-01

    A processing strategy involving primary and secondary carbon partitioning is proposed for the hot-rolled quenching and partitioning process through the introduction of proeutectoid ferrite transformation after rolling. The microstructures of the steels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction, and the mechanical properties were evaluated using a universal tensile machine. The blocky retained austenite that distributed along the ferrite grain boundaries was promoted based on the coupling action of the primary and secondary carbon partitioning, which enhanced the transformation-induced plasticity effect during deformation despite the high carbon concentration. A ferrite formation temperature range of 760 to 800 °C was proposed. In addition, from the perspective of industrialization, the observed `plateau trends' for the retained austenite fraction and product of strength and elongation suggest the availability of a wide processing window of 215-362 °C for controlling the coiling temperature.

  20. Modelling and experimental validation of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-cooled evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopazo, J. Alberto; Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Diz, Ruben [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    A detailed transient simulation model has been developed to predict and evaluate the performance of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-coil evaporator. In the model, the defrost process is subdivided into six stages: preheating, tube frost melting start, fin frost melting start, air presence, tube-fin water film and dry-heating. In each stage, the control volume is subdivided into systems represented by a single node, which has the representative properties of the system. A finite difference approach was used to solve the model equations. The results include the time required to defrost, the distribution of the energy during defrost process, the instantaneous refrigerant properties and the instantaneous fin and tube temperature distribution. The results are compared with experimental data obtained in a local storage facility under actual operating conditions and also using data available in the literature. The model results substantially agree with the experimental data in both cases. (author)

  1. Control of Carbon Content in Steel by Introducing Proeutectoid Ferrite Transformation into Hot-Rolled Q&P Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-lei; Li, Yun-jie; Kang, Jian; Li, Cheng-ning; Yuan, Guo; Wang, Guo-dong

    2018-01-01

    A processing strategy involving primary and secondary carbon partitioning is proposed for the hot-rolled quenching and partitioning process through the introduction of proeutectoid ferrite transformation after rolling. The microstructures of the steels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction, and the mechanical properties were evaluated using a universal tensile machine. The blocky retained austenite that distributed along the ferrite grain boundaries was promoted based on the coupling action of the primary and secondary carbon partitioning, which enhanced the transformation-induced plasticity effect during deformation despite the high carbon concentration. A ferrite formation temperature range of 760 to 800 °C was proposed. In addition, from the perspective of industrialization, the observed `plateau trends' for the retained austenite fraction and product of strength and elongation suggest the availability of a wide processing window of 215-362 °C for controlling the coiling temperature.

  2. Structure and Process of Infrared Hot Electron Transistor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An infrared hot-electron transistor (IHET 5 × 8 array with a common base configuration that allows two-terminal readout integration was investigated and fabricated for the first time. The IHET structure provides a maximum factor of six in improvement in the photocurrent to dark current ratio compared to the basic quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP, and hence it improved the array S/N ratio by the same factor. The study also showed for the first time that there is no electrical cross-talk among individual detectors, even though they share the same emitter and base contacts. Thus, the IHET structure is compatible with existing electronic readout circuits for photoconductors in producing sensitive focal plane arrays.

  3. Processing and properties of calcium phosphates bioceramics by hot isostatic pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boilet Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, hydroxyapatite (HA and biphasic calcium phosphate (TCP/HA 60/40 %wt, BCP40 powders were synthesized by chemical precipitation of aqueous solutions of diammonium phosphate and calcium nitrate. After a calcination treatment and a milling step, powders were shaped by slip-casting. The sintering temperature effect on the density and the average grain size was investigated. By natural sintering, densities between 98 and 99.8% were obtained. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP treatment was carried out after a pre-sintering of these materials. Transparent or translucent samples were obtained, indicating a relative density very close to the theoretical value (>99.9%. Mechanical properties (three-point bending strength, fracture toughness, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness were measured on hipped materials with similar grain size (∼0.7μm.

  4. A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process control experiment. The apparatus includes a three-vessel glass flow system with a variable flow configuration, means for feeding dye solution controlled by a stepper-motor driven valve, and a flow spectrophotometer. Students use impulse response data and nonlinear regression to estimate three parameters of a model…

  5. Effects of the Hot Isostatic Pressing Process on Crack Healing of the Laser Repair-Welded CM247LC Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Tu Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the hot isostatic pressing process on the crack healing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the laser repair-welded CM247LC precipitation-hardened superalloy. To ensure the strength of the repair-welded area, this study used the direct re-melting approach, and simulated the repair welding with the filler addition, which has a chemical composition matching that of the base superalloy. As expected, different types of cracks, including the solidification crack in the weld fusion zone and various types of liquidation cracks in the heat-affected zone, were observed. Through a proper hot isostatic pressing healing process, all cracks in the weld fusion zone and the heat-affected zone of the repair-welded pieces were healed. At the same time, some nano- and micro-sized carbides tended to form discontinuously along the healed crack trace. A micro-hardness test was conducted in the repair-welded area, and the results were similar to that of the as-cast material.

  6. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  7. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  8. The coupled thermo-mechanical-microstructural finite element modeling of hot stamping process in 22MnB5 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangjun; Xiao, Namin; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Guangyao; Sun, Guangyong

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a coupled thermo-mechanical-microstructural finite element model based on the subroutine of commercial software ABAQUS is developed to predict the hot stamping process in 22MnB5 steel. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov type model with Scheil' additivity rule and Koistinen-Marburger model are adopted to simulate the diffusional phase transformation and diffusionless one respectively. During the calculation of temperature and stress/strain field, the contributions of microstructure evolution, e.g. transformation latent heat, transformation strain, and transformation plasticity are taken into account, which give more insight of the material response. The model allows to evaluate the transient stress and strain distributions, the final microstructure constituent and the final distortion of the sheet part during the press quenching process. The effect of transformation plasticity on the geometry precision and the residual stress are discussed.

  9. Quality Control of Boar Sperm Processing : Implications from European AI Centres and Two Spermatology Reference Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesenbeck, A; Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Henning, H; Waberski, D

    In recent years, increased automatization has resulted in a higher efficiency of boar semen processing in AI laboratories. Sophisticated laboratory management and efficient quality control programmes are needed for current tendencies in major pork-producing countries to reduce the sperm number per

  10. Studies of the AA2519 Alloy Hot Rolling Process and Cladding with EN AW-1050A Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of plastic forming by hot rolling of the AA2519 aluminium alloy sheets and cladding these sheets with a layer of the EN AW-1050A alloy. Numerous hot-rolling tests were carried out on the slab ingots to define the parameters of the AA2519 alloy rolling process. It has been established that rolling of the AA2519 alloy should be carried out in the temperature range of 400-440°C. Depending on the required final thickness of the sheet metal, appropriate thickness of the EN AW-1050A alloy sheet, used as a cladding layer, was selected. As a next step, structure and mechanical properties of the resulting AA2519 alloy sheets clad with EN AW-1050A alloy was examined. The thickness of the coating layer was established at 0,3÷0,5mm. Studies covered alloy grain size and the core alloy-cladding material bond strength.

  11. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  12. Micromagnetic simulation for the magnetization reversal process of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed nanocrystalline permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We numerically demonstrated the magnetization reversal process inside a hot-deformed nanocrystalline permanent magnet. We performed large-scale micromagnetics simulation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation with 0.1 billion calculation cells. The simulation model for the hot-deformed nanocrystalline permanent magnet consists of 2622 tabular grains that interact with each other by inter-grain exchange and dipole interactions. When the strength of the external field approached a coercive force, nucleation cores were created at the grain surface. The magnetization reversal was propagated by the inter-grain and dipole interactions. When the grains had overlapping regions parallel to the external field, the magnetization reversal propagated quickly between the grains due to the dipole interaction. In contrast, the motion of the magnetic domain wall was inhibited at interfaces between the grains perpendicular to the external field. Reversal magnetic domains had a pillar-shaped structure that is parallel to the external field. In the perpendicular direction, the reversal magnetic domain expanded gradually because of the inhibition of the domain wall motion.

  13. Professionalising the asphalt construction process: aligning information technologies, operators' knowledge and laboratory practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the need to professionalise the asphalt construction process. A distinctive action research strategy is designed and carried out to progressively improve operational strategies of asphalt teams from technological, human (operator) and laboratory perspectives. Using

  14. Processing of low carbon steel plate and hot strip—an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soaking temperature, drafting schedule, finish rolling and coiling temperatures all play important roles in processing of low carbon plate and strip. They control the kinetics of various physical and metallurgical processes, viz. austenitization, recrystallization and precipitation behaviour. The final transformed microstructures ...

  15. Strain rate dependent behaviors of a hot isotropically processed Ti-6Al-4V: Mechanisms and material model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaohan; Ren, Mingfa; Bu, Fanzi; Chen, Guoqing; Li, Gang [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Li, Tong [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to study the dynamic response of a specifically designed Hot isotropically processed (HIP) Casting Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The strain-stress curves were obtained in a range of strain rate (10{sup -3}⁓2.6x10{sup 3}/s) to study the constitutive relationships and the Johnson-Cook model is developed to describe this dynamic constitutive law. It can be found that the static microstructure of this specific HIP casting Ti-6Al-4V is lamellar structure. When the loading increases (strain rate higher than 10{sup 3}/s), this lamellar structure changes to basket weave structure, which further changes the mechanical strength and plasticity.

  16. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  17. Hot and Cold: Complex Biochemical Processes in a Mud Volcano Setting on the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, S.; Aharon, P.; Pape, T.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrocarbon seeps on the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) seafloor are conventionally defined as "cold", being characterized by hydrocarbon-rich fluid emissions at ambient sea floor temperature, mineralization of gas hydrates, precipitation of carbonates depleted in 13C, association with chemosynthetic fauna (mussel beds, tube worms etc.) and dominance of microbial processes fueled by venting hydrocarbons within the sediments. Analyses of carbonate phases, pore-fluids and biomarkers from cores (length~25cm) taken by ALVIN from an active mud volcano on the northern Gulf of Mexico slope (GC-272, 27°41`25"; 91°32`28") point towards a vent setting far more complex than sites previously investigated. We argue that the mud volcano setting in GC-272 is distinguished by episodes of cold methane venting when gas hydrates are forming in the sediment pore spaces (visually confirmed) alternating with periodic hot venting of warm brines (formation fluids) advected on the sea floor. We support our argument with the evidence that follows. Scalenohedral calcite crystals (1-2 mm in size) scattered within the sediment exhibit unusually negative δ18O values (down to -6‰ PDB) and δ13C values ranging from -2 ‰ to - 20‰ PDB. Temperature calculations based on the δ18O composition of the calcites and coexisting pore fluids yield a fluid temperature of ~45°C which is far higher than the recorded bottom water temperatures of ~8°C at a depth of 680 m. Pore fluid Na/Cl ratios (0.92-1.2) confirm the mixing of cold GOM bottom waters (Na/Cl=0.82) with advecting hot brines (Na/Cl=~1.0) resulting in a brine fluid at 45°C. The δ13C of the calcites is isotopically heavier by comparison with typical seep carbonates from the GOM suggesting a mixed carbon source consisting of pore fluid DIC, brine DIC and bottom seawater DIC. Hence the scalenohedral calcites are the product of hot venting episodes and are precipitated within the sediments from calcite-saturated pore-fluids (SI= ~5). Biomarker assays

  18. Solar production of industrial process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Company, Incorporated. Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors with a total aperture area of 8960 sq ft. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 200 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 180 F to a rotoclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotoclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The system was operational 92.5% of the days during which the data acquisition system was functional. Sufficient solar heating was available to deliver hot water to the heat exchanger on 448 days, or 81.8% of the days on which reliable data was recorded. Total fuel saved during the three year period was 10,284 gallons. Thus, this program successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  19. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiya, T., E-mail: akiya.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, J.; Hono, K. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Hioki, K.; Hattori, A. [Daido Steel Co., LTD, Nagoya 457-8545 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  20. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Colour stainability of indirect CAD-CAM processed composites vs. conventionally laboratory processed composites after immersion in staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Mariana A; Basilio, Juan; Llopis, Jaume; Di Bella, Enrico; Roig, Miguel; Ardu, Stefano; Mayoral, Juan R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, by using a spectrophotometer device, the colour stainability of two indirect CAD/CAM processed composites in comparison with two conventionally laboratory-processed composites after being immersed 4 weeks in staining solutions such as coffee, black tea and red wine, using distilled water as control group. Two indirect CAD/CAM composites (Lava Ultimate and Paradigm MZ100) and two conventionally laboratory-processed composites (SR Adoro and Premise Indirect) of shade A2 were selected (160 disc samples). Colour stainability was measured after 4 weeks of immersion in three staining solutions (black tea, coffee, red wine) and distilled water. Specimen's colour was measured each week by means of a spectrophotometer (CIE L*a*b* system). Statistical analysis was carried out performing repeated ANOVA measurements and Tukey's HSD test to evaluate differences in ΔE00 measurements between groups; the interactions among composites, staining solutions and time duration were also evaluated. All materials showed significant discoloration (pcolour stability compared with CAD/CAM resin blocks. CAD/CAM processed composites immersed in staining solutions showed lower colour stability when compared to conventionally laboratory-processed resin composites. The demand for CAD/CAM restorations has been increasing; however, colour stainability for such material has been insufficiently studied. Moreover, this has not been performed comparing CAD/CAM processed composites versus laboratory-processed indirect composites by immersing in staining solutions for long immersion periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formability of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in hot press forming process based on friction properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, Ulrich; Haanappel, Sebastiaan; Rietman, Bert; ten Thije, R.H.W.; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an advanced solid state cladding process, based on Friction Stir Welding, is presented. The Friction Surface Cladding (FSC) technology enables the deposition of a solid-state coating using filler material on a substrate with good metallurgical bonding. A relatively soft AA1050 filler

  3. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  4. Influence of hot water blanching process on nutritional content, microstructure, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of Cinnamomum porrectum herbal tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phornthip Saetan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: C. porrectum leaves, one kind of Cinnamomum family, has recently been used to produce a locally herbal tea. Although C. porrectum essential oil and aqueous extract have been reported to have some biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, there is no scientific data using the blanching process for the production of herbal tea. Therefore, this experiment aimed to study the effect of hot water blanching before drying process on microstructure, nutrition content of the tea powder, TPC, TFC, antioxidant activities of infusion, as well as the phenolic profile of the extract. Objective: To determine effect of hot water blanching process on nutritional value, microstructure, phenolic profile, and antioxidant activity of the C. porrectum herbal tea. Methods: The C. porrectum leaves were divided into 2 groups; control (un-treated and blanched before dried for herbal tea processing. The fresh leaves and the powders of control and blanched leaves were checked for proximate composition and chlorophyll contents, in addition to color value. The powders were determined microstructure by SEM. The infusions were determined to have color value and total extractable phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activities. The hydrolyzed extracts of freeze dried infusion were subjected to identify phenolic profile by HPLC. Results: The blanched tea powder yielded a percentage of fat and protein contents higher than un-treated due to easier extraction because of the bigger pore size found in microstructure. Chlorophyll content of blanched was decreased compared with the control sample. However, it was found that blanching could greater maintain green color of both powder and infusion. Additionally, blanching helped increased TPC, TFC extractability, and antioxidant activities in all assays except metal chelating property. Based on retention time and peak profile determined by using HPLC, it

  5. New Assessment Process in an Introductory Undergraduate Physics Laboratory: An Exploration on Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anthony C. K.; Hashemi Pour, Banafsheh; Reynolds, Dan; Jerzak, Stanislaw

    2017-01-01

    A new team learning assessment process was designed and tested in a first-year university physics laboratory class. The assessment process was designed to provide a strong incentive for students to cooperate and feel responsible for each other's learning and fostering a sense of collaboration rather than competition. Specifically, the new…

  6. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  7. Numerical simulations of fluidization dynamics in a hot model of a CLC process

    OpenAIRE

    Żyłka Anna; Krzywański Jarosław; Czakiert Tomasz; Idziak Kamil; Kulicki Krzysztof; Jankowska Sylwia; Nowak Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one of the most promising alternatives for solid fuel combustion. CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas is high in CLC technology which enables high efficiency of CO2 capture from flue gas. The use of solid oxygen carriers is a characteristic feature of a CLC process. Oxygen carriers are mainly metal oxides which are characterized by high oxygen transfer capacity and high mechanical resistance. Since the CLC technology is not sufficiently recognized due ...

  8. [Increasing effectiveness of the use of laboratory data in the therapeutic-diagnostic process through automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovskiĭ, V V; Shcherbatkin, D D; Nazarov, G D

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the complex computer-aided mechanization and automatization into the laboratory process and their integration with other automated information hospital systems significantly raise efficacy of laboratory data application in treatment and diagnosis, thus reducing work losses of the medical staff. The structure of biochemical research for clinical therapeutic and surgical departments is presented along with the main biochemical diagnostic programmes for some diseases.

  9. Optimization of quenching process in hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel for high strength properties for publication in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nuraini; Aqida, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel blanks for high strength automotive components. The hot press forming was performed using Schenck press PEZ0673 machine with maximum press force of 1000 kN. Samples were square 22MnB5 blanks, of 50 × 60 mm dimension. A high temperature furnace was used to heat up the blanks to austenite temperature of 950°C. Samples were held at the austenite temperature prior to forming and quenching process. Three independent controlled parameters were cooling water temperature, press holding time and flow rate of water. Pressed samples were characterized for metallographic study, hardness properties and tensile properties. Metallographic study was conducted using Meiji optical microscope. Hardness was measured using Vickers indenter with load 1000gf. From metallographic study, the hot pressed 22MnB5 boron steel samples produced lath martensitic microstructure. Hardness of hot pressed samples increased with decreasing cooling time. The yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength of samples after hot forming were between 1546 and 1923 N/mm2. These findings were important to design tailored ultra-high strength in automotive components at different process parameter settings.

  10. Remediation approach for organic compounds and arsenic co-contaminated soil using the pressurized hot water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jo, Young-Tae; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-09-26

    Successful remediation of soil with co-existing organics contaminants and arsenic (As) is a challenge as the chemical and remediation technologies are different for each group of pollutants. In this study, the treatment effectiveness of the pressurized hot water (PHW) extraction process was investigated for remediation of soil co-contaminated with phenol, crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and As. An elimination percentage of about 99% was achieved for phenol, and in the range of 63-100% was observed for the PAHs at 260°C for 90 min operation. The performance of PHW extraction in the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons was found to be 86%. Of the 87 mg/kg of As in untreated soil, 67% of which was eliminated after treatment. The removal of organic contaminants was mainly via desorption, dissolution and degradation in subcritical water, while As was eliminated probably by oxidation and dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. According to the experimental results, the PHW extraction process can be suggested as an alternative cleaning technology, instead of using any organic solvents for remediation of such co-contaminated soil.

  11. Structural and Optical Properties of Ultra-high Pure Hot Water Processed Ga2O3 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani SHANMUGAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thin film based gas sensor is an advanced application of thin film especially Ga2O3 (GO thin film gas sensor is useful for high temperature gas sensor. The effect of moisture or environment on thin film properties has more influence on gas sensing properties. Radio Frequency sputtered Ga2O3 thin film was synthesized and processed in ultra-high pure hot water at 95 °C for different time durations. The structural properties were verified by the Xray Diffraction technique and the observed spectra revealed the formation of hydroxyl compound of Gallium (Gallium Oxide Dueterate – GOD on the surface of the thin film and evidenced for structural defects as an effect of moisture. Decreased crystallite size and increased dislocation density was showed the crystal defects of prepared film. From the Ultra Violet – Visible spectra, decreased optical transmittance was noticed for various processing time. The formation of needle like GOD was confirmed using Field Emission Secondary Electron Microscope (FESEM images.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7186

  12. Implementation of a configurable laboratory information management system for use in cellular process development and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russom, Diana; Ahmed, Amira; Gonzalez, Nancy; Alvarnas, Joseph; DiGiusto, David

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for the manufacturing of cell products for clinical investigation require a significant level of record-keeping, starting early in process development and continuing through to the execution and requisite follow-up of patients on clinical trials. Central to record-keeping is the management of documentation related to patients, raw materials, processes, assays and facilities. To support these requirements, we evaluated several laboratory information management systems (LIMS), including their cost, flexibility, regulatory compliance, ongoing programming requirements and ability to integrate with laboratory equipment. After selecting a system, we performed a pilot study to develop a user-configurable LIMS for our laboratory in support of our pre-clinical and clinical cell-production activities. We report here on the design and utilization of this system to manage accrual with a healthy blood-donor protocol, as well as manufacturing operations for the production of a master cell bank and several patient-specific stem cell products. The system was used successfully to manage blood donor eligibility, recruiting, appointments, billing and serology, and to provide annual accrual reports. Quality management reporting features of the system were used to capture, report and investigate process and equipment deviations that occurred during the production of a master cell bank and patient products. Overall the system has served to support the compliance requirements of process development and phase I/II clinical trial activities for our laboratory and can be easily modified to meet the needs of similar laboratories.

  13. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Ioannis, E-mail: iliapis@sidenor.vionet.gr [AEIFOROS SA, 12th km Thessaloniki-Veroia Rd, PO Box 59, 57008 Ionia, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papayianni, Ioanna [Laboratory of Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO{sub 2}/CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  14. A Feeding Strategy in Inner L-Shape Ring Hot Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the inner L-shape ring polling process with a closed die structure (ILRRCDS on the top and bottom of the driven roll stable, at first, this paper established the mathematical model for ILRRCDS. Then, the plastic penetration and biting-in conditions for ILRRCDS were deduced based on plain ring rolling theory. Moreover, a feeding strategy that can realize a constant growth of the ring’s outer radius was proposed and the reasonable value ranges of the feed rate of the mandrel were determined. The numerical simulation model for ILRRCDS is established based on ABAQUS software. Finally, the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ and temperature distributions of rolled ring were obtained. The results indicated that the proposed feeding strategy can realize a stable ILRRCDS. At the end of ILRRCDS, the PEEQ at the inner radius surface of the ring is maximum, the PEEQ at the outer radius surface of the ring takes the second place, and the PEEQ at the middle part of ring is minimum. With the increase of rolling time, the higher temperature zone of the rolled ring gradually moves from the center part of the ring to the “inner corner zone” of the ring.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of High-Temperature Constitutive Equations and Hot Processing Maps for As-Cast SA508-3 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dashan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Lingling; Gao, Liang; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-11-01

    The hot deformation behavior and hot workability characteristics of as-cast SA508-3 steel were studied by modeling the constitutive equations and developing hot processing maps. The isothermal compression experiments were carried out at temperatures of 950°C, 1050°C, 1150°C, and 1250°C and strain rates of 0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, and 1 s-1 respectively. The two-stage flow stress models were established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening, and the solution of activation energy for hot deformation was 355.0 kJ mol-1 K-1. Based on the dynamic material model, the power dissipation and instability maps were developed separately at strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The power dissipation rate increases with both the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate, and the instable region mainly appears on the conditions of low temperature and high strain rate. The optimal hot working parameters for as-cast SA508-3 steel are 1050-1200°C/0.001-0.1 s-1, with about 25-40% peak efficiency of power dissipation.

  16. Numerical simulation of hot-melt extrusion processes for amorphous solid dispersions using model-based melt viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Esther S; Steffens, Kristina E; Gryczke, Andreas; Wagner, Karl G

    2018-03-01

    Simulation of HME processes is a valuable tool for increased process understanding and ease of scale-up. However, the experimental determination of all required input parameters is tedious, namely the melt rheology of the amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) in question. Hence, a procedure to simplify the application of hot-melt extrusion (HME) simulation for forming amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) is presented. The commercial 1D simulation software Ludovic ® was used to conduct (i) simulations using a full experimental data set of all input variables including melt rheology and (ii) simulations using model-based melt viscosity data based on the ASDs glass transition and the physical properties of polymeric matrix only. Both types of HME computation were further compared to experimental HME results. Variation in physical properties (e.g. heat capacity, density) and several process characteristics of HME (residence time distribution, energy consumption) among the simulations and experiments were evaluated. The model-based melt viscosity was calculated by using the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the investigated blend and the melt viscosity of the polymeric matrix by means of a T g -viscosity correlation. The results of measured melt viscosity and model-based melt viscosity were similar with only few exceptions, leading to similar HME simulation outcomes. At the end, the experimental effort prior to HME simulation could be minimized and the procedure enables a good starting point for rational development of ASDs by means of HME. As model excipients, Vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (COP) in combination with various APIs (carbamazepine, dipyridamole, indomethacin, and ibuprofen) or polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) as plasticizer were used to form the ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the interactions of enteric and hydrophilic polymers to enhance dissolution of griseofulvin following hot melt extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ryan C; Keen, Justin M; Bi, Yunxia Vivian; Porter, Stuart; Dürig, Thomas; McGinity, James W

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on the application of hot melt extrusion (HME) to produce solid dispersions containing griseofulvin (GF) and investigates the in-vitro dissolution performance of HME powders and resulting tablet compositions containing HME-processed dispersions. Binary, ternary and quaternary dispersions containing GF, enteric polymer (Eudragit L100-55 or AQOAT-LF) and/or vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymer (Plasdone K-12 povidone or S-630 copovidone) were processed by HME. Two plasticizers, triethyl citrate (TEC) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), were incorporated to aid in melt processing and to modify release of GF in neutral media following a pH-change in dissolution. Products were characterized for GF recovery, degrees of compositional amorphous character, intermolecular interactions and non-sink dissolution performance. Binary dispersions exhibited lower maximum observed concentration values and magnitudes of supersaturated GF in neutral media dissolution in comparison with the ternary dispersions. The quaternary HME products, 1 : 2 : 1 : 0.6 GF : L100-55 : S-630 : ATBC and GF : AQOAT-LF : K-12 : ATBC, were determined as the most optimal concentration-enhancing compositions due to increased hydrogen bonding of enteric functional groups with carbonyl/acetate groups of vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymers, reduced compositional crystallinity and presence of incorporated hydrophobic plasticizer. HME products containing combinations of concentration-enhancing polymers can supersaturate and sustain GF dissolution to greater magnitudes in neutral media following the pH-transition and be compressed into immediate-release tablets exhibiting similar dissolution profiles. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  19. Dual stable isotopes of CH4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute significant annual methane (CH4) fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit CH4 (as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases), but the ultimate sources of this CH4 flux have not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4 sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park along with other isotopic and gas analyses to evaluate potential sources of methane. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4 emitted from hot springs (26.7 (± 2.4) and - 236.9 (± 12.0) ‰, respectively) are inconsistent with microbial methanogenesis but do not allow distinction between thermogenic and abiotic sources. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) is consistent with DIC as the parent C source for the observed CH4, or with equilibration of CH4 and DIC. Methane formation temperatures estimated by isotopic geothermometry based on δ13CCH4 and δ13CCO2 ranged from 250-350 °C, which is just below previous temperature estimates for the hydrothermal reservoir. Further, the δ2HH2O of the thermal springs and the measured δ2HCH4 values are consistent with equilibration between the source water and the CH4 at the formation temperatures. Though the ultimate origin of the CH4 could be attributed to either abiotic of themorgenic processes with subsequent isotopic equilibration, the C1/C2 + composition of the gases is more consistent with abiotic origins for most of the samples. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that subsurface rock-water interactions are responsible for at least a significant fraction of the CH4 flux from the Yellowstone National Park volcanic system.

  20. An Undergraduate Course and Laboratory in Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Base, U.; Vera, A.; Meyer-Base, A.; Pattichis, M. S.; Perry, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative educational approach to introducing undergraduates to both digital signal processing (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based design in a one-semester course and laboratory is described. While both DSP and FPGA-based courses are currently present in different curricula, this integrated approach reduces the…

  1. Gamification in Science Education: Gamifying Learning of Microscopic Processes in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Katja; Ariel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and trouble-shooting microscopic processes involved in laboratory tests are often challenging for students in science education because of the inability to visualize the different steps and the various errors that may influence test outcome. The effectiveness of gamification or the use of game design elements and game-mechanics were…

  2. A survey of current practices for genomic sequencing test interpretation and reporting processes in US laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Daniel, Julianne M.; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Amendola, Laura M.; Bale, Sherri J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Bick, David; Bowling, Kevin M.; Chao, Elizabeth C.; Chung, Wendy K.; Conlin, Laura K.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Das, Soma; Deignan, Joshua L.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Evans, James P.; Ghazani, Arezou A.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Gornick, Michele; Farwell Hagman, Kelly D.; Hambuch, Tina; Hegde, Madhuri; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Amy Knight; Mighion, Lindsey; Morra, Massimo; Plon, Sharon E.; Punj, Sumit; Richards, C. Sue; Santani, Avni; Shirts, Brian H.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Tang, Sha; Weck, Karen E.; Wolf, Susan M.; Yang, Yaping; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE While the diagnostic success of genomic sequencing expands, the complexity of this testing should not be overlooked. Numerous laboratory processes are required to support the identification, interpretation and reporting of clinically significant variants. This study aimed to examine workflow and reporting procedures among US laboratories to highlight shared practices and identify areas in need of standardization. METHODS Surveys and follow-up interviews were conducted with laboratories offering exome and/or genome sequencing, to support a research program or for routine clinical services. The 73-item survey elicited multiple choice and free text responses, later clarified with phone interviews. RESULTS Twenty-one laboratories participated. Practices highly concordant across all groups included: consent documentation, multi-person case review, and enabling patient opt-out of incidental or secondary findings analysis. Noted divergence included use of phenotypic data to inform case analysis and interpretation, and reporting of case-specific quality metrics and methods. Few laboratory policies detailed procedures for data reanalysis, data sharing or patient access to data. CONCLUSION This study provides an overview of practices and policies of experienced exome and genome sequencing laboratories. The results enable broader consideration of which practices are becoming standard approaches, where divergence remains, and areas development of best practice guidelines may be helpful. PMID:27811861

  3. Sense and nonsense in the process of accreditation of a pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Mira, Elodie; Washetine, Kevin; Hofman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of accreditation of a pathology laboratory is to control and optimize, in a permanent manner, good professional practice in clinical and molecular pathology, as defined by internationally established standards. Accreditation of a pathology laboratory is a key element in fine in increasing recognition of the quality of the analyses performed by a laboratory and in improving the care it provides to patients. One of the accreditation standards applied to clinical chemistry and pathology laboratories in the European Union is the ISO 15189 norm. Continued functioning of a pathology laboratory might in time be determined by whether or not it has succeeded the accreditation process. Necessary requirements for accreditation, according to the ISO 15189 norm, include an operational quality management system and continuous control of the methods used for diagnostic purposes. Given these goals, one would expect that all pathologists would agree on the positive effects of accreditation. Yet, some of the requirements stipulated in the accreditation standards, coming from the bodies that accredit pathology laboratories, and certain normative issues are perceived as arduous and sometimes not adapted to or even useless in daily pathology practice. The aim of this review is to elaborate why it is necessary to obtain accreditation but also why certain requirements for accreditation might be experienced as inappropriate.

  4. The Effects of Polymer Carrier, Hot Melt Extrusion Process and Downstream Processing Parameters on the Moisture Sorption Properties of Amorphous Solid Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Vo, Anh; Patil, Hemlata; Tiwari, Roshan V.; Alshetaili, Abdullah S.; Pimparade, Manjeet B.; Repka, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer carrier, hot melt extrusion (HME) and downstream processing parameters on the water uptake properties of amorphous solid dispersions. Methods Three polymers and a model drug were used to prepare amorphous solid dispersions utilizing HME technology. The sorption-desorption isotherms of solid dispersions and their physical mixtures were measured by the Dynamic Vapor Sorption system, and the effect of polymer hydrophobicity, hygroscopicity, molecular weight and the HME process were investigated. FTIR imaging was performed to understand the phase separation driven by the moisture. Key findings Solid dispersions with polymeric carriers with lower hydrophilicity, hygroscopicity, and higher molecular weight could sorb less moisture under the high RH conditions. The water uptake ability of polymer-drug solid dispersion systems were decreased compared to the physical mixture after HME, which might be due to the decreased surface area and porosity. The FTIR imaging indicated the homogeneity of the drug molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix was changed after exposure to high RH. Conclusion Understanding the effect of formulation and processing on the moisture sorption properties of solid dispersions is essential for the development of drug products with desired physical and chemical stability. PMID:26589107

  5. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  6. Development of a Novel Depleted Uranium Treatment Process at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Bowers, J; Laue, C; Fitch, T

    2007-01-22

    A three-stage process was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to treat potentially pyrophoric depleted uranium metal wastes. The three-stage process includes waste sorting/rinsing, acid dissolution of the waste metal with a hydrochloric and phosphoric acid solution, and solidification of the neutralized residuals from the second stage with clay. The final product is a solid waste form that can be transported to and disposed of at a permitted low-level radioactive waste disposal site.

  7. Recent developments in digital image processing at the Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the computer-aided digital image processing techniques recently developed. Special attention is given to mapping and mosaicking techniques and to preliminary developments in range determination from stereo image pairs. The discussed image processing utilization areas include space, biomedical, and robotic applications.

  8. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  9. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  10. Optimization of the Hot Forging Processing Parameters for Powder Metallurgy Fe-Cu-C Connecting Rods Based on Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxian; Yi, Jianhong; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Powder forged connecting rods have the problem of non-uniform density distributions because of their complex geometric shape. The densification behaviors of powder metallurgy (PM) connecting rod preforms during hot forging processes play a significant role in optimizing the connecting rod quality. The deformation behaviors of a connecting rod preform, a Fe-3Cu-0.5C (wt pct) alloy compacted and sintered by the powder metallurgy route (PM Fe-Cu-C), were investigated using the finite element method, while damage and friction behaviors of the material were considered in the complicated forging process. The calculated results agree well with the experimental results. The relationship between the processing parameters of hot forging and the relative density of the connecting rod was revealed. The results showed that the relative density of the hot forged connecting rod at the central shank changed significantly compared with the relative density at the big end and at the small end. Moreover, the relative density of the connecting rod was sensitive to the processing parameters such as the forging velocity and the initial density of the preform. The optimum forging processing parameters were determined and presented by using an orthogonal design method. This work suggests that the processing parameters can be optimized to prepare a connecting rod with uniform density distribution and can help to better meet the requirements of the connecting rod industry.

  11. [Quality Management and Quality Specifications of Laboratory Tests in Clinical Studies--Challenges in Pre-Analytical Processes in Clinical Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The cost, speed, and quality are the three important factors recently indicated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for the purpose of accelerating clinical studies. Based on this background, the importance of laboratory tests is increasing, especially in the evaluation of clinical study participants' entry and safety, and drug efficacy. To assure the quality of laboratory tests, providing high-quality laboratory tests is mandatory. For providing adequate quality assurance in laboratory tests, quality control in the three fields of pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical processes is extremely important. There are, however, no detailed written requirements concerning specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping. Most laboratory tests for clinical studies are performed onsite in a local laboratory; however, a part of laboratory tests is done in offsite central laboratories after specimen shipping. As factors affecting laboratory tests, individual and inter-individual variations are well-known. Besides these factors, standardizing the factors of specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping, may improve and maintain the high quality of clinical studies in general. Furthermore, the analytical method, units, and reference interval are also important factors. It is concluded that, to overcome the problems derived from pre-analytical processes, it is necessary to standardize specimen handling in a broad sense.

  12. The effect of hot-boning and reduced added phosphate on the processing and sensory properties of cured beef prepared from two forequarter muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, D F; Desmond, E M; Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Kerry, J P

    2010-04-01

    The functionality of pre-rigor beef was investigated in terms of the effects of phosphate reduction and curing of hot-boned meat on the processing and sensory properties of relatively low-value muscles, M. infraspinatus (IS) and M. pectoralis profundus (PP), from the forequarter. Muscles were excised within 90 min post-mortem (HB) or, from chilled carcasses, 24 h post-mortem (CB), and were injected to 115% of green weight with brine containing phosphate and were vacuum tumbled continuously for 2 h. Hot-boning gave lower total yield of cooked meat for both muscles. Hot-boned PP joints had slightly higher (Pcold-boned. Reduction of added phosphate (from sodium tri-polyphosphate) from 0.3% to 0.15% of cured meat had detrimental effects on colour; joints containing the conventional 0.3% were lighter (PHot-boning gave PP joints which were rated less tender by sensory panels, corresponding with higher (Phot-boning gave products that were rated by sensory panel as slightly more tender but there was no effect on TPA or WBSF values. Furthermore, total yields from hot-boned products did not reflect the expected increase in functionality and reducing added phosphate during processing had a detrimental effect in binding and forming of joints. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge

  14. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while

  15. Temperature field in the hot-top during casting a new super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy by low frequency electromagnetic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo ZUO

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The billets of a new super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy in 200 mm diameter were produced by the processed of low frequency electromagnetic casting (LFEC and conventional direct chill(DCcasting, respectively. The effects of low frequency electromagnetic field on temperature field of the melt in the hot-top were investigated by temperature thermocouples into the casting during the processes. The results show that during LFEC process the temperature field in the melt applying the hot-top is very uniform, which is helpful to reduce the difference of thermal gradients between the surface and the center, and then to reduce the thermal stress and to eliminate casting crack.

  16. Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a research institution focusing on processes and mechanisms of mountain environmental variation and its ecological regulation in China, especially in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. By studying the movement of soil and water, as well as the material circulation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and more, the laboratory aims to reveal processes and mechanisms of mountain environmental variation specific to soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution, the vulnerability of mountain environments, and responses and adaptations of mountain environments under global change. Based on this, it seeks to propose countermeasures of environmental conservation and ecological control in mountain areas and to provide scientific evidence and technical support for sustainable development and ecological security in mountainous areas of China.

  17. Influence of Molecular Weight of Carriers and Processing Parameters on the Extrudability, Drug Release, and Stability of Fenofibrate Formulations Processed by Hot-Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulays, Bader B; Park, Jun-Bom; Alshehri, Sultan M; Morott, Joseph T; Alshahrani, Saad M; Tiwari, Roshan V; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Langley, Nigel; Kolter, Karl; Gryczke, Andreas; Repka, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extrudability, drug release, and stability of fenofibrate (FF) formulations utilizing various hot-melt extrusion processing parameters and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymers of various molecular weights. The different PVP grades selected for this study were Kollidon(®) 12 PF (K12), Kollidon(®) 30 (K30), and Kollidon(®) 90 F (K90). FF was extruded with these polymers at three drug loadings (15%, 25%, and 35% w/w). Additionally, for FF combined with each of the successfully extruded PVP grades (K12 and K30), the effects of two levels of processing parameters for screw design, screw speed, and barrel temperature were assessed. It was found that the FF with (K90) was not extrudable up to 35% drug loading. With low drug loading, the polymer viscosity significantly influenced the release of FF. The crystallinity remaining was vital in the highest drug-loaded formulation dissolution profile, and the glass transition temperature of the polymer significantly affected its stability. Modifying the screw configuration resulted in more than 95% post-extrusion drug content of the FF-K30 formulations. In contrast to FF-K30 formulations, FF release and stability with K12 were significantly influenced by the extrusion temperature and screw speed.

  18. Mood and implicit alcohol expectancy processes: predicting alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAE) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli-including mood states-and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, this study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. College students (N = 146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the laboratory, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the laboratory. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak blood alcohol concentration in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the laboratory for females. The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs-as indicated by longer RTs-predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores the need for

  19. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recovery comparisons--hot nitrogen Vs steam regeneration of toxic dichloromethane from activated carbon beds in oil sands process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Shivaji G; Pré, Pascaline; Giraudet, Sylvain; Le Coq, Laurence; Le Cloirec, Pierre; Baudouin, Olivier; Déchelotte, Stéphane

    2012-02-29

    The regeneration experiments of dichloromethane from activated carbon bed had been carried out by both hot nitrogen and steam to evaluate the regeneration performance and the operating cost of the regeneration step. Factorial Experimental Design (FED) tool had been implemented to optimize the temperature of nitrogen and the superficial velocity of the nitrogen to achieve maximum regeneration at an optimized operating cost. All the experimental results of adsorption step, hot nitrogen and steam regeneration step had been validated by the simulation model PROSIM. The average error percentage between the simulation and experiment based on the mass of adsorption of dichloromethane was 2.6%. The average error percentages between the simulations and experiments based on the mass of dichloromethane regenerated by nitrogen regeneration and steam regeneration were 3 and 12%, respectively. From the experiments, it had been shown that both the hot nitrogen and steam regeneration had regenerated 84% of dichloromethane. But the choice of hot nitrogen or steam regeneration depends on the regeneration time, operating costs, and purity of dichloromethane regenerated. A thorough investigation had been made about the advantages and limitations of both the hot nitrogen and steam regeneration of dichloromethane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TiO{sub 2} Processed by pressurized hot solvents as a novel photocatalyst for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reli, Martin, E-mail: martin.reli@vsb.cz [Institute of Environmental Technology, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kobielusz, Marcin [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, ul. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Matějová, Lenka [Institute of Environmental Technology, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Daniš, Stanislav [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Macyk, Wojciech [Centre ENET, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Obalová, Lucie [Institute of Environmental Technology, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kuśtrowski, Piotr; Rokicińska, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, ul. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Kočí, Kamila [Institute of Environmental Technology, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Centre ENET, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of anatase-brookite TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts has been described. • The materials photocatalyze carbon dioxide reduction to methane. • The photoactivity of the synthesized composites has been compared with the activity of anatase-rutile material (P25). • The influence of electronic structure on photocatalytic activity has been discussed. - Abstract: Anatase-brookite TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by the sol-gel process controlled within reverse micelles and processing by pressurized hot solvents–water/methanol/water (TiO{sub 2}(M)) and water/ethanol/water (TiO{sub 2}(E)), as an unconventional alternative to common calcination. The main goal of this work was to prepare anatase-brookite mixtures by processing by two different alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and evaluate the influence of the alcohol on the photocatalytic activity. Prepared photocatalysts were characterized by organic elemental analysis, nitrogen physisorption, XRD, UV–vis, photoelectrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements and XPS. The prepared photocatalysts efficiency was tested on the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide and compared with commercial TiO{sub 2} Evonik P25. Both prepared nanocomposites were more efficient towards methane production but Evonik P25 was the most efficient towards hydrogen generated through water splitting. The higher performance of anatase-brookite mixture towards methane production can be explained by (i) a higher photocatalytic activity of brookite than rutile; (ii) a large surface area of anatase-brookite composites enabling better carbon dioxide adsorption; (iii) the photoinduced electron transfer from the brookite conduction band to the anatase conduction band. On the other hand, a higher production of hydrogen in the presence of Evonik P25 is caused by a better charge separation in anatase-rutile than anatase-brookite phase compositions. TiO{sub 2}(M) appeared more active than TiO{sub 2}(E) in the

  2. Improving Histopathology Laboratory Productivity: Process Consultancy and A3 Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKOĞLU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ISO 17020 quality program has been run in our pathology laboratory for four years to establish an action plan for correction and prevention of identified errors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the errors that we could not identify through ISO 17020 and/or solve by means of process consulting. Process consulting is carefully intervening in a group or team to help it to accomplish its goals. Material and Method: The A3 problem solving process was run under the leadership of a ‘workflow, IT and consultancy manager’. An action team was established consisting of technical staff. A root cause analysis was applied for target conditions, and the 6-S method was implemented for solution proposals. Applicable proposals were activated and the results were rated by six-sigma analysis. Non-applicable proposals were reported to the laboratory administrator. Results: A mislabelling error was the most complained issue triggering all pre-analytical errors. There were 21 non-value added steps grouped in 8 main targets on the fish bone graphic (transporting, recording, moving, individual, waiting, over-processing, over-transaction and errors. Unnecessary redundant requests, missing slides, archiving issues, redundant activities, and mislabelling errors were proposed to be solved by improving visibility and fixing spaghetti problems. Spatial re-organization, organizational marking, re-defining some operations, and labeling activities raised the six sigma score from 24% to 68% for all phases. Operational transactions such as implementation of a pathology laboratory system was suggested for long-term improvement. Conclusion: Laboratory management is a complex process. Quality control is an effective method to improve productivity. Systematic checking in a quality program may not always find and/or solve the problems. External observation may reveal crucial indicators about the system failures providing very simple solutions.

  3. Improving Histopathology Laboratory Productivity: Process Consultancy and A3 Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörükoğlu, Kutsal; Özer, Erdener; Alptekin, Birsen; Öcal, Cem

    2017-01-01

    The ISO 17020 quality program has been run in our pathology laboratory for four years to establish an action plan for correction and prevention of identified errors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the errors that we could not identify through ISO 17020 and/or solve by means of process consulting. Process consulting is carefully intervening in a group or team to help it to accomplish its goals. The A3 problem solving process was run under the leadership of a 'workflow, IT and consultancy manager'. An action team was established consisting of technical staff. A root cause analysis was applied for target conditions, and the 6-S method was implemented for solution proposals. Applicable proposals were activated and the results were rated by six-sigma analysis. Non-applicable proposals were reported to the laboratory administrator. A mislabelling error was the most complained issue triggering all pre-analytical errors. There were 21 non-value added steps grouped in 8 main targets on the fish bone graphic (transporting, recording, moving, individual, waiting, over-processing, over-transaction and errors). Unnecessary redundant requests, missing slides, archiving issues, redundant activities, and mislabelling errors were proposed to be solved by improving visibility and fixing spaghetti problems. Spatial re-organization, organizational marking, re-defining some operations, and labeling activities raised the six sigma score from 24% to 68% for all phases. Operational transactions such as implementation of a pathology laboratory system was suggested for long-term improvement. Laboratory management is a complex process. Quality control is an effective method to improve productivity. Systematic checking in a quality program may not always find and/or solve the problems. External observation may reveal crucial indicators about the system failures providing very simple solutions.

  4. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  5. Upscaling and in-line process monitoring via spectroscopic techniques of ethylene vinyl acetate hot-melt extruded formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A; Saerens, L; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate drug release and quality of EVA/drug matrices at different PEO 7M concentrations (5 and 15%), manufactured using two different hot-melt extruders: a lab-scale mini extruder and a pilot-scale extruder. The process parameters used on both extruders (temperature and screw speed) and drug release from the matrices were compared. On the lab-scale extruder all formulations were extruded at 90 °C, whereas on the pilot-scale extruder the temperature of the die was adjusted to 100 °C in order to achieve a constant pressure at the extrusion die, hence constant material flow through the die to yield smooth extrudates. Screw speed was also adjusted from 60 rpm (lab-scale extruder) to 90 rpm (pilot-scale extruder) in order to obtain a balance between feeding rate and screw speed. Drug release from the obtained matrices on both extruders was also assessed. Despite the differences in diameter (diameter of 2 and 3mm for the lab-scale extruder and pilot-scale extruder, respectively), temperature and screw speed, drug release per surface area was similar. DSC analysis of a formulation [EVA40/MPT (50/50, w/w) with 5% PEO] indicated small changes in its solid state after extrusion on both extruders: drug crystallinity was reduced by max. 20%, PEO recrystallized after cooling and EVA remained semi-crystalline. Extrusion experiments on the pilot-scale extruder of EVA/MPT, 50/50 (w/w) formulations were also monitored in-line using Raman and NIR spectroscopy in order to evaluate the material behavior at a molecular level in the extrusion barrel as function of the process settings (extrusion temperature: 90, 110 and 140 °C; screw speed: 90 and 110 rpm). At 90 and 110 °C the crystallinity of the drug was reduced, but the majority of MPT remained in its crystalline state as specific peaks in the Raman spectra of the drug became broader. These differences were accentuated when extrusion was performed at 140 °C as the drug completely melted

  6. The laboratory demonstration and signal processing of the inverse synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Si; Zhang, ZengHui; Xu, XianWen; Yu, WenXian

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a coherent inverse synthetic-aperture imaging ladar(ISAL)system to obtain high resolution images. A balanced coherent optics system in laboratory is built with binary phase coded modulation transmit waveform which is different from conventional chirp. A whole digital signal processing solution is proposed including both quality phase gradient autofocus(QPGA) algorithm and cubic phase function(CPF) algorithm. Some high-resolution well-focused ISAL images of retro-reflecting targets are shown to validate the concepts. It is shown that high resolution images can be achieved and the influences from vibrations of platform involving targets and radar can be automatically compensated by the distinctive laboratory system and digital signal process.

  7. Line of Sight: A process for transferring science from the laboratory to the market place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LINTON,JONATHAN; WALSH,STEVEN; LOMBANA,CESAR A.; HUNTER,WILLARD B.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.

    2000-02-14

    Commercialization and transfer of technology from laboratories in academia, government, and industry has only met a fraction of its potential and is currently an art not a science. The line of sight approach developed and in use at Sandia National Laboratories, is used to better understand commercialization and transfer of technology. The line of sight process integrates technology description, the dual process model of innovation and the product introduction model. The model, that the line of sight is based OR is presented and the application of the model to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is illustrated. Work to date suggests that the differences between disruptive and sustaining technologies are critical to quantifying the level of risk and choosing the commercialization path. The applicability of the line of sight to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is key to the success of the model and approach.

  8. Application of dissolved air flotation process for industrial sludge thickening: A laboratory-scale study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Atamaleki; Gholamreza Mostafaii; Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh; Hossein Akbari; Leila Iranshahi; Atieh Salem

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Increasing population density in cities has led to an increase in industrial and municipal wastewater sludge generation volume. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) can widely be used for water and wastewater treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate some DAF design parameters on biological sludge thickening which generated from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: This experimental research had been carried out as a laboratory-scale study on DAF process to thi...

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  10. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  11. Extension of the lifetime of tantalum filaments in the hot-wire (Cat) 3 Chemical Vapor Deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Knoesen, D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the prime components of a hot-wire (Cat) Chemical Vapor Deposition system is the filament used to pyro-catalytically crack the gases like silane. Burnt out tantalum filaments were studied to determine the possible improvement of lifetime...

  12. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Raymond A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to –40 °C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  13. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results. Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability. Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  14. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results.Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability.Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  15. The Henry Ford Production System: LEAN Process Redesign Improves Service in the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386

  16. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  17. Characterization of solid wastes from two different hot-dip galvanizing processes; Caracterizacion de residuos solidos procedentes de dos procesos distintos de galvanizado en caliente por inmersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvasto, P.; Casal-Ramos, J. a.; Gonzalez-Jordan, O.; Duran-Rodriguez, N. C.; Dominguez, J. R.; Moncada, P.

    2012-11-01

    Zinc dust and zinc ash from hot-dip galvanizing industries located in Venezuela were characterized using atomic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Dust was formed during the high-pressure drying process of the galvanized pieces, in a plant that uses a steel kettle to hold the molten zinc. Ash identified as A came from the same plant as the dust, while ash identified as B came from a hot-dip galvanizing plant which use a ceramic lined galvanizing furnace. Dust contained 98 wt % Zn, in metallic form. Both ash samples contained: Zn and ZnO, while Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}×H{sub 2}O and ZnCl{sub 2} were only found in ash B. Globally, ash “A” and ash “B” contain 71 and 75 wt % Zn, respectively. (Author)

  18. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): Effective Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web-based tool, under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. It contains features geared toward a range of applications, spanning research and outreach. It offers an intuitive user interface, in which model inputs are changed using sliders and other interactive components. Current capabilities include simulation of polar ice sheet responses to climate forcing, based on NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We believe that the visualization of data is most effective when tailored to the target audience, and that many of the best practices for modern Web design/development can be applied directly to the visualization of data: use of negative space, color schemes, typography, accessibility standards, tooltips, etc cetera. We present our prototype website, and invite input from potential users, including researchers, educators, and students.

  19. Laboratory study of asteroid surface processes due to electrostatic dust mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Schwan, Joseph; Hood, Noah; Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Horanyi, Mihaly

    2017-10-01

    Our recent laboratory work has shown a strong evidence that dust particles on the surface of airless bodies such as asteroids are expected to be electrostatically lofted or mobilized due to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation or energetic electrons. These electrostatic processes may have a significant contribution in shaping the surfaces of asteroids or other airless bodies. One critical question is how efficient these processes can be in changing the surface physical characteristics of asteroids. Here we report a series of laboratory experiments that record dust activities as a function of the fluxes of UV photons or energetic electrons over a long exposure time. Our preliminary results show that the surface morphology is changed significantly due to dust mobilization and becomes smoothened over time, on millimeter-to-centimeter scale under Earth gravity. Our results also indicate that the dynamics of dust mobilization may be complicated by temporal charging effect as dust moves. It was found that dust mobilization largely depends on the size and type of dust particles. These new experimental data will help us better characterize the dynamics of electrostatic dust mobilization and can be ultimately extrapolated to the space situations in order to estimate the timescale of the electrostatic processes in comparison to other surface processes, e.g., thermal fragmentation.

  20. Description of the Sandia National Laboratories science, technology & engineering metrics process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Gretchen B.; Watkins, Randall D.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Burns, Alan Richard; Oelschlaeger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    There has been a concerted effort since 2007 to establish a dashboard of metrics for the Science, Technology, and Engineering (ST&E) work at Sandia National Laboratories. These metrics are to provide a self assessment mechanism for the ST&E Strategic Management Unit (SMU) to complement external expert review and advice and various internal self assessment processes. The data and analysis will help ST&E Managers plan, implement, and track strategies and work in order to support the critical success factors of nurturing core science and enabling laboratory missions. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide a guide for those who want to understand the ST&E SMU metrics process. This report provides an overview of why the ST&E SMU wants a dashboard of metrics, some background on metrics for ST&E programs from existing literature and past Sandia metrics efforts, a summary of work completed to date, specifics on the portfolio of metrics that have been chosen and the implementation process that has been followed, and plans for the coming year to improve the ST&E SMU metrics process.

  1. Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity

  2. Microstructure development and mechanical properties of quenching and partitioning (Q and P) steel and an incorporation of hot-dipping galvanization during Q and P process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Yu, Hao, E-mail: yhzhmr@126.com

    2013-12-01

    The “quenching and partitioning” (Q and P) process has recently been substantiated to be a unique technological route for the production of high strength steels with significant amounts of retained austenite, and thus to provide better combination of strength and ductility. In this work, intercritically annealed specimens followed by Q and P treatment have been applied to low-carbon steel with chemical composition typical for conventional TRIP-assisted steels. Microstructure of the steel treated by the Q and P process was characterized by means of optical microscope, SEM, TEM and XRD. The study suggests that microstructure is mainly composed of ferrite, lath martensite, martensite–austenite islands, retained austenite and a small amount of bainite formed during partitioning. The fraction of bainite formed during partitioning is proportional to quenching temperature. The mechanical property of specimen treated by the Q and P process exhibits an improved combination of strength and ductility than that of the Q and T process. Two schemes of hot-dipping galvanization processes were designed. The results indicate that both hot-dip galvanizing schemes present a limited reduction in tensile strength and a slight enhancement of ductility. The scheme of galvanizing and partitioning after the quenching progress shows a better combination of strength and ductility.

  3. The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig, that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

  4. Determination of the heating temperature of potholes surface on road pavement in the process of repairs using hot asphalt concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of roads construction the necessary transport and operational characteristics should be achieved, which depend on the quality of the applied, material and technologies. Under the loads of transport means and the influence of weather conditions on the road pavement deformations and destructions occur, which lead to worsening of transport and operational characteristics, decrease of operational life of the road and they are often the reason of road accidents. According to the data of the Strategic Research Center of "Rosgosstrah" more than 20 % of road accidents in Russia occur due to bad quality of road pavement. One of the main directions in traffic security control and prolongation of operational life for road pavement of non-rigid type is road works, as a result of which defects of pavement are eliminated and in case of timely repairs of high quality the operational life of the road increases for several years. The most widely used material for non-rigid pavement repairs is hot road concrete mixes and in case of adherence to specifications they provide high quality of works. The authors investigate the problems of hot asphalt concrete mixes for repairs of road surfaces of non-rigid type. The results of the study hot asphalt concrete mix’s temperature regimes are offered in case of repair works considering the temperature delivered to the work site and the ambient temperature depending on the type of mix and class of bitumen.

  5. Assessment and evaluation of science process skills in secondary school biology laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawinski, Daniel Bernard

    Awareness of the importance of process skills in science education has increased, but practical methods of assessing student performance of these skills has received minimal attention. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine how student science process skills may be accurately and reliably measured and evaluated. A set of laboratory activities that emphasized process skills was developed by 12 science educators from the western New York area who were participants in a summer institute sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. These innovative laboratory activities were designed to be used in existing secondary school biology courses by students of different ages and ability levels. Student performance in the four general process categories of planning, performing, reasoning, and communicating was broken down into twenty specific, individual science process skills deemed important to science education. Nine teacher developers used these twelve activities, entirely and/or partially with their high school biology students during the 1995-1996 school year. Two types of assessment instruments were developed and field-tested for the purpose of evaluating student self evaluation and performance of the twenty individual science process skills. The first was an inventory that asked for the students' self-evaluation of their abilities to perform each of the twenty process skills based on the current year's laboratory experiences. The second was a set of three performance tasks which assessed the twenty skills and were to be completed by the students in a laboratory setting under supervision of their classroom teacher and the researcher. During May and early June, 1996, the student self-evaluation inventory and the three performance tasks were administered to 94 students of teachers in 6 schools who developed and used the activities (HH95, experimental group) and to 126 students of teachers in 9 schools that did not use the activities (HH96, control group). All

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. Objective: The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. Conclusion: All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents. PMID:26015668

  8. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  9. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of W–2Ti and W–1TiC processed by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Tejado, E. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S. I. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (C.S.I.C), Av. Gregorio del Amo, 8, E2840 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S. I. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    W–2Ti and W–1TiC alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The composition and microstructural characteristics of these alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the consolidated alloys was characterized by microhardness measurements and three point bending tests. The mechanical characteristics of the W–2Ti alloy appear to be related to solution hardening. In W–1TiC, the residual porosity should be responsible for the poor behavior observed in comparison with W–2Ti.

  10. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...... the design and analysis of a wide range of homogeneous formulated products: tailor-made blends, single phase liquid formulations and emulsion-based products. The decision making process is supported by dedicated property models and structured databases, specifically developed for each design problem scenario...... employs a template approach, where each template follows the same common steps in the workflow for design of formulated products, but has the option to employ different product specific property models, data and calculation routines, when necessary. With the new additions, the software is able to support...

  11. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew; Wolny, Jennifer; Truby, Earnest; Heil, Cynthia; Kovach, Charles

    2011-03-01

    In 2002, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection began discharging phosphate-processing effluent into Bishop Harbor, an estuary within Tampa Bay. Because of concerns that the effluent would serve as a nutrient source for blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a field monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo, were observed in bloom concentrations adjacent to the effluent discharge site. Blooms of diatoms were widespread throughout Bishop Harbor. K. brevis was observed with cell concentrations decreasing with increasing proximity to the effluent discharge site. Bioassays using effluent as a nutrient source for K. brevis resulted in decreased cell yields, increased growth rates, and increased time to log-phase growth. The responses of HAB species within Bishop Harbor and of K. brevis to effluent in bioassays suggested that HAB species differ in their response to phosphate-processing effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-10-01

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm3 in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  14. Technology roadmap for development of SiC sensors at plasma processes laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amorim Fraga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the need to consolidate the research and development (R&D activities in microelectronics fields in a strategic manner, the Plasma Processes Laboratory of the Technological Institute of Aeronautics (LPP-ITA has established a technology roadmap to serve as a guide for activities related to development of sensors based on silicon carbide (SiC thin films. These sensors have also potential interest to the aerospace field due to their ability to operate in harsh environment such as high temperatures and intense radiation. In the present paper, this roadmap is described and presented in four main sections: i introduction, ii what we have already done in the past, iii what we are doing in this moment, and iv our targets up to 2015. The critical technological issues were evaluated for different categories: SiC deposition techniques, SiC processing techniques for sensors fabrication and sensors characterization. This roadmap also presents a shared vision of how R&D activities in microelectronics should develop over the next five years in our laboratory.

  15. Virtual laboratory for the study of transport processes in surface waterflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Egüen, M.; Contreras, E.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The equations involved in the study of transport processes depend on the spatial and temporal scale of the study and according to the required level of detail can become very difficult to solve analytically. Besides, experimentation of processes with any transport phenomena involved is complex due to their natural or forced occurrence in the environment (eg. Rainfall-runoff, sediment yield, controlled and uncontrolled pollutant loadings, etc.) and the great diversity of substances and components with an specific chemical behavior. However, due to the numerous fields of application of transport phenomena (basic and applied research, hydrology and associated fluxes, sediment transport, pollutant loadings to water flows, industrial processes, soil and water quality, atmospheric emissions, legislation, etc.), realistic studies of transport processes are required. In this context, case study application, an active methodology according to the structural implications of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with the aid of computer tools constitute an interactive, instantaneous and flexible method with a new interplay between students and lecturers. Case studies allow the lecturer to design significant activities that generate knowledge in the students and motivates them to look for information, discuss, and be autonomous. This work presents the development of a graphical interface for the solution of different case studies for the acquisition of capacities and abilities in the autonomous apprenticeship of courses related to transport processes in Environmental Hydraulics. The interactive tool helps to develop and improve abilities in mixing and transport in surface water related courses. Thus, students clarify theoretical concepts and visualize processes with negative effects for the environment and that therefore, can only be reproduced in the laboratory or in the field under very controlled conditions and commonly with tracers instead of the real substances. The

  16. Application of dissolved air flotation process for industrial sludge thickening: A laboratory-scale study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Atamaleki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Increasing population density in cities has led to an increase in industrial and municipal wastewater sludge generation volume. Dissolved air flotation (DAF can widely be used for water and wastewater treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate some DAF design parameters on biological sludge thickening which generated from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: This experimental research had been carried out as a laboratory-scale study on DAF process to thickening of the biological sludge. The required amount of sludge was taken once from the Amikabir industrial town wastewater treatment plant in Kashan, Iran. After determination of optimal recycling rate, pH, and coagulant dose, effects of pressure (3, 5, and 7 atm, flotation time (5 and 10 min, and coagulant addition were evaluated on DAF process efficiency. Results: According to this investigation results, the optimal pH and dose of coagulant were obtained 7.5 and 200 mg/L, respectively. Maximum process efficiency for the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDSs, total solids (TSs, and turbidity parameters was 61.01%, 84.02%, and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that in contrast to time, coagulant addition and pressure have significant effect on DAF process. Conclusion: DAF process had suitable thickening efficiency to removal of TDS, TS, and turbidity on biological activated sludge.

  17. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  18. Synthesis and decay process of superheavy nuclei with Z=119-122 via hot-fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ansari, A. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, College of Science, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this research article attempts have been made to calculate the superheavy-nuclei synthesis characteristics including, the potential energy parameters, fusion probability, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections as well as, decay properties of compound nucleus and the residue nuclei formation probability for elements with Z=119-122 by using the hot-fusion reactions. It is concluded that, although a selection of double magic projectiles such as {sup 48}Ca with high binding energy, simplifies the calculations significantly due to spherical symmetric shape of the projectile, resulting in high evaporation residue cross section, unfortunately, nuclei with Z > 98 do not exist in quantities sufficient for constructing targets for the hot-fusion reactions. Therefore, practically our selection is fusion reactions with titanium projectile because the mass production of target nuclei for experimental purposes is more feasible. Based upon our findings, it is necessary, for new superheavy-nuclei production with Z > 119, to use neutron-rich projectiles and target nuclei. Finally, the maximal evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z=119-122 have been calculated and compared with the previously founded ones in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Recycling of Zn-containing Fe-bearing steelmaking waste by the reducing smelting process in pig iron. I. Laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendera Ján

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the laboratory test treatment of the zinc containing steelwork dusts in a hot liquid pig iron are described. These results show that it is necessary to use an external reductant. The zinc content of the dust emission is ca. 20 %. The charge of the steel-works dusts diminished the Si and Mn content of pig iron.

  20. Stellar Laboratories: New GeV and Ge VI Oscillator Strengths and their Validation in the Hot White Dwarf RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths in order to reproduce the observed spectrum. Methods. We newly calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Ge IV-VI spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N FUV (FUSE) and UV (ORFEUS/BEFS, IUE) observations of RE 0503-289. Results. In the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identify four Ge IV, 37 Ge V, and seven Ge VI lines. Most of these lines are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce almost all Ge IV, GeV, and Ge VI lines in the observed spectrum of RE 0503-289 (T(sub eff) = 70 kK, log g = 7.5) at log Ge = -3.8 +/- 0.3 (mass fraction, about 650 times solar). The Ge IV/V/VI ionization equilibrium, that is a very sensitive T(sub eff) indicator, is reproduced well. Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a

  1. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  2. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  3. Effect of nose radius on forces, and process parameters in hot machining of Inconel 718 using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Parida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the variation of nose radius on forces, cutting temperature, stress, has been studied using finite element modeling in hot turning operation of Inconel 718. Three values of nose radius were taken (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mm. Cutting force, thrust force, stress, and cutting temperature have been predicted using commercial DEFORM™ software at different cutting tool nose radius in both room and heated conditions. With the increase of tool nose radius in both room and elevated machining conditions the cutting force and thrust force increased. The cutting temperature, chip thickness and chip tool contact length also have been studied. In order to validate the numerical results an experimental analysis has been performed and good agreement between them has been observed

  4. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  5. Waste processing cost recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory--analysis and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is implementing full cost recovery for waste processing in fiscal year 2009 (FY2009), after a transition year in FY2008. Waste processing cost recovery has been implemented in various forms across the nuclear weapons complex and in corporate America. The fundamental reasoning of sending accurate price signals to waste generators is economically sound, and leads to waste minimization and reduced waste expense over time. However, Los Alamos faces significant implementation challenges because of its status as a government-owned, contractor-operated national scientific institution with a diverse suite of experimental and environmental cleanup activities, and the fact that this represents a fundamental change in how waste processing is viewed by the institution. This paper describes the issues involved during the transition to cost recovery and the ultimate selection of the business model. Of the six alternative cost recovery models evaluated, the business model chosen to be implemented in FY2009 is Recharge Plus Generators Pay Distributed Direct. Under this model, all generators who produce waste must pay a distributed direct share associated with their specific waste type to use a waste processing capability. This cost share is calculated using the distributed direct method on the fixed cost only, i.e., the fixed cost share is based on each program's forecast proportion of the total Los Alamos volume forecast of each waste type. (Fixed activities are those required to establish the waste processing capability, i.e., to make the process ready, permitted, certified, and prepared to handle the first unit ofwaste. Therefore, the fixed cost ends at the point just before waste begins 'to be processed. The activities to actually process the waste are considered variable.) The volume of waste actually sent for processing is charged a unit cost based solely on the variable cost of disposing of that waste. The total cost recovered each

  6. Development of the Laboratory Anaerobic Bioreactor for Wet and Dry Digestion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusín Jiří

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of the laboratory development of an anaerobic bioreactor designed for the physical modelling of (semicontinuous dry or wet anaerobic digestion processes. A horizontal cylindrical tank reactor of 0.4 m3 total capacity has been developed. The reactor allows the continuous stirring of a liquid batch or the intermittent stirring of a solid batch. The bioreactor has been used as a lab-scale digestor in the research project dealing with high-solids (dry anaerobic co-digestion organic fraction of mixed municipal solid waste. The first experiment was performed on the mixture of MSW with corn silage (1:1 with the weight of 300 kg.

  7. Laboratory modelling of the transfer processes between the ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim

    The processes of momentum and heat transfer between ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layer were investigated within laboratory modeling for a wide range of wind speed and surface wave including hurricane conditions. Experiments were carried out on the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of IAP RAS. A special net located under the surface at different depths allows to vary parameters of surface waves independently on wind parameters. Theory of self-similarity of air flow parameters in the flume was used to calculate values aerodynamic and heat transfer coefficients from the measured velocity and temperature profiles by Pito and hotfilm gauges respectively. Simultaneous measurements of surface elevation with system wire allow to obtain spectra and integral parameters of waves. It was demonstrated that in contrast to the drag coefficient, heat transfer coefficient is virtually independent of wind speed and wave parameters to the moment of the beginning of spray generation and then increases rapidly.

  8. Laboratory modelling of the transfer processes between the ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Daniil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of momentum and heat transfer between ocean and atmosphere in the boundary layer were investigated within laboratory modeling for a wide range of wind speed and surface wave including hurricane conditions. Experiments were carried out on the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of IAP RAS. A special net located under the surface at different depths allows to vary parameters of surface waves independently on wind parameters. Theory of self-similarity of air flow parameters in the flume was used to calculate values aerodynamic and heat transfer coefficients from the measured velocity and temperature profiles by Pito and hotfilm gauges respectively. Simultaneous measurements of surface elevation with system wire allow to obtain spectra and integral parameters of waves. It was demonstrated that in contrast to the drag coefficient, heat transfer coefficient is virtually independent of wind speed and wave parameters to the moment of the beginning of spray generation and then increases rapidly.

  9. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  10. Image-Processing-Based Study of the Interfacial Behavior of the Countercurrent Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Hot Leg of a PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial behavior during countercurrent two-phase flow of air-water and steam-water in a model of a PWR hot leg was studied quantitatively using digital image processing of a subsequent recorded video images of the experimental series obtained from the TOPFLOW facility, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR, Dresden, Germany. The developed image processing technique provides the transient data of water level inside the hot leg channel up to flooding condition. In this technique, the filters such as median and Gaussian were used to eliminate the drops and the bubbles from the interface and the wall of the test section. A Statistical treatment (average, standard deviation, and probability distribution function (PDF of the obtained water level data was carried out also to identify the flow behaviors. The obtained data are characterized by a high resolution in space and time, which makes them suitable for the development and validation of CFD-grade closure models, for example, for two-fluid model. This information is essential also for the development of mechanistic modeling on the relating phenomenon. It was clarified that the local water level at the crest of the hydraulic jump is strongly affected by the liquid properties.

  11. V-SIPAL - A VIRTUAL LABORATORY FOR SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Buddhiraju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a virtual laboratory for the Satellite Image Processing and Analysis (v-SIPAL being developed at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay is described. v-SIPAL comprises a set of experiments that are normally carried out by students learning digital processing and analysis of satellite images using commercial software. Currently, the experiments that are available on the server include Image Viewer, Image Contrast Enhancement, Image Smoothing, Edge Enhancement, Principal Component Transform, Texture Analysis by Co-occurrence Matrix method, Image Indices, Color Coordinate Transforms, Fourier Analysis, Mathematical Morphology, Unsupervised Image Classification, Supervised Image Classification and Accuracy Assessment. The virtual laboratory includes a theory module for each option of every experiment, a description of the procedure to perform each experiment, the menu to choose and perform the experiment, a module on interpretation of results when performed with a given image and pre-specified options, bibliography, links to useful internet resources and user-feedback. The user can upload his/her own images for performing the experiments and can also reuse outputs of one experiment in another experiment where applicable. Some of the other experiments currently under development include georeferencing of images, data fusion, feature evaluation by divergence andJ-M distance, image compression, wavelet image analysis and change detection. Additions to the theory module include self-assessment quizzes, audio-video clips on selected concepts, and a discussion of elements of visual image interpretation. V-SIPAL is at the satge of internal evaluation within IIT Bombay and will soon be open to selected educational institutions in India for evaluation.

  12. The importance of laboratory water quality for studying initial bacterial adhesion during NF filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semião, A J C; Habimana, O; Cao, H; Heffernan, R; Safari, A; Casey, E

    2013-05-15

    Biofouling of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for water treatment has been the subject of increased research effort in recent years. A prerequisite for undertaking fundamental experimental investigation on NF and RO processes is a procedure called compaction. This involves an initial phase of clean water permeation at high pressures until a stable permeate flux is reached. However water quality used during the compaction process may vary from one laboratory to another. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of laboratory water quality during compaction of NF membranes. A second objective was to investigate if the water quality used during compaction influences initial bacterial adhesion. Experiments were undertaken with NF 270 membranes at 15 bar for permeate volumes of 0.5 L, 2 L, and 5 L using MilliQ, deionized or tap water. Membrane autopsies were performed at each permeation point for membrane surface characterisation by contact angle measurements, profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The biological content of compacted membranes was assessed by direct epi-fluorescence observation following nucleic acid staining. The compacted membranes were also employed as substrata for monitoring the initial adhesion of Ps. fluorescens under dynamic flow conditions for 30 min at 5 min intervals. Compared to MilliQ water, membrane compaction using deionized and tap water led to decreases in permeate flux, increase in surface hydrophobicity and led to significant build-up of a homogeneous fouling layer composed of both living and dead organisms (>10(6) cells cm(-2)). Subsequent measurements of bacterial adhesion resulted in cell loadings of 0.2 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) cells cm(-2) and 2.6 × 10(5) cells cm(-2) for deionized, tap water and MilliQ water, respectively. These differences in initial cell adhesion rates demonstrate that choice of laboratory water can significantly impact the results of bacterial adhesion on NF membranes

  13. Stellar Laboratories . [VI. New Mo IV - VII Oscillator Strengths and the Molybdenum Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, T.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Demleitner, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503289 and, to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, reliable Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths are used. Methods: We newly calculated Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions indetail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Mo lines exhibited in high-resolution and high SN UV observations of RE 0503289.Results. We identified 12 Mo v and nine Mo vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2 3.0 104(mass fraction, 22 500 56 400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As v and Sn iv resonance lines,we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.51.3 105, about 300 1200 times solar) and tin (1.33.2 104, about 14 300 35 200 times solar). For G191B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 107, 100 times solar) and, in addition, for Kr (1.1106, 10 times solar) and Xe (1.7107, 10 times solar). The arsenic abundance was determined (2.35.9 107, about 21 53 times solar). A new, registered German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service, TOSS, has been constructed to provide weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities.Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Mo v-vi line profiles in the UV spectrum of the white dwarf RE 0503289 were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed the photospheric Mo abundance in a white dwarf to be determined.

  14. Dual stable isotopes of CH 4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute both significant annual CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit methane in addition to other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) but the ultimate source of this methane flux has not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4(g) sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park to show that the predominant flux of CH4(g) is abiotic. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4(g) emitted from hot springs (-26.7 (±2.4) and -236.9 (±12.0) ‰, respectively) are not consistent with biotic (microbial or thermogenic) methane sources, but are within previously reported ranges for abiotic methane production. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C-dissolved inorganic C (DIC) also suggests that CO2 is a parent C source for the observed CH4(g). Moreover, CH4-CO2 isotopic geothermometry was used to estimate CH4(g) formation temperatures ranging from ~ 250 - 350°C, which is just below the temperature estimated for the hydrothermal reservoir and consistent with the hypothesis that subsurface, rock-water interactions are responsible for large methane fluxes from this volcanic system. An understanding of conditions leading to the abiotic production of methane and associated isotopic signatures are central to understanding the evolutionary history of deep carbon sources on Earth.

  15. Biomarkers and taphonomic processes in fresh and fossil biosignatures from Hot Spring silica deposits in El Tatio Chile, as a Mars Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, D.; Sánchez-García, L.; Parro, V.; Cady, S. L.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Biomarkers characterization and taphonomic process of recent and fossil biosignatures in extreme environments with analogies to Mars is essential to understanding how life could develop and survive in this conditions. Siliceous sinter deposits on Mars where similar to those found in the hydrothermal hot springs and geysers from El Tatio, Chile. Organic preservation have been shown in this study. Many different labile functional groups (i.e., carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) were found in both "age" samples. A shift in congener pattern for the different lipids families were found and discuss. This results give insight in taphonomic processes actin in this extreme environment, which could be used as a baseline in Mars exploration.

  16. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-11-01

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate systems modeling on massively parallel processing computers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, W.F.; Mirin, A.A.; Bolstad, J.H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    A comprehensive climate system model is under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The basis for this model is a consistent coupling of multiple complex subsystem models, each describing a major component of the Earth`s climate. Among these are general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean, a dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice model, and models of the chemical processes occurring in the air, sea water, and near-surface land. The computational resources necessary to carry out simulations at adequate spatial resolutions for durations of climatic time scales exceed those currently available. Distributed memory massively parallel processing (MPP) computers promise to affordably scale to the computational rates required by directing large numbers of relatively inexpensive processors onto a single problem. We have developed a suite of routines designed to exploit current generation MPP architectures via domain and functional decomposition strategies. These message passing techniques have been implemented in each of the component models and in their coupling interfaces. Production runs of the atmospheric and oceanic components performed on the National Environmental Supercomputing Center (NESC) Cray T3D are described.

  18. Resource conservation and pollution prevention through process optimization at Sandia National Laboratories` Steam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, C.; Chavez, C.

    1997-10-01

    The Steam Plant at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) supplies on average 680,000 kg/day (1.5 x 10{sup 6} lb/day) of saturated steam for space heating and laboratory processes for SNL/NM, Technical Area 1, the eastern portion of Kirtland Air Force Base, the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Office, and the KAFB Coronado Club. The primary fuel is natural gas (740 mscf/yr); the secondary fuel in the event of a natural gas interruption is diesel fuel. Two storage tanks provide a diesel fuel reserve of 1.5 million gallons. The Steam Plant has been in continuous operation since 1949, and some of the boilers are past their design life. Each of the boilers is controlled through a central Digital Control System (DCS). The DCS design is based on the stoichiometric equation, where the O{sub 2} stack concentration and load rate are set points and the combustion air and gas flow are adjusted based on the equation. The DCS was installed and programmed in 1992, but has not been updated since. Long range studies are being conducted to determine the fate of the steam plant, but implementation of any of these options is at least 5 years in the future. Because it is a major source of air emissions, water and chemical use, and waste water at SNL/NM, the steam plant pursued immediate solutions to reduce costs and pollutant releases, while still providing uninterrupted, quality service to its customers. This paper will summarize the ongoing efforts to conserve water, and reduce air and wastewater discharges at the SNL/NM Steam Plant. These improvements were identified through a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment, an Emissions Reduction Study.

  19. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  20. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  1. Syndromic surveillance using veterinary laboratory data: data pre-processing and algorithm performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Revie, Crawford W; Sanchez, Javier

    2013-06-06

    Diagnostic test orders to an animal laboratory were explored as a data source for monitoring trends in the incidence of clinical syndromes in cattle. Four years of real data and over 200 simulated outbreak signals were used to compare pre-processing methods that could remove temporal effects in the data, as well as temporal aberration detection algorithms that provided high sensitivity and specificity. Weekly differencing demonstrated solid performance in removing day-of-week effects, even in series with low daily counts. For aberration detection, the results indicated that no single algorithm showed performance superior to all others across the range of outbreak scenarios simulated. Exponentially weighted moving average charts and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing demonstrated complementary performance, with the latter offering an automated method to adjust to changes in the time series that will likely occur in the future. Shewhart charts provided lower sensitivity but earlier detection in some scenarios. Cumulative sum charts did not appear to add value to the system; however, the poor performance of this algorithm was attributed to characteristics of the data monitored. These findings indicate that automated monitoring aimed at early detection of temporal aberrations will likely be most effective when a range of algorithms are implemented in parallel.

  2. Effect of Process Variables on the Grain Size and Crystallographic Texture of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboli, Shirin; McDermid, Joseph R.

    2014-08-01

    A galvanizing simulator was used to determine the effect of galvanizing bath antimony (Sb) content, substrate surface roughness, and cooling rate on the microstructural development of metallic zinc coatings. Substrate surface roughness was varied through the use of relatively rough hot-rolled and relatively smooth bright-rolled steels, cooling rates were varied from 0.1 to 10 K/s, and bulk bath Sb levels were varied from 0 to 0.1 wt pct. In general, it was found that increasing bath Sb content resulted in coatings with a larger grain size and strongly promoted the development of coatings with the close-packed {0002} basal plane parallel to the substrate surface. Increasing substrate surface roughness tended to decrease the coating grain size and promoted a more random coating crystallographic texture, except in the case of the highest Sb content bath (0.1 wt pct Sb), where substrate roughness had no significant effect on grain size except at higher cooling rates (10 K/s). Increased cooling rates tended to decrease the coating grain size and promote the {0002} basal orientation. Calculations showed that increasing the bath Sb content from 0 to 0.1 wt pct Sb increased the dendrite tip growth velocity from 0.06 to 0.11 cm/s by decreasing the solid-liquid interface surface energy from 0.77 to 0.45 J/m2. Increased dendrite tip velocity only partially explains the formation of larger zinc grains at higher Sb levels. It was also found that the classic nucleation theory cannot completely explain the present experimental observations, particularly the effect of increasing the bath Sb, where the classical theory predicts increased nucleation and a finer grain size. In this case, the "poisoning" theory of nucleation sites by segregated Sb may provide a partial explanation. However, any analysis is greatly hampered by the lack of fundamental thermodynamic information such as partition coefficients and surface energies and by a lack of fundamental structural studies. Overall

  3. Impact of lean six sigma process improvement methodology on cardiac catheterization laboratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Gallo, Justin J; Parashar, Akhil; Agarwal, Kanika K; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh N; Spooner, Robin; Murat Tuzcu, Emin; Kapadia, Samir R

    2016-03-01

    Operational inefficiencies are ubiquitous in several healthcare processes. To improve the operational efficiency of our catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab), we implemented a lean six sigma process improvement initiative, starting in June 2010. We aimed to study the impact of lean six sigma implementation on improving the efficiency and the patient throughput in our Cath Lab. All elective and urgent cardiac catheterization procedures including diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, structural interventions and peripheral interventions performed between June 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Performance metrics utilized for analysis included turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start and manual sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. After implementation of lean six sigma in the Cath Lab, we observed a significant improvement in turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. The percentage of cases with optimal turn-time increased from 43.6% in 2009 to 56.6% in 2012 (p-trendsix sigma, on improving and sustaining efficiency of our Cath Lab operation. After the successful implementation of this continuous quality improvement initiative, there was a significant improvement in the selected performance metrics namely turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Limonadi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), landed on Mars on August 5. The rover and a scientific payload are designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)). It is expected that the SA/SPaH system will have produced a scooped system and possibility a drilled sample in the first 90 sols of the mission. Results from these activities and the ongoing testing program will be presented.

  5. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  6. Estabilidade dos carotenoides,antocianinas e vitamina C presentes no suco tropical de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. adoçado envasado pelos processos Hot-Fill e asséptico Stability of carotenoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C presents in acerola sweetened tropical juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claisa Andréa Silva de Freitas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As frutas tropicais são muito aceitas pelos consumidores, e são importantes fontes de componentes antioxidantes. A acerola, conhecida por conter grandes quantidades de vitamina C, é também rica em antocianinas e carotenóides. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade dos carotenóides totais, antocianinas totais e vitamina C do suco tropical de acerola adoçado, elaborado pelos processos Hot Fill (garrafas de vidro e asséptico (embalagens cartonadas, durante 350 dias de armazenamento em condições similares às de comercialização (28ºC ± 2ºC. Ao final do experimento observou-se que não houve perdas de antocianinas totais para o processo Hot Fill, no entanto, para o processo asséptico constatou-se uma redução de 86,89% dos teores iniciais. Os valores de carotenóides totais permaneceram inalterados nas amostras do processo asséptico, enquanto nas do Hot Fill houve uma redução de 12,5%. Constatou-se redução nos teores de vitamina C da ordem de 23,61% para o processo Hot Fill e de 35,95% para o processo asséptico.Tropical fruits are widely accepted by consumers, and important sources of antioxidant compounds. Acerola, known to have high vitamin C levels, is also rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the stability of the total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid of the acerola sweetened tropical juice produced by the Hot Fill (glass bottles and aseptic (packings carton process during 350 days of storage in similar conditions of trade (28ºC ± 2ºC. It was observed that there were not losses of total anthocyanins for the process Hot Fill, however for the aseptic process a reduction of 86.89% of the initial values was observed. The values of total corotenoids stayed unaffected in the samples of the aseptic process, while in the one of the Hot Fill there was a reduction of 12.5%. A reduction in the values of ascorbic acid of 23.61% was observed for the Hot

  7. A Process for Developing Introductory Science Laboratory Learning Goals to Enhance Student Learning and Instructional Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.; Schafer, Laurel L.; Nussbaum, Sophia; Stewart, Jaclyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Learning goal (LG) identification can greatly inform curriculum, teaching, and evaluation practices. The complex laboratory course setting, however, presents unique obstacles in developing appropriate LGs. For example, in addition to the large quantity and variety of content supported in the general chemistry laboratory program, the interests of…

  8. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in disease burden has continued to weigh upon health systems in Africa. The role of the laboratory has become increasingly critical in the improvement of health for diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. In response, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO and its partners created the WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory (Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA program.SLIPTA implementation process: WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued.Preliminary results: By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57% WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3, French (12 and English (83 languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77. Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars. The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit and 10 (Corrective Action, which both had mean scores below 50%.Conclusion: The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process.

  9. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Moyo, Sikhulile; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Kasolo, Francis; Turgeon, David; Abrol, Angelii P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in disease burden has continued to weigh upon health systems in Africa. The role of the laboratory has become increasingly critical in the improvement of health for diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. In response, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) and its partners created the WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) program. SLIPTA implementation process WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued. Preliminary results By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57%) WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3), French (12) and English (83) languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77). Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars) and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars). The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit) and 10 (Corrective Action), which both had mean scores below 50%. Conclusion The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process. PMID:28879103

  10. Development and implementation of the Caribbean Laboratory Quality Management Systems Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Edghill, Lisa; Wallace-Sankarsingh, Sacha; Albalak, Rachel; Cognat, Sebastien; Nkengasong, John; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background Implementing quality management systems and accrediting laboratories in the Caribbean has been a challenge. Objectives We report the development of a stepwise process for quality systems improvement in the Caribbean Region. Methods The Caribbean Laboratory Stakeholders met under a joint Pan American Health Organization/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative and developed a user-friendly framework called ‘Laboratory Quality Management System – Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation’ to support countries in strengthening laboratory services through a stepwise approach toward fulfilling the ISO 15189: 2012 requirements. Results This approach consists of a three-tiered framework. Tier 1 represents the minimum requirements corresponding to the mandatory criteria for obtaining a licence from the Ministry of Health of the participating country. The next two tiers are quality improvement milestones that are achieved through the implementation of specific quality management system requirements. Laboratories that meet the requirements of the three tiers will be encouraged to apply for accreditation. The Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality hosts the LQMS-SIP Secretariat and will work with countries, including the Ministry of Health and stakeholders, including laboratory staff, to coordinate and implement LQMS-SIP activities. The Caribbean Public Health Agency will coordinate and advocate for the LQMS-SIP implementation. Conclusion This article presents the Caribbean LQMS-SIP framework and describes how it will be implemented among various countries in the region to achieve quality improvement. PMID:28879149

  11. Development and implementation of the Caribbean Laboratory Quality Management Systems Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP Towards Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Alemnji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementing quality management systems and accrediting laboratories in the Caribbean has been a challenge.Objectives: We report the development of a stepwise process for quality systems improvement in the Caribbean Region.Methods: The Caribbean Laboratory Stakeholders met under a joint Pan American Health Organization/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative and developed a user-friendly framework called ‘Laboratory Quality Management System – Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP Towards Accreditation’ to support countries in strengthening laboratory services through a stepwise approach toward fulfilling the ISO 15189: 2012 requirements.Results: This approach consists of a three-tiered framework. Tier 1 represents the minimum requirements corresponding to the mandatory criteria for obtaining a licence from the Ministry of Health of the participating country. The next two tiers are quality improvement milestones that are achieved through the implementation of specific quality management system requirements. Laboratories that meet the requirements of the three tiers will be encouraged to apply for accreditation. The Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality hosts the LQMS-SIP Secretariat and will work with countries, including the Ministry of Health and stakeholders, including laboratory staff, to coordinate and implement LQMS-SIP activities. The Caribbean Public Health Agency will coordinate and advocate for the LQMS-SIP implementation.Conclusion: This article presents the Caribbean LQMS-SIP framework and describes how it will be implemented among various countries in the region to achieve quality improvement.

  12. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  13. Experience with hot catchpots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-02-02

    The first part of this report was actually a letter regarding the question, ''could the hot circulating pump be omitted when processing pitch at 700 atm.'' It had been stated that the hot circulation pump could be omitted if the quantity of cold letdown was correspondingly increased. The latest experiences with the catchpot at Poelitz showed the following. When running pitch, tar, or petroleum in the liquid-phase stalls, frequent trouble with the hot catchpot was encountered due to the coking. This coking was caused by irregular letdown yield, which could not be avoided due to small temperature fluctuations in the stall. This caused interruption of the uniform flow in the hot catchpot and the deposition of the solids contained in the letdown, largely catalyst solids, due to the asphalt content. Coking of the product was initiated by this concentration of catalyst solids. A perforated double jacket was inserted in the conical part of the catchpot through which about 3000 m/sup 3/ per hour of cold gas was blown in continuously. By this agitation and cooling in the lowest part of the catchpot, catalyst deposits were prevented from forming and the product received a continuous added supply of hydrogen. Another letter was given discussing the same question and an alternate solution. This second letter described Welheim's design for the hot catchpot. It featured introduction of 5000 to 6000 m/sup 3//hr of cold circulating gas into the lower part of the catchpot, and withdrawal of letdown from a point above the gas inlet. The advantages were continued agitation and cooling of the sludge and constant retention of some cold sludge in the catchpot (which evened out throughput and content fluctuations)

  14. Laboratory-Scale Experiments of the Methane Hydrate Dissociation Process in a Porous Media and Numerical Study for the Estimation of Permeability in Methane Hydrate Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Sakamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the dissociation of methane hydrate (MH by hot-water injection and depressurization was carried out at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST. These experiments helped us understand some important aspects of MH behavior such as how temperature, pressure, and permeability change during dissociation and gas production. In order to understand the experimental results, a model of MH dissociation in a porous media was designed and implemented in a numerical simulator. In the model, we treated the MH phase as a two-component system by representing the pore space occupied by MH as a separate component. Absolute permeability and relative permeability were formulated as a function of MH saturation, porosity, and sand grain diameter and introduced into the numerical model. Using the developed numerical simulator, we attempted history matching of laboratory-scale experiments of the MH dissociation process. It was found that numerical simulator was able to reproduce temperature change, permeability characteristics, and gas production behavior associated with both MH formation and dissociation.

  15. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo

    2016-05-01

    SLIPTA implementation process: WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued. Preliminary results: By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57% WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3, French (12 and English (83 languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77. Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars. The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit and 10 (Corrective Action, which both had mean scores below 50%. Conclusion: The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process.

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius...

  17. Estimation of reactive surface area using a combined method of laboratory analyses and digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    Fluid-rock interactions play an important role in the engineering processes such as chemical stimulation of enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. However, these interactions highly depend on the accessible reactive surface area of the minerals that are generally poorly constrained for natural geologic samples. In particular, quantifying surface area of each reacting mineral within whole rock samples is challenging due to the heterogeneous distribution of minerals and pore space. In this study, detailed laboratory analyses were performed on sandstone samples from deep geothermal sites in Lithuania. We measure specific surface area of whole rock samples using a gas adsorption method (so-called B.E.T.) with N2 at a temperature of 77.3K. We also quantify their porosity and pore size distribution by a Helium gas pycnometer and a Hg porosimetry, respectively. Rock compositions are determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and quantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which are later geometrically mapped on images of two-dimensional SEM- Backscattered electrons (BSE) with a resolution of 1.2 μm and three-dimensional micro-CT with a resolution of 10.3 μm to produce a digital mineral map for further constraining the accessibility of reactive minerals. Moreover, we attempt to link the whole rock porosity, pore size distribution, and B.E.T. specific surface area with the digital mineral maps. We anticipate these necessary analyses to provide in-depth understanding of fluid sample chemistry from later hydrothermal reactive flow-through experiments on whole rock samples at elevated pressure and temperature.

  18. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  19. Hot bottom burning and s-process nucleosynthesis in massive AGB stars at the beginning of the thermally-pulsing phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Yagüe, A.; Uttenthaler, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.; Ventura, P.; Lambert, D. L.

    2013-07-01

    We report the first spectroscopic identification of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at the beginning of the thermal pulse (TP) phase. These stars are the most Li-rich massive AGBs found to date, super Li-rich AGBs with log ɛ (Li) ~ 3-4. The high Li overabundances are accompanied by weak or no s-process element (i.e. Rb and Zr) enhancements. A comparison of our observations with the most recent hot bottom burning (HBB) and s-process nucleosynthesis models confirms that HBB is strongly activated during the first TPs but the 22Ne neutron source needs many more TP and third dredge-up episodes to produce enough Rb at the stellar surface. We also show that the short-lived element Tc, usually used as an indicator of AGB genuineness, is not detected in massive AGBs, which is in agreement with the theoretical predictions when the 22Ne neutron source dominates the s-process nucleosynthesis. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. The Effect of Various Hot Environments on Physiological Responses and Information Processing Performance Following Firefighting Activities in a Smoke-Diving Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Hemmatjo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fire service workers often implement multiple duties in the emergency conditions, with such duties being mostly conducted in various ambient temperatures. Methods: The aim of the current study was to assess the firefighters' physiological responses, information processing, and working memory prior to and following simulated firefighting activities in three different hot environments. Seventeen healthy male firefighters performed simulated firefighting tasks in three separate conditions, namely (1 low heat (LH; 29–31°C, 55–60% relative humidity, (2 moderate heat (MH; 32–34°C, 55–60% relative humidity, and (3 severe heat (SH; 35–37°C, 55–60% relative humidity. It took about 45–50 minutes for each firefighter to finish all defined firefighting activities and the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT. Results: At the end of all the three experimental conditions, heart rate (HR and tympanic temperature (TT increased, while PASAT scores as a measure of information processing performance decreased relative to baseline. HR and TT were significantly higher at the end of the experiment in the SH (159.41±4.25 beats/min; 38.22±0.10°C compared with the MH (156.59±3.77 beats/min; 38.20±0.10°C and LH (154.24±4.67 beats/min; 38.17±0.10°C conditions (p0.05. Nonetheless, there was a measurable difference in PASAT scores between LH and SH (p<0.05. Conclusion: These consequences demonstrate that ambient temperature is effective in raising the physiological responses following firefighting activities. It is therefore argued that further increase of ambient temperature can impact firefighters' information processing and working memory during firefighting activity. Keywords: firefighting, hot environment, information processing, physiological responses, working memory

  1. Tritium enrichment for process flow streams of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant having a hot-cold system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, H.; Schindewolf, U.

    1988-07-01

    During the nuclear fuel reprocessing tritium is partially transferred into the aqueous process streams. At normal pressure, the most promising enrichment method appears to be an inverse current exchanger system using electrolysis at the bottom of the inverse current column apparatus and recombination in an oxyhydrogen gas flame at the top of the column apparatus. A hydrophobic catalyst is used which is made of a pulverized mix of platinized activated carbon and PTFE.

  2. An investigation into the influence of drug-polymer interactions on the miscibility, processability and structure of polyvinylpyrrolidone-based hot melt extrusion formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siok-Yee; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2015-12-30

    While hot melt extrusion is now established within the pharmaceutical industry, the prediction of miscibility, processability and structural stability remains a pertinent issue, including the issue of whether molecular interaction is necessary for suitable performance. Here we integrate the use of theoretical and experimental drug-polymer interaction assessment with determination of processability and structure of dispersions in two polyvinylpyrrolidone-based polymers (PVP and PVP vinyl acetate, PVPVA). Caffeine and paracetamol were chosen as model drugs on the basis of their differing hydrogen bonding potential with PVP. Solubility parameter and interaction parameter calculations predicted a greater miscibility for paracetamol, while ATR-FTIR confirmed the hydrogen bonding propensity of the paracetamol with both polymers, with little interaction detected for caffeine. PVP was found to exhibit greater interaction and miscibility with paracetamol than did PVPVA. It was noted that lower processing temperatures (circa 40°C below the Tg of the polymer alone and Tm of the crystalline drug) and higher drug loadings with associated molecular dispersion up to 50% w/w were possible for the paracetamol dispersions, although molecular dispersion with the non-interactive caffeine was noted at loadings up to 20% w./w. A lower processing temperature was also noted for caffeine-loaded systems despite the absence of detectable interactions. The study has therefore indicated that theoretical and experimental detection of miscibility and drug-polymer interactions may lead to insights into product processing and extrudate structure, with direct molecular interaction representing a helpful but not essential aspect of drug-polymer combination prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Role of Processing Parameters in Producing Recycled Aluminum AA6061 Based Metal Matrix Composite (MMC-AlR) Prepared Using Hot Press Forging (HPF) Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Azlan; Lajis, Mohd Amri; Yusuf, Nur Kamilah

    2017-09-19

    Solid-state recycling, which involves the direct recycling of scrap metal into bulk material using severe plastic deformation, has emerged as a potential alternative to the conventional remelting and recycling techniques. Hot press forging has been identified as a sustainable direct recycling technique that has fewer steps and maintains excellent material performance. An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the hardness and density of a recycled aluminum-based metal matrix composite by varying operating temperature and holding time. A mixture of recycled aluminum, AA6061, and aluminum oxide were simultaneously heated to 430, 480, and 530 °C and forged for 60, 90, and 120 min. We found a positive increase in microhardness and density for all composites. The hardness increased approximately 33.85%, while density improved by about 15.25% whenever the temperature or the holding time were increased. Based on qualitative analysis, the composite endures substantial plastic deformation due to the presence of hardness properties due to the aluminum oxide embedded in the aluminum matrix. These increases were significantly affected by the operating temperature; the holding time also had a subordinate role in enhancing the metal matrix composite properties. Furthermore, in an effort to curb the shortage of primary resources, this study reviewed the promising performance of secondary resources produced by using recycled aluminum and aluminum oxide as the base matrix and reinforcement constituent, respectively. This study is an outline for machining practitioners and the manufacturing industry to help increase industry sustainability with the aim of preserving the Earth for our community in the future.

  4. Effects of Hot-Spot Geometry on Backscattering and Down-Scattering Neutron Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Z. L.; Mannion, O. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, K. S.; Radha, P. B.

    2017-10-01

    The measured neutron spectrum produced by a fusion experiment plays a key role in inferring observable quantities. One important observable is the areal density of an implosion, which is inferred by measuring the scattering of neutrons. This project seeks to use particle-transport simulations to model the effects of hot-spot geometry on backscattering and down-scattering neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Implosions similar to those conducted at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics are modeled by neutron transport through a DT plasma and a DT ice shell using the particle transport codes MCNP and IRIS. Effects of hot-spot geometry are obtained by ``detecting'' scattered neutrons along different lines of sight. This process is repeated for various hot-spot geometries representing known shape distortions between the hot spot and the shell. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. Integrated hot-melt extrusion - injection molding continuous tablet manufacturing platform: Effects of critical process parameters and formulation attributes on product robustness and dimensional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Hogan, Rachael C; Brancazio, David; Puri, Vibha; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-05

    This study provides a framework for robust tablet development using an integrated hot-melt extrusion-injection molding (IM) continuous manufacturing platform. Griseofulvin, maltodextrin, xylitol and lactose were employed as drug, carrier, plasticizer and reinforcing agent respectively. A pre-blended drug-excipient mixture was fed from a loss-in-weight feeder to a twin-screw extruder. The extrudate was subsequently injected directly into the integrated IM unit and molded into tablets. Tablets were stored in different storage conditions up to 20 weeks to monitor physical stability and were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, DSC, SEM, XRD and dissolution analysis. Optimized injection pressure provided robust tablet formulations. Tablets manufactured at low and high injection pressures exhibited the flaws of sink marks and flashing respectively. Higher solidification temperature during IM process reduced the thermal induced residual stress and prevented chipping and cracking issues. Polarized light microscopy revealed a homogeneous dispersion of crystalline griseofulvin in an amorphous matrix. DSC underpinned the effect of high tablet residual moisture on maltodextrin-xylitol phase separation that resulted in dimensional instability. Tablets with low residual moisture demonstrated long term dimensional stability. This study serves as a model for IM tablet formulations for mechanistic understanding of critical process parameters and formulation attributes required for optimal product performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Micro-scale prediction method for API-solubility in polymeric matrices and process model for forming amorphous solid dispersion by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Esther S; Neumann, Dirk; Gryczke, Andreas; Wagner, Karl G

    2016-10-01

    A new predictive micro-scale solubility and process model for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) by hot-melt extrusion (HME) is presented. It is based on DSC measurements consisting of an annealing step and a subsequent analysis of the glass transition temperature (Tg). The application of a complex mathematical model (BCKV-equation) to describe the dependency of Tg on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)/polymer ratio, enables the prediction of API solubility at ambient conditions (25°C). Furthermore, estimation of the minimal processing temperature for forming ASDs during HME trials could be defined and was additionally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction data. The suitability of the DSC method was confirmed with melt rheological trials (small amplitude oscillatory system). As an example, ball milled physical mixtures of dipyridamole, indomethacin, itraconazole and nifedipine in poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinylacetate) (copovidone) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) were used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  8. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Energy reduction and economic analysis report. Aerotherm report TR-76-220. [Can washing at Campbell Soup Company in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    A discussion is provided of the following aspects of the solar process hot water program: criteria and rationale used in process selection, expected fuel savings to be provided by widespread use of the solar energy system in the industry, and economic evaluation of the system. The design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system for application to the can washing process at the Campbell Soup Company's plant located in Sacramento, California are included.

  9. Physical processes taking place in dense plasma focus devices at the interaction of hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials under test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) device represents a source of powerful streams of penetrating radiations (hot plasma, fast electron and ion beams, x-rays and neutrons) of ns-scale pulse durations. Power flux densities of the radiation types may reach in certain cases the values up to 1013 W cm  -  2. They are widely used at present time in more than 30 labs in the world in the field of radiation material science. Areas of their implementations are testing of the materials perspective for use in modern fusion reactors (FR) of both types, modification of surface layers with an aim of improvements their properties, production of some nanostructures on their surface, and so on. To use a DPF correctly in these applications it is important to understand the mechanisms of generation of the above-mentioned radiations, their dynamics inside and outside of the pinch and processes of interaction of these streams with targets. In this paper, the most important issues on the above matter we discuss in relation to the cumulative hot plasma stream and the beam of fast ions with illustration of experimental results obtained at four DPF devices ranged in the limits of bank energies from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. Among them mechanisms of a jet formation, a current abruption phenomenon, a super-Alfven ion beam propagation inside and outside of DPF plasma, generation of secondary plasma and formation of shock waves in plasma and inside a solid-state target, etc. Nanosecond time-resolved techniques (electric probes, laser interferometry, frame self-luminescent imaging, x-ray/neutron probes, etc) give an opportunity to investigate the above-mentioned events and to observe the process of interaction of the radiation types with targets. After irradiation, we analyzed the specimens by contemporary instrumentation: optical and scanning electron microscopy, local x-ray spectral and structure analysis, atomic force microscopy, the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single

  10. Rainstorm-induced shallow landslides process and evaluation – a case study from three hot spots, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyue Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical stage in the evaluation of rainfall-induced landslide failure is in formulating reasonable models to better simulate spatiotemporal changes of slopes in the hilly terrains. A physically based model can take into account the contribution of rainfall infiltration and shear strength of saturated soil layer, and therefore help revealing the landslide formation mechanisms. This paper presents a physically based approach to simulate the landslide process triggered by rainstorm. On the basis of previous solutions, we select the simplified infiltration model Slope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium (SLIDE to illustrate the dynamical relations between factor of safety (FS and accumulation of rainfall over time. This model is tested with three representative landslide events in the southwest, southeast, and south central of China during rainstorm. Results show that the time of landslide failure predicted from the SLIDE model is consistent with the reality. Meanwhile, this paper illustrates the differences of FS among the different slope gradients in the vicinity of same soil texture and relationship between FS and rainfall accumulation. This work formulates a methodology of rainstorm-induced landslide evaluation and improves upon the existing landslide prediction methods.

  11. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  12. Preliminary probe of quality indicators and quality specification in total testing process in 5753 laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yang; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to promote the establishment and implementation of quality indicators (QIs) in clinical laboratories, catch up with the state of art, and provide preliminary quality specifications for established QIs. Clinical laboratories from different provinces in China were included in this QIs survey in 2015. All participants were asked to collect data related to QIs and complete QIs questionnaires. Defect percentages and sigma values were calculated for each QI. The 25th percentile, median, and the 75th percentile of defect percentages and TATs were calculated as optimum, desirable and minimum quality specifications. While 25th, median, and 75th of sigma values were calculated as minimum, desirable and optimum quality specifications, respectively. Five thousand seven hundred and fifty-three clinical laboratories from 28 provinces in China participated in this survey. Median defect percentages of pre-examination QIs varied largely from 0.01% (incorrect sample container) to 0.57% (blood culture contamination) with sigma values varied from 4.0σ to 5.1σ. Median defect percentages of examination phase QIs were all really high. The most common problem in examination phase was test uncovered by inter-laboratory comparison (86.67%). Defect percentages of critical values notification and timely critical values notification were all 0.00% (6.0σ). While the median of defect percentages of incorrect laboratory reports was only 0.01% (5.4σ). Improvements are needed in all phases of total testing process (TTP) in laboratories in China, especially in examination phase. More attention should be paid when microbiology specimens are collected and results are reported. Quality specifications can provide directions for laboratories to make effort for.

  13. Impacts of Implosion Asymmetry And Hot Spot Shape On Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, S. Austin; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Implosion symmetry plays a critical role in achieving high areal density and internal energy at stagnation during hot spot formation in ICF capsules. Asymmetry causes hot spot irregularity and stagnation de-synchronization that results in lower temperatures and areal densities of the hot fuel. These degradations significantly affect the alpha heating process in the DT fuel as well as on the thermonuclear performance of the capsules. In this work, we explore the physical factors determining the shape of the hot spot late in the implosion and the effects of shape on Î+/-particle transport. We extend our ignition theory [1-4] to include the hot spot shape and quantify the effects of the implosion asymmetry on both the ignition criterion and capsule performance. We validate our theory with the NIF existing experimental data Our theory shows that the ignition criterion becomes more restrictive with the deformation of the hot spot. Through comparison with the NIF data, we demonstrate that the shape effects on the capsules' performance become more explicit as the self-heating and yield of the capsules increases. The degradation of the thermonuclear burn by the hot spot shape for high yield shots to date can be as high as 20%. Our theory is in good agreement with the NIF data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  14. Water ice clouds on Mars: Exploring processes through modeling and laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Materese, Delia Liza

    Water ice clouds on Mars are an important component of the hydrologic cycle as well as the overall climate system of the planet. The goal of this research is to better understand water ice cloud formation and behavior on Mars. We use modeling and laboratory experiments to explore different processes related to water ice cloud formation and evolution. The first goal of this work is to examine how well the Martian water cycle is simulated by the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model. The simulation predicts atmospheric water vapor amounts approximately half of those observed, globally. We identify water ice clouds as being a major contributor to this discrepancy. The model closely reproduces the convective aphelion cloud belt at the equator, but deviates substantially from observations over the North Polar Cap region. Modifying the nucleation scheme within the cloud microphysical model brings model results closer to observations and affects the surface radiative balance, which affects the annual cycle of sublimation and deposition of water ice at the residual North Polar Cap. The most realistic global water vapor and cloud patterns come from limiting the nucleation rate of particles at the poles. Our simulations show that the North Polar Cap region exhibits atmospheric dynamics where stratiform clouds form. We hypothesize that the modified nucleation scheme compensates for biases in the radiative properties of the stratiform clouds expected over the North Polar Cap. More broadly, this study illustrates the strong sensitivity of the Martian global water cycle to clouds over the North Polar Cap region. The second goal of this work is to assess the ability of various salts to serve as water ice cloud condensation nuclei under Martian conditions. We use a vacuum chamber to simulate the cold, lower pressure atmospheric conditions on Mars and find the critical saturation ratios at which the substrates nucleate water ice. We find no significant difference between sodium

  15. Effect of two abrasive systems on resin bonding to laboratory-processed indirect resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouschlicher, M R; Cobb, D S; Vargas, M A

    1999-01-01

    This study compared two methods of surface roughening or preparation, with or without the use of proprietary surface wetting agents, to evaluate their effect on resin cement adhesion to the following laboratory-processed, indirect restorations: Artglass (AG), belleGlass HP (BG), Concept (C), and Targis (T). Methods of surface roughening or preparation included microetching with aluminum oxide (AO): 50 microns at 34 psi and silanized silica coating, CoJet-Sand (CJ): 30 microns at 34 psi. Artglass and Concept were tested with and without the use of their respective surface wetting agents: Artglass Liquid (AGL) and Special Bond II (SB). One hundred twenty specimens, each consisting of a pair of cylinders (7.0 x 3 mm and 4.3 x 3 mm) were fabricated. The larger cylinder or base was embedded in self-curing resin in a phenolic ring, and bonding surfaces were finished with 320-grit silicon carbide paper. Specimen pairs for each restorative material were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 10) and received the following surface treatments prior to cementation: group 1 (AG/AO/+AGL), group 2 (AG/AO/-AGL), group 3 (AG/CJ/+AGL), group 4 (AG/CJ/-AGL), group 5 (BG/AO), group 6 (BG/CJ), group 7 (C/AO/+SB), group 8 (C/AO/-SB), group 9 (C/CJ/+SB), group 10 (C/CJ/-SB), group 11 (T/AO), and group 12 (T/CJ). Specimen pairs were cemented with a dual-cure resin cement (Dual) and a standardized force of 1 MPa. Specimens were light-cured 40 seconds per side (80 s total), then thermocycled 300 times at between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C. Shear bond strengths (MPa) were determined using a Zwick Materials Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm per minute. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha = 0.05) by restoration type indicated no significant differences in shear bond strength between BG group 5 (29.8 +/- 5.8), BG group 6 (28.3 +/- 4.3), T group 11 (29.3 +/- 4.9), and T group 12 (29.0 +/- 4.4). Shear bond strength in AG group 3 (35.9 +/- 3

  16. Spatial characterization of hot melt extruded dispersion systems using thermal atomic force microscopy methods: the effects of processing parameters on phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Jonathan G; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2014-07-01

    In this study we explore the use of nano-scale localized thermal analysis (LTA) and transition temperature microcopy (TTM) as a novel combined approach to studying phase separation in HME dispersions of cyclosporine A in Eudragit EPO. Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, nano-LTA and TTM were performed on raw materials and dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME) and spin coating. For samples prepared by HME, two mixing temperatures (110°C and 150°C) and residence times (5 and 15 min) were investigated. Spin coated samples showed an intermediate T g for the mixed systems consistent with molecular dispersion formation. The HME samples prepared at 110°C showed evidence of inhomogeneity using MTDSC and FTIR, while those produced at 150°C h showed evidence for the formation of a single phase system using MTDSC. The nanothermal methods, however, indicated the presence of phase separated cyclosporine A at the higher preparation temperature while the TTM was able to map regions of differing penetration temperatures, indicating the presence of compositionally inhomogeneous regions in all but the high processing temperature/high residence time samples. TTM is a potentially important new method for studying phase separation and that such separation may remain undetected or poorly understood using conventional bulk analytical techniques.

  17. Mechanism of Dynamic Recrystallization and Evolution of Texture in the Hot Working Domains of the Processing Map for Mg-4Al-2Ba-2Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidass Suresh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX and its effect on the evolution of texture during uniaxial compression of a creep-resistant cast Mg-4Al-2Ba-2Ca alloy in the temperature range of 260–500 °C and strain rate range of 0.0003–10 s−1 has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques with a view to understand its mechanism. For this purpose, a processing map has been developed for this alloy, which revealed two domains of DRX in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1 300–390 °C/0.0003–0.001 s−1 and (2 400–500 °C/0.0003–0.5 s−1. In Domain 1, DRX occurs by basal slip and recovery by dislocation climb, as indicated by the presence of planar slip bands and high dislocation density leading to tilt boundary formation and a low-intensity basal texture. On the other hand, DRX in Domain 2 occurs by second order pyramidal slip and recovery by cross-slip since the microstructure revealed tangled dislocation structure with twist boundaries and randomized texture. The high volume content of intermetallic phases Mg21Al3Ba2 and (Al,Mg2Ca eutectic phase is considered to be responsible for the observed hot deformation behavior.

  18. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  19. Design and Evaluation of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technology as a Continuous Manufacturing Process with Kolliphor® P407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Jaywant; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Amin, Purnima; Tawde, Vaishali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present context was to develop and evaluate a Kolliphor® P407-based transdermal gel formulation of diclofenac sodium by hot melt extrusion (HME) technology; central composite design was used to optimize the formulation process. In this study, we have explored first time ever HME as an industrially feasible and continuous manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of gel formulation using Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 as a gel base. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. The HME parameters such as feeding rate, screw speed, and barrel temperature were crucial for the semisolid product development, and were optimized after preliminary trials. For the processing of the gel formulation by HME, a modified screw design was used to obtain a uniform product. The obtained product was evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement, rheology, surface tension, and texture profile analysis. Moreover, it was analyzed for general appearance, spreadibility, surface morphology, and drug content. The optimized gel formulation showed homogeneity and transparent film when applied on a glass slide under microscope, pH was 7.02 and uniform drug content of 100.04 ± 2.74 (SD = 3). The DSC and XRD analysis of the HME gel formulation showed complete melting of crystalline API into an amorphous form. The Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 formed excellent gel formulation using HME with consistent viscoelastic properties of the product. An improved drug release was found for the HME gel, which showed a 100% drug release than that of a marketed product which showed only 88% of drug release at the end of 12 h. The Flux value of the HME gel was 106 than that of a marketed formulation, which showed only about 60 value, inferring a significant difference (P manufacturing of topical semisolid products.

  20. Groundwork for integration of hot water extraction as a potential pre-process in a biorefinery for downstream conversion and nano-fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui

    The economic competitiveness of biofuels production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35-50 % of the total biofuels production cost. Economically viable feedstock pre-process has a significant influence on all the subsequent downstream processes in the biorefinery supply chain. In this work, hot water extraction (HWE) was exploited as a pre-process to initially fractionate cell wall structure of softwood Douglas fir, which is considerably more recalcitrant compared to hardwoods and agricultural feedstocks. A response surface model was developed and the highest hemicellulose extraction yield (HEY) was obtained when the temperature is 180 °C and the time is 79 min. HWE process partially removed hemicelluloses, reduced the moisture absorption and improved the thermal stability of wood. To investigate the effects of HWE pre-process on sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL), a series of SPORL with reduced combined severity factor (CSF) were conducted using HWE treated Douglas fir. Sugar analysis after enzymatic hydrolysis indicated that SPORL can be conducted at lower temperature (145 °C), shorter time (80 min), and lower acid volume (3 %), while still maintaining considerably high enzymatic digestibility ( 55-60%). Deriving valuable co-products would increase the overall revenue and improve the economics of the biofuels supply chain. The feasibility of extracting cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from HWE treated Douglas fir by ultrasonication and CNFs' reinforcing potentials in nylon 6 matrix were evaluated. Morphology analysis indicated that finer fibrils can be obtained by increasing ultrasonication time and/or amplitude. CNFs was found to have higher crystallinity and maintained the thermal stability compared to untreated fiber. A method of fabricating nylon 6/CNFs as-spun nanocomposite filaments using a combination of extrusion, compounding and capillary rheometer to minimize thermal degradation of CNFs was

  1. Characterization of a laboratory-scale container for freezing protein solutions with detailed evaluation of a freezing process simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessl, Ulrich; Jajcevic, Dalibor; Leitgeb, Stefan; Khinast, Johannes G; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    A 300-mL stainless steel freeze container was constructed to enable QbD (Quality by Design)-compliant investigations and the optimization of freezing and thawing (F/T) processes of protein pharmaceuticals at moderate volumes. A characterization of the freezing performance was conducted with respect to freezing kinetics, temperature profiling, cryoconcentration, and stability of the frozen protein. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of temperature and phase transition were established to facilitate process scaling and process analytics as well as customization of future freeze containers. Protein cryoconcentration was determined from ice-core samples using bovine serum albumin. Activity, aggregation, and structural perturbation were studied in frozen rabbit muscle l-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) solution. CFD simulations provided good qualitative and quantitative agreement with highly resolved experimental measurements of temperature and phase transition, allowing also the estimation of spatial cryoconcentration patterns. LDH exhibited stability against freezing in the laboratory-scale system, suggesting a protective effect of cryoconcentration at certain conditions. The combination of the laboratory-scale freeze container with accurate CFD modeling will allow deeper investigations of F/T processes at advanced scale and thus represents an important step towards a better process understanding. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Hot Forming of Ultra High Strength Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Liu, Wei; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi

    2011-02-01

    Hot forming of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheet metal grade 22MnB5 boron for channel components using water cooling is studied on a laboratory scale. After hot forming, the different microstructures such as martensite, bainite, and pearlite in formed component are produced, which are closely related with mechanical properties of formed component. The effect of forming start temperature and the contact state between blank and die on the microstructure evolution is investigated. In addition, the effect of processing parameters, such as forming start temperature and blank holder force (BHF), on the final quality of component, i.e., springback, that happens after hot forming of UHSS is investigated. It can be concluded that the forming start temperature has a significant effect on the final mechanical properties of formed components. The effect of forming start temperature on springback is examined in detail under a wide range of operating conditions. The higher the BHF and the forming start temperature, the lower is the springback after hot forming. Furthermore, thermo-mechanically coupled finite element analysis model encompassing heating of sheet blank, forming and quenching are developed for hot forming process. The stress distributions on sheet blank under different conditions during hot forming are compared to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of springback. Comparisons show that numerical simulation results have good agreement with experimental results.

  3. The remedial investigation/feasibility study process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), manages and operates the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under a cost-plus-award-fee contract administered by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (Operations Office). Energy Systems` environmental restoration program is responsible for eliminating or reducing the risk posed by inactive and surplus sites and facilities that have been contaminated with radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. The remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted as part of Energy Systems` environmental restoration program. The objective of the audit was to determine if the proposed interim source control action identified in the ``Proposed Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 Interim Remedial Action`` had been adequately justified. The audit disclosed that the proposed source control interim remedial action, three flexible membrane caps estimated to cost $140 million for waste area grouping 6, was not adequately justified. We recommended that DOE justify the proposed action before agreeing to proceed. The Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office, generally concurred with the audit recommendations.

  4. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  5. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in tuberculosis diagnostic process: a cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjanarko B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bagoes Widjanarko,1 Dyah Anantalia Widyastari,2 Martini Martini,3 Praba Ginandjar3 1Department of Health Education and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia Purpose: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians.Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables.Results: Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled.Conclusion: Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The

  6. HOT WAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberk, Todd; Valenzuela, Rolando G; Sterling, Garrett; Mallon, William K

    2015-09-01

    High-potency marijuana wax smoked via dabbing is a newly encountered phenomenon with relevance to prehospital care providers and emergency physicians.The extract is only recently described in current peer-reviewed literature. The drug may produce paranoia and psychosis and mimic psychiatric problems. The synthetic process for this drug poses a risk for both fire and explosions creating burns and blast injuries. These four cases were encountered in a single ED in Los Angeles in a three-week period, suggesting this could be the tip of an emerging public health problem. All four of these patients were complex cases requiring advanced imaging and ICU care. Emergency personnel need to appreciate this new trend and the implications for pre-hospital care, disposition and ED treatment of these patients.

  7. The Effectiveness of Science Laboratory Course Regarding the Scientific Process Skills and Scientific Creativity of Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin ŞAHİN-PEKMEZ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, primary science and mathematics prospective teachers’ scientific process skills and scientific creativity levels have been determined in science laboratory course. The research sample covers 84 primary science and mathematics prospective teachers. The content of the course includes some science scenarios which require the use of samples’ scientific creativity and critical thinking. In the light of these scenarios, the teacher candidates were required to design an experiment and then using their scientific process skills carry out the experiment. According to their written accounts student teachers abilities of scientific creativity and using scientific process skills were measured. As a result it was found out that, prospective teachers’ scientific process skills in both departments are at a good level and there is a significant difference in favor of mathematics prospective teachers. However, there is not a significant difference in terms of scientific creativity of the mathematics and science prospective teachers.

  8. ADDITION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST IN HOT METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fardin Grillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the mass in final hot metal and volatilization mass contained in the electric arc furnace dust (EAFD, by addition in hot metal at a temperature of 1,400°C; 1,450°C and 1,500°C altering experimental conditions such as the percentage of EAFD to be added and the percentage of silicon in hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using techniques of chemical analysis and size analysis. After characterization, the EAFD to be added to the hot metal was agglomerated in the form of briquettes. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale was placed in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. A flow of inert gas (argon was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. The result of the sample EAFD volatilized shows that there is an increase in the zinc concentration when compared with the concentration of zinc present in EAFD “as received”.

  9. Laboratory exercise: study of digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of fasted and postprandial blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K; Maurer, Luke W

    2013-09-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal physiology course select to participate in either an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or one of the following three meal treatments based on typical student breakfasts: 1) high glycemic load (HGL), 2) moderate glycemic load (MGL), and 3) low glycemic load (LGL). The caloric value of the meals is 540 kcal. An Accucheck glucometer is used to determine fasted and 30-, 60-, and 120-min postprandial blood glucose levels. Students discover that postprandial glucose levels peak similarly for the OGTT and HGL group (137 ± 7.1 and 145 ± 4.7mg/dl) and remain higher than MGL and LGL groups over the 2-h period. Between sampling, vibrant discussion covering such topics as glucose and cognitive function, insulin resistance, epigenetics, and fad diets occurs. The postlaboratory assignment requires students to discuss the importance of glucose homeostasis, graphically summarize their findings, review the literature to describe results in light of published data, and describe relationships between hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and disease processes. Students evaluated this laboratory as highly effective and one of the top three experiences of the course.

  10. Decreasing laboratory turnaround time and patient wait time by implementing process improvement methodologies in an outpatient oncology infusion unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjolaj, Lauren N; Gari, Gloria A; Olier-Pino, Angela I; Garcia, Juan D; Fernandez, Gustavo L

    2014-11-01

    Prolonged patient wait times in the outpatient oncology infusion unit indicated a need to streamline phlebotomy processes by using existing resources to decrease laboratory turnaround time and improve patient wait time. Using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) method, a project to streamline phlebotomy processes within the outpatient oncology infusion unit in an academic Comprehensive Cancer Center known as the Comprehensive Treatment Unit (CTU) was completed. Laboratory turnaround time for patients who needed same-day lab and CTU services and wait time for all CTU patients was tracked for 9 weeks. During the pilot, the wait time from arrival to CTU to sitting in treatment area decreased by 17% for all patients treated in the CTU during the pilot. A total of 528 patients were seen at the CTU phlebotomy location, representing 16% of the total patients who received treatment in the CTU, with a mean turnaround time of 24 minutes compared with a baseline turnaround time of 51 minutes. Streamlining workflows and placing a phlebotomy station inside of the CTU decreased laboratory turnaround times by 53% for patients requiring same day lab and CTU services. The success of the pilot project prompted the team to make the station a permanent fixture. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  12. Laboratory Microcomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  13. Three-dimensional FDEM numerical simulation of failure processes observed in Opalinus Clay laboratory samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first step of a research project that aims at using a three-dimensional (3D hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM to investigate the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around tunnels in a clay shale formation known as Opalinus Clay. The 3D FDEM was first calibrated against standard laboratory experiments, including Brazilian disc test and uniaxial compression test. The effect of increasing confining pressure on the mechanical response and fracture propagation of the rock was quantified under triaxial compression tests. Polyaxial (or true triaxial simulations highlighted the effect of the intermediate principal stress (σ2 on fracture directions in the model: as the intermediate principal stress increased, fractures tended to align in the direction parallel to the plane defined by the major and intermediate principal stresses. The peak strength was also shown to vary with changing σ2.

  14. Reducing missed laboratory results: defining temporal responsibility, generating user interfaces for test process tracking, and retrospective analyses to identify problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkan, Sureyya; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben; Hettinger, A Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have conducted numerous case studies reporting the details on how laboratory test results of patients were missed by the ordering medical providers. Given the importance of timely test results in an outpatient setting, there is limited discussion of electronic versions of test result management tools to help clinicians and medical staff with this complex process. This paper presents three ideas to reduce missed results with a system that facilitates tracking laboratory tests from order to completion as well as during follow-up: (1) define a workflow management model that clarifies responsible agents and associated time frame, (2) generate a user interface for tracking that could eventually be integrated into current electronic health record (EHR) systems, (3) help identify common problems in past orders through retrospective analyses.

  15. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-09-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data (R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy (Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), thermal diffusivity (α) and the rate constant of the best model (k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-1.7Y-1.2Zn Sheet Processed by Hot Rolling and Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, V.; Su, J. Q.; Mishra, R. S.; Verma, R.; Javaid, A.; Aljarrah, M.; Essadiqi, E.

    The use of lightweight structural materials is an integral part of mass reduction strategy in transportation applications. Magnesium based sheet products have gained significant interest in the automobile industry. Newer magnesium alloys such as Mg-Y-Zn have potential to develop sheet products with superior mechanical properties owing to improved precipitation hardening response. In the present work, rolled sheet of an Mg-1.7Y-1.2Zn alloy containing small amounts of Al and Ce was investigated. Microstructure and mechanical properties were examined in as-rolled, rolled+aged, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP+aged conditions. Mechanical properties (YS, UTS and %El) of the sheet showed certain anisotropy in rolling and transverse directions, which was marginally reduced upon ageing. However, FSP led to a significant range of mechanical properties depending on the test direction. Ageing of the FSP sheet showed improvement in mechanical properties and reduced anisotropy in the two directions. The static recrystallization due to ageing caused reduced anisotropy in FSP treated sheet. The overall strength-ductility variation is discussed in terms of relative contributions of grain boundary strengthening, texture and precipitation strengthening.

  17. 'BRS Mari': nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça para processamento 'BRS Mari': new hot pepper cultivar for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Isabel C de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Mari' é uma nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça desenvolvida para uso múltiplo, como produto in natura, processada na forma de molho líquido ou desidratada em flocos, moída junto com as sementes, para a produção de pimenta tipo 'calabresa'. A cv. 'BRS Mari' foi desenvolvida a partir da população 'CNPH 0039' por meio de seis ciclos de seleção massal com autofecundação controlada. A nova cultivar apresenta plantas de polinização aberta com hábito de crescimento intermediário, com aproximadamente 90 cm de altura e 1,25 m de largura, com resistência múltipla a doenças, com destaque para o virus Pepper Yellow Mosaic Virus (PepYMV e nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne javanica, resistência mediana ao oídio (Oidium sicula, mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas spp. e antracnose (Colletotrichum spp.. A colheita dos frutos tem início cerca de 70 dias após o transplante. Nas condições da região Centro-Oeste, 'BRS Mari' apresentou boa uniformidade de planta, ótima qualidade de fruto e grande potencial produtivo, alcançando 35 t ha-1 em seis meses, quando cultivada no espaçamento de 1 m entre plantas e 1,5 m entre linhas. Os frutos são alongados e pendentes, típicos do tipo dedo-de-moça, com passagem de coloração verde claro, amarelo com antocianina e laranja quando imaturos e vermelho intenso quando maduros, com aproximadamente 6,0 cm de comprimento, 1,4 cm de largura e cerca de 1,7 mm de espessura da parede. A principal característica da 'BRS Mari' é o elevado teor de capsaicina, aproximadamente 90.000 SHU (Unidades de Calor Scoville, mais elevado quando comparada com outras cultivares do mesmo grupo.'BRS Mari' is a new hot pepper cultivar suitable for processing as sauce or dehydrated flakes, ordinarily known in Brazil as 'calabresa' type, as well as for fresh market. Hot pepper cv. 'BRS Mari' was obtained from population 'CNPH 0039', through six cycles of mass selection with controlled selfing of selected plants. The

  18. Final report on numerical simulation of processes of hot sheet bending in the frame of the project EUREKA-FASP (EU353). v. 3. Pt. 5. Pt. 6. New source representation obtained by comparison with experimental temperature data; Parametric analyses of area heating processes in the sheet hot bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmignani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-10-01

    This work is the final report of the activity developed in the frame of the European project EUREKA-FASP (EU353) concerning the numerical simulation of the processes of the hot shaping or bending of large sheets, of interest of the ship-buildings, by the use of ABACUS code in its implicit version (ABAQUS/S). The work has been subdivided in 6 parts according to different considered aspects and made choices. Substantially, two different types of sheet heating processes have been considered, that is line heating and area heating processes, while two aims have been pursued; (1) to single out the best strategies in order to simulate the shaping of large sheets in a suitable way corresponding to the experience, adopting thermo-structural computation codes, as ABAQUS; (2) to verify and suggest, in some cases, orientations and indications for the design of an automate machine managed by an expert system (one of the aims of FASP project) for the heating of large sheets, able to provide the required shaping or bending of these sheets.

  19. Summary of laboratory simulation studies of the ROPE{trademark} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guffey, F.D.; Holper, P.A.; Hunter, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The Western Research Institute is currently developing a process for the recovery of distillable liquid products from alternate fossil fuel sources such as tar sand and oil shale. The fundamental processing concept is based on recycling a fraction of the produced oil back into the reactor to be mixed with the raw resource. This concept is termed the recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE{trademark}) process. The conversion of the alternate resource to a liquid fuel is performed in two stages. The first pyrolysis stage is performed at moderate temperatures (325--420{degree}C [617--788{degree}F]) in the presence of product oil recycle. The second stage is performed at higher temperatures (450--540{degree}C [842--1004{degree}F]) in the absence of product oil.

  20. Self-sustaining smoldering combustion for NAPL remediation: laboratory evaluation of process sensitivity to key parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironi, Paolo; Switzer, Christine; Gerhard, Jason I; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2011-04-01

    Smoldering combustion has been introduced recently as a potential remediation strategy for soil contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Published proof-of-concept experiments demonstrated that the process can be self-sustaining (i.e., requires energy input only to start the process) and achieve essentially complete remediation of the contaminated soil. Those initial experiments indicated that the process may be applicable across a broad range of NAPLs and soils. This work presents the results of a series of bench-scale experiments that examine in detail the sensitivity of the process to a range of key parameters, including contaminant concentration, water saturation, soil type, and air flow rates for two contaminants, coal tar and crude oil. Smoldering combustion was observed to be self-sustaining in the range 28,400 to 142,000 mg/kg for coal tar and in the range 31,200 to 104,000 mg/kg for crude oil, for the base case air flux. The process remained self-sustaining and achieved effective remediation across a range of initial water concentrations (0 to 177,000 mg/kg water) despite extended ignition times and decreased temperatures and velocities of the reaction front. The process also exhibited self-sustaining and effective remediation behavior across a range of fine to coarse sand grain sizes up to a threshold maximum value between 6 mm and 10 mm. Propagation velocity is observed to be highly dependent on air flux, and smoldering was observed to be self-sustaining down to an air Darcy flux of at least 0.5 cm/s for both contaminants. The extent of remediation in these cases was determined to be at least 99.5% and 99.9% for crude oil and coal tar, respectively. Moreover, no physical evidence of contamination was detected in the treatment zone for any case where a self-sustaining reaction was achieved. Lateral heat losses to the external environment were observed to significantly affect the smoldering process at the bench scale, suggesting that the field

  1. Sensor Based Process Control (SBPC) Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the activities and results of an LDRD entitled Sensor Based Process Control. This research examined the needs of the plating industry for monitor and control capabilities with particular emphasis on water effluent from rinse baths. A personal computer-based monitor and control development system was used as a test bed.

  2. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  3. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  4. A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

  5. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  6. Laboratory development of sludge washing and alkaline leaching processes: Test plan for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1994-07-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to vitrify (as borosilicate glass) the large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes at the Hanford site. To reduce costs, pretreatment processes will be used to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass required for disposal. Several options are being considered for the pretreatment processes: (1) sludge washing with water or dilute hydroxide: designed to remove most of the Na from the sludge, thus significantly reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified; (2) sludge washing plus caustic leaching and/or metathesis (alkaline sludge leaching): designed to dissolve large quantities of certain nonradioactive elements, such as Al, Cr and P, thus reducing the volume of waste even more; (3) sludge washing, sludge dissolution, and separation of radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions (advanced processing): designed to remove all radionuclides for concentration into a minimum waste volume. This report describes a test plan for work that will be performed in FY 1994 under the Sludge Washing and Caustic Leaching Studies Task (WBS 0402) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Project. The objectives of the work described here are to determine the effects of sludge washing and alkaline leaching on sludge composition and the physical properties of the washed sludge and to evaluate alkaline leaching methods for their impact on the volume of borosilicate glass required to dispose of certain Hanford tank sludges.

  7. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  8. Effect of High-Pressure Processing on Human Noroviruses in Laboratory-Contaminated Oysters by Bio-Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Saiki; Kanezashi, Hiromi; Goshima, Tomoko; Suto, Atsushi; Ueki, You; Sugawara, Naoko; Ito, Hiroshi; Zou, Bizhen; Uema, Masashi; Noda, Mamoru; Akimoto, Keiko

    2017-09-01

    The contamination of oysters with human noroviruses poses a human health risk, since oysters are often consumed raw. In this study, human norovirus genogroup II was allowed to bio-accumulate in oysters, and then the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on human noroviruses in oysters was determined through a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method with enzymatic pretreatment to distinguish infectious noroviruses. As a result, oysters could be artificially contaminated to a detectable level of norovirus genome by the reverse transcription-PCR. Concentrations of norovirus genome in laboratory-contaminated oysters were log normally distributed, as determined by the real-time PCR, suggesting that artificial contamination by bio-accumulation was successful. In two independent HPP trials, a 1.87 log10 and 1.99 log10 reduction of norovirus GII.17 genome concentration was observed after HPP at 400 MPa for 5 min at 25°C. These data suggest that HPP is a promising process of inactivation of infectious human noroviruses in oysters. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the effect of HPP on laboratory-contaminated noroviruses in oysters.

  9. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  10. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  11. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  12. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2014-10-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  13. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  14. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling Subsystem: A Description of the Sampling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, L.; Burke, K.; Kennedy, B.; Melko, J.; Okon, A.; Sunshine, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem for the Mars Science Library (MSL) is a rover-based sampling system scheduled to launch in 2011. The SA/SPaH consists of a powdering drill and a scooping, sieving, and portioning device mounted on a turret at the end of a robotic arm. Also on the turret is a dust removal tool for clearing the surface of scientific targets, and two science instruments mounted on vibration isolators. The SA/SPaH can acquire powder from rocks at depths of 20 to 50 mm and can also pick up loose regolith with its scoop. The acquired sample is sieved and portioned and delivered to one of two instruments inside the rover for analysis. The functionality of the system will be described along with the targets the system can acquire and the sample that can be delivered. Top View of the SA/SPaH on the Rover

  16. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy.

  17. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Results Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Conclusion Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy. PMID:26889317

  18. Instrumental and laboratory assessment of stressful remodelling processes in bone tissue at total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Karjakina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to estimate stressful remodelling features of bone tissue according to the densitometry data and to the level of biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation in total hip replacement (THR. Bone tissue mineral density (BTMD, condition of calcium-phosphoric metabolism and biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase and resorption (С-terminal bodypeptide of the I type collagen have been determined in 52 patients with coxarthrosis of ll-lll stages with marked joint dysfunction before and after THR. The control group included 24 donors. The data were considered to be reliable when the probability index was р<0,05. The reliable (р<0,05 change of BTMD was determined only in 3-6 months after the operation, whereas the change of biochemical markers of remodeling had already been done after 1,5-3 months, allowing to define the group of patients with obvious negative bone balance: strong predominance of resorption processes without compensation of the subsequent adequate osteogenesis, that subsequently could lead to significant bone tissue deficiency in the area adjacent to the endoprosthesis. Changes of indices of calcium-phosphoric metabolism were not certain during the investigation term. ln conclusion it is to state that biochemical markers of remodeling in comparison with BTMD allow to estimate objectively features of adaptive bone tissue remodeling after THR in earlier periods and to define group of patients with sharp intensification of metabolism and obvious negative bone balance

  19. Laboratory Studies of the Tropospheric Loss Processes for Acetic and Peracetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    Organic acids are ubiquitous components of tropospheric air and contribute to acid precipitation, particularly in remote regions. These species are present in the troposphere as the result of direct emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and as the result of photochemical processing of hydrocarbons. Production of organic acids can occur following ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, while both organic acids and peroxyacids are formed from the reactions of HO2 with acylperoxy radicals. For example, both acetic and peracetic acid are known products of the reaction of HO2 with acetylperoxy radicals. In this paper, data relevant to the gas-phase tropospheric destruction of both acetic and peracetic acid are reported, including studies of their UV absorption spectra and of their rate coefficients for reaction with OH radicals. The data, the first of their kind for peracetic acid, show that the gas-phase lifetime of this species will be on the order of 10 days, with OH reaction occurring more rapidly than photolysis. Data on the rate coefficient for reaction of OH with acetic acid appear to resolve some conflicting data in the previous literature, and show 1) that reaction of OH with the acetic acid dimer is slow compared to the monomer and 2) that the rate coefficient possesses a negative temperature dependence near room temperature.

  20. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  1. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity anisotropy of salt diapirs: Implications for wellbore stability and seismic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Meleza, Liliana; Healy, David

    2013-04-01

    A set of ten evaporite samples collected from outcrops in a single diapiric province in Cape Breton Island (Canada) have been tested for seismic velocity anisotropy using three methods: 1) conventional ultrasonic pulse transmission method, where velocities are found from the travel times and the known dimensions of the samples. In order to obtain the entire suite of elastic constants, both P- and S-wave velocity measurements were taken in three different directions of cuboid rock samples. Velocities have been measured under dry, ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in halite-, gypsum- and anhydrite-dominated samples; 2) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on thin sections to define the spatial distribution of minerals, their crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); and 3) a numerical 'rock-recipe' approach based on Tatham et al. (2008) to calculate seismic velocity anisotropy using arbitrary composites of evaporite minerals and different CPOs. These three methods are then compared to understand the controlling factors of the anisotropic elastic properties. The elasticity data are used to guide geomechanical modeling for wellbore stability and to provide insights for the seismic data processing and seismic imaging of salt diapirs. Reference Tatham, D.J., Lloyd, G.E., Butler, R.W.H. and Casey, M, 2008, Amphibole and lower crustal seismic properties: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 118-128.

  2. Laboratory testing results of kinetics and processing technology of the polymetallic sulphide concentrate Blagojev Kamen – Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Ćirković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the laboratory testing results of kinetics the oxidation process and sample processing of the sulphide polymetallic concentrate Blagojev Kamen. The aim of investigation is recovery of these types of raw material, present in large quantities in the peripheral parts of already used primary mineral deposits of copper, because of their high economic potential due to the content of a large number of metals and especially precious metals. Characterization of this raw material is based on the chemical analyses, XRD results, DTA analysis, etc. For these investigations, the sulphide concentrate with the following content was used in %: Cu – 2.3; Fe – 19.8; S – 27.19; Zn – 9.13; As – 0.167; Pb – 15.63; SiO2 – 17.93; CaO – 0.97; Al2O3 – 1.43; Ag – 480 g/t; Au – 659 g/t. Kinetic investigations of oxidation processes were carried out under the isothermal conditions within the temperature range of 400 to 625 oC. The Sharp's model was used for determination the kinetics parameters, and determined values of activation energy are 67 kJ/mole for the first period, and 47 kJ/mole for the second period. Pyrometallurgical treatment of this type of polymetallic concentrate, in the laboratory conditions, was carried out using the oxidative roasting and, then the reduction smelting was done in the Taman's furnace. Gold from 90.5 to 97.95% and silver from 77.28 to 93.37% are moved into the raw lead (smelting product. Gold from 1.1 to 3.92% and silver from 4.35 to 8.42% are moved into the polymetallic copper matte. Gold from 0.58 to 1.6% and silver from 2.45 to 6.82% are moved into the slag.

  3. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  4. Investigation of Usibor 1500 Formability in a Hot Forming Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Hande

    2013-01-01

    The hot forming process included heating metals to a temperature in the austenite range, transferring the austenitized sheet from the furnace to a press, forming and simultaneously quenched. In this work, Usibor 1500 steel was hot stamped using water-cooled prototype mould. Micro structural analyses as well as tensile tests and hardness measurements of hot stamped samples were performed. The results showed that most of austenite microstructure was changed into martensite by the hot forming. T...

  5. Assessing Clinical Laboratory Quality: A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of Prothrombin Time INR Structures, Processes, and Outcomes in 98 Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Darcy, Theresa P; Meier, Frederick A; Bashleben, Christine P

    2015-09-01

    The anticoagulant warfarin has been identified as the second most frequent drug responsible for serious, disabling, and fatal adverse drug events in the United States, and its effect on blood coagulation is monitored by the laboratory test called international normalized ratio (INR). To determine the presence of INR policies and procedures, INR practices, and completeness and timeliness of reporting critical INR results in participants' clinical laboratories. Participants reviewed their INR policies and procedure requirements, identified their practices by using a questionnaire, and studied completeness of documentation and timeliness of reporting critical value INR results for outpatients and emergency department patients. In 98 participating institutions, the 5 required policies and procedures were in place in 93% to 99% of clinical laboratories. Fifteen options for the allowable variations among duplicate results from different analyzers, 12 different timeliness goals for reporting critical values, and 18 unique critical value limits were used by participants. All required documentation elements were present in 94.8% of 192 reviewed INR validation reports. Critical value INR results were reported within the time frame established by the laboratory for 93.4% of 2604 results, but 1.0% of results were not reported. Although the median laboratories successfully communicated all critical results within their established time frames and had all the required validation elements based in their 2 most recent INR calculations, those participants at the lowest 10th percentile were successful in 80.0% and 85.7% of these requirements, respectively. Significant opportunities exist for adherence to INR procedural requirements and for practice patterns and timeliness goals for INR critical results' reporting.

  6. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory; Desarrollo Informatico Aplicado a un Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J.A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M.A.

    2009-07-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  7. Hot semiworks Redox studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.F.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1954-01-27

    The separations Hot Semiworks at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation was built in order to: (1) develop optimum conditions for the economic operation of the Redox and TBP plants, (2) procure engineering design data which would allow the specification of process equipment required for new processes such as Purex, (3) provide facilities for the study of future process and engineering problems on a semiworks scale employing radioactive process solutions, and (4) provide facilities for immediate trouble shooting for urgent separations plant problems. The initial operation of this facility was designed to develop conditions for the economic operation of the Redox Plant. These studies, covering a period from November, 1952 to October, 1953, are described in this report. The Redox process is used at Hanford for the separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products and from each other. The basis of the process is the preferential extraction of uranium and plutonium nitrates from an aqueous phase of high salting strength into an organic solvent (methyl isobutyl ketone) to effect the separation from fission products. This operation is conducted continuously in columns, packed with Raschig rings, through which the phases are passed counter-currently. Uranium and plutonium are separated by converting the plutonium to a lower valence state, in which form it is preferentially extracted back into an aqueous phase of high salting strength in a second column. Uranium is then returned to an aqueous phase of low salting strength in a third column. The products are further decontaminated in similar additional cycles. A detailed description of the process is given in the Redox Technical Manual.

  8. The virtual product-process design laboratory to manage the complexity in the verification of formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Malik, Tahir I.

    2011-01-01

    Formulations are complex products since active ingredients, solvents and additives are combined together to obtain a product with several functions and properties. When designing/verifying a formulated product, the required modelling effort is challenging as properties and functions of complex...... mixtures need to be predicted. This complexity has to be managed through decomposition of the problem into sub-problems. Each sub-problem is solved and analyzed and, from the knowledge gained, an overall evaluation of the complex chemical system representing the product is made. The virtual Product......-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) software is based on this decomposition strategy for the design of formulated liquid products. When the needed models are available in the software, the solution of formulation design/verification problems is straightforward, while when models are not available...

  9. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  10. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A. John

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called "Robofurnace." Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  11. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  12. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  13. Reaction mechanisms and kinetics of processing glucose, xylose and glucose-xylose mixtures under hot compressed water conditions for predicting bio-crude composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    Mechanisms for bio-crude formation during the conversion of glucose, xylose and glucose-xylose mixtures as biomass model compounds under hot compressed water conditions are investigated. Studies in literature have shown that the diverse products formed at the early stages of glucose or xylose...... conversion are 5-HMF, erythrose, glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, pyruvaldehyde, and saccharinic acids resulted through reactions such as dehydration, retro-aldol condensation and isomerization. However, these compounds are mostly water soluble compounds and lack the final steps towards formation of water...

  14. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  15. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  16. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 4, Preliminary analysis of DWPF process laboratory capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  17. Transport of contaminants from energy-process-waste leachates through subsurface soils and soil components: laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, L.E.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.

    1982-08-01

    The subsurface transport and attenuation of inorganic contaminants common to a variety of energy process waste leachates are being studied using laboratory column methods. Anionic species currently being emphasized are As, B, Mo, and Se. Transport of the cations Cd and Ni is also being studied. The solid adsorbents consist of three soil mineral components (silica sand, kaolinite, and goethite), and four subsurface soils (a dunal sand, an oxidic sandy clay loam, an acidic clay loam, and an alkaline clay loam). Breakthrough patterns of these species from packed soil columns are followed by monitoring eluent concentrations vs time under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. This report describes the experimental methods being used, the results of preliminary batch adsorption studies, and the results of column experiments completed through calendar year 1981. Using column influent concentrations of about 10 mg/l, adsorption (mmoles/100 g) has been determined from the eluent volume corresponding to 50% breakthrough. On silica sand, kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, these are 2.0 x 10/sup -4/, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.31 for cadmium, 4.4 x 10/sup -4/, 0.039, 0.020, and 0.98 for nickel. On kaolinite, dunal sand, and goethite, respectively, adsorption values (mmoles/100 g) are As (0.24, 0.019, and 20.5), B (0.041, 0.0019, and 1.77), Mo (0.048, 0.0010, and 5.93), and Se (0.029, 0.00048, and 1.30). Arsenic is the most highly adsorbed contaminant species and goethite has the largest adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  18. A population laboratory for studying disease processes and mortality--the Demographic Surveillance System, Matlab Comilla, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, S

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Demograhic Surveillance System (DSS) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), initiated in 1963. The DSS consists of periodic censuses of the study population with intervening registration of vital events. The surveillance area currently consists of 159 villages, containing an estimated population (1974) of 160 thousand, in Matlab, Comilla district. Immediate objectives are assessment of maternal and child health and family planning services in the area, research related to diarrheal diseases, measurements and determinants of fertility and mortality, and development of a demographic field site for training of people involved in national programs. Data are collected through a 3 tiered system: vital events are recorded by female village workers, whose work is checked by field assistants, then coded and processed in Dacca, and put on computer. Selected results from DSS studies are discussed, focusing on particular aspects of mortality or morbidity and epidemiological studies regarding diarrhea and nutrition, to illustrate the possibilities of a population laboratory in these contexts. The DSS has 7 advantages: 1) enables an accurate count of the population; 2) provides accurate sampling frames; 3) provides precise age data; 4) enables studies of client cooperation with health services; 5) facilitates prospective research designs; 6) collects demographic data which may reflect national statistics; 7) serves as a field training site. However, limitations of expense, data collected on causes of events, error correction, and study design must be considered. Computerization should make it possible to turn the DSS into a registration system. Population laboratories in other parts of the world, with differing focuses, are briefly described, and some of their studies are compared to those of the DSS.

  19. Decontamination of Pangasius fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) with chlorine or peracetic acid in the laboratory and in a Vietnamese processing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong Thi, Anh Ngoc; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Ly Nguyen, Binh; Heyndrickx, Marc; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-09-02

    This study evaluated the decontamination of Pangasius fillets in chlorine or peracetic acid treated wash water. First, the decontamination efficacy of the washing step with chlorinated water applied by a Vietnamese processing company during trimming of Pangasius fillets was evaluated and used as the basis for the experiments performed on a laboratory scale. As chlorine was only added at the beginning of the batch and used continuously without renewal for 239min; a rapid increase of the bacterial counts and a fast decrease of chlorine in the wash water were found. This could be explained by the rapid accumulation of organic matter (ca. 400mg O2/L of COD after only 24min). Secondly, for the experiments performed on a laboratory scale, a single batch approach (one batch of wash water for treating a fillet) was used. Chlorine and PAA were evaluated at 10, 20, 50 and 150ppm at contact times of 10, 20 and 240s. Washing with chlorine and PAA wash water resulted in a reduction of Escherichia coli on Pangasius fish which ranged from 0-1.0 and 0.4-1.4logCFU/g, respectively while less to no reduction of total psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms on Pangasius fish was observed. However, in comparison to PAA, chlorine was lost rapidly. As an example, 53-83% of chlorine and 15-17% of PAA were lost after washing for 40s (COD=238.2±66.3mg O2/L). Peracetic acid can therefore be an alternative sanitizer. However, its higher cost will have to be taken into consideration. Where (cheaper) chlorine is used, the processors have to pay close attention to the residual chlorine level, pH and COD level during treatment for optimal efficacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  1. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic...

  2. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  3. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  4. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  5. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  6. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail: vitoon.uth@kmutt.ac.th

    2016-06-14

    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  7. Analysis Of Effect Of Mechanical Properties Of Aluminum Alloy Addition Of Zinc Corrosion Resistance Of Carbon Steel A325 Bolts Process Of Hot Dip Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ery Diniardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The world oil industry are common in offshore areas that are included in a corrosive environment so that the low-carbon steel bolts A325 will gradually corroded. Therefore an alternative that can be done to reduce the corrosion rate that is by coating with a Hot dip galvanizing method. The purpose of this study to improve the quality of products from low carbon steel bolts A325 with the addition of Zinc Aluminium alloy on the results of the Hot Dip Galvanizing. Results of testing the hardness of the lowest obtained in quenching time of 30 seconds is 162 037 HVN and the highest hardness obtained on quenching time of 60 seconds is 203 688 HVN. To microstructure shows that the phase Eta which is soft on the surface of the outermost started a little not as much time quenching 30 seconds so that the nature of its decline and violence increased the phase Zeta that are hard are widely spread meet the layer of phase resulting in hardness of the coating while quenching 45 seconds exceed the hardness of quenching time of 30 seconds. Results of analysis of the rate of corrosion that galvanized coating on each test is different and the structure of ferrite and pearlite it looks clear. For quenching time of 30 seconds obvious difference in galvanized layer thicker than quenching time of 45 and 60 seconds. This happens because of the influence of factors zinc layer that coats the base material so that decreased levels of corrosion is comparable to the time Salt Spray Test SST performed.

  8. Innovative strategy for effective critical laboratory result management: end-to-end process using automation and manual call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lian Kah; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Yip, James W L

    2012-08-01

    Timely reporting and acknowledgement are crucial steps in critical laboratory results (CLR) management. The authors previously showed that an automated pathway incorporating short messaging system (SMS) texts, auto-escalation, and manual telephone back-up improved the rate and speed of physician acknowledgement compared with manual telephone calling alone. This study investigated if it also improved the rate and speed of physician intervention to CLR and whether utilising the manual back-up affected intervention rates. Data from seven audits between November 2007 and January 2011 were analysed. These audits were carried out to assess the robustness of CLR reporting process in the authors' institution. Comparisons were made in the rate and speed of acknowledgement and intervention between the audits performed before and after automation. Using the automation audits, the authors compared intervention data between communication with SMS only and when manual intervention was required. 1680 CLR were reported during the audit periods. Automation improved the rate (100% vs 84.2%; pautomation audits, the use of SMS only did not improve physician intervention rates. The automated communication pathway improved physician intervention rate and time in tandem with improved acknowledgement rate and time when compared with manual telephone calling. The use of manual intervention to augment automation did not adversely affect physician intervention rate, implying that an end-to-end pathway was more important than automation alone.

  9. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  10. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  11. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  12. Stellar laboratories . IX. New Se v, Sr iv-vii, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths and the Se, Sr, Te, and I abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Knörzer, M.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To analyze spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques are mandatory. Reliable atomic data is crucial for the calculation of such model atmospheres. Aims: We aim to calculate new Sr iv-vii oscillator strengths to identify for the first time Sr spectral lines in hot white dwarf (WD) stars and to determine the photospheric Sr abundances. To measure the abundances of Se, Te, and I in hot WDs, we aim to compute new Se v, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths. Methods: To consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Se v, Sr iv - vii, Te vi, and I vi in our NLTE atmosphere models, we calculated oscillator strengths for these ions. Results: We newly identified four Se v, 23 Sr v, 1 Te vi, and three I vi lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of RE 0503-289. We measured a photospheric Sr abundance of 6.5+ 3.8-2.4× 10-4 (mass fraction, 9500-23 800 times solar). We determined the abundances of Se (1.6+ 0.9-0.6× 10-3, 8000-20 000), Te (2.5+ 1.5-0.9× 10-4, 11 000-28 000), and I (1.4+ 0.8-0.5× 10-5, 2700-6700). No Se, Sr, Te, and I line was found in the UV spectra of G191-B2B and we could determine only upper abundance limits of approximately 100 times solar. Conclusions: All identified Se v, Sr v, Te vi, and I vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Full Tables A.15 to A.21 are only available via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TOSS (http://dc.g-vo.org/TOSS).

  13. An Illustration of the Corrective Action Process, The Corrective Action Management Unit at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, M.; Kwiecinski, D.

    2002-02-26

    Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) were established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to streamline the remediation of hazardous waste sites. Streamlining involved providing cost saving measures for the treatment, storage, and safe containment of the wastes. To expedite cleanup and remove disincentives, EPA designed 40 CFR 264 Subpart S to be flexible. At the heart of this flexibility are the provisions for CAMUs and Temporary Units (TUs). CAMUs and TUs were created to remove cleanup disincentives resulting from other Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste provisions--specifically, RCRA land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and minimum technology requirements (MTRs). Although LDR and MTR provisions were not intended for remediation activities, LDRs and MTRs apply to corrective actions because hazardous wastes are generated. However, management of RCRA hazardous remediation wastes in a CAMU or TU is not subject to these stringent requirements. The CAMU at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM) was proposed through an interactive process involving the regulators (EPA and the New Mexico Environment Department), DOE, SNL/NM, and stakeholders. The CAMU at SNL/NM has been accepting waste from the nearby Chemical Waste Landfill remediation since January of 1999. During this time, a number of unique techniques have been implemented to save costs, improve health and safety, and provide the best value and management practices. This presentation will take the audience through the corrective action process implemented at the CAMU facility, from the selection of the CAMU site to permitting and construction, waste management, waste treatment, and final waste placement. The presentation will highlight the key advantages that CAMUs and TUs offer in the corrective action process. These advantages include yielding a practical approach to regulatory compliance, expediting efficient remediation and site closure, and realizing

  14. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  15. A Mixed Learning Approach to Integrating Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Exercises into a Non-Lab Junior Year DSP Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheron, Benjamin D.; Thangaraj, Charles V.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory courses can be difficult to fit into an engineering program at a liberal arts-focused university, which requires students to be exposed to appropriate breadth, as well as sufficient depth in their engineering education. One possible solution to this issue is to integrate laboratory exercises with lecture in a "studio" format,…

  16. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  17. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  18. Stellar laboratories. VII. New Kr iv - vii oscillator strengths and an improved spectral analysis of the hot, hydrogen-deficient DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Richter, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: New Kr iv-vii oscillator strengths for a large number of lines enable us to construct more detailed model atoms for our NLTE model-atmosphere calculations. This enables us to search for additional Kr lines in observed spectra and to improve Kr abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Kr iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Kr lines that are exhibited in high-resolution and high S/N ultraviolet (UV) observations of the hot white dwarf RE 0503-289. Results: We reanalyzed the effective temperature and surface gravity and determined Teff = 70000 ± 2000 K and log (g/ cm s-2) = 7.5 ± 0.1. We newly identified ten Kr v lines and one Kr vi line in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. We measured a Kr abundance of -3.3 ± 0.3 (logarithmic mass fraction). We discovered that the interstellar absorption toward RE 0503-289 has a multi-velocity structure within a radial-velocity interval of -40 km s-1National Commission for Astronomy.Tables A.9-A.12 are only available via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TOSS (http://dc.g-vo.org/TOSS).

  19. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatment: A laboratory batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Liu, Gang; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-10-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H2O2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H2O2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H2O2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H2O2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H2O2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H2O2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H2O2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H2O2. Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H2O2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H2O2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H2O2 concentration should be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  1. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  2. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  3. Feasibility of diode-array instruments to carry near-infrared spectroscopy from laboratory to feed process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio

    2008-05-14

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of the chemical and ingredient composition of intact compound feeds. Two rather different instruments were compared (diode array vs grating monochromator). The grating monochromator was used in a static mode in the laboratory, whereas the diode-array instrumentbetter adapted to online analysiswas placed on a conveyor belt to simulate measurements at a feed mill plant. Modified partial least squares (MPLS) equations were developed using the same set of samples analyzed in the two instruments. Sample set 1 ( N = 398) was used to predict crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF), while sample set 2 ( N = 393) was used for the prediction of one macroingredient (sunflower meal, SFM) and one microingredient (mineral-vitamin premix, MVP). The standard error of cross-validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (R2) values for CF were better using the monochromator instrument. However, results obtained for CP, SFM, and MVP using the samples analyzed in the diode-array instrument showed similar or even greater accuracy than those obtained using samples analyzed in the grating monochromator. The excellent predictive ability [R2> 0.95; RPD (ratio of standard deviation to SECV) > 3] obtained for CP, CF, and SFM opens the way for the online use of NIRS diode-array instruments for surveillance and monitoring in the manufacture, processing, and marketing of compound feeds. R2, RPD, and SECV values for MVP showed similar performance for both instruments. Although RPD values did not reach the minimum recommended for quantitative analysis, results are encouraging for an ingredient present in feed compounds in such very low amounts.

  4. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  5. The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.

  6. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-11-29

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  7. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Magnetic Reconnection, a Key Self-Organization Process in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas : Recent Research Progress(Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Astrophysics and Materials Science)

    OpenAIRE

    MASAAKI, YAMADA; Center of Magnetic Self-Organization, Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory, Princeton University

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a phenomenon of nature in which magnetic field lines change their topology and convert magnetic energy to plasma particles by acceleration and heating. The process can stretch out over time or occur quite suddenly. It is one of the most fundamental processes at work in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Magnetic reconnection occurs everywhere: In solar flares; coronal mass ejections; the earth's magnetosphere; in the star forming galaxies; and in plasma fusion devi...

  9. Economics of Hot Water Dipping

    OpenAIRE

    P., Maxin; K., Klopp

    2004-01-01

    Hot water dipping is an appropriate method to protect apples against spoilage caused by gloeosporium rot. Tests on the varieties Topaz and Ingrid Marie at the OVB Jork (Germany) have demonstrated an effective reduction of spoilage from between 80% and 92% in charges by an infection rate of 40%. The result of an intensive R&D process between 2002 and 2003 is the development of a praxis-tested big box (300 kg) dipping station. With the first Bio Dipping systems now on the mark...

  10. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. A thermomechanical criterion for hot cracking during electron beam welding of CuCrZr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, J.; Pilvin, R. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/LTA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Carron, D. [Universite de Bretagne-Sud, LET2E (EA3373), 56 - Lorient (France); Ayrault, D. [CEA Saclay (LTA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durocher, A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (DSM/DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Primaux, F.; Cauwe, B. [Le Bronze Industriel, 51 - Suippes (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Due to its good thermomechanical and thermophysical properties, precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy is used for structural components in fusion experiments such as Tore Supra, JET, W7X and will find also application in the thermonuclear fusion reactor ITER. In Tore Supra (CEA Cadarache, France) this material is typically used for heat sink structures of plasma facing components. The experience feedback showed that the CuCrZr alloy was very sensitive to the hot tearing phenomenon during electron beam welding, leading to defects in and/or near the melted zone. The objective of the project under consideration is to propose a hot tearing criterion by mean of numerical simulations, in order to define a welding acceptance test which could be applied to the material, delivered from different manufacturers. In order to characterize the hot tearing phenomenon, a laboratory test, inspired by the Shibahara's experiment, is used. An electron beam welding seam is performed on a thin rectangular plate, which is instrumented with thermocouples while a CCD camera allows recording of eventual cracking defects during welding. The image correlation method permits to determine the displacement field in the solidified welding seam as well as in the non melted zone. In order to identify the hot tearing criterion due to the welding process, the stress and strain state in the material during the laboratory test is calculated with a Lagrangian thermomechanical finite element simulation. For high temperatures, the alloy viscosity is taken into account in order to identify an elasto-viscoplastic behaviour law. Thermomechanical experiments are performed with a Gleeble physical simulator. A thermomechanical criterion for the initiation of hot tearing during electron beam welding of a quenched and aged CuCr1Zr alloy (DIN 17672 standard) has been identified. (authors)

  12. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  13. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  14. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  15. Thermoelectric Properties of Texture-Controlled (GeTe) x (AgSbTe2)100-x (x = 75, 80, 85, and 90) Alloys Fabricated by Gas-Atomization and Hot-Extrusion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Seob; Dharmaiah, Peyala; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2017-11-01

    In this study, p-type (GeTe) x (AgSbTe2)100-x : TAGS-x (where x = 75, 80, 85, and 90) thermoelectric materials were fabricated by a combination of gas atomization and a hot-extrusion process, and the effects of chemical composition on microstructure, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties were investigated. The extruded samples exhibited higher relative densities (> 99%), and a significant orientation degree parallel to the extrusion direction with fine and homogeneous microstructure was observed. The hardness of extruded samples was around 200-260 kgf/mm2, which indicates that they have much better mechanical properties than most other TE materials. The power factor of the extruded samples showed excellent values; the maximum power factor achieved was 3.81 × 10-3 W/mK2 for TAGS-90 at 723 K due to an effective combination of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity.

  16. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  17. Stellar laboratories. III. New Ba v, Ba vi, and Ba vii oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: Reliable Ba v-vii oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g = 7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-4 (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 265 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for

  18. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2017-01-01

    particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent...... to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide...

  20. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  1. FY16 Annual Accomplishments - Waste Form Development and Performance: Evaluation Of Ceramic Waste Forms - Comparison Of Hot Isostatic Pressed And Melt Processed Fabrication Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dandeneau, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    FY16 efforts were focused on direct comparison of multi-phase ceramic waste forms produced via melt processing and HIP methods. Based on promising waste form compositions previously devised at SRNL, simulant material was prepared at SRNL and a portion was sent to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) for HIP treatments, while the remainder of the material was melt processed at SRNL. The microstructure, phase formation, elemental speciation, and leach behavior, and radiation stability of the fabricated ceramics was performed. In addition, melt-processed ceramics designed with different fractions of hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite, and pyrochlore phases were investigated. for performance and properties.

  2. Vulnerability Assessment and Resiliency Planning: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Process and Best Practices; May 23, 2014 - June 5, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Renfrow, S. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratory that employs more than 2,500 people. The laboratory focuses on renewable energy and energy-efficiency research and has two campuses along the Front Range of Colorado. In 2014, NREL worked with Abt Environmental Research (then called Stratus Consulting Inc.) to develop a vulnerability assessment and resiliency action plan as part of NREL's Climate Change Resiliency and Preparedness (CCRP) project. This guide describes the process that NREL undertook during this project. NREL used a participatory approach to vulnerability assessment and resiliency planning that emphasized organizational context, building internal capacity, and the application of climate science in a practical and actionable manner.

  3. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-dregree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well...

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE; MULTI-VENDOR BIOREMEDIATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES/SBP TECHNOLOGIES' UVB VACUUM VAPORIZATION WELL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technology capsule summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the Unterdruck-Verdampfer-Brunnen (UVB) technology developed by IEG Technologies (IEG) and licensed in the eastern United States by Environmental Laboratories, Inc. (ELI) and SBP Technologies, Inc. (SBP). This e...

  5. Capitalizing on the success of romantic partners : A laboratory investigation on subjective, facial, and physiological emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S.S.; Kaczmarek, L.D.; Kashdan, T.B.; Drążkowski, D.; Kosakowski, M.; Guzik, P.; Krauze, T.; Gracanin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Receiving a constructive, supportive response from romantic partners after sharing good news has been shown to magnify the positivity of events and predict healthy relationship outcomes. We conducted a laboratory social interaction to determine whether supportive responses to success led to changes

  6. Characterization of thermoplastic composites for hot stamp forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, Bert; Grouve, Wouter; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art characterization methods for thermoplastic composites at high processing temperature and provides a few examples of application in simulations of the hot stamp forming process.

  7. Characterisation and modelling of the thermorheological properties of pharmaceutical polymers and their blends using capillary rheometry: Implications for hot melt processing of dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S; Margetson, Daniel N; McAllister, Mark S; Andrews, Gavin P

    2015-09-30

    Given the growing interest in thermal processing methods, this study describes the use of an advanced rheological technique, capillary rheometry, to accurately determine the thermorheological properties of two pharmaceutical polymers, Eudragit E100 (E100) and hydroxypropylcellulose JF (HPC) and their blends, both in the presence and absence of a model therapeutic agent (quinine, as the base and hydrochloride salt). Furthermore, the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the cooled extrudates produced using capillary rheometry were characterised using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) thereby enabling correlations to be drawn between the information derived from capillary rheometry and the glass transition properties of the extrudates. The shear viscosities of E100 and HPC (and their blends) decreased as functions of increasing temperature and shear rates, with the shear viscosity of E100 being significantly greater than that of HPC at all temperatures and shear rates. All platforms were readily processed at shear rates relevant to extrusion (approximately 200-300 s(-1)) and injection moulding (approximately 900 s(-1)). Quinine base was observed to lower the shear viscosities of E100 and E100/HPC blends during processing and the Tg of extrudates, indicative of plasticisation at processing temperatures and when cooled (i.e. in the solid state). Quinine hydrochloride (20% w/w) increased the shear viscosities of E100 and HPC and their blends during processing and did not affect the Tg of the parent polymer. However, the shear viscosities of these systems were not prohibitive to processing at shear rates relevant to extrusion and injection moulding. As the ratio of E100:HPC increased within the polymer blends the effects of quinine base on the lowering of both shear viscosity and Tg of the polymer blends increased, reflecting the greater solubility of quinine within E100. In conclusion, this study has highlighted the importance of capillary rheometry in

  8. Stellar Laboratories II. New Zn Iv and Zn v Oscillator Strengths and Their Validation in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191B2B,21 Zn iv lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn iv data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge vi were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance.Aims. Reliable Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths are used to improve the Zn abundance determination and to identify more Zn lines in the spectra of G191B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503289. Methods. We performed new calculations of Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn iv v spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-SN UV observations of G191B2B and RE 0503289. Results. In the UV spectrum of G191B2B, we identify 31 Zn iv and 16 Zn v lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce well almost all of them at log Zn 5.52 0.2 (mass fraction, about 1.7 times solar). In particular, the Zn iv Zn v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive Teff indicator, is well reproduced with the previously determined Teff 60 000 2000 K and log g 7.60 0.05. In the spectrum of RE 0503289, we identified 128 Zn v lines for the first time and determined log Zn 3.57 0.2 (155 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zn iv and Zn v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191B2B and RE 0503289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed us to determine the

  9. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  10. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters.

  11. Hot spot formation on passenger car brake discs; Hotspotbildung bei Pkw-Bremsscheiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, T.; Bruns, R. [Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Lab. fuer Maschinenelemente und Foerderwesen

    1998-06-01

    Braking a passenger car from high speeds may, under certain circumstances, lead to the development of hot spots on the brake disc surface, causing the brake and steering systems to vibrate. Based on the findings of experiments carried out by the Laboratory of Mechanical Machine Components and Material Handling at the University of the Federal Armed Forces, Hamburg, a computational model has been developed to simulate the processes of hot spot formation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Abbremsen eines Pkw aus hohen Geschwindigkeiten bewirkt unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen Hitzeflecken auf der Bremsscheiben-Oberflaeche - die sogenannten Hotspots -, welche das Brems- und Lenksystem zu Schwingungen anregen. Aus den Erkenntnissen der am Laboratorium Maschinenelemente und Foerderwesen an der Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen ist ein Rechenmodell entwickelt worden, mit dem die Vorgaenge der Hotspot-Bildung simuliert werden koennen. (orig.)

  12. Harvesting the loss: surface plasmon-based hot electron photodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason G.

    2017-01-01

    Although the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process within the plasmonic and metamaterial communities, hot carriers generated from nonradiative plasmon decay offer new opportunities for harnessing absorption loss. Hot carriers can be harnessed for applications ranging from chemical catalysis, photothermal heating, photovoltaics, and photodetection. Here, we present a review on the recent developments concerning photodetection based on hot electrons. The basic principles and recent progress on hot electron photodetectors are summarized. The challenges and potential future directions are also discussed.

  13. Esophageal thermal injury by hot adlay tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-03-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement.

  14. Probing the hot zone of colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, R.Aa.

    1995-11-01

    The hot zone created in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions has been studied. At energies between 20 A MeV and 300 A MeV the nuclear emulsion technique has been used to achieve a full 4 pi identification and momentum determination of all charged fragments, enabling a strict selection of central events based on multiplicity and the energy flow tensor. In connection with this a CCD-based track identification system has been developed, specially designed for charge identification of intermediate-mass fragments. The CCD-camera is connected to an image processing card in a microcomputer where the width of the track is determined by profile measurements on the pixel level. The results point to a presence of radial flow in central {sup 36}Ar + AgBr collisions at 65 A MeV, but not in {sup 16}O + AgBr collisions at 210 A MeV. At energies between 0.8 to 1.8 A GeV mesons produced in symmetric Ne + NaF, Ni + Ni and Au + Au, have been measured by plastic scintillator counter telescopes. The mass and angular dependence of the subthreshold production of kaons at a laboratory energy of 1.0 A GeV have been systematically extracted from three different experiment periods at GSI, Darmstadt. The results point to the presence of rescattering of kaons in the dense nuclear environment, thus increasing the cross section at large angles. More speculatively, an anisotropy in the production process could be conjectured. 61 refs, 15 figs.

  15. Global approach for the validation of an in-line Raman spectroscopic method to determine the API content in real-time during a hot-melt extrusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchacovitch, L; Thiry, J; De Bleye, C; Dumont, E; Cailletaud, J; Sacré, P-Y; Evrard, B; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

    2017-08-15

    Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a guidance based on the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach, real-time analyses during manufacturing processes are in real expansion. In this study, in-line Raman spectroscopic analyses were performed during a Hot-Melt Extrusion (HME) process to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content in real-time. The method was validated based on a univariate and a multivariate approach and the analytical performances of the obtained models were compared. Moreover, on one hand, in-line data were correlated with the real API concentration present in the sample quantified by a previously validated off-line confocal Raman microspectroscopic method. On the other hand, in-line data were also treated in function of the concentration based on the weighing of the components in the prepared mixture. The importance of developing quantitative methods based on the use of a reference method was thus highlighted. The method was validated according to the total error approach fixing the acceptance limits at ±15% and the α risk at ±5%. This method reaches the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia norms for the uniformity of content of single-dose preparations. The validation proves that future results will be in the acceptance limits with a previously defined probability. Finally, the in-line validated method was compared with the off-line one to demonstrate its ability to be used in routine analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette E

    2017-07-19

    The guidance document SANTE 11945/2015 recommends that cereal samples be milled to a particle size preferably smaller than 1.0 mm and that extensive heating of the samples should be avoided. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the differences in milling procedures, obtained particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide extraction efficiencies were observed even between samples milled by the same type of mill.

  17. Hot recycling of asphaltic concrete pavement : IR-15-3(8)121, Wildcat to Pine Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    There are various methods of pavement material recycling. This report is devoted to hot-mix plant recycling considerations and procedures. The several phases of the hot-mix recycling process are discussed separately, including removal and size reduct...

  18. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

  19. Stellar laboratories. IV. New Ga iv, Ga v, and Ga vi oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Aims: Reliable Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga v lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The identification of Ga iv and Ga vi lines is uncertain because they are weak and partly blended by other lines. The determined Ga abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-5 (mass fraction, about 625 times the solar value). The Ga iv/Ga v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive indicator for the effective temperature, is well reproduced in RE 0503-289. We identified the strongest Ga iv lines (at 1258.801, 1338.129 Å) in the HST/STIS spectrum of G191-B2B and measured a Ga abundance of 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 22 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. The observed Ga iv-v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed us to determine the photospheric Ga abundance in white dwarfs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space

  20. Stellar laboratories. VI. New Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths and the molybdenum abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Demleitner, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and, to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, reliable Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths are used. Methods: We newly calculated Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Mo lines exhibited in high-resolution and high S/N UV observations of RE 0503-289. Results: We identified 12 Mo v and 9 Mo vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2-3.0 × 10-4 (mass fraction, 22 500-56 400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As v and Sn iv resonance lines, we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.5-1.3 × 10-5, about 300-1200 times solar) and tin (1.3-3.2 × 10-4, about 14 300-35 200 times solar). For G191-B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 × 10-7, 100 times solar) and, in addition, for Kr (1.1 × 10-6, 10 times solar) and Xe (1.7 × 10-7, 10 times solar). The arsenic abundance was determined (2.3-5.9 × 10-7, about 21-53 times solar). A new, registered German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service, TOSS, has been constructed to provide weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities. Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Mo v-vi line profiles in the UV spectrum of the white dwarf RE 0503-289 were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed the photospheric Mo

  1. Stellar laboratories. II. New Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-04-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B, 21 Zn iv lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn iv data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge vi were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance. Aims: Reliable Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths are used to improve the Zn abundance determination and to identify more Zn lines in the spectra of G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. Methods: We performed new calculations of Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn iv - v spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: In the UV spectrum of G191-B2B, we identify 31 Zn iv and 16 Zn v lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce well almost all of them at log Zn = -5.52 ± 0.2 (mass fraction, about 1.7 times solar). In particular, the Zn iv / Zn v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive Teff indicator, is well reproduced with the previously determined and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. In the spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identified 128 Zn v lines for the first time and determined log Zn = -3.57 ± 0.2 (155 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zn iv and Zn v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed us to

  2. Reaction to a protest over a patent application for a process of avoiding precipitation and coking-up in the hot separators of high-pressure hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, E.

    1943-10-20

    This report was written as a defense of the newness of the process concerned; the newness had been questioned on the basis of an existing French patent held by I.G. Farbenindustrie. The defense rested on the fact that the bubbling gas was injected and the product was withdrawn from the separator in different places from those in the French patent, and that no pumping around of the product was involved, as it was in the French patent.

  3. Evaluation of hot in-place recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the construction of hot in-place recycled (HIPR) pavement on SR 542. : HIPR is a process by which rehabilitation of the existing HMA pavement occurs on site in one : operation. HIPR project selection, mix design, construction an...

  4. Cycling the Hot CNO: A Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost-Schenk, J. W.; Diget, C. Aa.; Bentley, M. A.; Tuff, A.

    2018-01-01

    An interactive activity to teach the hot Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen (HCNO) cycle is proposed. Justification for why the HCNO cycle is important is included via an example of x-ray bursts. The activity allows teaching and demonstration of half-life, nuclear isotopes, nuclear reactions, protons and a-particles, and catalytic processes. Whilst the…

  5. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  6. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli...

  7. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Exploring STR signal in the single- and multicopy number regimes: Deductions from an in silico model of the entire DNA laboratory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ken R; Gurram, Neil; Peters, Kelsey C; Wellner, Genevieve; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling from DNA samples has long been the bedrock of human identification. The laboratory process is composed of multiple procedures that include quantification, sample dilution, PCR, electrophoresis, and fragment analysis. The end product is a short tandem repeat electropherogram comprised of signal from allele, artifacts, and instrument noise. In order to optimize or alter laboratory protocols, a large number of validation samples must be created at significant expense. As a tool to support that process and to enable the exploration of complex scenarios without costly sample creation, a mechanistic stochastic model that incorporates each of the aforementioned processing features is described herein. The model allows rapid in silico simulation of electropherograms from multicontributor samples and enables detailed investigations of involved scenarios. An implementation of the model that is parameterized by extensive laboratory data is publically available. To illustrate its utility, the model was employed in order to evaluate the effects of sample dilutions, injection time, and cycle number on peak height, and the nature of stutter ratios at low template. We verify the model's findings by comparison with experimentally generated data. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  10. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  11. Porosity and Permeability Evolution Accompanying Hot fluid Injection into Diatomite, SUPRI TR-123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabira, I.; Castanier, L.M.; Kovscek, A.R.

    2001-04-19

    An experimental study of silica dissolution was performed to probe the evolution of permeability and porosity in siliceous diatomite during hot fluid injection such as water or steam flooding. Two competing mechanisms were identified. Silica solubility in water at elevated temperature causes rock dissolution thereby increasing permeability; however, the rock is mechanically weak leading to compressing of the solid matrix during injection. Permeability and porosity can decrease at the onset of fluid flow. A laboratory flow apparatus was designed and built to examine these processes in diatomite core samples.

  12. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  13. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems.

  14. Design of a mobile aerosol research laboratory and data processing tools for effective stationary and mobile field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Drewnick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact mobile aerosol research laboratory (MoLa for stationary and mobile measurements of aerosol and trace gas characteristics was developed at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPIC in Mainz, Germany. Major efforts were made to design an aerosol inlet system which is optimized and characterised for both, stationary and mobile measurements using a particle loss modelling approach. The instrumentation on board allows the determination of a multitude of physical and chemical aerosol parameters, for example particle number and mass concentration (PM1/2.5/10, particle size distributions in the diameter range 6 nm up to 32 μm, and chemical composition of the sub-micron aerosol. Furthermore, trace gas concentrations of O3, SO2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and water vapour as well as meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind, solar radiation and precipitation are measured together with various housekeeping parameters. All instruments collect data with high time resolution in the second to minute-range. The measurement platform, as well as data acquisition and handling tools, are optimized for efficient application to various measurement settings. The mobile laboratory is designed to be used for mobile investigation of anthropogenically influenced environments. Possible applications include pollutant mapping, chasing of mobile sources or Lagrangian-type measurements in emission plumes, but also stationary measurements with possible frequent position changes and a well-characterised instrument setup. In addition to the design and features of the mobile laboratory, its inlet system and instrumentation as well as examples of applications of this platform are presented. Challenges associated with such measurements and approaches to extract the desired information from the mobile datasets are discussed.

  15. Immediate bromodeoxyuridine labelling of unseparated human bone marrow cells ex vivo is superior to labelling after routine laboratory processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Christensen, I J

    1998-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in several disease conditions and during treatment of patients with for example cytokines. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), immunocytochemical staining with anti-BrdUrd antibody and analysis by flow cytometry provides...... a reliable and reproducible technique for estimation of the fraction of cells that incorporated BrdUrd into DNA during S-phase. We have compared immediate BrdUrd labelling of unseparated bone marrow cells with the previously used labelling in the laboratory after routine separation of the mononuclear cells...

  16. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  17. Hot topic: Fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer composition of commercial CLA-fortified dairy products: evaluation after processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Fontecha, J

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a strong positive influence on human health but intake of these fatty acids is typically too low, and increased consumption of CLA is recommended. A good way to raise the CLA content in the diet without a radical change in eating habits seems to be the enrichment of commonly consumed food products with CLA supplements. This study analyzed the total fatty acid content and the CLA isomer composition of 6 commercially available CLA-fortified dairy products during processing and 10 wk of refrigerated storage. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography and silver-ion HPLC. The tested samples were a CLA oil supplement, and several skim milk dairy products fortified with the supplement (milk, milk powder, fermented milk, yogurt, fresh cheese, and milk-juice blend). The CLA oil supplement was added such that the consumer received 2.4 g/d of CLA by consuming 2 servings. The predominant isomers present, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA and C18:2 cis-10, trans-12 CLA, were in at a similar ratio, which ranged from 0.97 to 1.05. These major isomers were not significantly affected by processing but a decrease in total CLA in fresh cheese samples was detected after 10 wk of refrigerated storage. Refrigerated storage and thermal treatment resulted in significant decreases or disappearance of some of the minor CLA isomers and a significant increase of trans, trans isomers from both cis, trans, trans, cis, and cis, cis isomers especially in CLA-fortified milk powder but also in fermented milk, yogurt, and milk-juice blend.

  18. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  19. The Henry Ford production system: LEAN process redesign improves service in the molecular diagnostic laboratory: a paper from the 2008 William Beaumont hospital symposium on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement.

  20. Implementation of a Proposed Model of a Constructivist Teaching-Learning Process – A Step Towards an Outcome Based Education in Chemistry Laboratory Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Paz B. Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study implemented the proposed model of a constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the extent by which the students manifested the institutional learning outcomes which include competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration. It also investigated if there was an improvement in the learning outcomes after the implementation of the constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the students’ acceptance of the constructivist teaching-learning process. Towards the end a plan of action was proposed to enhance the students’ manifestation of the institutional learning outcomes. It made use of the qualitative- quantitative method particularly the descriptive design. The results of the study revealed that the students manifest competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration as they accept positively the constructivist teaching-learning process in their chemistry laboratory subject. It can be deduced from the findings that the constructivist teaching-learning process improved the learning outcomes of the students. The use of the proposed plan of action is recommended for an effective chemistry laboratory instruction.

  1. Magnitude of the impact of hot flashes on sleep in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Colrain, Ian M; Javitz, Harold S; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-12-01

    To quantify the impact of objectively recorded hot flashes on objective sleep in perimenopausal women. Cross-sectional study. Participants underwent 1-5 laboratory-based polysomnographic recordings for a total of 63 nights, including sternal skin-conductance measures, from which 222 hot flashes were identified according to established criteria. Data were analyzed with hierarchical mixed-effect models and Spearman's rank correlations. Sleep laboratory. Thirty-four perimenopausal women (age ± SD: 50.4 ± 2.7 years). None. Perceived and polysomnographic sleep measures (sleep quality, amount of time spent awake after sleep onset, and number of awakenings). Subjective (frequency and level of bother) and objective (frequency and amount of hot flash-associated awake time) hot-flash measures. Women had an average of 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.8-4.2, range = 1-9) objective hot flashes per night. A total of 69.4% of hot flashes were associated with an awakening. Hot flash-associated time awake per night was, on average, 16.6 minutes (95% confidence interval: 10.8-22.4 minutes), which accounted for 27.2% (SD 27.1) of total awake time per night. Hot flash-associated time awake, but not hot flash frequency, was negatively associated with sleep efficiency and positively associated with waking after sleep onset. In addition, self-reported wakefulness correlated with hot flash-associated waking, suggesting that women's estimates of wakefulness are influenced by the amount of time spent awake in association with hot flashes during the night. Having more perceived and bothersome hot flashes was correlated with more perceived wakefulness and awakenings and more objective hot flash-associated time awake and hot-flash frequency. The presence of physiological hot flashes accounts for a significant proportion of total objective time awake during the night in perimenopausal women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark 120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Lobban, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Dauser, T.; Farrah, D.; Garcia, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tortosa, A.; Ursini, F.; Zhang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The physical characteristics of the material closest to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are primarily studied through X-ray observations. However, the origins of the main X-ray components such as the soft X-ray excess, the Fe Kα line complex, and the hard X-ray excess are still hotly debated. This is particularly problematic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) showing a significant intrinsic absorption, either warm or neutral, which can severely distort the observed continuum. Therefore, AGN with no (or very weak) intrinsic absorption along the line of sight, so-called "bare AGN", are the best targets to directly probe matter very close to the SMBH. Aims: We perform an X-ray spectral analysis of the brightest and cleanest bare AGN known so far, Ark 120, in order to determine the process(es) at work in the vicinity of the SMBH. Methods: We present spectral analyses of data from an extensive campaign observing Ark 120 in X-rays with XMM-Newton (4 × 120 ks, 2014 March 18-24), and NuSTAR (65.5 ks, 2014 March 22). Results: During this very deep X-ray campaign, the source was caught in a high-flux state similar to the earlier 2003 XMM-Newton observation, and about twice as bright as the lower-flux observation in 2013. The spectral analysis confirms the "softer when brighter" behavior of Ark 120. The four XMM-Newton/pn spectra are characterized by the presence of a prominent soft X-ray excess and a significant Fe Kα complex. The continuum is very similar above about 3 keV, while significant variability is present for the soft X-ray excess. We find that relativistic reflection from a constant-density, flat accretion disk cannot simultaneously produce the soft excess, broad Fe Kα complex, and hard X-ray excess. Instead, Comptonization reproduces the broadband (0.3-79 keV) continuum well, together with a contribution from a mildly relativistic disk reflection spectrum. Conclusions: During this 2014 observational campaign, the soft X-ray spectrum of Ark 120 below 0

  3. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  4. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  5. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  6. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  7. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  8. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  9. Round-Robin Studies on Roll-Processed ITO-free Organic Tandem Solar Cells Combined with Inter-Laboratory Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2015-01-01

    -junction counterparts and the use of round-robin studies as a consensus tool for evaluation of organic solar cell parameters is judged just as viable for the tandem solar cells as for single-junction devices. The inter-laboratory stability studies were conducted according to testing protocols ISOS-D-2, ISOS-D-3......Roll-processed, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free, flexible, organic tandem solar cells and modules have been realized and used in round-robin studies as well as in parallel inter-laboratory stability studies. The tandem cells/modules show no significant difference in comparison to their single......, and ISOS-L-2, and in spite of a much more complicated architecture the organic tandem solar cells show no significant difference in stability in comparison to their single-junction counterparts....

  10. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these mate