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Sample records for hot giant dipole

  1. The Giant Dipole Resonance in hot nuclei. Experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.

    1994-12-01

    Some of the most recent experimental results on the GDR in hot nuclei are presented. All data on the {gamma}-decay of the GDR show a saturation of the apparent width and a saturation of the yield. However, it is not clear until now, if these effects are related to a GDR width which either saturates or increases continuously with the excitation energy. Very new data associated to selected exit channels could help to clarify the situation. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass A~=115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomijärvi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J. H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, Ph.; Coniglione, R.; del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J. C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Smerzi, A.

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36Ar+90Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4π barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The γ spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The γ yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the γ yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the γ spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of γ emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures.

  3. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass {ital A}{approx_equal}115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J.H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardho/je, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay, France INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123, Catania, Italy SPhN, DAPNIA, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France GANIL, BP 5027, 14021 Caen, France The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 O/ (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 90}Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4{pi} barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The {gamma} spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The {gamma} yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the {ital N}/{ital Z} asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the {gamma} yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the {gamma} spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of {gamma} emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.

  5. Width and strength of the hot giant dipole resonance. The role of the life time of the compound nucleus and the transition from order to chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-09-01

    A bump in the {gamma} decay spectrum is observed at high energies which is due to the excitation of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in the compound nucleus. The fact is discussed that the total width of the {gamma}-ray spectrum of the GDR transitions must contain twice the width of the compound nucleus levels. This implies that one must except a rapid increase of the width of the GDR. This increase contributes to the observed saturation of the photon multiplicity. A new suppression factor due to the lost of collectivity induced by the fast particle emission is proposed. (K.A.). 19 refs.

  6. Internal pair decay of giant resonances in hot Pb-200

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadmand, S; Varma, R; Banerjee, S.R.; Back, BB; Hofman, DJ; Montoya, CP; Paul, P

    1996-01-01

    Electron-positron pairs emitted during the de-excitation of hot Pb-200 from the reaction 95 MeV F-19 + Ta-181 were detected with the Stony Brook pair detector. The internal pair decay from the giant dipole resonance (GDR) built on excited states in a heavy nucleus is cleanly observed for the first

  7. Recent results on giant dipole resonance decays in highly excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snover, K.A.

    1991-12-31

    Some recent results on Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) decays in highly excited, equilibrated nuclei, are discussed based primarily on work done at Seattle. Four sections address the following topics: oblate shapes of rotating, highly excited Zr--Mo nuclei; adiabatic versus `motionally narrowed` GDR decay; large spin-driven deformations observed in hot medium-mass nuclei; and search for entrance channel effects in GDR decay following {sup 58}Ni {plus} {sup 92}Zr fusion. 22 refs.

  8. Recent results on giant dipole resonance decays in highly excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snover, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Some recent results on Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) decays in highly excited, equilibrated nuclei, are discussed based primarily on work done at Seattle. Four sections address the following topics: oblate shapes of rotating, highly excited Zr--Mo nuclei; adiabatic versus motionally narrowed' GDR decay; large spin-driven deformations observed in hot medium-mass nuclei; and search for entrance channel effects in GDR decay following [sup 58]Ni [plus] [sup 92]Zr fusion. 22 refs.

  9. Direct neutron decay of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunyadi, M.D.; van den Berg, A.M.; Davids, B.S.; Harakeh, M.N.; de Huu, M.A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Csatlós, M.; Gulyas, J.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Sohler, D.; Garg, U.; Fujiwara, M.; Blasi, N.

    The direct and statistical neutron decay of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance has been studied in Zr-90, Sn-116, and Pb-208 using the (alpha, alpha' n) reaction at a bombarding energy of 200 MeV. The spectra of fast decay neutrons populating valence hole states of the Z, N - 1 nuclei were

  10. Excitation and decay of two-phonon giant dipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Aumann, T.; Emling, H.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Leifels, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Cub, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Elze, T.W.; Gruenschloss, A.; Leistenschneider, A.; Stroth, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kulessa, R.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Kratz, J.V. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    1998-09-01

    In heavy ion collisions at near relativistic energies, electromagnetic excitation of the double giant dipole resonance occurs with large cross sections. We summarize the presently available experimental data and discuss related theoretical efforts. Emphasis is paid to the question of anharmonicities and to the damping of the two-phonon states. (orig.)

  11. Excitation and Decay of Two-Phonon Giant Dipole Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K.; Aumann, T.; Cub, J.; Elze, Th.W.; Emling, H.; Gruenschloss, A.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kratz, J.V.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Stroth, J.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W

    1999-03-29

    In heavy ion collisions at near relativistic energies, electromagnetic excitation of the double giant dipole resonance occurs with large cross sections. We summarize the presently available experimental data and discuss related theoretical efforts. Emphasis is paid to the question of anharmonicities and to the damping of the two-phonon states.

  12. Two-phonon giant dipole resonance in {sup 208}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Stroth, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Wajda, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Aumann, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Blaich, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Cub, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Elze, T.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Emling, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Henning, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Holzmann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Klingler, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kulessa, R. [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Kratz, J.V. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Lambrecht, D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Leifels, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lubkiewicz, E. [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Stelzer, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Walus, W. [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Zinser, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zude, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); LAND Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    Excitation of the two-phonon isovector giant dipole resonance was observed in {sup 208}Pb projectiles incident on different target nuclei (C, Sn, Ho, Pb, U) at high energy (640 A.MeV). Evidence is found for a two-step electromagnetic excitation mechanism. An enhancement of 1.33(16) for the excitation cross section is observed relative to the harmonic approximation. Neutron- and {gamma}-decay probabilities are derived as well. (orig.)

  13. Excitonic giant-dipole potentials in cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Markus; Grünwald, Peter; Scheel, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we predict the existence of a novel species of Wannier excitons when exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. In particular, we present a theory of giant-dipole excitons in Cu2O in crossed fields. Within our theoretical approach we perform a pseudoseparation of the center-of-mass motion for the field-dressed excitonic species, thereby obtaining an effective single-particle Hamiltonian for the relative motion. For arbitrary gauge fields we exactly separate the gauge-dependent kinetic-energy terms from the effective single-particle interaction potential. Depending on the applied field strengths and the specific field orientation, the potential for the relative motion of electron and hole exhibits an outer well at spatial separations up to several micrometers and depths up to 380 μ eV , leading to possible permanent excitonic electric dipole moments of around 3 ×106 D.

  14. Driving Rabi oscillations at the giant dipole resonance in xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short and very intense light pulses in the XUV and x-ray regimes. We investigate the possibility to drive Rabi oscillations in xenon with an intense FEL pulse by using the unusually large dipole strength of the giant-dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR decays within less than 30 as due to its position, which is above the $4d$ ionization threshold. We find that intensities around 10$^{18}$ W/cm$^2$ are required to induce Rabi oscillations with a period comparable to the lifetime. The pulse duration should not exceed 100 as because xenon will be fully ionized within a few lifetimes. Rabi oscillations reveal themselves also in the photoelectron spectrum in form of Autler-Townes splittings extending over several tens of electronvolt.

  15. Self-Consistent Calculations of the Electric Giant Dipole Resonances in Light and Heavy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutorovich, N.; Tselyaev, V. I.; Speth, J.; Krewald, S.; Grümmer, F.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2012-08-01

    While bulk properties of stable nuclei are successfully reproduced by mean-field theories employing effective interactions, the dependence of the centroid energy of the electric giant dipole resonance on the nucleon number A is not. This problem is cured by considering many-particle correlations beyond mean-field theory, which we do within the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The electric giant dipole resonances in O16, Ca40, and Pb208 are calculated using two new Skyrme interactions.

  16. ON GAMMA-DECAY OF GIANT-DIPOLE RESONANCE IN TIN ISOTOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PONOMAREV, VY; KRASZNAHORKAY, A

    1992-01-01

    The cross sections of excitation of the isovector giant dipole resonance in Sn-116, Sn-124 isotopes by inelastic scattering of alpha-particles in coincidence with gamma-decay into the ground state and the first excited 2+ state are presented. An attempt has been made to interpret a strong decay into

  17. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures–New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... High energy photons from the decay of giant dipole resonances (GDR) built on excited states provide an excellent probe in the study of nuclear structure properties, damping mechanisms etc., at finite temperatures. The dependence of GDR width on temperature () and angular momentum () has been the ...

  18. Giant Dipole Resonance in light and heavy nuclei beyond selfconsistent mean field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, Siegfried; Lyutorovich, Nikolay; Tselyaev, Victor; Speth, Josef; Gruemmer, Frank; Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    While bulk properties of stable nuclei are successfully reproduced by mean-field theories employing effective interactions, the dependence of the centroid energy of the electric giant dipole resonance on the nucleon number A is not. This problem is cured by considering many-particle correlations beyond mean-field theory, which we do within a selfconsistent generalization of the Quasiparticle Time Blocking Approximation [1,2]. The electric giant dipole resonances in ^16O, ^40Ca, and ^208Pb are calculated using two new Skyrme interactions. Perspectives for an extension to effective field theories[3] are discussed.[4pt] [1] V. Tselyaev et al., Phys.Rev.C75, 014315(2007).[0pt] [2] N. Lyutorovich et al., submitted to Phys.Rev.Lett.[0pt] [3] S. Krewald et al., Prog.Part.Nucl.Phys.67, 322(2012).

  19. Double-phonon giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Boretzky-Grimm, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Wajda, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Blaich, T. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, 55029 Mainz (Germany); Elze, T. W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Emling, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Freiesleben, H. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, 01039 Dresden (Germany); Henning, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Holzmann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Klingler, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kulessa, R. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, 55029 Mainz (Germany); Lambrecht, D. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, 55029 Mainz (Germany); Leifels, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Lubkiewicz, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Moore, E.F. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Stelzer, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Walus, W. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Zinser, M. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, 55029 Mainz (Germany); Zude, E. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, 55029 Mainz (Germany)

    1996-03-18

    We report on Coulomb dissociation experiments utilizing a {sup 208}Pb-beam (641 MeV/nucleon) impinging on C, Sn, Ho, Pb and U targets. Excitation energy distributions for {sup 208}Pb are extracted from an exclusive measurement of the projectile decay products. The measured cross section is dominated for heavy targets by Coulomb excitation of giant resonance states in lead. A thorough analysis yields evidence for the excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance. In contrast to earlier results obtained for other nuclei the extracted cross section for {sup 208}Pb exceeds that of theoretical predictions on the basis of a harmonic oscillator scenario only slightly by about a factor 1.3. (orig.).

  20. RADIO EMISSION FROM RED-GIANT HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yuka [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan); Spiegel, David S. [Analytics and Algorithms, Stitch Fix, San Francisco, CA 94103 (United States); Mroczkowski, Tony [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Nordhaus, Jason [Department of Science and Mathematics, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil T. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Parsons, Aaron R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mirbabayi, Mehrdad [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: yuka.fujii@elsi.jp [Astronomy Department, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    When planet-hosting stars evolve off the main sequence and go through the red-giant branch, the stars become orders of magnitudes more luminous and, at the same time, lose mass at much higher rates than their main-sequence counterparts. Accordingly, if planetary companions exist around these stars at orbital distances of a few au, they will be heated up to the level of canonical hot Jupiters and also be subjected to a dense stellar wind. Given that magnetized planets interacting with stellar winds emit radio waves, such “Red-Giant Hot Jupiters” (RGHJs) may also be candidate radio emitters. We estimate the spectral auroral radio intensity of RGHJs based on the empirical relation with the stellar wind as well as a proposed scaling for planetary magnetic fields. RGHJs might be intrinsically as bright as or brighter than canonical hot Jupiters and about 100 times brighter than equivalent objects around main-sequence stars. We examine the capabilities of low-frequency radio observatories to detect this emission and find that the signal from an RGHJ may be detectable at distances up to a few hundred parsecs with the Square Kilometer Array.

  1. Radio Emission from Red-Giant Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Nordhaus, Jason; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-01-01

    When planet-hosting stars evolve off the main sequence and go through the red-giant branch, the stars become orders of magnitudes more luminous and, at the same time, lose mass at much higher rates than their main sequence counterparts. Accordingly, if planetary companions exist around these stars at orbital distances of a few au, they will be heated up to the level of canonical hot Jupiters and also be subjected to a dense stellar wind. Given that magnetized planets interacting with stellar winds emit radio waves, such "Red-Giant Hot Jupiters" (RGHJs) may also be candidate radio emitters. We estimate the spectral auroral radio intensity of RGHJs based on the empirical relation with the stellar wind as well as a proposed scaling for planetary magnetic fields. RGHJs might be intrinsically as bright as or brighter than canonical hot Jupiters and about 100 times brighter than equivalent objects around main-sequence stars. We examine the capabilities of low-frequency radio observatories to detect this emission and find that the signal from an RGHJ may be detectable at distances up to a few hundred parsecs with the Square Kilometer Array.

  2. Remarks to the problem of the isomeric state production in (gamma, gamma') reactions in the giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhina, N A; Karapetyan, G S

    2001-01-01

    The population of the isomeric states is considered in nuclei sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 In and sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Hf in photonuclear (gamma, gamma') reactions at giant dipole resonance energies. The comparison with the earlier published experimental and theoretical data is made. The behavior of the excitation function gives an evidence for possible increase of the high-spin state population in the giant resonance range

  3. HST/WFC3 Observations of Giant Hot Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Desert, J.-M.; Gilliland, R.; Knutson, H.; Madhusudhan, N.; Mandell, A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Low resolution thermal emission spectra of several dozen extrasolar planets have been measured using Spitzer, and HST observations of a few key exoplanets have reported molecular abundances via transmission spectroscopy. However, current models for the atmospheric structure of these worlds exhibit degeneracies wherein different combinations of temperature and molecular abundance profiles can fit the same Spitzer data. The advent of the IR capability on HST/WFC3 allows us to address this problem. We are currently obtaining transmission spectroscopy of the 1.4-micron water band in a sample of 13 planets, using the G141 grism on WFC3. This is the largest pure-exoplanet program ever executed on HST (115 orbits). Among the abundant molecules, only water absorbs significantly at 1.4-microns, and our measurement of water abundance will enable us to break the degeneracies in the Spitzer results with minimal model assumptions. We are also using the G141 grism to observe secondary eclipses for 7 very hot giant exoplanets at 1.S-microns, including several bright systems in the Kepler and CoRoT fields. The strong temperature sensitivity of the thermal continuum at 1.S-microns provides high leverage on atmospheric temperature for these worlds, again helping to break degeneracies in interpreting the Spitzer data. We here describe preliminary results for several exoplanets observed in this program.

  4. Theoretical characterization of the collective resonance states underlying the xenon giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical characterization of the two fundamental collective resonances underlying the xenon giant dipole resonance (GDR). This is achieved consistently by two complementary methods implemented within the framework of the configuration-interaction singles (CIS) theory. The first method accesses the resonance states by diagonalizing the many-electron Hamiltonian using the smooth exterior complex scaling technique. The second method involves a new application of the Gabor analysis to wave-packet dynamics. We identify one resonance at an excitation energy of 74 eV with a lifetime of 27 as, and the second at 107 eV with a lifetime of 11 as. Our work provides a deeper understanding of the nature of the resonances associated with the GDR: a group of close-lying intrachannel resonances splits into two far-separated resonances through interchannel couplings involving the 4d electrons. The CIS approach allows a transparent interpretation of the two resonances as new collective modes. Due to the...

  5. Dipole strength distribution below the giant dipole resonance in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusev, G.Y.

    2006-07-01

    Investigations of the dipole-strength distributions in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo were carried out by means of the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence. The low-lying excitations in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at an electron energy of 6 MeV at the ELBE accelerator and at electron energies from 3.2 to 3.8 MeV at the Dynamitron accelerator. Five levels were observed in {sup 92}Mo. Five levels in {sup 98}Mo and 14 in {sup 100}Mo were identified for the first time in the energy range from 2 to 4 MeV. Dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-separation energies in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been investigated at the ELBE accelerator. Because of the possible observation of transitions in the neighboring nuclei produced via ({gamma},n) reaction, additional measurements at electron energies of 8.4 and 7.8 MeV, below the neutron-separation energy, were performed on {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo, respectively. The number of transitions assigned to {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo is 340, 485 and 499, respectively, the main part of them being dipole transitions. Statistical properties of the observed transitions are obtained. The continuum contains the ground-state transitions as well as the branching transitions to the low-lying levels and the subsequent deexcitations of these levels. (orig.)

  6. A Possible Mechanism for Driving Oscillations in Hot Giant Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederick, Ethan; Jackiewicz, Jason, E-mail: dederiej@nmsu.edu, E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The κ -mechanism has been successful in explaining the origin of observed oscillations of many types of “classical” pulsating variable stars. Here we examine quantitatively if that same process is prominent enough to excite the potential global oscillations within Jupiter, whose energy flux is powered by gravitational collapse rather than nuclear fusion. Additionally, we examine whether external radiative forcing, i.e., starlight, could be a driver for global oscillations in hot Jupiters orbiting various main-sequence stars at defined orbital semimajor axes. Using planetary models generated by the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and nonadiabatic oscillation calculations, we confirm that Jovian oscillations cannot be driven via the κ -mechanism. However, we do show that, in hot Jupiters, oscillations can likely be excited via the suppression of radiative cooling due to external radiation given a large enough stellar flux and the absence of a significant oscillatory damping zone within the planet. This trend does not seem to be dependent on the planetary mass. In future observations, we can thus expect that such planets may be pulsating, thereby giving greater insight into the internal structure of these bodies.

  7. Charge-exchange dipole excitations in neutron-rich nuclei: -1 ℏ ω0 , anti-analog pygmy and anti-analog giant resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of low-lying charge-exchange non-spin-flip dipole modes below the giant resonance in neutron-rich nuclei is predicted on the basis of nuclear density functional theory. The ground and excited states are described within the framework of the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory and the proton-neutron quasiparticle-random-phase approximation employing a Skyrme-type energy density functional. The model calculations are performed for the spherical neutron-rich Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopes. It is found that the low-lying states appear sensitive to the shell structure associated with the -1 ℏ ω0 excitation below the Gamow-Teller states. Furthermore, the pygmy resonance emerges below the giant resonance when the neutrons occupy the low-ℓ (ℓ ≤2 -3 ) orbitals analogous to the pygmy resonance seen in the electric-dipole response.

  8. Isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions of molybdenum isotopes induced by bremsstrahlung in the giant dipole resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiep, Tran Duc; An, Truong Thi; Cuong, Phan Viet; Vinh, Nguyen The; Hue, Bui Minh; Belov, A. G.; Maslov, O. D.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Zhemenik, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    We have determined the isomeric ratios of isomeric pairs 97m,gNb, 95m,gNb and 91m,gMo produced in 98Mo(γ, p)97m,gNb, 96Mo(γ, p)95m,gNb and 92Mo(γ, n)91m,gMo photonuclear reactions in the giant dipole resonance (GDR) region by the activation method. The results were analyzed, discussed and compared with the similar data from literature to examine the role of excitation energy, neutron configuration, channel effect and direct and pre-equilibrium processes in (γ, p) photonuclear reactions. In this work the isomeric ratios for 97m,gNb from 14 to 19 MeV, for 195m,gNb from14 to 24 MeV except 20 and 23.5 MeV and for 91m,gMo at 14 and 15 MeV are the first time measurements.

  9. Calculations of the giant-dipole-resonance photoneutrons using a coupled EGS4-morse code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Kase, K.R.; Mao, X.S.

    1995-10-01

    The production and transport of the photoneutrons from the giant-dipoleresonance reaction have been implemented in a coupled EGS4-MORSE code. The total neutron yield (including both the direct neutron and evaporation neutron components) is calculated by folding the photoneutron yield cross sections with the photon track length distribution in the target. Empirical algorithms based on the measurements have been developed to estimate the fraction and energy of the direct neutron component for each photon. The statistical theory in the EVAP4 code, incorporated as a MORSE subroutine, is used to determine the energies of the evaporation neutrons. These represent major improvements over other calculations that assumed no direct neutrons, a constant fraction of direct neutrons, monoenergetic direct neutron, or a constant nuclear temperature for the evaporation neutrons. It was also assumed that the slow neutrons (< 2.5 MeV) are emitted isotropically and the fast neutrons are emitted anisotropically in the form of 1+Csin{sup 2}{theta}, which have a peak emission at 900. Comparisons between the calculated and the measured photoneutron results (spectra of the direct, evaporation and total neutrons; nuclear temperatures; direct neutron fractions) for materials of lead, tungsten, tantalum and copper have been made. The results show that the empirical algorithms, albeit simple, can produce reasonable results over the interested photon energy range.

  10. Viscosity: From air to hot nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-09

    Oct 9, 2014 ... After a brief review of the history of viscosity from classical to quantal fluids, a discussion of how the shear viscosity of a finite hot nucleus is calculated directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of the nucleus is given in this paper. The ratio / with s being the entropy volume ...

  11. Improved measurements of turbulence in the hot gaseous atmospheres of nearby giant elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzalek, A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Allen, S. W.; Pinto, C.; Werner, N.; Mantz, A. B.; Canning, R. E. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; de Plaa, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present significantly improved measurements of turbulent velocities in the hot gaseous haloes of nearby giant elliptical galaxies. Using deep XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations and a combination of resonance scattering and direct line broadening methods, we obtain well bounded constraints for 13 galaxies. Assuming that the turbulence is isotropic, we obtain a best-fitting mean 1D turbulent velocity of ∼110 km s-1. This implies a typical 3D Mach number ∼0.45 and a typical non-thermal pressure contribution of ∼6 per cent in the cores of nearby massive galaxies. The intrinsic scatter around these values is modest - consistent with zero, albeit with large statistical uncertainty - hinting at a common and quasi-continuous mechanism sourcing the velocity structure in these objects. Using conservative estimates of the spatial scales associated with the observed turbulent motions, we find that turbulent heating can be sufficient to offset radiative cooling in the inner regions of these galaxies (X-ray micro-calorimeter observations.

  12. Constraints on the magnetic field strength of HAT-P-7 b and other hot giant exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T. M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of the infrared and optical light curves of hot giant exoplanets have demonstrated that the peak brightness is generally offset eastwards from the substellar point 1,2 . This observation is consistent with hydrodynamic numerical simulations producing fast, eastwards directed winds that advect the hottest point in the atmosphere eastwards of the substellar point 3,4 . However, recent continuous Kepler measurements of HAT-P-7 b show that its peak brightness offset varies considerably over time, with excursions such that the brightest point is sometimes westwards of the substellar point 5 . These variations in brightness offset require wind variability, with or without the presence of clouds. While such wind variability has not been seen in hydrodynamic simulations of hot giant exoplanet atmospheres, it has been seen in magnetohydrodynamic simulations 6 . Here I show that magnetohydrodynamic simulations of HAT-P-7 b indeed display variable winds and a corresponding variability in the position of the hottest point in the atmosphere. Assuming that the observed variability in HAT-P-7 b is due to magnetism, I constrain its minimum magnetic field strength to be 6 G. Similar observations of wind variability on hot giant exoplanets, or the lack thereof, could help constrain their magnetic field strengths. As dynamo simulations of these planets do not exist and theoretical scaling relations 7 may not apply, such observational constraints could prove immensely useful.

  13. A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Collins, Karen A; Beatty, Thomas G; Zhou, George; Latham, David W; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D; Siverd, Robert J; Crepp, Justin R; Gonzales, Erica J; Stevens, Daniel J; Buchhave, Lars A; Pepper, Joshua; Johnson, Marshall C; Colon, Knicole D; Jensen, Eric L N; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Bozza, Valerio; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; D'Ago, Giuseppe; Dumont, Mary T; Ellis, Tyler; Gaillard, Clement; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David H; Fukui, Akihiko; Gregorio, Joao; Ito, Ayaka; Kielkopf, John F; Manner, Mark; Matt, Kyle; Narita, Norio; Oberst, Thomas E; Reed, Phillip A; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denice C; Yeigh, Rex R; Zambelli, Roberto; Fulton, B J; Howard, Andrew W; James, David J; Penny, Matthew; Bayliss, Daniel; Curtis, Ivan A; DePoy, D L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B; Marshall, Jennifer L; McLeod, Kim K; Pogge, Richard W; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T G; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-06-22

    The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR THE DIRECT DETECTION OF THE THERMAL SPECTRUM OF THE NON-TRANSITING HOT GAS GIANT HD 88133 b

    KAUST Repository

    Piskorz, Danielle

    2016-11-23

    We target the thermal emission spectrum of the non-transiting gas giant HD 88133 b with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, by treating the planet and its host star as a spectroscopic binary. For sufficiently deep summed flux observations of the star and planet across multiple epochs, it is possible to resolve the signal of the hot gas giant\\'s atmosphere compared to the brighter stellar spectrum, at a level consistent with the aggregate shot noise of the full data set. To do this, we first perform a principal component analysis to remove the contribution of the Earth\\'s atmosphere to the observed spectra. Then, we use a cross-correlation analysis to tease out the spectra of the host star and HD 88133 b to determine its orbit and identify key sources of atmospheric opacity. In total, six epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L-band observations and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC K-band observations of the HD 88133 system were obtained. Based on an analysis of the maximum likelihood curves calculated from the multi-epoch cross-correlation of the full data set with two atmospheric models, we report the direct detection of the emission spectrum of the non-transiting exoplanet HD 88133 b and measure a radial projection of the Keplerian orbital velocity of 40 +/- 15 km s(-1), a true mass of 1.02(-0.28)(+0.61) M-J, a nearly face-on orbital inclination of 15(-5)(+60), and an atmosphere opacity structure at high dispersion dominated by water vapor. This, combined with 11 years of radial velocity measurements of the system, provides the most up-to-date ephemeris for HD 88133.

  15. Pygmy dipole resonance and dipole polarizability in {sup 90}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Shima, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Hatanaka, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Nakada, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Matsubara, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21-2 (Japan); Sakuda, M.; Mori, T. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 900-0082 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-02

    Electric dipole (E1) reduced transition probability B(E1) of {sup 90}Zr was obtained by the inelastic proton scattering near 0 degrees using a 295 MeV proton beam and multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution by the distorted-wave Born approximation with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model and inclusion of El Coulomb excitation, and the E1 strength of the pygmy dipole resonance was found in the vicinity of the neutron threshold in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. Using the data, we plan to determine the precise dipole polarizability α{sub D} which is defined as an inversely energy-weighted sum value of the elecrric dipole strength. The dipole polarizability is expected to constrain the symmetry energy term of the neutron matter equation of state. Thus systematical measurement of the dipole polarizability is important.

  16. Pygmy Dipole Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, S.; Speth, J.

    Electric dipole strength below the particle emission threshold both in stable nuclei and short-lived isotopes has received increasing interest due to its astrophysical impact. In analogy to the giant dipole resonance, this strength is commonly referred to as pygmy resonance. Coulomb dissociation of neutron-rich unstable isotopes and nuclear resonance fluorescence photon scattering have begun to provide systematic data on electric dipole strength in various isotope chains. We review the present state of the art of theoretical approaches and point out some open problems. We emphasize the necessity of a simultaneous theoretical treatment of the nucleon separation energies and the energetically low-lying dipole strength because the presently available data do not exclude a non-collective nature of the pygmy strength.

  17. Isoscalar giant dipole resonance in Zr-90, Sn-116, Sm-144 and Pb-208 excited by 240 MeV alpha particle scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, HL; Lui, YW; Youngblood, DH; Bachtr, K; Garg, U; Harakeh, MN; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The giant resonance regions of Zr-90, Sn-116, Sm-144 and (208)pb were investigated using 240 MeV a particle scattering at small angles including 0 degrees. E1 strengths corresponding to 91+/-11%, 89+/-10%, 105+/-12% and 95+/-13% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule were identified between 18

  18. The dipole response of {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Philipp; Aumann, Thomas; Johansen, Jacob; Schindler, Fabia [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Rossi, Dominic [Michigan State University (United States); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR) is a well-known collective excitation in which all protons oscillate against all neutrons of a nucleus. In neutron-rich nuclei an additional low-lying dipole excitation occurs, often denoted as Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR). To study the PDR in exotic Sn-isotopes, an experiment has been successfully performed with the upgraded R{sup 3}B-LAND setup at GSI. The complete-kinematics measurement of all reaction participants allows for the reconstuction of the excitation energy and, hence, the extraction of the dipole strength. Presented are the main features of the experiment, the analysis concept and the current status of the analysis of the dipole response of the doubly-magic isotope {sup 132}Sn.

  19. Swimming with the giant: coexistence patterns of a new redfin minnow Pseudobarbus skeltoni from a global biodiversity hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadye, Wilbert T; Chakona, Albert; Jordaan, Martine S

    2016-10-01

    Ecological niche theory predicts that coexistence is facilitated by resource partitioning mechanisms that are influenced by abiotic and biotic interactions. Alternative hypotheses suggest that under certain conditions, species may become phenotypically similar and functionally equivalent, which invokes the possibility of other mechanisms, such as habitat filtering processes. To test these hypotheses, we examined the coexistence of the giant redfin Pseudobarbus skeltoni, a newly described freshwater fish, together with its congener Pseudobabus burchelli and an anabantid Sandelia capensis by assessing their scenopoetic and bionomic patterns. We found high habitat and isotope niche overlaps between the two redfins, rendering niche partitioning a less plausible sole mechanism that drives their coexistence. By comparison, environment-trait relationships revealed differences in species-environment relationships, making habitat filtering and functional equivalence less likely alternatives. Based on P. skeltoni's high habitat niche overlap with other species, and its large isotope niche width, we inferred the likelihood of differential resource utilization at trophic level as an alternative mechanism that distinguished it from its congener. In comparison, its congener P. burchelli appeared to have a relatively small trophic niche, suggesting that its trophic niche was more conserved despite being the most abundant species. By contrast, S. capensis was distinguished by occupying a higher trophic position and by having a trophic niche that had a low probability of overlapping onto those of redfins. Therefore, trophic niche partitioning appeared to influence the coexistence between S. capensis and redfins. This study suggests that coexistence of these fishes appears to be promoted by their differences in niche adaptation mechanisms that are probably shaped by historic evolutionary and ecological processes.

  20. The hot-water extract of leaves of noni, Morinda citrifolia, promotes the immunocompetence of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Halim, Atika; Lee, Pai-Po; Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2017-05-01

    The hot-water Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (HMLE) was prepared for in vitro assessment on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and phagocytic activity (PA). Furthermore, the HMLE was administrated in the diet at 0.6, 3, and 6 g (kg diet)-1 for Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the potential effects on the immunocompetence of prawns were evaluated. PO activity, RBs, and PA in hemocytes incubated with the HMLE at 140, 20, 20, and 140 mg l-1 significantly increased. The immune parameters of the total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), RBs, PO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, PA, transglutaminase (TG) activity and hemolymph clotting time were evaluated before and after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks of the feeding trial. During 9 weeks of the feeding trial, higher THCs, DHCs, RBs, PO, and TG as well as accelerated clotting times were observed in prawns fed HMLE-containing diets at 0.6 g kg-1. The mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase, TG, crustin, and lysozyme of prawns fed HMLE-containing diets at 0.6 g kg-1 for 9 weeks of the feeding trial significantly increased. The susceptibility of prawns fed the HMLE at 0.6 g kg-1 to Lactococcus garvieae infection significantly decreased, and the relative survival percentage was 23.1%. We therefore found that HMLE administrated through the diet at 0.6 g kg-1 was capable of enhancing the immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Onset of Thermally Unstable Cooling from the Hot Atmospheres of Giant Galaxies in Clusters: Constraints on Feedback Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M. T.; McNamara, B. R.; Pulido, F. A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Russell, H. R.; Edge, A. C.; Babyk, Iu.; Main, R. A.; McDonald, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present accurate mass and thermodynamic profiles for 57 galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We investigate the effects of local gravitational acceleration in central cluster galaxies, and explore the role of the local free-fall time ({t}{ff}) in thermally unstable cooling. We find that the radially averaged cooling time ({t}{cool}) is as effective an indicator of cold gas, traced through its nebular emission, as the ratio {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}. Therefore, {t}{cool} primarily governs the onset of thermally unstable cooling in hot atmospheres. The location of the minimum {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}, a thermodynamic parameter that many simulations suggest is key in driving thermal instability, is unresolved in most systems. Consequently, selection effects bias the value and reduce the observed range in measured {t}{cool}/{t}{ff} minima. The entropy profiles of cool-core clusters are characterized by broken power laws down to our resolution limit, with no indication of isentropic cores. We show, for the first time, that mass isothermality and the K\\propto {r}2/3 entropy profile slope imply a floor in {t}{cool}/{t}{ff} profiles within central galaxies. No significant departures of {t}{cool}/{t}{ff} below 10 are found. This is inconsistent with models that assume thermally unstable cooling ensues from linear perturbations at or near this threshold. We find that the inner cooling times of cluster atmospheres are resilient to active galactic nucleus (AGN)-driven change, suggesting gentle coupling between radio jets and atmospheric gas. Our analysis is consistent with models in which nonlinear perturbations, perhaps seeded by AGN-driven uplift of partially cooled material, lead to cold gas condensation.

  2. Giant Hedge-Hogs: Spikes on Giant Gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadri, D

    2004-01-28

    We consider giant gravitons on the maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background of type IIB string theory. Fixing the light-cone gauge, we work out the low energy effective light-cone Hamiltonian of the three-sphere giant graviton. At first order, this is a U(1) gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}. We place sources in this effective gauge theory. Although non-vanishing net electric charge configurations are disallowed by Gauss' law, electric dipoles can be formed. From the string theory point of view these dipoles can be understood as open strings piercing the three-sphere, generalizing the usual BIons to the giant gravitons, BIGGons. Our results can be used to give a two dimensional (worldsheet) description of giant gravitons, similar to Polchinski's description for the usual D-branes, in agreement with the discussions of hep-th/0204196.

  3. Syn-volcanic cannibalisation of juvenile felsic crust: Superimposed giant 18O-depleted rhyolite systems in the hot and thinned crust of Mesoproterozoic central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. H.; Kirkland, C. L.; Cliff, J. B.; Howard, H. M.; Quentin de Gromard, R.

    2015-08-01

    Eruptions of voluminous 18O-depleted rhyolite provide the best evidence that the extreme conditions required to produce and accumulate huge volumes of felsic magma can occur in the upper 10 km of the crust. Mesoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequences from the Talbot Sub-basin in central Australia contain possibly the world's most voluminous accumulation of 18O-depleted rhyolite. This volcanic system differs from the better known, but geochemically similar, Miocene Snake River Plain - Yellowstone Plateau of North America. Both systems witnessed 'super' sized eruptions from shallow crustal chambers, and produced 18O-depleted rhyolite. The Talbot system, however, accumulated over a much longer period (>30 Ma), at a single depositional centre, and from a magma with mantle-like isotopic compositions that contrast strongly with the isotopically evolved basement and country-rock compositions. Nevertheless, although the Talbot rhyolites are exclusively 18O-depleted, the unavoidable inference of an 18O-undepleted precursor requires high-temperature rejuvenation of crust in an upper-crustal chamber, and in this respect the evolution of the Talbot rhyolites and 18O-depleted rhyolites of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone Plateau is very similar. However, instead of older crustal material, the primary upper-crustal source recycled into Talbot rhyolites was comagmatic (or nearly so) felsic rock itself derived from a contemporaneous juvenile basement hot-zone. Whereas giant low δ18O volcanic systems show that voluminous melting of upper crust can occur, our studies indicate that felsic magmas generated at lower crustal depths can also contribute significantly to the thermal and material budget of these systems. The requirement that very high-temperatures be achieved and sustained in the upper crust means that voluminous low δ18O magmatism is rare, primarily restricted to bimodal tholeiitic, high-K rhyolite (A-type) magmatic associations in highly attenuated lithosphere. In the

  4. Large area BGO scintillator detectors for the study of hot nuclei GDR

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Bao Guo; Duan Li Min; Wen Wan Xin; Jin Ge; Li Zu Yu; Xiao Zhi Gang; Wang Hong Wei

    2002-01-01

    The author reports two large area BGO scintillator detectors that were successfully used to study the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) of hot nuclei. Time of Flight was used to separate gamma rays from fast neutrons. The energy calibration of the BGO detectors was obtained by using the 7.4 MeV and 10.2 MeV gamma rays originating from slow neutron capture in Ge isotopes. The EGS4 code was used to simulate the responding of BGO detector to high energy gamma rays

  5. Lepton dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Marciano, William J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o

  6. Observation of the hot GDR in neutron-deficient thorium evaporation residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitz, JP; Back, BB; Carpenter, MP; Dioszegi, [No Value; Eisenman, K; Heckman, P; Hofman, DJ; Kelly, MP; Khoo, TL; Mitsuoka, S; Nanal, [No Value; Pennington, T; Siemssen, RH; Thoennessen, M; Varner, RL

    2005-01-01

    The giant dipole resonance built on excited states was observed in very fissile nuclei in coincidence with evaporation residues. The reaction Ca-48 + Yb-176 populated evaporation residues of mass A = 213-220 with a cross section of similar to 200 mu b at 259 MeV. The extracted giant dipole resonance

  7. Tevatron AC dipole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  8. HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b: Two Transiting Inflated Hot Jupiters and Observational Evidence for the Reinflation of Close-in Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Torres, G.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Buchhave, L.; Kovács, T.; Quinn, S.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Fulton, B. J.; Everett, M. E.; Esquerdo, G.; Béky, B.; Szklenar, T.; Falco, E.; Santerne, A.; Boisse, I.; Hébrard, G.; Burrows, A.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of the transiting exoplanets HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, with orbital periods of 2.6055 and 2.9721 days, masses of 0.527+/- 0.083 {M}{{J}} and 0.783+/- 0.057 {M}{{J}}, and inflated radii of 1.89+/- 0.13 {R}{{J}} and {1.59}-0.10+0.16 {R}{{J}}, respectively. They orbit moderately bright (V=13.145+/- 0.029 and V=12.993+/- 0.052) stars of mass 1.212+/- 0.050 {M}⊙ and {1.255}-0.054+0.107 {M}⊙ . The stars are at the main-sequence turnoff. While it is well known that the radii of close-in giant planets are correlated with their equilibrium temperatures, whether or not the radii of planets increase in time as their hosts evolve and become more luminous is an open question. Looking at the broader sample of well-characterized close-in transiting giant planets, we find that there is a statistically significant correlation between planetary radii and the fractional ages of their host stars, with a false-alarm probability of only 0.0041%. We find that the correlation between the radii of planets and the fractional ages of their hosts is fully explained by the known correlation between planetary radii and their present-day equilibrium temperatures; however, if the zero-age main-sequence equilibrium temperature is used in place of the present-day equilibrium temperature, then a correlation with age must also be included to explain the planetary radii. This suggests that, after contracting during the pre-main-sequence, close-in giant planets are reinflated over time due to the increasing level of irradiation received from their host stars. Prior theoretical work indicates that such a dynamic response to irradiation requires a significant fraction of the incident energy to be deposited deep within the planetary interiors. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology

  9. Dynamics of nonstationary dipole vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nycander, J.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of tilted dipole vortices in the equivalent barotropic vorticity (or Hasegawa-Mima) equation is studied. A recent theory is compared with numerical simulations and found to describe the short time behavior of dipole vortices well. In the long time limit the dipoles are found to either...... disintegrate or relax toward a steady eastward propagating dipole vortex. This relaxation is a consequence of nonviscous enstrophy loss by the dipole vortex....

  10. Cluster and toroidal aspects of isoscalar dipole excitations in 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Shikata, Yuki; Morita, Horiyuki

    2018-01-01

    We investigate cluster and toroidal aspects of isoscalar dipole excitations in 12C based on the shifted basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method, which can describe 1p-1h excitations and 3 α dynamics. In the E =10 -15 MeV region, we find two low-energy dipole modes separating from the giant dipole resonance. One is the developed 3 α -cluster state and the other is the toroidal dipole mode. The cluster state is characterized by the high-amplitude cluster motion beyond the 1p-1h model space, whereas the toroidal dipole mode is predominantly described by 1p-1h excitations in the ground state. The low-energy dipole states are remarkably excited by the toroidal dipole operator, which can measure the nuclear vorticity. For compressive dipole transition strengths, a major part is distributed in the 30- to 50-MeV region for the giant dipole resonance, and 5% of the total energy-weighted sum exists in the E <20 MeV region.

  11. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot massive stars - II. Hydrodynamical simulations of corotating interaction regions using realistic spot parameters for the O giant ξ Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Uraz, A.; Owocki, S. P.; Wade, G. A.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Kee, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability historically associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These features have been proposed to be caused either by magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations. In this second paper of this series, we revisit the canonical phenomenological hydrodynamical modelling used to explain the formation of DACs by taking into account modern observations and more realistic theoretical predictions. Using constraints on putative bright spots located on the surface of the O giant ξ Persei derived from high precision space-based broad-band optical photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope, we generate 2D hydrodynamical simulations of corotating interaction regions in its wind. We then compute synthetic ultraviolet (UV) resonance line profiles using Sobolev Exact Integration and compare them with historical timeseries obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) to evaluate if the observed behaviour of ξ Persei's DACs is reproduced. Testing three different models of spot size and strength, we find that the classical pattern of variability can be successfully reproduced for two of them: the model with the smallest spots yields absorption features that are incompatible with observations. Furthermore, we test the effect of the radial dependence of ionization levels on line driving, but cannot conclusively assess the importance of this factor. In conclusion, this study self-consistently links optical photometry and UV spectroscopy, paving the way to a better understanding of cyclical wind variability in massive stars in the context of the bright spot paradigm.

  12. Automating dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg{yields}tt-bar ggg.

  13. Automating dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2008-07-15

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg{yields}t anti tggg. (orig.)

  14. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in 124Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2012-06-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of this resonance is still under discussion.Purpose: We present an experimental and theoretical study of the isospin character of the pygmy dipole resonance and investigation of a splitting of the electric dipole strength previously observed in experiments on N=82 nuclei.Method: The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the semi-magic Z=50 nucleus 124Sn by means of the (α,α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV using the Big-Bite Spectrometer at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands.Results: A splitting of the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength was identified in 124Sn by comparing the differential cross sections measured in (α,α'γ) to results stemming from (γ,γ') photon-scattering experiments. While an energetically lower-lying group of states is observed in both kinds of experiments, a higher-lying group of states is only excited in the (γ,γ') reaction. In addition, theoretical calculations using the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle-phonon model have been performed. Both calculations show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data and predict a low-lying isoscalar component that is dominated by neutron-skin oscillations as expected for the pygmy dipole resonance. Furthermore, the states at higher energies show a pronounced isovector component and a different radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities as expected for the tail of the giant dipole resonance.Conclusions: An experimental signature of the neutron-skin oscillation of the pygmy dipole resonance has been corroborated. The combination of the presented reactions might make it

  15. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babb, James F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Higa, Renato [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hussein, Mahir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J{sup π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ∝ 50 fm up to ∝ 10{sup 3} fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, James F.; Higa, Renato; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J^{π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ˜ 50 fm up to ˜ 103 fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed.

  17. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  18. Exploring atmospheres of hot mini-Neptune and extrasolar giant planets orbiting different stars with application to HD 97658b, WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, and HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Y.; Kaltenegger, L., E-mail: miguel@mpia.de [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We calculated an atmospheric grid for hot mini-Neptune and giant exoplanets that links astrophysical observable parameters—orbital distance and stellar type—with the chemical atmospheric species expected. The grid can be applied to current and future observations to characterize exoplanet atmospheres and serves as a reference to interpret atmospheric retrieval analysis results. To build the grid, we developed a one-dimensional code for calculating the atmospheric thermal structure and linked it to a photochemical model that includes disequilibrium chemistry (molecular diffusion, vertical mixing, and photochemistry). We compare the thermal profiles and atmospheric composition of planets at different semimajor axes (0.01 AU ≤ a ≤ 0.1 AU) orbiting F, G, K, and M stars. Temperature and UV flux affect chemical species in the atmosphere. We explore which effects are due to temperature and which are due to stellar characteristics, showing the species most affected in each case. CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O are the most sensitive to UV flux, H displaces H{sub 2} as the most abundant gas in the upper atmosphere for planets receiving a high UV flux. CH{sub 4} is more abundant for cooler planets. We explore vertical mixing, to inform degeneracies on our models and in the resulting spectral observables. For lower pressures, observable species like H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2} can indicate the efficiency of vertical mixing, with larger mixing ratios for a stronger mixing. By establishing the grid, testing the sensitivity of the results, and comparing our model to published results, our paper provides a tool to estimate what observations could yield. We apply our model to WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, HD189733b, and HD97658b.

  19. Dissecting an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of a 15-metre main dipole magnet has some fifteen different components. All the main components are manufactured under CERN's direct responsibility. Four of them transit through CERN before being shipped to the dipole assembly contractors, namely the cable, which constitutes the magnet's superconducting core (see Bulletin 14/2004), the beam screens, the heat exchanger tubes and the cold bore beam tubes. The two latter components transit via Building 927 where they undergo part of the production process. The 58-mm diameter heat exchanger tubes will remove heat from the magnets using superfluid helium. The 53-mm diameter cold bore tubes will be placed under vacuum to allow the twin beams to circulate around the LHC.

  20. Rydberg Dipole Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel; Rodenburg, Bradon; Pappas, Stephen; Su, Wangshen; St. John, Marc; Kunz, Paul; Simon, Matt; Gordon, Joshua; Holloway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. A useful tool to address this problem are highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms which have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole-allowed transitions in the range of 1-500 GHz. Using Rydberg states, it is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this frequency range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This atom-light interaction can be modeled by the classical description of a harmonically bound electron. The classical damped, driven, coupled-oscillators model yields significant insights into the deep connections between classical and quantum physics. We will present a detailed experimental analysis of the noise processes in making such measurements in the laboratory and discuss the prospects for building a practical atomic microwave receiver.

  1. ALICE dipole and decoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE cavern receives a painting made specially to mark the 50th anniversary of CERN that is mounted on the L3 solenoid magnet, reused from the LEP experiment that ran from 1989 to 2000. The dipole, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid. These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter allowing them to be studied at large distances from the interaction point.

  2. The ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of the ALICE dipole magnet has been co-ordinated within the LEA group. Several teams from collaborating institutes and design and engineering resources from CERN participated in the project. The construction of the different main components was entrusted to industry in several countries. The paper highlights some of the major design features and engineering solutions. The requirements for a full preassembly are explained and the assembly procedure as well as the status of the project are summarized.

  3. Laboratory simulation of Hot Jupiters atmosphere expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Ponomarenko, A. G.

    2017-11-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJ) are exoplanets, gas giants with low orbits (≤ 0.1 a.u.). The stellar X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation energy deposition result in heating ionization and the consequent expansion of planetary atmosphere. Expansion of upper atmosphere under certain conditions could be so large that the majority of light atmospheric constituents overcome the gravitational binding and escape from the planet in a form of hydrodynamic wind. Besides interaction of two counter-streaming plasma flows (stellar wind and ionized upper layers of planet atmosphere), each of this flows interact with planetary magnetic field. In such complex situation laboratory simulation can provide data that can’t be obtained by computer simulation or observation. Experiment was carried out on KI-1 facility: high-vacuum chamber 5m long, 1.2 m in diameter with pressure ∼ 10-6 Torr. Magnetic dipole with two attached laser targets played the role of a planet, and background plasma from θ-pinch used for simulation of stellar wind. As a result, data on a behavior of plasma density and magnetic field were obtained. The novel phenomenon was registered: magnetic field is transferred by the cloud of laser plasma, which was not observed before in experiments or calculations.

  4. Giant Magnetoresistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 4. Giant Magnetoresistance - Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Debakanta Samal P S Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 4 April 2008 pp 343-354. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Dipole polarizability of neutron rich nuclei and the symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Johansen, Jacob; Miki, Kenjiro; Schindler, Fabia; Schrock, Philipp [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the dipole response of stable up to very neutron rich tin isotopes, nuclear and electromagnetic excitation of {sup 124}Sn-{sup 134}Sn has been investigated at relativistic energies in inverse kinematics induced by carbon and lead targets at the LAND-R3B setup at GSI in Darmstadt. The electric dipole response and the nuclear reaction cross section, total and charge-changing, are obtained from the kinematically complete determination of momenta of all particles on an event by event basis. The dipole polarizability is extracted from the Coulomb excitation interaction channel, in order to make use of relevant correlations of this observable with nuclear matter properties such as the symmetry energy at saturation density (J) and it's slope (L). The systematics of the low-lying ''pygmy'' dipole strength, the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the neutron skin thickness are determined with respect to increasing isospin asymmetry. This talk also discusses the correlations and sensitivities of these variables and observables obtained within the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory.

  6. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  7. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Butler, P.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at Eα = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138Ba and 140Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of Jπ = 1- states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  8. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measured GDR widths for a wide range of nuclei at temperatures (1.5 <. T < 2.5 MeV) and spins ... perature region below 1.5 MeV has rarely been investigated to verify if such a behaviour is really true. In Sn and nearby nuclei (A ∼ 120), mostly investigated so far, only a sin- gle GDR width .... The average temperature.

  9. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  10. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  11. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  12. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...... of increasing Newtonian viscosity on the nonlinear dipole is studied revealing that even though the nonlinearity is weakening, the dipole does not relax towards a Lamb dipole. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....

  13. Isospin Character of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in Sn124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Litvinova, E.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2010-11-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the proton-magic nucleus Sn124 with the (α, α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV. The comparison with results of photon-scattering experiments reveals a splitting into two components with different structure: one group of states which is excited in (α, α'γ) as well as in (γ, γ') reactions and a group of states at higher energies which is only excited in (γ, γ') reactions. Calculations with the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle phonon model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and predict a low-lying isoscalar component dominated by neutron-skin oscillations and a higher-lying more isovector component on the tail of the giant dipole resonance.

  14. Probing surface quantum flows in deformed pygmy dipole modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Kortelainen, M.; Pei, J. C.

    2017-09-01

    To explore the nature of collective modes in weakly bound nuclei, we have investigated deformation effects and surface flow patterns of isovector dipole modes in a shape-coexisting nucleus, 40Mg. The calculations were done in a fully self-consistent continuum finite-amplitude quasiparticle random phase approximation in a large deformed spatial mesh. An unexpected result of pygmy and giant dipole modes having disproportionate deformation splittings in strength functions was obtained. Furthermore, the transition current densities demonstrate that the long-sought core-halo oscillation in pygmy resonances is collective and compressional, corresponding to the lowest excitation energy and the simplest quantum flow topology. Our calculations show that surface flow patterns become more complicated as excitation energies increase.

  15. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  16. Molecular Dipole Osmosis Based on Induced Charge Electro-Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel mechanism of producing a large nonlinear electrokinetic vortex flow around a nonconductive polar molecule in an electrolyte. That is, a large nonlinear electrokinetic slip velocity is derived by considering a local giant permittivity due to a molecular electric dipole moment with induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Different from the conventional ICEO theory, our theory predicts that a nonconductive biomaterial, such as a base of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, has a significantly high ICEO flow velocity because of its large local permittivity. We consider that our findings will contribute markedly to promising biomedical applications.

  17. Hot Jupiter Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, George B.; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2011-02-01

    The upper atmospheres of close-in gas giant exoplanets ("hot Jupiters") are subjected to intense heating and tidal forces from their parent stars. The atomic (H) and ionized (H+) hydrogen layers are sufficiently rarefied that magnetic pressure may dominate gas pressure for expected planetary magnetic field strength. We examine the structure of the magnetosphere using a 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a static "dead zone" near the magnetic equator containing gas confined by the magnetic field, a "wind zone" outside the magnetic equator in which thermal pressure gradients and the magneto-centrifugal-tidal effect give rise to a transonic outflow, and a region near the poles where sufficiently strong tidal forces may suppress transonic outflow. Using dipole field geometry, we estimate the size of the dead zone to be several to tens of planetary radii for a range of parameters. Tides decrease the size of the dead zone, while allowing the gas density to increase outward where the effective gravity is outward. In the wind zone, the rapid decrease of density beyond the sonic point leads to smaller densities relative to the neighboring dead zone, which is in hydrostatic equilibrium. To understand the appropriate base conditions for the 3D isothermal model, we compute a simple 1D thermal model in which photoelectric heating from the stellar Lyman continuum is balanced by collisionally excited Lyα cooling. This 1D model exhibits a H layer with temperature T ~= 5000-10,000 K down to a pressure P ~ 10-100 nbar. Using the 3D isothermal model, we compute maps of the H column density as well as the Lyα transmission spectra for parameters appropriate for HD 209458b. Line-integrated transit depths sime5%-10% can be achieved for the above base conditions, in agreement with the results of Koskinen et al. A deep, warm H layer results in a higher mass-loss rate relative to that for a more shallow layer, roughly in proportion to the base pressure. Strong magnetic

  18. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  19. LHC Arc Dipole Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, C

    1999-01-01

    The LHC, a 7 TeV proton collider presently under construction at CERN, requires 1232 superconducting (SC) dipole magnets, featuring a nominal field of 8.33 T inside a cold beam tube of 50 mm inner diameter and a magnetic length of 14.3 m. To achieve such high fields whilst retaining the well-proven fabrication methods of cables made with NbTi superconductors, it is necessary to operate the magnets at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. For reasons of space and economy, the two dipole apertures are incorporated into a single iron yoke and cryostat (two-in-one concept). The design considerations and the experimental results, which have led to the design adopted for series manufacture, are presented and discussed. The aims and status of the short model and full size prototype dipole programmes are subsequently reported. Finally, the major milestones of the schedule of the dipole magnets series manufacture are given and commented.

  20. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds...... of stars on or near the main sequence. Here I mainly consider solar-like oscillations in red giants, where Kepler observations are yielding results of a perhaps unexpected richness. In addition to giving a brief overview of the observational and numerical results for these stars, I present a simple...

  1. Schottky-contact plasmonic dipole rectenna concept for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavirad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Saba Siadat; Roy, Langis; Berini, Pierre

    2013-02-25

    Nanoantennas are key optical components for several applications including photodetection and biosensing. Here we present an array of metal nano-dipoles supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) integrated into a silicon-based Schottky-contact photodetector. Incident photons coupled to the array excite SPPs on the Au nanowires of the antennas which decay by creating "hot" carriers in the metal. The hot carriers may then be injected over the potential barrier at the Au-Si interface resulting in a photocurrent. High responsivities of 100 mA/W and practical minimum detectable powers of -12 dBm should be achievable in the infra-red (1310 nm). The device was then investigated for use as a biosensor by computing its bulk and surface sensitivities. Sensitivities of ∼ 250 nm/RIU (bulk) and ∼ 8 nm/nm (surface) in water are predicted. We identify the mode propagating and resonating along the nanowires of the antennas, we apply a transmission line model to describe the performance of the antennas, and we extract two useful formulas to predict their bulk and surface sensitivities. We prove that the sensitivities of dipoles are much greater than those of similar monopoles and we show that this difference comes from the gap in dipole antennas where electric fields are strongly enhanced.

  2. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  3. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  4. Automatic construction of dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    An automatization of the dipole subtraction method is reported. We have completed three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes. For example we have compared the output of our program for gg{yields}tt-bar gg with the results of Refs. [S. Dittmaier, P. Uwer and S. Weinzierl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 262002 (2007), S. Dittmaier, P. Uwer and S. Weinzierl, arXiv:0810.0452 [hep-ph

  5. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  6. Dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei within self-consistent approaches using realistic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Iudice N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nucleon-nucleon chiral potential with a corrective density dependent term simulating a three-body force is used in a self-consistent calculation of the dipole strength distribution in neutron-rich nuclei, with special attention to the low-lying spectra associated to the pygmy resonance. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov basis is generated and adopted in Tamm-Dancoff and random-phase approximations and, then, in an equation of motion approach which includes a basis of two-phonon states. The direct use of the mentioned chiral potential improves the description of both giant and pygmy dipole modes with respect to other realistic interactions. Moreover, the inclusion of the two-phonon states induces a pronounced fragmentation of the giant resonance and enhances the density of the low-lying levels in the pygmy region in agreement with recent experiments.

  7. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  8. Raising the last LEP dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 3280 dipole magnets from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider is seen on its journey to the surface on 12 February 2002. The LEP era, which began at CERN in 1989 and ended 2000, comes to an end.

  9. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V

    2014-04-28

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  10. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Bertolami, M.M. Miller [Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); García-Berro, E., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: marcelo@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860, Castelldefels (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  11. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O.; García-Berro, E.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μν) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pi dot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pi dot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μν lesssim 10-11 μB. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  12. Quench Protection Studies of the 11-T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; BAJAS, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Chlachidze, Guram; Karppinen, Mikko; Rysti, Juho; Savary, Frederic; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb3Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data from the 2-m-long Nb3Sn dipole models. The validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.

  13. Descent of the last LHC dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The last of 1746 superconducting magnets is lowered into the LHC tunnel via a specially constructed pit at 12:00 on 26 April. This 15-m long dipole magnet is one of 1232 dipoles positioned around the 27-km circumference of the collider. Dipole magnets produce a magnetic field that bends the particle beams around the circular accelerator.

  14. Critical behavior of isotropic three-dimensional systems with dipole-dipole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belim, S. M., E-mail: sbelim@mail.ru [Dostoevsky Omsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    The critical behavior of Heisenberg magnets with dipole-dipole interactions near the line of second-order phase transitions directly in three-dimensional space is investigated in terms of a field-theoretic approach. The dependences of critical exponents on the dipole-dipole interaction parameter are derived. Comparison with experimental facts is made.

  15. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  16. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  17. Isoscalar giant dipole resonance in sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Sn, sup 1 sup 4 sup 4 Sm and sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb excited by 240 MeV alpha particle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, H L; Youngblood, D H; Bachtr, K; Garg, U; Harakeh, M N; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The giant resonance regions of sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Sn, sup 1 sup 4 sup 4 Sm and sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb were investigated using 240 MeV alpha particle scattering at small angles including 0 deg. E1 strengths corresponding to 91+-11%, 89+-10%, 105+-12% and 95+-13% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule were identified between 18<=E sub x<=31 MeV, 16<=E sub x<=30 MeV, 15<=E sub x<=27 MeV and 15<=E sub x<=25 MeV with centroid energies of 24.8+-0.4 MeV, 22.5+-0.3 MeV, 21.6+-0.3 MeV and 19.3+-0.3 MeV and rms widths of 3.2+-0.2 MeV, 3.5+-0.2 MeV, 3.2+-0.2 MeV and 2.5+-0.2 MeV for sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Sn, sup 1 sup 4 sup 4 Sm and sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb, respectively. Parameters obtained for the isoscalar giant monopole resonance, isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and high energy octupole resonance are in agreement with accepted values.

  18. Black Saturn with dipole ring

    OpenAIRE

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2007-01-01

    We present a new stationary, asymptotically flat solution of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity describing a Saturn-like black object: a rotating black hole surrounded by a rotating dipole black ring. The solution is generated by combining the vacuum black Saturn solution and the vacuum black ring solution with appropriately chosen parameters. Some basic properties of the solution are analyzed and the basic quantities are calculated.

  19. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  20. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  1. Two-phonon giant resonances in {sup 136}Xe, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K.; Gruenschloss, A.; Ilievski, S.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Cub, J.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Elze, T.W.; Emling, H.; Fallot, M.; Holeczek, J.; Holzmann, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Mordechai, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Reiter, P.; Simon, H.; Stelzer, K.; Stroth, J.; Suemmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.

    2003-07-01

    The excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance was observed in heavy projectile nuclei impinging on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500-700 MeV/nucleon. New experimental data are presented for {sup 136}Xe and {sup 238}U together with further analysis of earlier data on {sup 208}Pb. Differential cross sections d{sigma}/dE{sup *} and d{sigma}/d{theta} for electromagnetic excitations were deduced. Depending on the isotope, cross sections appear to be enhanced in comparison to those expected from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two-phonon states composed of one dipole and one quadrupole phonon, of predicted anharmoniticies in the double-phonon dipole response, and of damping of the dipole resonance during the collision may account for the discrepancy. In addition, decay properties of two-phonon resonances were studied and compared to that of a statistical decay. (orig.)

  2. Nursery of Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion). New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud. This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years. Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the DR21 region

  3. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verweij, A. [CERN; Auchmann, B.; Bednarek, M.; Bottura, L.; Charifoulline, Z.; Feher, S. [Fermilab; Hagen, P.; Modena, M.; Le Naour, S.; Romera, I.; Siemko, A.; Steckert, J.; Tock, J. Ph; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.

    2016-01-05

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as compared to the initial training during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  4. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Bednarek, M; Bottura, L; Charifoulline, Z; Feher, S; Hagen, P; Modena, M; Le Naour, S; Romera, I; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Tock, J Ph; Todesco, E; Willering, G; Wollmann, D

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as...

  5. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  6. NLO evolution of color dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky; Giovanni Chirilli

    2008-01-01

    The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the next-to-leaing order the BK equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops as well as from the tree gluon diagrams with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. We calculate the gluon contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines (the quark part was obtained earlier).

  7. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  8. Multisensor Processing Algorithms for Underwater Dipole Localization and Tracking Using MEMS Artificial Lateral-Line Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Douglas L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineered artificial lateral-line system has been recently developed, consisting of a 16-element array of finely spaced MEMS hot-wire flow sensors. This represents a new class of underwater flow sensing instruments and necessitates the development of rapid, efficient, and robust signal processing algorithms. In this paper, we report on the development and implementation of a set of algorithms that assist in the localization and tracking of vibrational dipole sources underwater. Using these algorithms, accurate tracking of the trajectory of a moving dipole source has been demonstrated successfully.

  9. Communicating the role of science in managing giant sequoia groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Pilrto; Robert R. Rogers; Mary Chislock Bethke

    1997-01-01

    Management of giant sequoia groves has been and continues to be a hotly debated issue. The debate has reached Congress, with all parties seeking resolution as to what constitutes an ecologically and publicly acceptable management approach. Determining the correct management approach and communicating that approach to the general public is the crux of the problem....

  10. Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Attorney Docket No. 84449 1 INDUCTIVELY SHORTED BICONE FED TAPERED DIPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described...Invention [0003] The invention generally relates to RF antennas and more specifically to bicone and dipole antennas. (2) Description of the Prior Art

  11. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  12. Stochastic resonance in a surface dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsalu, E., E-mail: els@ifisc.uib-csic.es [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Patriarca, M. [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Marchesoni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2010-10-05

    The dynamics of a neutral dipole diffusing on a one-dimensional symmetric periodic substrate is numerically investigated in the presence of an ac electric field. It is observed that the amplitude of the forced oscillations of the dipole can be enhanced by tuning the noise strength, i.e., the substrate temperature. Such a manifestation of stochastic resonance turns out to be extremely sensitive to the mechanical properties of the dipole. This phenomenon has immediate applications in surface physics and nanodevice technology.

  13. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal ...

  14. Theory of Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Burrows, A.; Lunine, J. I.

    Giant planet research has moved from the study of a handful of solar system objects to that of a class of bodies with dozens of known members. Since the original 1995 discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), the total number of known examples has increased to ~80 (circa November 2001). Current theoretical studies of giant planets emphasize predicted observable properties, such as luminosity, effective temperature, radius, external gravity field, atmospheric composition, and emergent spectra as a function of mass and age. This review focuses on the general theory of hydrogen-rich giant planets; smaller giant planets with the mass and composition of Uranus and Neptune are not covered. We discuss the status of the theory of the nonideal thermodynamics of hydrogen and hydrogen-helium mixtures under the conditions found in giant-planet interiors, and the experimental constraints on it. We provide an overview of observations of extrasolar giant planets and our own giant planets by which the theory can be validated.

  15. Elasticity of nuclear medium as a principal macrodynamical promoter of electric pygmy dipole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Podgainy, D. V.; Mişicu, Ş.; Chang, H.-K.

    2008-06-01

    Motivated by arguments of the nuclear core-layer model formulated in [S.I. Bastrukov, J.A. Maruhn, Z. Phys. A 335 (1990) 139], the macroscopic excitation mechanism of the electric pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered as owing its origin to perturbation-induced effective decomposition of a nucleus into two spherical domains-undisturbed inner region treated as a static core and dynamical layer undergoing elastic shear vibrations. The elastic restoring force is central to the excitation mechanism under consideration and has the same physical meaning as in macroscopic model of nuclear giant resonances involving distortions of the Fermi-sphere providing unified description of isoscalar giant electric and magnetic resonances of multipole degree ℓ ⩾ 2 in terms of two fundamental vibrational modes in an elastic sphere, to wit, as spheroidal (electric) and torsional (magnetic) modes of shear elastic oscillations of the nodeless field of material displacements excited in the entire nucleus volume. In the present Letter focus is placed on the emergence of dipole overtone in the frequency spectrum of spheroidal elastic vibrations as Goldstone soft mode. To emphasis this feature of dipole resonant excitation imprinted in the core-layer model we regain spectral equation for the frequency of spheroidal elastic vibrations trapped in the finite-depth layer, derived in the above paper, but using canonical equation of an elastic continuous medium. The obtained analytic equations for the frequency of dipole vibrational state in question and its excitation strength lead to the following estimates for the PDR energy centroid EPDR (E 1) = [ 31 ± 1 ]A - 1 / 3 MeV and the total excitation probability BPDR (E 1) = [ 1.85 ± 0.05 ]10-3Z2A - 2 / 3e2fm2 throughout the nuclear chart exhibiting fundamental character of this soft dipole mode of nuclear resonant response.

  16. RE-INFLATED WARM JUPITERS AROUND RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D. [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiters, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of hot Jupiter radius anomalies scales strongly with a planet's level of irradiation and numerous models like tidal heating, ohmic dissipation, and thermal tides have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general, however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation into the interior and models that simply slow a planet's radiative cooling, allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we present a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models. Gas giants orbiting at moderate orbital periods around post-main-sequence stars will experience enormous increases to their irradiation as their host stars move up the sub-giant and red-giant branches. If hot Jupiter inflation works by depositing irradiation into the planet's deep interiors then planetary radii should increase in response to the increased irradiation. This means that otherwise non-inflated gas giants at moderate orbital periods of >10 days can re-inflate as their host stars evolve. Here we explore the circumstances that can lead to the creation of these “re-inflated” gas giants and examine how the existence or absence of such planets can be used to place unique constraints on the physics of the hot Jupiter inflation mechanism. Finally, we explore the prospects for detecting this potentially important undiscovered population of planets.

  17. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  18. Neutral dipole-dipole dimers: A new field in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosower, Edward M.; Borz, Galina

    2018-03-01

    Dimer formation with dipole neutralization produces species such as low polarity water (LPW) compatible with hydrophobic surfaces (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 24895-24900) Dimerization and dipole neutralization occurs for N-methylacetamide on polyethylene, a behavior drastically different from its contortions in acetonitrile on AgBr:AgCl planar crystals (AgX) (ChemPhysChem 2014, 15, 3598-3607). The weak infrared absorption of the amide dimer on polyethylene is shown experimentally. Dimerization of palmitic acid is shown along with some of the many ramifications for intracellular systems. Polyoligomers of water are present on polyethylene surfaces. Some high resolution spectra of three of the polyoligomers of water are shown along with a mechanistic scheme for polyoligomer formation and dissolution. The structures of some of the oligomers are known from spectroscopic studies of water on AgX. The scope of the article begins with PE, generally accepted as hydrophobic. The IR of PE revealed not only that water was present but that it appeared in two forms, oligomers (O) and polyoligomers (PO). How did we recognize what they were? These species had been observed as especially strong "marker" peaks in the spectra1 of water placed on planar AgX, a platform developed by Katzir and his coworkers [6]. But there was a problem: the proximity to PE of oligomers with substantial (calculated) dipole moments and thus polarity, including cyclic hexamers of water (chair and boat forms), the cyclic pentamer, the books I and II, and the cyclic trimer [7a]. Another link was needed, a role perfectly fit by the already cited low polarity water (LPW). The choice was experimentally supported by the detection of low intensity absorption in the bending region.Some important generalities flow from these results. What other dimers might be present in the biological or chemical world? Palmitic acid dimer (PAD) would be a candidate for decreasing the polarity of the acid (PA). Another

  19. Attosecond delay of xenon $4d$ photoionization at the giant resonance and Cooper minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2016-01-01

    A Kohn-Sham time-dependent local-density-functional scheme is utilized to predict attosecond time delays of xenon 4d photoionization that involves the 4d giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. The fundamental effect of electron correlations to uniquely determine the delay at both regions is demonstrated. In particular, for the giant dipole resonance, the delay underpins strong collective effect, emulating the recent prediction at C60 giant plasmon resonance [T. Barillot et al, Phys. Rev. A 91, 033413 (2015)]. For the Cooper minimum, a qualitative similarity with a photorecombination experiment near argon 3p minimum [S. B. Schoun et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 153001 (2014)] is found. The result should encourage attosecond measurements of Xe 4d photoemission.

  20. Testing of a Single 11 T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole Coil Using a Dipole Mirror Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Andreev, Nicolai [Fermilab; Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN; Smekens, David [CERN

    2014-07-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. To optimize coil design parameters and fabrication process and study coil performance, a series of 1 m long dipole coils is being fabricated. One of the short coils has been tested using a dipole mirror structure. This paper describes the dipole mirror magnetic and mechanical designs, and reports coil parameters and test results.

  1. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  2. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  4. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  5. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  6. Microscopic evaluation of the nuclear dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Orlandini, G.; Stringari, S.; Traini, M. (Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. di Matematica e Fisica)

    1977-12-01

    The dipole polarizability sum rule has been evaluated by means of a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method leads to a simple and analytical expression for the dipole polarizability. Explicit calculations have been performed in /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca with different types of interaction.

  7. Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force

  8. Projected Dipole Model for Quantum Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    of classical electrodynamics, while quantum properties are described accurately through an infinitely thin layer of dipoles oriented normally to the metal surface. The nonlocal polarizability of the dipole layer-the only introduced parameter-is mapped from the free-electron distribution near the metal surface...

  9. How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…

  10. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...

  11. Null-wave giant gravitons from thermal spinning brane probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2013-10-01

    We construct and analyze thermal spinning giant gravitons in type II/M-theory based on spherically wrapped black branes, using the method of thermal probe branes originating from the blackfold approach. These solutions generalize in different directions recent work in which the case of thermal (non-spinning) D3-brane giant gravitons was considered, and reveal a rich phase structure with various new properties. First of all, we extend the construction to M-theory, by constructing thermal giant graviton solutions using spherically wrapped M2- and M5-branes. More importantly, we switch on new quantum numbers, namely internal spins on the sphere, which are not present in the usual extremal limit for which the brane world volume stress tensor is Lorentz invariant. We examine the effect of this new type of excitation and in particular analyze the physical quantities in various regimes, including that of small temperatures as well as low/high spin. As a byproduct we find new stationary dipole-charged black hole solutions in AdS m × S n backgrounds of type II/M-theory. We finally show, via a double scaling extremal limit, that our spinning thermal giant graviton solutions lead to a novel null-wave zero-temperature giant graviton solution with a BPS spectrum, which does not have an analogue in terms of the conventional weakly coupled world volume theory.

  12. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...... the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... The theoretical predictions are compared with molecular dynamics simulation results for a model dielectric material and liquid water. For the transverse dipole autocorrelation function the agreement is excellent in the limit of small wave vectors and the presence of a diffusion mechanism is confirmed...

  13. Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.

  14. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  15. Giant omphalocele: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack AJ; Rogdo B

    2016-01-01

    Alexander Josef Mack,1 Bjarte Rogdo2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Giant omphalocele (GO...

  16. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  17. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  18. Multinucleated giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J M

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies directed toward developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular biology basis of monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation, function, and biologic activity are presented. In addition, HIV-1-infected T-lymphocyte syncytia and the significance of adhesion molecule/ligand interactions in the formation of these syncytia are described. Interleukin-4 or interleukin-13 induction of monocyte-macrophage fusion provides a model for foreign body giant cell formation. On the other hand, interferon-gamma induction of monocyte-macrophage fusion provides a model for Langhans' giant cell formation. Variations in monocyte-macrophage adhesion and fusion to form foreign body giant cells are provided by substrates with different surface chemistries. Recent advances in osteoclast biology have identified the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in regulating osteoclast bone resorption and receptor-ligand interactions and signal pathways for osteoclast activation. Although foreign body giant cells, Langhans' giant cells, and osteoclasts are derived from monocytes or monocyte progenitor cells, the ways in which they are formed, whether induced by cytokines, receptors, or biologic activity, are markedly different.

  19. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  20. Direct Imaging of Giant Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motohide

    Since the first detection of exoplanets around a Sun-like star 51 Peg in 1995, their detection and characterization are mainly led by indirect methods such as radial velocity and transit methods. However, recent progresses of observational techniques have finally enabled the direct imaging observations of giant planets of solar-system-scale orbit (with their semi-major axes less than about 50 AU) around A-type stars (e.g., Marois et al. 2008, 2010) and G-type stars (e.g., Kuzuhara et al. 2013). Direct imaging is useful to obtain the physical and atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. In fact not only colors but also a medium-resolution spectroscopy of such planets has been successfully obtained for their atmospheric characterization (Barman et al. 2013). Their masses are typically a few to ~10 Jupiter masses and they orbit at a Saturn- to-Pluto distance. Therefore, like hot-Jupiters and super-Earths they are unlike any solar-system planets, and called wide-orbit giant planets. A recent large search for planets and disk on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope (SEEDS project) has detected a 3-5 Jupiter-masses planet around a Sun-like star GJ 504 (Kuzuhara et al. 2013). It is the coolest planetary companion so far directly imaged and its near-infrared color is “bluer” than that of other directly imaged planets. In this contribution, I will review the recent progresses on direct imaging of exoplanets, highlight the results of the SEEDS project, and discuss the future developments.

  1. Toroidal-dipole induced plasmonic perfect absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Ying-hua; Jin, Ren-chao; Li, Jia-qi; Dong, Zheng-gao

    2017-12-01

    We present a new kind of perfect absorber which roots in a toroidal dipole resonance. The toroidal metastructure consists of a metallic circular groove with a depth asymmetry, which couples to the toroidal dipole field in the near-infrared region and thus realizes nearly unit absorbance, acting as a perfect absorber. Moreover, this absorber owns a high sensitivity of 609.6 nm/RIU to the dielectric surroundings. Furthermore, by tuning the geometric parameters, both the toroidal dipole resonance and perfect absorbance characteristics are insensitive to the circular groove width, providing profound fabrication tolerance in future experiments.

  2. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  3. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  4. Transverse dipole spin modes in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, E.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Serra, Ll.

    1999-09-01

    We have carried out a systematic analysis of the transverse dipole spin response of a large-size quantum dot within time-dependent current density functional theory. Results for magnetic fields corresponding to integer filling factors are reported, as well as a comparison with the longitudinal dipole spin response. As in the two-dimensional electron gas, the spin response at high-spin magnetization is dominated by a low-energy transverse mode.

  5. Dynamic Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Excitons in Quantum Dots of Different Sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2005-01-01

    Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes.......Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes....

  6. Giant star seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2017-06-01

    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  7. Giant inguinoscrotal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochotsky, A; Dolak, S; Minarovjech, V; Medzo, I; Hutan, M; Mifkovic, A

    2017-01-01

    Giant inguinoscrotal hernia is defined as an inguinal hernia extending below the midpoint of inner thigh in standing position. The authors describe giant inguinoscrotal hernia and small umbilical hernia with 12 years history of this uncommon disease. After preoperative evaluation, US and CT examination he was operated on. It was very difficult to return the hernia sac contents back to the abdomen and additional infraumbilical incision was needed. Hernioplasty suo modo without mesh was done. Patient recovered uneventfully. In the discussion the authors present the newer classification of giant inguinal hernia, the current treatment options and known serious complications of surgery. Finally, it indicates that good treatment results can only be achieved by close cooperation of concerned professionals in the treatment and intensive intraoperative and postoperative patient monitoring (Fig. 9, Ref. 31).

  8. Congenital giant melanocytic nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Khan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nevi are common skin tumors caused by abnormal overgrowth of cells from the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Most nevi are benign, but some pre-cancerous nevi must be monitored or removed. The giant congenital nevus is greater than 10 cm in size, pigmented and often hairy. Between 4% and 6% of these lesions will develop into a malignant melanoma. Since approximately 50% of the melanoma develop by the age of two, and 80% by the age of seven, early removal is recommended. The objective of this paper is to present a unique case of giant nevi and their surgical management.

  9. Laboratory spectra of hot molecules: Data needs for hot super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of stars are now thought to support exoplanets. Many of those exoplanets discovered thus far are categorized as rocky objects with an atmosphere. Most of these objects are however hot due to their short orbital period. Models suggest that water is the dominant species in their atmospheres. The hot temperatures are expected to turn these atmospheres into a (high pressure) steam bath containing remains of melted rock. The spectroscopy of these hot rocky objects will be very different from that of cooler objects or hot gas giants. Molecules suggested to be important for the spectroscopy of these objects are reviewed together with the current status of the corresponding spectroscopic data. Perspectives of building a comprehensive database of linelist/cross sections applicable for atmospheric models of rocky super-Earths as part of the ExoMol project are discussed. The quantum-mechanical approaches used in linelist productions and their challenges are summarized.

  10. Spreading widths of giant resonances in spherical nuclei: Damped transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Åberg, S.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a general approach to describe spreading widths of monopole, dipole, and quadrupole giant resonances in heavy and superheavy spherical nuclei. Our approach is based on the ideas of the random matrix distribution of the coupling between one-phonon and two-phonon states generated in the random-phase approximation. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states of the doubly magic nuclei 132Sn, 208Pb, and 310126. Our results demonstrate that the approach enables to us to describe a gross structure of the spreading widths of the giant resonances considered.

  11. Evidence for multiphonon giant resonances in electromagnetic fission of 238U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievski, S; Aumann, T; Boretzky, K; Elze, Th W; Emling, H; Grünschloss, A; Holeczek, J; Holzmann, R; Kozhuharov, C; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Leistenschneider, A; Lubkiewicz, E; Ohtsuki, T; Reiter, P; Simon, H; Stelzer, K; Stroth, J; Sümmerer, K; Wajda, E; Waluś, W

    2004-03-19

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic fission of 238U projectiles (500 MeV/u) in C, Sn, and Pb targets are measured and analyzed in terms of single- and multiphonon giant resonance excitations as doorway states to fission. A novel experimental method exploits the linear relationship between neutron multiplicity and the primary 238U excitation energy. Multiphonon states contribute up to 20% of the cross section; a component at high excitation energies is indicated that may arise from three-phonon dipole and two-phonon GDR x GQRiv giant resonance excitations.

  12. Charting the Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Schuecker (MPE, Garching) has embarked on a decade-long study of these gargantuan structures, trying to locate the most massive of clusters of galaxies. Since about one-fifth of the optically invisible mass of a cluster is in the form of a diffuse very hot gas with a temperature of the order of several tens of millions of degrees, clusters of galaxies produce powerful X-ray emission. They are therefore best discovered by means of X-ray satellites. For this fundamental study, the astronomers thus started by selecting candidate objects using data from the X-ray Sky Atlas compiled by the German ROSAT satellite survey mission. This was the beginning only - then followed a lot of tedious work: making the final identification of these objects in visible light and measuring the distance (i.e., redshift [3]) of the cluster candidates. The determination of the redshift was done by means of observations with several telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile, from 1992 to 1999. The brighter objects were observed with the ESO 1.5-m and the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescopes, while for the more distant and fainter objects, the ESO 3.6-m telescope was used. Carried out at these telescopes, the 12 year-long programme is known to astronomers as the REFLEX (ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray) Cluster Survey. It has now been concluded with the publication of a unique catalogue with the characteristics of the 447 brightest X-ray clusters of galaxies in the southern sky. Among these, more than half the clusters were discovered during this survey. Constraining the dark matter content ESO PR Photo 18d/04 ESO PR Photo 18d/04 Constraints on Cosmological Parameters [Preview - JPEG: 400 pix x 572 - 37k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1143 pix - 265k] Caption: PR Photo 18d demonstrates the current observational constraints on the cosmic density of all matter including dark matter (Ωm) and the dark energy (ΩΛ) relative to the density of a critical-density Universe (i.e., an expanding Universe which approaches

  13. Clinical and Histologic Features of 26 Canine Peripheral Giant Cell Granulomas (Formerly Giant Cell Epulis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desoutter, A. V; Goldschmidt, M. H; Sánchez, M. D

    2012-01-01

    ... (formerly giant cell epulis) are reported. Two main histologic categories were evident: (1) “classic” peripheral giant cell granuloma, characterized by variable numbers of multinucleated giant cells...

  14. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to very large refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; Min, M.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10+10i, 0.1+i, and 1.6+0.01i. These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative

  15. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to extreme refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; Min, M.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10 + 10i, 0.1 + i, and 1.6 + 0.01i. These formulations include filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and radiative

  16. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  17. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  18. from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant. Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were ...

  19. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-27

    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  20. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. (benzene) rings. Until recently it was believed [5] that their chemical investigations are limited to compounds with not more than 15 rings. The reason for this is based on the fact that large. PAHs are practically insoluble in water or organic solvents, which makes their purification and chemical ...

  1. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. General Article Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 730-737. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/08/0730-0737 ...

  2. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes - Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1238-1245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1238-1245. Keywords. Graphenes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polyphenyls; condensed benzenes.

  3. The influence of vibrations of polyatomic molecules on dipole moment and static dipole polarizability: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Loukhovitski, Boris I.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2017-08-01

    Dipole moment and static dipole polarizability surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules, that are important for material science, combustion, and atmospheric chemistry, are explored in the vicinity of their equilibrium nuclear configurations by using density functional theory. The effective values of dipole moment and static polarizability of these molecules in individual vibrational states are determined using the calculated data on the electric properties and potential energy surfaces. Special attention is paid to the effect of the zero-point vibrations on the electric properties. The simple approximation scheme, allowing low-cost estimation of the zero-point vibrational corrections to polarizability, applicable for wide range of polyatomic compounds, are developed on the basis of the obtained data. The influence of the excitation of vibrational states on the dipole moment and dipole polarizability of polyatomic molecules are discussed with respect to the possible change of some important properties of molecular gases, such as refractive index, diffusion coefficients, and rates of chemical reactions.

  4. Effect of dipole-dipole interaction in two atom systems : A steady state analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Shaik; Lakshmi, P Anantha

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of a system of two two-level atoms, both identical as well as non-identical, under the influence of a continuously varying dipole-dipole coupling parameter for a wide range of other parameters such as the atomic level separations and the coupling strength of the external radiation field is explored. A detailed analysis of the behaviour of various level populations and some of the atomic coherences is presented. The influence of the competing effects between the Rabi field strength and the dipole dipole interaction on the two photon absorption probability is explored in detail both for identical as well as non-identical atoms. There are significant variations in the behaviour of identical and non-identical atoms as a function of the dipole coupling strength, even for small amounts of non-identity of the atoms, which in this study is incorporated through the atomic level separations.

  5. Inhibition of two-photon absorption due to dipole-dipole interaction in nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)], E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca

    2008-07-21

    We have investigated the inhibition of two-photon absorption in photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. The particles are interacting with one another by the dipole-dipole interaction. Dipoles in nanoparticles are induced by a selected transition. Numerical simulations have been performed for an isotropic photonic crystal. Interesting phenomena have been predicted such as the inhibition of the two-photon absorption due to the dipole-dipole interaction. It has also been found that the inhibition effect can be switched on and off by tuning a decay resonance energy within the energy band of the crystal. A theory of dressed states has been used to explain the results.

  6. LHC dipoles: the countdown has begun

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    At the entrance to the fourth floor corridor of the LHC-MMS (Main Magnets and Superconductors) Group in building 30, the Director-General has unveiled an electronic information panel indicating the number of LHC dipoles still to be delivered and the days remaining to the deadline (30 June 2006). The panel was the idea of Lucio Rossi, leader of the MMS Group, which is responsible for the construction of the dipole magnets. The unveiling ceremony took place on the morning of Friday 11 October 2002, at the end of a drink held to celebrate with MMS group and the LHC top management the exceptional performance of the latest dipoles, built by the French consortium Alstom-Jeumont. They are the first dipoles to achieve a magnetic field of 9 tesla in one go without quenching, thus exceeding the nominal operating field of 8.3 tesla. The challenge is now to increase the production rate from 2 to 35 dipoles per month by 2004 in order to meet the deadline, while maintaining this quality. Photo 01: The Director-General Luci...

  7. Hot Jupiters around young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. F.; Donati, J.-F.

    2017-12-01

    This conference paper presents the results of the MaTYSSE (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of massive close-in Exoplanets) observation programme, regarding the search for giant exoplanets around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTS), as of early 2017. The discoveries of two hot Jupiters (hJs), around V830 Tau and TAP 26, sun-like stars of respectively ˜2 Myr and ˜17 Myr, are summarized here. Both exoplanets seem to have undergone type-II migration (planet-disc interaction leading the orbit to narrow around the host) based on their low orbital eccentricity. The methods which were used are given more focus in the paper Stellar activity filtering methods for the detection of exoplanets in the present book.

  8. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-04-29

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E{sup n,{nu}} and {chi}(n,{nu}) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by {alpha}{sub odd}-1=((2{alpha}{sub s}N{sub c})/({pi})){chi}(n=1,{nu}=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy.

  9. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David

    2004-01-01

    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.

  10. Metrology of the LHC Dipole Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Bajkó, M; Savary, F

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide the largest possible mechanical aperture for the LHC beam, the dipole cold masses have to match the circular trajectory of the particle beam. The requirements on the dipole cold mass geometry are dictated by the beam optics of the LHC machine and by the mechanical deformation limits of the interconnection zone. The geometry of the approximately 15 m long, 0.57 m diameter and 30 t weight dipole cold mass is verified by the measurement of the axes of the cold bore tubes. The tight tolerances imposed, necessitate the use of a high accuracy 3D measuring system based on optical methods. During the last 2 years, 6 prototypes and 4 pre-series magnets have been assembled at CERN. The summary of the results obtained on these cold masses is presented, as well as the evolution of the tooling and the measuring method.

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  12. The ROSAT X-ray Background Dipole

    OpenAIRE

    Plionis, M.; Georgantopoulos, I.

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the dipole of the diffuse 1.5 keV X-ray background from the ROSAT all-sky survey map of Snowden et al (1995). We first subtract the diffuse Galactic emission by fitting to the data an exponential scale height, finite radius, disk model. We further exclude regions of low galactic latitudes, of local X-ray emission (eg the North Polar Spur) and model them using two different methods. We find that the ROSAT X-ray background (XRB) dipole points towards $(l,b) ~ (288, 25) \\pm 19 degree...

  13. A HTS dipole insert coil constructed

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

  14. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  15. ALICE Muon Arm Dipole Magnet - Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    A large Dipole Magnet is required for the Muon Arm spectrometer of the ALICE experiment 1,2[Figure 1]. The main parameters and basic design options of the dipole magnet have been described in 3. The absence of criteria for the necessary symmetry and homogeneity of the magnetic field has lead to a design dominated by economical and feasibility considerations. List of Figures: Figure 1 ALICE Experiment. Figure 2 Dipole Magnet Assembly. Figure 3 Dipole Magnet Yoke. Figure 4 Dipole Magnet Coil System. Figure 5 Schematic of Heat Screen. Figure 6 Dipole Magnet Moving Base.

  16. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  17. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  18. Why Are Hot Jupiters So Lonely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Jupiter-like planets with blisteringly close-in orbits are generally friendless, with no nearbyplanets transiting along with them. Giant planets with orbits a little further out, on the other hand, often have at least one companion. A new study examines the cause of hot Jupiters loneliness.Forming Close-In GiantsArtists impression of a planet forming within a protoplanetary disk. [NAOJ]Though weve studied close-in giant planets for decades now, we still dont fully understand how these objects form and evolve. Jupiter-like giant planets could form in situ next to their host stars, or they could form further out in the system beyond the ice line and then migrate inwards. And if they do migrate, this migration could occur early, while the protoplanetary disk still exists, or long after, via excitation of large eccentricities.We can try to resolve this mystery by examining the statistics of the close-in giant planets weve observed, but this often raises more questions than it answers. A prime example: the properties of close-in giants that have close-in companion planets orbiting in the same plane (i.e., co-transiting).About half of warm Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of 1030 days appear to have close-in, co-transiting companions. In contrast, almost no hot Jupiters Jupiter-like planets with periods of less than 10 days have such companions. What causes this dichotomy?Schematic of the authors model, in which the close-in giant (m1) encounters a resonance with its host star, causing the orbit of the exterior companion (m2) to become tilted. [Spalding Batygin 2017]Friendless Hot JupitersWhile traditional models have argued that the two types of planets form via different pathways warm Jupiters form in situ, or else migrate inward early and smoothly, whereas hot Jupiters migrate inward late and violently, losing their companions in the process a new study casts doubt on this picture.Two scientists from the California Institute of Technology, Christopher

  19. Design and optimization of the 12.5 T EFDA dipole magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portone, A.; Salpietro, E.; Bottura, L.; Bruzzone, P.; Della Corte, A.; Fietz, W.; Heller, R.; Raff, S.; Lucas, J.; Toral, F.; Rifflet, J. M.; Testoni, P.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of a recent study carried out—within the framework of the European Fusion Program—to design a 12.5 T superconducting dipole. By focusing on the CICC based design option, the overall design procedure is presented. In particular, the 2D optimization of the dipole cross section is described including the magneto-static analysis of the winding and iron yoke, the mechanical analysis of the conductor jacket, insulation and outer cylinder, the conductor hot spot analysis, etc. As far as the thermo-hydraulic design is concerned, simulations of nominal as well as offset operating conditions (e.g., magnet quench) are presented with emphasis on their role played in the overall magnet design. For example, diagrams reporting the helium heat removal capabilities, pressure drop, mass flow, etc. are shown and their usefulness as guidance for the magnet designer described.

  20. Performance of the Main Dipole Magnet Circuits of the LHC during Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Ballarino, A; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Cantone, A; Casas Lino, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Castillo Trello, C; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Charifoulline, Z; Coelingh, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; D'Angelo, G; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Khomenko, B; Kirby, G; MacPherson, A; Marqueta Barbero, A; Mess, K H; Modena, M; Mompo, R; Montabonnet, V; le Naour, S; Nisbet, D; Parma, V; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Raimondo, A; Redaelli, S; Reymond, H; Richter, D; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Romera Ramirez, I; Saban, R; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Thurel, Y; Thiessen, H; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vergara Fernandez, A; Wolf, R; Zerlauth, M

    2008-01-01

    During hardware commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 8 main dipole circuits are tested at 1.9 K and up to their nominal current. Each dipole circuit contains 154 magnets of 15 m length, and has a total stored energy of up to 1.3 GJ. All magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and contain heaters to quickly force the transition to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. In this paper the performance of the first three of these circuits is presented, focussing on quench detection, heater performance, operation of the cold bypass diodes, and magnet-to-magnet quench propagation. The results as measured on the entire circuits will be compared to the test results obtained during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  1. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (P

  2. LHC Dipoles: The countdown has begun

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    One of the LHC dipole magnets has just achieved a record magnetic field of 9 Tesla in one go without quenching. The challenge now is to increase the production rate to 35 magnets a month by 2004. As a new information panel in Building 30 shows, the countdown has begun.

  3. Gravitational Radiation from Oscillating Gravitational Dipole

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2002-01-01

    The concept of Gravitational Dipole is introduced starting from the recent discovery of negative gravitational mass (gr-qc/0005107 and physics/0205089). A simple experiment, a gravitational wave transmitter, to test this new concept of gravitational radiation source is presented.

  4. Electromagnetic Force on a Moving Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the force acting on a moving dipole due to an external electromagnetic field and show that the expression derived in Vekstein (1997 "Eur. J. Phys." 18 113) is erroneous and suggest the correct equation for the description of this force. We also discuss the physical meaning of the relativistic transformation of current for a closed…

  5. Scattering properties of point dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Iermakova, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    The scattering properties of a three-parameter family of point dipole-like interactions constructed from a sequence of barrier-well rectangles are studied in the zero-range limit. Besides the real (unrenormalized) delta'-interaction, the derivative of Dirac's delta function, a whole family of point...

  6. Installation of the ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The large dipole magnet is installed on the ALICE detector at CERN. This magnet, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid (in the background). These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter, allowing them to traverse the main section of the detector.

  7. Diagram of a LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    LEP used a revolutionary design of dipole magnet, having magnetic plates embedded in an iron-concrete yoke. Such magnets bend the beam around its circular path. A vacuum is maintained throughout the accelerator so that the beam remains stable by avoiding unwanted interactions.

  8. The isotopic dipole moment of HDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-03-14

    An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)

  9. Effect of dipole-dipole interaction on self-control magnetization oscillation in double-domain nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. J.; Guo, Y. J.; Liu, J.-M.

    2012-03-01

    A double-domain model with long-range dipole-dipole interaction is proposed to investigate the self-oscillation of magnetization in nano-magnetic systems driven by self-controlled spin-polarized current. The dynamic behavior of magnetization oscillation is calculated by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in order to evaluate the effects of the long-range dipole-dipole interaction. While the self-oscillation of magnetization can be maintained substantially, several self-oscillation regions are experienced as the dipole-dipole interaction increases gradually.

  10. A giant chiroptical effect caused by the electric quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Weixuan; Wang, Rongyao; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-04-20

    Recently, there has been great interest in studying ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using plasmonic particles, because they are of considerable importance in biomedical science and pharmaceutics. So far, all the theories on plasmon-induced circular dichroism (CD) have been based on the dipole approximation; the electric quadrupolar contribution is generally considered to be relatively small and neglected. Here we demonstrate that the electric quadrupolar contribution not only cannot be ignored, but it also plays a key role in many cases. Particularly, for the chiral medium that possesses preferential molecular orientations and is located at the hotspot of plasmonic nanostructures, the plasmonic CD strength contributed by molecular electric quadrupoles (EQs) can be two orders of magnitude higher than that contributed by molecular electric/magnetic dipoles. Unlike the case of the dipole approximation, molecular EQ associated plasmonic CD activity appears mainly at the plasmonic resonance absorptions that facilitate the optically enhanced near-field with steep electric field gradients, and is correlated with the boosted emission rate of a molecular EQ. Based on such physical understandings, we can design nanostructures to realize a giant chiroptical effect using the EQ contribution according to the requirements, which provide a new strategy for ultrasensitive detection and quantification of molecular chirality.

  11. Electric dipole centres and colour centres in natural sodalite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on an electric dipole centre, exhibiting multiple relaxation, in the natural mineral sodalite, are described. The concentration of the dipole centres is reduced upon X irradiation, whereas simultaneously colour centres and paramagnetic centres arise. Thermal bleaching restores the

  12. Hot temperatures line lists for metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M.; Lodi, L.; Leyland, P. pC; Hill, C.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The ExoMol project is an ERC funded project set up with the purpose of calculating high quality theoretical molecular line list data to facilitate the emerging field of exoplanet and cool star atmospheric haracterisation [1]. Metal hydrides are important building blocks of interstellar physical chemistry. For molecular identification and characterisation in astrophysical sources, one requires accurate and complete spectroscopic data including transitional frequencies and intensities in the form of a line list. The ab initio methods offer the best opportunity for detailed theoretical studies of free diatomic metal hydrides and other simple hydride molecules. In this contribution we present progress on theoretical line lists for AlH, CrH, MgH, NiH, NaH and TiH obtained from first principles, applicable for a large range of temperatures up to 3500 K. Among the hydrides, AlH is of special interest because of a relatively high cosmic abundance of aluminium. The presence of AlH has been detected in the spectra of M-type and S-type stars as well as in sunspots (See [2] and references therein). CrH is a molecule of astrophysical interest; under the classification scheme developed by Kirkpatrick et al [3], CrH is of importance in distinguishing L type brown dwarfs. It has been proposed that theoretical line-lists of CrH and CrD could be used to facilitate a 'Deuterium test' for use in distinguishing planets, brown dwarfs and stars [5] and also it has been speculated that CrH exists in sunspots [4] but a higherquality hot-temperature line-list is needed to confirm this finding. The presence of MgH in stellar spectra is well documented through observation of the A2 ! X 2+ and B0 2+ ! X 2+ transitions. Different spectral features of MgH have been used as an indicator for the magnesium isotope abundances in the atmospheres of different stars from giants to dwarfs including the Sun, to measure the temperature of stars, surface gravity, stars' metal abundance, gravitational, as

  13. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  14. Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.

  15. Fast representation of dipole-dipole geoelectrical data with pseudosections for regional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giudici

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available I propose a fast method for constructing pseudosections of apparent resistivity from geoelectrical data collected for deep studies with continuous polar dipole-dipole arrays. Once a vertical section is fixed, each value of apparent resistivity is assigned to a point on the section and finally pseudosections are obtained by interpolation. This allows the geophysicist to represent a large amount of data in a fast and simple way, to perform a qualitative interpretation and to facilitate the quantitative interpretation.

  16. Pygmy and core polarization dipole modes in 206Pb: Connecting nuclear structure to stellar nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Goriely, S.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution study of the electromagnetic response of 206Pb below the neutron separation energy is performed using a (γ → ,γ‧) experiment at the HI γ → S facility. Nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly polarized photon beams is used to measure spins, parities, branching ratios, and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 to 8.1 MeV. The extracted ΣB (E 1) ↑ and ΣB (M 1) ↑ values for the total electric and magnetic dipole strength below the neutron separation energy are 0.9 ± 0.2 e2fm2 and 8.3 ± 2.0 μN2, respectively. These measurements are found to be in very good agreement with the predictions from an energy-density functional (EDF) plus quasiparticle phonon model (QPM). Such a detailed theoretical analysis allows to separate the pygmy dipole resonance from both the tail of the giant dipole resonance and multi-phonon excitations. Combined with earlier photonuclear experiments above the neutron separation energy, one extracts a value for the electric dipole polarizability of 206Pb of αD = 122 ± 10 mb /MeV. When compared to predictions from both the EDF+QPM and accurately calibrated relativistic EDFs, one deduces a range for the neutron-skin thickness of Rskin206 = 0.12- 0.19 fm and a corresponding range for the slope of the symmetry energy of L = 48- 60 MeV. This newly obtained information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section 205Pb (n , γ)206Pb at 30 keV to be σ = 130 ± 25 mb. The astrophysical impact of this measurement-on both the s-process in stellar nucleosynthesis and on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter-is discussed.

  17. Formation and temporal evolution of the Lamb-dipole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1997-01-01

    of the evolving dipoles depend on the initial condition. However, the gross properties of their evolution are only weakly dependent on the detailed structure and can be well-described by the so-called Lamb-dipole solution. The viscous decay of the Lamb-dipole, leading to an expansion and a decreasing velocity......, is well described by an adiabatic theory. During the expansion the dipole is found to trap fluid as it evolves. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  18. Evidence of dynamical dipole excitation in the fusion-evaporation of the 40Ca+152Sm heavy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alba, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Agodi, C.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Emanuele, U.; Farinon, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The excitation of the dynamical dipole mode along the fusion path was investigated for the first time in the formation of a heavy compound nucleus in the A ˜190 mass region. The compound nucleus was formed at identical conditions of excitation energy and spin from two entrance channels: the charge-asymmetric 40Ca+152Sm and the nearly charge-symmetric 48Ca+144Sm at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. High-energy γ rays and light charged particles were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy) coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The charged particle multiplicity spectra and angular distributions were used to pin down the average excitation energy, the average mass, and the average charge of the compound nucleus. The γ -ray multiplicity spectrum and angular distribution related to the nearly charge-symmetric channel were employed to obtain new data on the giant dipole resonance in the compound nucleus. The dynamical dipole mode excitation in the charge-asymmetric channel was evidenced, in a model-independent way, by comparing the γ -ray multiplicity spectra and angular distributions of the two entrance channels with each other. Calculations of the dynamical dipole mode in the 40Ca+152Sm channel, based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics, are presented. Possible interesting implications in the superheavy-element quest are discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller responses of even and odd 90-94 40Zr isotopes in QRPA calculations with the D1M Gogny force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloncle, I.; Péru, S.; Martini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present theoretical results on the dipole response in the proton spin-saturated 90-94Zr isotopes. The electric and magnetic dipole excitations are obtained in Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations performed with the D1M Gogny force. A pnQRPA charge exchange code is used to study the Gamow-Teller response. The results on the pygmy, the giant dipole resonances as well as those on the magnetic nuclear spin-flip excitation and the Gamow-Teller transitions are compared with available experimental or theoretical information. In our approach, the proton pairing plays a role in the phonon excitations, in particular in the M1 nuclear spin-flip resonance.

  20. THE ANGULAR-MOMENTUM DEPENDENCE OF THE GIANT-DIPOLE RESONANCE IN DY-154

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORMAN, RF; BACELAR, JC; HARAKEH, MN; HESSELINK, WHA; HOFMANN, HJ; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; VANSCHAGEN, JPS; STOLK, A; SUJKOWSKI, Z; DEVOIGT, MJA; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1994-01-01

    The statistical gamma-ray decay of the compound nucleus 154Dy* formed at an excitation energy of 69 MeV is studied in three angular-momentum windows [J] = 31,42 and 50h. The GDR strength function extracted from the data indicates a constant centroid energy for the resonance E(GDR) = 15.2 +/- 0.5

  1. Giant scalp arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Roxo, Marcelo Rosa; Camelo, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scalp are rare lesions. The clinical picture presents with complaints of increased scalp, scalp disfigurement, pain and neurological symptoms. Its origin can be congenital or traumatic. We present a case of giant scalp AVMs and its management, followed by a brief literature review on the subject. The diagnosis of scalp AVMs is based on physical examination and confirmed by internal and external carotid angiography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Surgical excision is especially effective in scalp AVMs, and is the most frequently used treatment modality.

  2. Giant Ulcerative Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Karlidag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a slowly growing common benign cutaneous tumor characterized by hard papules and nodules. The rarely seen erosions and ulcerations may cause difficulties in the diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, which is clinically and histopathologically of malignant character, displays difficulties in the diagnosis since it has similarities with basal cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and sarcomas. Head and neck involvement is very rare. In this study, a giant dermatofibroma case, which is histopathologically, ulcerative dermatofibroma, the biggest lesion of the head and neck region and seen rarely in the literature that has characteristics similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, has been presented.

  3. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  4. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  5. Giant paraganglioma in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumour in childhood which arises outside the adrenal medulla. We present a 12 year old girl with giant paraganglioma with severe hypertension and end organ damage. Diagnosis was confirmed with 24 h urinary Vanillymandelic Acid (VMA and CT scan. Preoperative blood pressure was controlled with intravenous nitroprusside, and oral prazosin, amlodepine, labetalol and metoprolol. General anaesthesia with epidural analgesia was given. Intra operative blood pressure rise was managed with infusion of nitriglycerine (NTG, esmolol, nitroprusside and propofol.

  6. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  7. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable Ca isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertychny, G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Tselyaev, V. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics S.Petersburg University (Russian Federation); Kamerdzhiev, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gruemmer, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Krewald, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Speth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Litvinova, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Avdeenkov, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The properties of the low-lying electric dipole strength in the stable {sup 40}Ca,{sup 44}Ca and {sup 48}Ca isotopes have been calculated within the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems (ETFFS). This approach is based on the random phase approximation (RPA) and includes the single-particle continuum as well as the coupling to low-lying collective states which are considered in a consistent microscopic way. For {sup 44}Ca we also include pairing correlations. A good agreement with the existing experimental data for the gross properties of the low-lying strength has been obtained. We conclude that for the detailed understanding of the low-lying dipole strength an approach like the present one is absolutely necessary.

  8. Is there a fundamental cosmological dipole?

    CERN Document Server

    Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2014-01-01

    Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statistical isotropy are being accumulated. After reviewing these hints, I focus on four cosmologically observed axes which appear to be either marginally consistent or in conflict with the standard ΛCDM isotropic and homogeneous cosmology. These axes are abnormally aligned with each other and include: (a) The Fine Structure Constant α Dipole (b) the Dark Energy Dipole (c) the Dark Velocity Flow and (d) the CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry. I also discuss a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) that has the potential to explain the existence and alignment of these axes. The model is based on the recent formation of a global monopole with Hubble scale core by an O(3) symmetric scalar field, non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism.

  9. Trapped field internal dipole superconducting motor generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A motor generator including a high temperature superconductor rotor and an internally disposed coil assembly. The motor generator superconductor rotor is constructed of a plurality of superconductor elements magnetized to produce a dipole field. The coil assembly can be either a conventional conductor or a high temperature superconductor. The superconductor rotor elements include a magnetization direction and c-axis for the crystals of the elements and which is oriented along the magnetization direction.

  10. The LHC AC Dipole system: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The LHC AC Dipole is an instrument to study properties of the LHC lattice by inducing large transverse displacements in the beam. These displacements are generated by exciting the beam with an oscillating magnetic field at a frequency close to the tune. This paper presents the system requirements and the technical solution chosen to meet them, based of high-power audio amplifiers and a resonant parallel RLC circuit.

  11. LHC main dipoles proposed baseline current ramping

    OpenAIRE

    Bottura, L; Burla, P; Wolf, R

    1998-01-01

    Several studies performed from 1994 to 1996 including some in the framework of the Dynamic Effects Working Group, have shown that the magnitude of the magnetic field imperfections generated in the LHC main dipoles depends partly on the shape of the magnetic field ramp. A current ramp optimisation has been carried out with several combinations of mathematical functions. The result of this study is t he proposed baseline current ramp. The graphic representation of this ramp is included in this ...

  12. Giant Planets in Open Clusters and Binaries: Observational Constraints on Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel J.; Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Some giant planets migrate from their birthplace beyond the ice line to short-period orbits just a fraction of an AU from their host stars. Though many theories have been proposed, it is not yet clear which mechanism is most important for migration, and by extension, in which types of planetary system we can expect a greater prevalence of disruptive gas giant migration. One way to constrain this process is to observe the orbital properties of migrating planets, which are expected to be shaped according to the mode of migration: in general, interaction with the gas disk should produce circular, coplanar orbits, while multi-body processes stir up eccentricities and inclinations. Unfortunately, tidal and magnetic interactions between hot Jupiters and their host stars can obscure these differences by damping eccentricities and inclinations over time, so the most direct constraints will come from difficult-to-observe young systems. Additional constraints on migration can be obtained by observing the architectures of systems containing short-period giant planets: if an outer companion is often responsible for driving migration, there should be a higher incidence of massive companions on wide orbits in hot Jupiter systems than in systems not hosting a short-period giant planet. Further, the properties of these outer companions can help differentiate between multi-body migration mechanisms. We describe two complementary surveys that we have carried out to address these problems. The first, a precise radial-velocity survey in nearby adolescent (100-600 Myr) open clusters, characterizes the orbits of giant planets soon after migration. The second, an adaptive optics imaging survey of hot Jupiter host stars, constrains the population of wide companions in hot Jupiter systems. We present the results from these two surveys and discuss the orbital properties and system architectures of our discoveries in the context of giant planet migration.

  13. Positron experiments in a supported dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, J. R.; Saitoh, H.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Nißl, S.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Stoneking, M. R.; Singer, M.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Schwekhard, L.; Surko, C. M.

    2017-10-01

    A new levitated dipole trap is being designed to experimentally study the unique physics of electron-positron pair plasmas. In parallel with the design process, a number of key questions have been investigated in a supported dipole trap. This includes the use of E × B drift injection, the manipulation of positron spatial distribution in the trap by external electrostatic potentials, and studies of the positron confinement time in a system with asymmetric perturbations. In particular, E × B drift injection has been shown to be a viable and robust means of injecting positrons from the NEPOMUC (NEutron-induced POsitron source MUniCh) beam line, across the separatrix, and into the confinement region of the dipole. Nearly 100% injection of the beam has been demonstrated for a large region of parameter space. Once in the trap, positrons can be moved deeper into the confinement region by means of either static or oscillating potentials applied strategically to the segmented outer wall of the trap. Finally, once the injection potentials are switched off, experiments have demonstrated a long-lived component of the trapped positrons lasting for hundreds of milliseconds.

  14. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.; Maclean, E.; Tomás, R.

    2013-07-01

    In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning). The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  15. Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2010-09-01

    Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the ϕ{D}(r)=μ{2}/r{3} repulsive interaction potential; μ is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid 4He . The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in 4He .

  16. SPS Dipole Multipactor Test and TEWave Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Edwards, P; Federmann, S; Holz, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud accumulation in particle accelerators can be mitigated by coating the vacuum beam pipe with thin films of low secondary electron yield (SEY) material. The SEY of small coated samples are usually measured in the laboratory. To further test the properties of different coating materials, RF-induced multipacting in a coaxial waveguide configuration can be performed. The technique is applied to two main bending dipoles of the SPS, where the RF power is fed through a tungsten wire stretched along the vacuum chamber (6.4 m). A dipole with a bare stainless steel chamber shows a clear power threshold initiating an abrupt rise in reflected power and pressure. The effect is enhanced at RF frequencies corresponding to electron cyclotron resonances for given magnetic fields. Preliminary results show that the dipole with a carbon coated vacuum chamber does not exhibit any pressure rise or reflected RF power up to the maximum available input power. In the case of a large scale coating production this techniqu...

  17. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  18. Giant renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Nebojsa; Ignjatovic, Ivan; Kostov, Milos; Mijović, Zaklina; Zivković, Sladjana; Kosević, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  19. Giant renal oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. Case report. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Conclusion. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  20. Giant omphalocele: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mack AJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Josef Mack,1 Bjarte Rogdo2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Giant omphalocele (GO is a congenital ventral abdominal wall defect characterized by a large opening with herniated abdominal organs, including liver, loss of abdominal cavity volume, and other associated congenital anomalies. Treatment of patients with GO represents a major challenge for involved caregivers. Despite significant improvements in neonatal intensive and surgical care over the last decades, the condition is still associated with high mortality rates and a high risk of severe morbidity in survivors. The principles of the earliest attempts to treat GO surgically and conservatively are still easily recognized in the main approaches used today. In this review, we discuss the more recent developments in the treatment of GO, including perioperative management and associated morbidities of the condition. Keywords: giant omphalocele, abdominal wall closure, staged repair, delayed repair 

  1. EG Andromedae: A Symbiotic System as an Insight into Red Giant Chromospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Symbiotic systems are interacting binary stars consisting of both hot and cool components. This results in a complex environment that is ideal for studying the latter stages of stellar evolution along with interactions within binary systems. As a star approaches the end of its life, in particular the red giant phase, it exhausts its supply of core hydrogen and begins burning its way through successively heavier elements. Red giants lose mass in the form of a dense wind that will replenish the interstellar medium with chemical elements that are formed through nuclear processes deep in the stellar interior. When these elements reach the interstellar medium they play a central role in both stellar and planetary evolution, as well as providing the essential constituents needed for life. The undoubted significance of these cool giants means the study of their atmospheres is necessary to help understand our place in the Universe. This thesis presents Hubble Space Telescope observations of the symbiotic system EG Andromedae as an insight into red giant stars. EG And is one of the brightest and closest symbiotic systems and consists of a red giant primary along with a white dwarf. The presence of the white dwarf in the system allows spatially resolved examination of the red giant primary. The benefits of using such a system to better understand the base of red giant chromospheres is shown. Along with the observations of EG And, new HST observations of an isolated red giant spectral standard HD148349 are described. The similarity between the isolated spectral standard and the red giant primary of EG And is demonstrated, showing that much of the information gleaned from a symbiotic system can be applied to the general red giant population. Using both ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy, the atmosphere of EG And and HD148349 are investigated and contrasted.

  2. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-02-18

    The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.

  3. The investigation of the hydrogen bond saturation effect during the dipole-dipole induced azobenzene supramolecular self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Wu, Rongliang; Guang, Shanyi; Su, Xinyan; Xu, Hongyao

    2013-12-21

    The substituent group and hydrogen bonds play important roles in supramolecular self-assembly. To exploit the influential mechanism of hydrogen bonds during the dipole-dipole induced supramolecular self-assembly, some rigid azobenzene molecules with different electronegativity and hydrogen bonding capabilities were identified and designed. Different regular-shaped architectures were constructed via a simple solution process under mild conditions. Both experimental results and density functional theory calculations show that weak π-π stacking interactions lead to thick and short nanocylinders, strong dipole-dipole interactions and dipole induced π-π stacking lead to long and thin nanorods, appropriate hydrogen bonds consolidate the dipole-dipole interactions and dipole induced π-π stacking, forming thin nanosheets, while excessive hydrogen bonds in azobenzene would ruin the regular-shaped structures, giving irregular and stochastic aggregates. Namely there exists a certain hydrogen bond saturation effect in generating azobenzene nanostructures driven by dipole-dipole interactions. The results indicate that the morphologies of organic materials with azobenzene structures can be effectively controlled through rational molecular design by way of introducing appropriate dipole and hydrogen bonds.

  4. Description of dipole strength in heavy nuclei in conformity with their quadrupole degrees of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In conformity to new findings about the widespread occurrence of triaxiality arguments are given in favor of a description of the giant dipole resonance in heavy nuclei by the sum of three Lorentzians. This TLO parameterization allows a strict use of resonance widths Γ in accordance to the theoretically founded power law relation to the resonance energy. No additional variation of Γ with the photon energy and no violation of the sum rule are necessary to obtain a good agreement to nuclear photo-effect, photon scattering and radiative capture data. Photon strength other than E1 has a small effect, but the influence of the level density on photon emission probabilities needs further investigation.

  5. On to the Ice Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Hofstdater, Mark; Simon, Amy; Elliott, John

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 2 mission flew by Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989 resulting in stunning remote observations not previously accessible from the ground. There have been no follow-up space flight missions to examine ice giants and, as a result there are significant gaps in our understanding of planetary formation and evolution. This gap not only affects our understanding of our own solar system but also our understanding of exoplanets; the majority of planets discovered around other stars are thought to be ice giants. Ice Giants are likely to be far more abundant in our galaxy than previously thought. The U.S. 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee recognized the importance of Uranus and Neptune, and prioritized the exploration of the Ice Giants. Following from this, NASA and ESA have recently completed a study of candidate missions to Uranus and Neptune, the so-called ice giant planets. The intent was to examine what could be accomplished within the budget realities of the predictable future. This "Pre-Decadal Study," focused on opportunities for missions launching in the 2020's and early 2030's. This paper presents results from the Ice Giants study (science, architectures and technologies) and concludes that compelling and affordable missions to the Ice Giants are within our reach.

  6. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the ∆L = 0 spin-flip M1 resonance. A case study of the 208Pb(p, p ) reaction at. E = 295 MeV was performed. A background-subtracted spectrum measured at 0◦ spectrometer angle is displayed in the top part of figure 3. In the giant resonance region, prominent excitation of the GDR is observed. Because of the excellent.

  7. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum for giant inguinal hernias

    OpenAIRE

    Piskin, Turgut; Aydin, Cemalettin; Barut, Bora; Dirican, Abuzer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of giant hernia contents into the abdominal cavity may cause intraoperative and postoperative problems such as abdominal compartment syndrome. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum expands the abdominal cavity, increases the patient?s tolerability to operation, and can diminish intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is recommended for giant ventral hernias, but rarely for giant inguinal hernias. We present two giant inguinal her...

  8. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  9. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn

    2015-01-01

    % versus 44% required unplanned additional surgery, respectively. Complications were noted in 25% and 67% of the patients, respectively. Cosmetic result was satisfying in 76% of patients without difference between the groups. No malignant transformation was found during a mean follow-up of 11 years......Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) occur in 1:20,000 livebirths and are associated with increased risk of malignant transformation. The treatment of GCMN from 1981 to 2010 in a tertiary referral center was reviewed evaluating the modalities used, cosmetic results, associated complications......, and malignant transformation. Of 35 patients, 25 underwent surgery. Curettage was most frequently used (64%) followed by excision and tissue expansion (20%). Six percent of the patients treated with curettage, and 78% of the patients who received excision surgery required more than 1 planned procedure, and 25...

  10. Giant Planet Formation and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Johansen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Planets form in circumstellar discs around young stars. Starting with sub-micron sized dust particles, giant planet formation is all about growing 14 orders of magnitude in size. It has become increasingly clear over the past decades that during all stages of giant planet formation, the building blocks are extremely mobile and can change their semimajor axis by substantial amounts. In this chapter, we aim to give a basic overview of the physical processes thought to govern giant planet formation and migration, and to highlight possible links to water delivery.

  11. Atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanet formation by pebble accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Eriksson, Linn

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric chemical abundances of giant planets lead to important constraints on planetary formation and migration. Studies have shown that giant planets that migrate through the protoplanetary disc can accrete substantial amounts of oxygen-rich planetesimals, leading to supersolar metallicities in the envelope and solar or subsolar C/O ratios. Pebble accretion has been demonstrated to play an important role in core accretion and to have growth rates that are consistent with planetary migration. The high pebble accretion rates allow planetary cores to start their growth beyond 10 au and subsequently migrate to cold (≳1 au), warm (˜0.1-1 au) or hot (≲0.1 au) orbits. In this work we investigate how the formation of giant planets via pebble accretion influences their atmospheric chemical compositions. We find that under the standard pebble accretion scenario, where the core is isolated from the envelope, the resulting metallicities (O/H and C/H ratios) are subsolar, while the C/O ratios are supersolar. Planets that migrate through the disc to become hot Jupiters accrete substantial amounts of water vapour, but still acquire slightly subsolar O/H and supersolar C/O of 0.7-0.8. The metallicity can be substantially subsolar (˜0.2-0.5 × solar) and the C/O can even approach 1.0 if the planet accretes its envelope mostly beyond the CO2 ice line, i.e. cold Jupiters or hot Jupiters that form far out and migrate in by scattering. Allowing for core erosion yields significantly supersolar metallicities and solar or subsolar C/O, which can also be achieved by other means, e.g. photoevaporation and late-stage planetesimal accretion.

  12. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  13. EDM: Neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fierlinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An electric dipole moment (EDM of the neutron would be a clear sign of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. The search for this phenomenon is considered one of the most important experiments in fundamental physics and could provide key information on the excess of matter versus antimatter in the universe. With high measurement precision, this experiment aims to ultimately achieve a sensitivity of 10-28 ecm, a 100-fold improvement in the sensitivity compared to the state-of-the-art. The EDM instrument is operated by an international collaboration based at the Technische Universität München.

  14. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  15. Comparison of Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays in the study of an underground three-dimensional cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyamadpour, Ahmad; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Taib, Samsudin; Neyamadpour, Behrang

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare Wenner and dipole-dipole configurations in delineating an underground cavity at a site near the University of Malaya, Malaysia. A three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging survey was carried out along seven parallel lines using Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays. A three-dimensional least-squares algorithm, based on the robust inversion method, was used in the inversion of the apparent resistivity data. In the inverted model, both the horizontal and vertical extents of the anomalous zones were displayed. Results indicate the superiority of the Wenner array over the dipole-dipole array for determining the vertical distribution of the subsurface resistivity, although the dipole-dipole array produced a better lateral extent of the subsurface features. The results show that the three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging survey using both the Wenner and dipole-dipole arrays, in combination with an appropriate three-dimensional inversion method and synthetic model analysis, can be highly useful for engineering and environmental applications, especially for underground three-dimensional cavity detection.

  16. [Giant cell glioblastoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Betancourt, Leonardo; López-Ortega, Salvador; Caldera-Duarte, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    Glioblastomas (World Health Organization, (WHO), grade IV) are the most frequent and malignant neoplasms of the human nervous system. Giant cells glioblastomas, a subtype of these, account for less than 1% of all brain toumors and up to 5% of glioblastomas. We present the case of a female who was diagnosed and treated for a right intra and paraventricular giant cell glioblastoma. We enfatize the importance of histological features of this toumor related to its prognosis.

  17. Spontaneous dipole-dipole interactions in many-body, driven, dissipative Rydberg systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslek, James; Boulier, Thomas; Magnan, Eric; Bracamontes, Carlos; Young, Jeremy; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rolston, Steve; Porto, Trey

    We observe unexpected dipole-dipole interactions leading to the violation of a forbidden transition to the 18s manifold of ultra-cold 87 Rb atoms in a 3D optical lattice, as well as an increase in the linewidth of the allowed two photon rydberg transition. At increasing two photon Rabi frequency, a new resonance appears 10 MHz detuned from the main rydberg transition. Due to the selection rules of the circularly-polarized 2-photon excitation, the | F = 1 , mF = - 1 > state, which lies roughly 10 MHz away, should be inaccessible, and is not present at rabi frequencies less than 60kHz. We interpret this as a mixing of both the accessible and forbidden 18s states, which comes from the dipole-dipole interaction between these states and the populations of nearby p states, which are induced from blackbody decay from the. | 18 s , F = 2 , mF = - 2 > state. These p states are created faster than the timescales of the experiment, making their effect instant. We observe that the pumping rates of these resonances tend to the same value as the rabi frequency gets large enough, showing a complete mixing of the states. This phenomenon occurs due to the finite lifetimes of rydberg atoms and occurs in highly excited many-body systems. It is relevant for a wide array of proposals, including rydberg dressing

  18. Numerical simulations of magnetic suspensions with hydrodynamic and dipole-dipole magnetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, R. G.; Cunha, F. R.

    2017-06-01

    This work describes a numerical model to compute the translational and rotational motion of N spherical magnetic particles settling in a quiescent viscous fluid under creeping flow condition. The motion of the particles may be produced by the action of gravitational forces, Brownian thermal fluctuations, magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, external magnetic field, and hydrodynamic interactions. In order to avoid particle overlap, we consider a repulsive force based on a variation of a screened-Coulomb potential mixed with Hertz contact forces. The inertia of the particles is neglected so that a mobility approach to describe the hydrodynamic interactions is used. The magnetic dipoles are fixed with respect to the particles themselves. Thus they can only interact magnetically between them and with an external applied magnetic field. Therefore the effect of magnetic field moment rotation relative to the particle as a consequence of a finite amount of particle anisotropy is neglected in this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of particle viscous hydrodynamic interactions and dipolar interactions is considered in our model. Both long-range hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions are accounted by a sophisticated technique of lattice sums. This work considers several possibilities of periodic and non-periodic particle interaction schemes. This paper intends to show the benefits and disadvantages of the different approaches, including a hybrid possibility of computing periodic and non-periodic particle interactions. The well-known mean sedimentation velocity and the equilibrium magnetization of the suspension are computed to validate the numerical scheme. The comparison is performed with the existent theoretical models valid for dilute suspensions and several empirical correlations available in the current literature. In the presence of dipole-dipole particle interactions, the simulations show a non-monotonic behavior of the mean sedimentation velocity as the particle

  19. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  20. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  1. Frequency scanning antenna arrays with pentagonal dipoles of different impedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the benefits of using pentagonal dipoles as radiating elements instead of classical printed dipoles in the design of frequency scanning antenna arrays. We investigate how impedance of pentagonal dipoles, which can be changed in a wide range, influences the overall characteristics of the uniform antenna array. Some very important antenna characteristics such as side lobe level, gain and scanning angle are compared for three different antenna arrays consisting of identical pentagonal dipoles with impedances of 500 Ω, 1000 Ω and 1500 Ω. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-32024 i br. III-45016

  2. Dipole active vibrations and dipole moments of N2 and O2 physisorbed on a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, K.; Andersson, S.

    2006-07-01

    We have, in infrared reflection absorption measurements, observed narrow dipole active absorption lines associated with the fundamental internal vibrational transitions of N2 and O2 physisorbed at 30K on the chemically inert Pt(111)(1×1)H surface. Such transitions are forbidden for free homonuclear molecules and become dipole active at a metal surface due to polarization induced surface dipole moments. The measurements show that the internal stretch vibration frequencies are lowered by 7-8cm-1 relative to the gas phase values. The measured static and dynamic dipole moments are in the ranges of 0.06-0.07 and 0.001-0.002D, respectively. We find that good estimates of the induced dynamic as well as the static dipole moments can in general be obtained from a van der Waals model but that the ratios of the measured static and dynamic moments indicates a need for a refinement of the dipole moment function.

  3. A giant planet around HD95086 ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Julien; Chauvin, Gaël; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Meshkat, Tiffany; Boccaletti, Anthony; Quanz, Sascha P.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Bailey, Vanessa; Kenworthy, Matthew; Currie, Thayne; Girard, Julien H.; Delorme, Philippe; Desidera, Silvano; Dumas, Christophe; Mordasini, Christoph; Klahr, Hubert; Bonavita, Mariangela

    2013-07-01

    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in as- tronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planet-star contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a year-time-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation.

  4. Bringing Low the Giants

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Their work goes on unseen, because they a hundred metres beneath your feet. But while the race against the clock to build the LHC has begun on the surface, teams underground are feverishly engaged to dismantle LEP and its experiments. Four months after the start of dismantling, the technical coordinators of the different experiments discuss the progress of work. Little men attack the giant ALEPH. The barrel and its two endcaps have been removed to the end of the cavern and stripped of their cables. The breaking up of the detector can now begin. At ALEPH, counting rooms removed all in one go Jean-Paul Fabre, technical coordinator at ALEPH:'After making safe the structure, the first step was to remove the wiring and cables. Some 210 cubic metres were brought out. Then the counting rooms all round the detector were taken out. They were brought up from the cavern all in one go, up through the shaft, which is 10 metres wide and 150 metres deep. They made it with 15 centimetres to spare. They have been emptied of...

  5. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  6. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor.

  7. Giant ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We read the exceedingly rare case study recently described by Hota et al. about giant ovarian cyst in term pregnancy1. The patient was a 25-year-old woman undergoing therapy for hypothyroidism, with history of three previous deliveries (P1L1A1. USG of abdomen and pelvis was normal with respect to gestational age in the second trimester, and ovarian cyst was not seen. However, the USG of control done on the third trimester revealed a left ovarian cyst (21x18 cm, with normal obstetric features. The weight of removed cyst of 29x20 cm was 4.9 kg, and the histopathology diagnosis was ovarian mucinous cystadenoma1. The authors emphasized the rarity of concomitat pregnancy and ovarian cyst, and 15% of these mucinous cysts are malignant1. Huge ovarian cysts are more often benign, and less frequently they are diagnosed in association with normal pregnancies1. Major concerns in this setting should be the early diagnosis, close follow-up of the cyst growing, and appropriate intervention1. Interestingly, in the case herein commented the ovarian cyst was not detected by USG in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. 

  8. Giant perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3d transition-metal thin films on MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kohji, E-mail: kohji@phen.mie-u.ac.jp; Ikeura, Yushi; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori [Department of Physics Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of the Fe-based transition-metal thin films was investigated by means of first principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. A giant perpendicular MCA (PMCA), up to 3 meV, was confirmed in a 7-layer Fe-Ni film/MgO(001), where an Fe{sub 2}/Ni/Fe/Ni/Fe{sub 2} atomic-layer alignment with a bcc-like-layer stacking and the Fe/MgO interfaces play key roles for leading to the large PMCA. Importantly, we find that the PMCA overcomes enough over the magnetic dipole-dipole anisotropy that favors the in-plane magnetization even when the film thickness increases.

  9. Carbon coating of the SPS dipole chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P.; Chiggiato, P.; Edwards, P.; Mensi, M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.

    2013-04-22

    The Electron Multipacting (EM) phenomenon is a limiting factor for the achievement of high luminosity in accelerators for positively charged particles and for the performance of RF devices. At CERN, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) must be upgraded in order to feed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 25 ns bunch spaced beams. At such small bunch spacing, EM may limit the performance of the SPS and consequently that of the LHC. To mitigate this phenomenon CERN is developing a carbon thin film coating with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) to coat the internal walls of the SPS dipoles beam pipes. This paper presents the progresses in the coating technology, the performance of the carbon coatings and the strategy for a large scale production.

  10. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... translucency effects in the rendered result. We present an improved analytical model for subsurface scattering that captures translucency effects present in the reference solutions but remaining absent with existing models. The key difference is that our model is based on ray source diffusion, rather than...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...

  11. Electron Excitation of High Dipole Moment Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Kauffmann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Emission from high-dipole moment molecules such as HCN allows determination of the density in molecular clouds, and is often considered to trace the “dense” gas available for star formation. We assess the importance of electron excitation in various environments. The ratio of the rate coefficients for electrons and H2 molecules, ~10^5 for HCN, yields the requirements for electron excitation to be of practical importance if n(H2) 10^{-5}, where the numerical factors reflect critical values n_c(H2) and X^*(e-). This indicates that in regions where a large fraction of carbon is ionized, X(e-) will be large enough to make electron excitation significant. The situation is in general similar for other “high density tracers”, including HCO+, CN, and CS. But there are significant differences in the critical electron fractional abundance, X^*(e-), defined by the value required for equal effect from collisions with H2 and e-. Electron excitation is, for example, unimportant for CO and C+. Electron excitation may be responsible for the surprisingly large spatial extent of the emission from dense gas tracers in some molecular clouds (Pety et al. 2017, Kauffmann, Goldsmith et al. 2017, A&A, submitted). The enhanced estimates for HCN abundances and HCN/CO and HCN/HCO+ ratios observed in the nuclear regions of luminous galaxies may be in part a result of electron excitation of high dipole moment tracers. The importance of electron excitation will depend on detailed models of the chemistry, which may well be non-steady state and non--static.

  12. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  13. Simulation of structure and annihilation of screw dislocation dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Vegge, Tejs; Leffers, Torben

    2000-01-01

    .2 nm. In both cases the annihilation is initiated by cross-slip of one of the dislocations. For straight dislocations the activation energy shows a linear dependence on the inverse dipole height, and for flexible dislocations the dependence is roughly linear for the dipoles investigated....

  14. Rotation of Giant Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  15. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  16. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of a geoelectrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. We image the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular we found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geoelectrical profiles. In our interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at the same depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geoelectrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  17. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the northern Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, L.; Giudici, M. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di geofisica

    1998-08-01

    The paper presents some results of a geo electrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d`Aveto and Bobbio (Italy) window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. The study images the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular was found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geo electrical profiles. In this interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d`Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at some depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geo electrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  18. Inclusion of magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregg, P.J. [SEAM Centre, Materials Characterisation and Processing Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford (Ireland)], E-mail: pjcregg@wit.ie; Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil [SEAM Centre, Materials Characterisation and Processing Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford (Ireland)

    2009-12-15

    Mathematical modelling of the implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is performed. In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions are included. Such interactions were calculated previously by Mikkelsen et al. under low magnetic fields ({approx}0.05 T) in microfluidic systems. Here, a higher magnetic field (0.7 T) is considered and the effect of interactions on two nanoparticles with a seed implant is calculated. The calculations were performed with the open-source software OpenFOAM. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of capture cross section. Inclusion of both interactions was seen to alter the capture cross section of the system by up to 7% in absolute terms.

  19. Controlling the dipole-dipole interaction using NMR composite rf pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    New composite rf pulses are proposed during which the average dipole-dipole interactions within a spin ensemble are controlled, while a global rotation is achieved. The method used to tailor the pulses is based on the average Hamiltonian theory and relies on the geometrical properties of the spin-spin dipolar interaction. I describe several such composite pulses and analyze quantitatively the improvement brought on the control of the NMR dynamics. Numerical simulations show that the magic sandwich pulse sequence, during which the average dipolar field is effectively reversed, is plagued by defects originating from the finite initial and final π/2 rf pulses. A numerical test based on a classical description of nuclear magnetic resonance is used to check that, when these pulses are replaced by magic composite pulses, the efficiency of the magic sandwich is improved.

  20. A path integral approach to the full Dicke model with dipole-dipole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalde, M Aparicio [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stephany, J [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Svaiter, N F, E-mail: aparicio@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: stephany@usb.ve, E-mail: nfuxsvai@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-16

    We consider the full Dicke spin-boson model composed by a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms with different couplings for the resonant and anti-resonant interaction terms, and incorporate a dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms. Assuming that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature {beta}{sup -1}, we compute the free energy in the thermodynamic limit N {yields} {infinity} in the saddle-point approximation to the path integral and determine the critical temperature for the super-radiant phase transition. In the zero temperature limit, we recover the critical coupling of the quantum phase transition, presented in the literature. (paper)

  1. Energy of van der Waals and dipole-dipole interactions between atoms in Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenski, A. A.; Manakov, N. L.; Mokhnenko, S. N.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The van der Waals coefficient C6(θ ;n l J M ) of two like Rydberg atoms in their identical Rydberg states |n l J M 〉 is resolved into four irreducible components called scalar Rs s, axial (vector) Ra a, scalar-tensor Rs T=RT s , and tensor-tensor RT T parts in analogy with the components of dipole polarizabilities. The irreducible components determine the dependence of C6(θ ;n l J M ) on the angle θ between the interatomic and the quantization axes of atoms. The spectral resolution for the biatomic Green's function with account of the most contributing terms is used for evaluating the components Rα β of atoms in their Rydberg series of doublet states of the low angular momenta (2S , 2P , 2D , 2F ). The polynomial presentations in powers of the Rydberg-state principal quantum number n taking into account the asymptotic dependence C6(θ ;n l J M ) ∝n11 are derived for simplified evaluations of irreducible components. Numerical values of the polynomial coefficients are determined for Rb atoms in their n 2S1 /2 , n 2P1 /2 ,3 /2 , n 2D3 /2 ,5 /2 , and n 2F5 /2 ,7 /2 Rydberg states of arbitrary high n . The transformation of the van der Waals interaction law -C6/R6 into the dipole-dipole law C3/R3 in the case of close dipole-connected two-atomic states (the Förster resonance) is considered and the dependencies on the magnetic quantum numbers M and on the angle θ of the constant C3(θ ;n l J M ) are determined together with the ranges of interatomic distances R , where the transformation appears.

  2. Molecular Line and Continuum Opacities for Modeling of Extrasolar Giant Planet and Cool Stellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Kirby, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Allen, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular line and continuum opacities are investigated in the atmospheres of cool stars and Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs). Using a combination of ab inito and experimentally derived potential curves and dipole transition moments, accurate data have been calculated for rovibrationally-resolved oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections in the B' (sup 2)Sigma+ (left arrow) X (sup 2)Sigma+ and A (sup 2)Pi (left arrow) X (sup 2)Sigma+ band systems in MgH. We also report our progress on the study of the electronic structure of LiCl and FeH.

  3. Giant Planet Interior Physics from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Thorngren, Daniel; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline

    2017-10-01

    Transiting planets give us excellent probes of giant exoplanet structure (from mass and radius) and atmospheres (from transit and occultation spectroscopy). However, the combined power of these observations to understand how the planetary interior structure may impact its atmosphere has not yet been fully exploited. This will change with JWST. In particular, near-infrared wavelengths have less water opacity than mid-IR wavelengths, which allows us to probe thermal emission from deeper, hotter regions of the atmosphere. In some circumstances we should be able to see thermal emission coming from below the radiative-convective boundary in the atmosphere, including the adiabat itself. This adiabat continues into the planet’s very deep interior -- the specific entropy of this adiabat sets the planetary radius at a given mass. Hot internal adiabats, which we should be able to ``see” in thermal emission, should be present for the most inflated hot Jupiters, and planets like warm Neptunes that are strongly influenced by tidal heating (e.g. GJ 436b, Morley et al. 2017). Determining the flux coming from these atmospheric depths can be an important constraint on structure models of planets that have aimed to understand giant planet bulk metal enrichment, which is an important constraint on formation models. These flux detections can also provide novel and reasonably direct constraints on planetary tidal Q for eccentric planets. We highlight how we expect JWST to open up this new window into exoplanetary physics.

  4. Isoscalar giant resonance studies from a stored-beam experiment for the EXL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, J.C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: EXL E105-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the EXL project is the investigation of nuclear structure of EXotic nuclei, in Light-ion induced reactions, by using the future storage ring NESR at FAIR. In this project a universal detector system will provide high resolution and large solid angle coverage for kinematically complete measurements. In a recent experiment at the present Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, the collaboration has performed feasibility studies and first experiments by using a dedicated UHV capable detector setup. With this setup the interaction of a {sup 58}Ni beam with an internal helium gas-jet target was investigated. The aim of the present experiment is to study the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance (ISGMR) and the Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance (ISGDR) from inelastic alpha scattering. In this talk, simulation results and the current status of the data analysis are discussed.

  5. Leonardo Da Vinci’s giant crossbow

    CERN Document Server

    Landrus, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo's Giant Crossbow is one of his least understood drawings. This fascinating book offers the first in-depth account of its likely purpose and its highly resolved design. It presents original research and new discoveries about the giant crossbow.

  6. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  7. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, C.; Coll, S.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.C. [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Diagnostice per la Imatge; Acebes, J.J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, L`Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  8. Awakening a sleeping coal giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.

    2007-08-15

    Botswana, a southern African country that in the 1980s could not economically land a tonne of coal at the closest export terminal and even today mines no more than 1 million tpa, is to increase production to beyond 30 million tpa. A first ever coal conference in Gaborone called it the awakening of a coal giant. The alarm call for the coal giant is the realisation that without more generating capacity than its power utility Eskom can itself build in time, South Africa will in four to five years face a severe shortage of power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeem Alsubaie; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  10. FUSE Spectroscopy of the Accreting Hot Components in Symbiotic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M; Godon, Patrick; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Sabra, Bassem; Kolobow, Craig

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic analysis of the far ultraviolet archival spectra of four symbiotic variables, EG And, AE Ara, CQ Dra and RW Hya. RW Hya and EG And have never had a recorded outburst while CQ Dra and AE Ara have outburst histories. We analyze these systems while they are in quiescence in order to help reveal the physical properties of their hot components via comparisons of the observations with optically thick accretion disk models and NLTE model white dwarf photospheres. We have extended the wavelength coverage down to the Lyman Limit with FUSE spectra. We find that the hot component in RW Hya is a low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 160,000K. We re-examine whether or not the symbiotic system CQ Dra is a triple system with a red giant transferring matter to a hot component made up of a cataclysmic variable in which the white dwarf has a surface temperature as low as ∼20,000K. The very small size of the hot component contributing to the shortest wavelengths of the FUSE spectrum of CQ Dra agrees with an optically thick and geometrically thin (∼4% of the WD surface) hot (∼ 120, 000K) boundary layer. Our analysis of EG And reveals that its hot component is a hot, bare, low mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 80-95,000K, with a surface gravity log( g ) = 7.5. For AE Ara, we also find that a low gravity (log( g ) ∼ 6) hot ( T ∼ 130, 000K) WD accounts for the hot component.

  11. Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lyutorovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA. All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.

  12. Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutorovich, N.; Tselyaev, V. [Physical Faculty, St. Petersburg State University, RU-198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Speth, J., E-mail: J.Speth@fz-juelich.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Krewald, S.; Grümmer, F. [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Reinhard, P.-G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-10-07

    We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA) and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA). All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.

  13. Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutorovich, N.; Tselyaev, V.; Speth, J.; Krewald, S.; Grümmer, F.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-10-01

    We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree-Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA) and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA). All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.

  14. Characterizing Giant Exoplanets through Multiwavelength Transit Observations: HAT-P-8b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Kyla L.; Cole, Jackson Lane; Gardner, Cristilyn N.; Garver, Bethany Ray; Kar, Aman; McGough, Aylin Marie; PeQueen, David Jeffrey; Rivera, Daniel Ivan; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kobulnicky, Henry; Dale, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Discovering and characterizing gas giants is important to the search for other life, as gas giants greatly affect the habitability of a solar system. Transits of exoplanets observed in visual photometric bands have been used to characterize their atmospheres and confirm planet parameters. We observed two primary transits of the hot gas giant HAT-P-8b with the Wyoming Infrared Observatory’s 2.3-meter telescope. Using multi-filter photometry in the g, r, i, and z bands (Sloan filters) we were able to update HAT-P-8b’s planet parameters and constrain characteristics of its atmosphere. Preliminary findings show that there is wavelength dependence in the depth of the transit observations. An infrared spectroscopic follow up of this candidate could yield more details on its atmospheric composition.

  15. The origin of the occurrence rate profile of gas giants inside 100 d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Johansen, Anders; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the origin of the period distribution of giant planets. We fit the bias-corrected distribution of gas-giant planets inside 300 d found by Santerne et al. using a planet formation model based on pebble accretion. We investigate two possible initial conditions: a linear distribution of planetary seeds, and seeds injected exclusively on the water and CO icelines. Our simulations exclude the linear initial distribution of seeds with a high degree of confidence. Our bimodal model based on snowlines gives a more reasonable fit to the data, with the discrepancies reducing significantly if we assume the water snowline to be a factor of 3-10 less efficient at producing planets. This model moreover performs better on both the warm/hot Jupiters ratio and a Gaussian mixture model as comparison criteria. Our results hint that the gas-giant exoplanets population inside 300 d is more compatible with planets forming preferentially at special locations.

  16. Electromagnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller responses of even and odd {sup 90-94}{sub 40}Zr isotopes in QRPA calculations with the D1M Gogny force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloncle, I. [CSNSM, CNRS et Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Peru, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Martini, M. [ESNT, CEA-Saclay, DSM, Irfu, Service de Physique Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper we present theoretical results on the dipole response in the proton spin-saturated {sup 90-94}Zr isotopes. The electric and magnetic dipole excitations are obtained in Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations performed with the D1M Gogny force. A pnQRPA charge exchange code is used to study the Gamow-Teller response. The results on the pygmy, the giant dipole resonances as well as those on the magnetic nuclear spin-flip excitation and the Gamow-Teller transitions are compared with available experimental or theoretical information. In our approach, the proton pairing plays a role in the phonon excitations, in particular in the M1 nuclear spin-flip resonance. (orig.)

  17. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  18. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  19. Acceleration of Cooling of Ice Giants by Condensation in Early Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    The present infrared brightness of a planet originates partly from the accretion energy that the planet gained during its formation and hence provides important constraints to the planet formation process. A planet cools down from a hot initial state to the present state by losing energy through radiative emission from its atmosphere. Thus, the atmospheric properties affect the planetary cooling rate. Previous theories of giant planet cooling assume that the atmospheric composition is unchanged throughout the evolution. Planet formation theories, however, suggest that the atmospheres especially of ice giants are rich in heavy elements in the early stages. These heavy elements include condensable species such as H2O, NH3, and CH4, which are expected to have a great impact on atmospheric temperature and thus on radiative emission through latent heat release. In this study we investigate the effect of such condensation on the planetary emission flux and quantify the impact on the cooling timescale. We then demonstrate that the latent heat of these species keeps the atmosphere hot and thus the emission flux high for billions of years, resulting in an acceleration of the cooling of ice giants. This sheds light on the long-standing problem that Uranus is much less bright than theoretically predicted and is different in brightness from Neptune in spite of the similarity in mass and radius. We also find that young ice giants with highly enriched atmospheres are much brighter in the mid-infrared than ice giants with non-enriched atmospheres. This provides important implications for future direct imaging of extrasolar ice giants.

  20. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  1. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  2. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...

  3. Michigan has a sleeping giant

    CERN Multimedia

    Brock, Raymond; Nichols, Sue

    2007-01-01

    "That giant is 750 miles of fiber optic cable that lassoes its three biggest research universities and Van Andel Institute to the future. Its mission: to uncover the nature of the Big Bang by connecton U.S. physicists to their huge experiment ATLAS in Geneva.." (4 pages)

  4. A Giant or a Dwarf?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Herman

    2005-01-01

    EU may appear to be a giant when it can act on behalf of a united Europe, but usually it is hampered by conflicting member state interests. The EU economic and administrative resources for foreign and trade policy are quite small (on level with one of its major member states) and the hopes in man...

  5. Genetic algorithms for dipole location of fetal magnetocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Vargas, D; Murphy, P; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with Genetic Algorithms (GA) as global optimization procedure for source reconstruction in fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) data. A multiple equivalent current dipole (ECD) model was used for sources active in different time samples. Inverse solutions across time were obtained for a single-dipole approximation to estimate the trajectory of the dipole position. We compared the GA and SIMPLEX methods in a simulation environment under noise conditions. Methods are applied on a real fMCG data. Results show robust estimators of the cardiac sources when GA is used as optimization technique.

  6. Dipole-Quadrupole dynamics during magnetic field reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Gissinger, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The shape and the dynamics of reversals of the magnetic field in a turbulent dynamo experiment are investigated. We report the evolution of the dipolar and the quadrupolar parts of the magnetic field in the VKS experiment, and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of a recent model of reversals: when the dipole reverses, part of the magnetic energy is transferred to the quadrupole, reversals begin with a slow decay of the dipole and are followed by a fast recovery, together with an overshoot of the dipole. Random reversals are observed at the borderline between stationary and oscillatory dynamos.

  7. Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Xiao, Xi; Wang, Fanhou; Yang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    The propagation properties of a pair of Lissajous singularities with opposite singularity indexes called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) in free space are studied analytically and illustrated numerically. It is shown that the motion, creation, annihilation and change in the degree of polarization of the LSD, and change in the shape of Lissajous figures take place by suitably varying the waist width, off-axis distance or propagation distance. In particular, the creation and shift to infinity of a single Lissajous singularity may appear. A comparison with the free-space propagation of an optical vortex dipole and a C-dipole is also made.

  8. Low-lying dipole strength in 52Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Daito, I.; Ohgaki, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Minato, F.

    2017-10-01

    The low-lying dipole strength in 52Cr was measured in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using a quasimonochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam. The parities of the excited dipole states were determined by the intensity asymmetry of resonantly scattered γ rays with respect to the polarization plane of the incident photon beam. We observed 62 resonances at excitation energies between 7.5 and 12.1 MeV. The observed M 1 and E 1 strengths were compared via random-phase-approximation calculations using the Skyrme interaction. The effects of two-particle-two-hole configuration mixing and tensor force on dipole strength distributions were investigated.

  9. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  10. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  11. Dipole localization using simulated intracerebral EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nathalie; Gulrajani, Ramesh; Gotman, Jean

    2005-11-01

    In the clinical interpretation of intracerebral EEGs, epileptic foci are commonly identified by visually analyzing the amplitude of the potentials. This is potentially misleading since electrodes record activity from several sources, but the nearest ones generate large amplitudes that can overpower distant sources. Our objective was to improve foci detection in intracerebral recordings by applying source localization methods. Data were simulated by placing 3 sources in a semi-infinite medium near 3 intracerebral electrodes. Potentials were generated and contaminated with white and correlated noise. Two inverse problem algorithms, beamforming and RAP-MUSIC, were used to calculate equivalent dipoles. Simulations for each noise types showed that the two methods detected the source locations accurately, with RAP-MUSIC reporting lower orientation errors. With correlated noise, beamforming reconstructed original source waveforms poorly. A spatial resolution analysis was performed, in which beamforming adequately distinguished sources separated by 1.2 cm, whereas RAP-MUSIC separated sources as close as 0.4-0.6 cm. Both source localization methods proved useful in detecting the location of dipolar sources based on simulated intracerebral potentials. For all simulations, RAP-MUSIC was more accurate than beamforming. It is possible to use source localization methods traditionally applied to scalp recordings for improving source detection from intracerebral recordings.

  12. Interface molecular dipoles on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Torrente, Isabel; Franke, Katharina Jennifer; Henningsen, Nils; Pascual, Jose [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Monturet, Sergio; Lorente, Nicolas [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    Association of molecules with donor and acceptor character forms the so called molecular charge transfer complexes. Tetrathiafulvalene 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a well-known example of a compound with a metal conducting behaviour governed by charge transfer interactions between the TTF (donor) and the TCNQ (acceptor). Here we report on the submonolayer growth of TTF on a Au(111) surface studied by Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. We find that TTF lies tilted on the surface and two S atoms dominate the adsorption. As a function of coverage we resolve several phases of the growth with different dimensionalities. In combination with DFT calculations we show that the growth is mediated by the balance between a repulsive and an attractive interaction. The repulsive force is associated to the creation of a dipole between TTF and the metallic surface while the attractive interaction is related to the formation of intermolecular H-bonds. At low coverage, molecules show primarily repulsion and they adsorb as monomers. As the coverage increases the attractive interaction gains importance and the molecules self-assemble in one and two dimensional structures.

  13. A study of microtubule dipole lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shubhendu

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal protein polymers orchestrating a host of important cellular functions including, but not limited to, cell support, cell division, cell motility and cell transport. In this thesis, we construct a toy-model of the microtubule lattice composed of vector Ising spins representing tubulin molecules, the building block of microtubules. Nearest-neighbor and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions are considered within an anisotropic dielectric medium. As a consequence of the helical topology, we observe that certain spin orientations render the lattice frustrated with nearest neighbor ferroelectric and next-to-nearest neighbor antiferroelectric bonds. Under these conditions, the lattice displays the remarkable property of stabilizing certain spin patterns that are robust to thermal fluctuations. We model this behavior in the framework of a generalized Ising model known as the J1 - J2 model and theoretically determine the set of stable patterns. Employing Monte-Carlo methods, we demonstrate the stability of such patterns in the microtubule lattice at human physiological temperatures. This suggests a novel biological mechanism for storing information in living organisms, whereby the tubulin spin (dipole moment) states become information bits and information gets stored in microtubules in a way that is robust to thermal fluctuations.

  14. Electric Dipole Moments in the MSSM Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Thallium, neutron, Mercury and deuteron electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We take into account the complete set of one-loop graphs, the dominant Higgs-mediated two-loop diagrams, the complete CP-odd dimension-six Weinberg operator and the Higgs-mediated four-fermion operators. We improve upon earlier calculations by including the resummation effects due to CP-violating Higgs-boson mixing and to threshold corrections to the Yukawa couplings of all up- and down-type quarks and charged leptons. As an application of our study, we analyse the EDM constraints on the CPX, trimixing and Maximally CP- and Minimally Flavour-Violating (MCPMFV) scenarios. Cancellations may occur among the CP-violating contributions to the three measured EDMs arising from the 6 CP-violating phases in the MCPMFV scenario, leaving open the possibility of relatively large contributions to other CP-violating observables. The anal...

  15. Quench protection analysis integrated in the design of dipoles for the Future Circular Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Salmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The EuroCirCol collaboration is designing a 16 T Nb_{3}Sn dipole that can be used as the main bending magnet in a 100 km long 100 TeV hadron-hadron collider. For economic reasons, the magnets need to be as compact as possible, requiring optimization of the cable cross section in different magnetic field regions. This leads to very high stored energy density and poses serious challenges for the magnet protection in case of a quench, i.e., sudden loss of superconductivity in the winding. The magnet design therefore must account for the limitations set by quench protection from the earliest stages of the design. In this paper we describe how the aspect of quench protection has been accounted for in the process of developing different options for the 16 T dipole designs. We discuss the assumed safe values for hot spot temperatures and voltages, and the efficiency of the protection system. We describe the developed tools for the quench analysis, and how their usage in the magnet design will eventually ensure a secure magnet operation.

  16. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidenreich Axel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a

  17. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  18. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  19. Optimized tapered dipole nanoantenna as efficient energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toukhy, Youssef M; Hussein, Mohamed; Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Abd-Elrazzak, M M; Obayya, S S A

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, a novel design of tapered dipole nanoantenna is introduced and numerically analyzed for energy harvesting applications. The proposed design consists of three steps tapered dipole nanoantenna with rectangular shape. Full systematic analysis is carried out where the antenna impedance, return loss, harvesting efficiency and field confinement are calculated using 3D finite element frequency domain method (3D-FEFD). The structure geometrical parameters are optimized using particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to improve the harvesting efficiency and reduce the return loss at wavelength of 500 nm. A harvesting efficiency of 55.3% is achieved which is higher than that of conventional dipole counterpart by 29%. This enhancement is attributed to the high field confinement in the dipole gap as a result of multiple tips created in the nanoantenna design. Furthermore, the antenna input impedance is tuned to match a wide range of fabricated diode based upon the multi-resonance characteristic of the proposed structure.

  20. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, M; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  1. Dipole model test with one superconducting coil: results analysed

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Benda, V; Berriaud, C; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Caspi, S; Charrondiere, M; Clément, S; Datskov, V; Devaux, M; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Gauthier, R; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Kircher, F; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Millot, J-F; Muñoz Garcia, J-E; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Pietrowicz, S; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E; Viret, P; Ziemianski, D

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.3.1 “Dipole model test with one superconducting coil; results analysed “. The report has four parts: “Design report for the dipole magnet”, “Dipole magnet structure tested in LN2”, “Nb3Sn strand procured for one dipole magnet” and “One test double pancake copper coil made”. The 4 report parts show that, although the magnet construction will be only completed by end 2014, all elements are present for a successful completion. Due to the importance of the project for the future of the participants and given the significant investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment to finish the project.

  2. Moving pointlike charges and electric and magnetic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarič, Marijan; Šušteršič, Luka

    1992-06-01

    Expansions of the volume integrals of strongly localized, continuous, differentiable electric charge and current densities are introduced in terms of the total charge, and variable and moving electric and magnetic dipoles, and conditions under which such expansions are applicable are determined. To enhance an understanding of the effects of external electromagnetic fields acting on very localized densities of electric charges and currents, the resulting Lorentz force, torque, and power are computed by using such expansions. To show how versatile variable and moving dipoles are for building physical models, the following are considered: (a) energy conversions by electric motors, by dielectric and induction heating, and by the magnetic drag force, and (b) relativistic effects in translational movements of steady electric and magnetic dipoles; in particular, the torque on a magnetic dipole moving parallel to a line carrying a steady current and uniformly distributed electric charges.

  3. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; /Fermilab; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  4. The Stability of the Giant Clam Holobiont over Time and during Bleaching Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    The stability of marine photosymbiotic holobionts has major implications for the future of coral reef communities. This study aims to describe the stability of the Red Sea giant clam holobiont over the duration of one year and during induced bleaching stress under laboratory thermal manipulations. Tridacnid clams of the species Tridacna maxima were sampled at three reef locations near the central Saudi coast of the Red Sea. Associated Symbiodinium of Red Sea giant clams have previously been described to be part of only Clade A, which suggests a strong specificity in the clam-algal partnership, but specific types and potential shifting of types within this clade have not been examined for giant clams. The results from this study confirm that tridacnid symbiont types shift over time and the change between three A1 types suggests a biological and functional significance of two undescribed A1 Symbiodinium types. Experimental bleaching shows that Red Sea giant clams, although exposed to rather hot temperatures naturally, will bleach at 34°C after two weeks, and severely bleached clams likely will not recover. During bleaching, Symbiodinium types shift as well, and shift more drastically than seasonal shifts during the year. This shifting may be an evolved characteristic of the giant clam to aid in surviving major changes in the environment. However, more research is needed to determine if these holobionts are capable of keeping up with the global forecast of warming in reef environments.

  5. Bright and high-photostable inner-Mn-doped core/giant-shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruilin; Huang, Bo; Wang, Tian; Yuan, Yufen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2017-11-01

    Compared with quantum-dot (QD) displays, QD lighting possesses higher demand of photostability. Owing to high photostability from the combination of inner independent luminescence center and thick shell (≥15 monolayers (MLs)), inner-Mn-doped core/giant-shell QDs with bright wide emission are a promising candidate for QD lighting. Aiming at bright and high-photostable giant QDs with low time cost (giant-shell growth time: within 20 min), we put forward the perfect combination strategy of hot-injection nucleation doping and optimized ;flash; synthesis, going beyond the combination strategy of one-pot growth doping and typical ;flash; synthesis, which led to an increase in photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of giant Mn-doped CdS/ZnS QDs (ZnS shell: ∼18 MLs) from ≤20% to 40%. The PLQY was enhanced to 45% by light annealing. Using traditional LED as the reference, these simply-encapsulated QDs can exhibit the high photostability, throwing light of the application of these inner-Mn-doped core/giant-shell QDs even for QD lighting.

  6. Statistics of Long Period Gas Giant Planets in Known Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The presence of a substantial population of volatile-rich planets on orbits interior to 1AU poses a challenge to models of planet formation and migration. There is currently an ongoing debate as to whether these planets could have formed in situ or instead migrated inward from a more distant formation location. While it has generally been assumed that gas giant planets formed out beyond the ice line and migrated inwards, more recent work has suggested that even these relatively massive planets may be able to form in situ. To constrain possible formation and migration scenarios, we searched for massive, long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems by looking for long-term trends in the RV data. In addition to estimating the total occurrence rate of long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems, we found that hot gas giants inside 1 AU are more likely to have an outer companion than cold gas giants. We also found that planets with an outer companion have higher than average eccentricities than their single counterparts, suggesting that dynamical interactions between planets may play an important role in these systems.

  7. Investigation of lifetimes in dipole bands of {sup 141}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podsvirova, E.O.; Pasternak, A.A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute RAS, RU-194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lieder, R.M.; Gast, W.; Jaeger, H.M.; Mihailescu, L. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Chmel, S. [Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, D-53115, Bonn (Germany); Venkova, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784, Sofia (Bulgaria); Angelis, G. de; Napoli, D.R.; Gadea, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy); Bazzacco, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Urban, W.; Droste, C.; Morek, T.; Rzaca-Urban, T. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Duchene, G. [Institut de Recherches Subatomique IReS, F-67037, Strasbourg (France)

    2004-07-01

    Lifetimes have been measured for dipole bands in {sup 141}Eu using DSAM. The deduced B(M1) and B(E2) values as well as B(M1)/B(E2) ratios are compared with calculations in the framework of the TAC (Tilted Axis Cranking) and SPAC (Shears mechanism with Principal Axis Cranking) models. The dipole bands can be interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of lifetimes in dipole bands of {sup 142}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.A.; Podsvirova, E.O. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lieder, R.M.; Gast, W.; Jaeger, H.M.; Mihailescu, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Chmel, S. [University of Bonn, Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Venkova, T. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); De Angelis, G.; Napoli, D.R.; Gadea, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Bazzacco, D.; Menegazzo, G.; Lunardi, R. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Urban, W.; Droste, C.; Morek, T.; Rzaca-Urban, T. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warszawa (Poland); Duchene, G. [Institut de Recherches Subatomique, IReS, Strasbourg (France); Dewald, A. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Lifetimes have been measured for dipole bands in {sup 142}Gd using DSAM. The deduced B(M1) and B(E2) values as well as B(M1)/B(E2) ratios are compared with calculations in the framework of the TAC (Tilted Axis Cranking) and SPAC (shears mechanism with Principal Axis Cranking) models. The dipole bands DB1 to DB4 can be interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. (orig.)

  9. AC magnetic dipole localization by a magnetoelectric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; McLaughlin, K. L.; Gao, J.; Gray, D.; Shen, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, M.; Berry, D.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2012-06-01

    We report progress towards achievement of a triple-axis magnetoelectric (ME) sensor technology that is capable of localizing an AC magnetic dipole at quasi-static frequencies. Estimation of the location of the AC dipole was realized with the help of a grid search (GS) algorithm. The results show good convergence and accuracy of object location along three orthogonal directions. Through simulation analysis, the major localization errors were found to arise from sensor calibration.

  10. Status of the LHC Main Dipole Pre-Series Production

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, M; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Miles, J; Pugnat, P; Rinn, J; de Rijk, G; Savary, F; Siemko, A; Todesco, Ezio; Vlogaert, J

    2003-01-01

    The procurement of a pre-series of 90 main dipoles was decided as the first step towards the series production of 1232 arc main dipoles within the LHC magnet program. The pre-series production is already completed at one contractor's site and is approaching the completion at the other two companies. Technical aspects: manufacturing tolerances, manufacturing difficulties, first evaluation on non-conformities appearing during production and a short overview of magnet performance are presented.

  11. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.

    1970-01-01

    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  12. Study on dipole-dipole interaction in spin labelled hemoglobin molecule by means of ESR spectroscopy; Badanie oddzialywan dipol-dipolowych w znakowanej spinowo czasteczce hemoglobiny metoda impulsowej spektroskopii EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostrzewa, A.; Froncisz, W. [Inst. Biologii Molekularnej, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Dipole-dipole interactions in spin labelled hemoglobin molecule have been investigated by means of ESR. The spectral differences at 77 K between oxy-hemoglobin and ferry hemoglobin have been discussed. 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  13. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F Jackson

    2015-08-21

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr(+) ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1  eV) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |g(A)(e)g(A)(e)/4πℏc|≤1.2×10(-17). Assuming CPT invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  14. Many particle magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in magnetizable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregg, P.J., E-mail: pjcregg@wit.i [SEAM Centre, Materials Characterisation and Processing Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford (Ireland); Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil [SEAM Centre, Materials Characterisation and Processing Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford (Ireland); Prina-Mello, Adriele, E-mail: prinamea@tcd.i [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    The implant assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is considered both experimentally (in vitro) and theoretically. The results of a 2D mathematical model are compared with 3D experimental results for a magnetizable wire stent. In this experiment a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of particles which consist of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (radius approx10nm). In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included. Simulations based on this mathematical model were performed using open source C++ code. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of collection efficiency. The results of this model show closer agreement with the measured in vitro experimental results and with the literature. The implications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are based on the prediction of the particle efficiency, in conjunction with the magnetizable stent, for targeted drug delivery.

  15. Dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1983-03-01

    Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electronics at 1-km spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Data indicate little change of apparent resistivity within the upper 300 m over the field. However, apparent resistivity increases are observed over the producing zone at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity are observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. To explain the resistivity changes observed, simple two-dimensional reservoir simulations were performed in which cooler, less saline recharge water enters the reservoir from above through a leaky caprock and laterally through a more permeable vertical boundary. The calculated magnitude of a resistivity change after 3 years of simulated production fits the observed data, but the anomaly shapes differ. It is concluded that the rapidly moving hydraulic front produces a salinity change large enough to explain the resistivity increase, but that our recharge assumptions were probably oversimplified.

  16. Ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnes, Alexandre; Nicolis, Stamatios; Carré, Bernard; Willmann, Patrick; Lemordant, Daniel

    2003-06-16

    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the energy of ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes. The ion-dipole interactions increase with increasing salt concentration and must be taken into account when the activation energy for the conductivity is calculated. In this case, the contribution of ion-dipole interactions to the activation energy for this transport process is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of ion-ion interactions. The ion-dipole interaction energy was calculated for a cell of eight ions, alternatingly anions and cations, placed on the vertices of an expanded cubic lattice whose parameter is related to the mean interionic distance (pseudolattice theory). The solvent dipoles were introduced randomly into the cell by assuming a randomness compacity of 0.58. The energy of the dipole assembly in the cell was minimized by using a Newton-Raphson numerical method. The dielectric field gradient around ions was taken into account by a distance parameter and a dielectric constant of epsilon = 3 at the surfaces of the ions. A fair agreement between experimental and calculated activation energy has been found for systems composed of gamma-butyrolactone (BL) as solvent and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as salts.

  17. The Dipole Segment Model for Axisymmetrical Elongated Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Yonglong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiangdong

    2018-02-01

    Various simplified models have been investigated as a way to understand the complex dynamical environment near irregular asteroids. A dipole segment model is explored in this paper, one that is composed of a massive straight segment and two point masses at the extremities of the segment. Given an explicitly simple form of the potential function that is associated with the dipole segment model, five topological cases are identified with different sets of system parameters. Locations, stabilities, and variation trends of the system equilibrium points are investigated in a parametric way. The exterior potential distribution of nearly axisymmetrical elongated asteroids is approximated by minimizing the acceleration error in a test zone. The acceleration error minimization process determines the parameters of the dipole segment. The near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 is chosen as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximation method for the exterior potential distribution. The advantages of the dipole segment model over the classical dipole and the traditional segment are also discussed. Percent error of acceleration and the degree of approximation are illustrated by using the dipole segment model to approximate four more asteroids. The high efficiency of the simplified model over the polyhedron is clearly demonstrated by comparing the CPU time.

  18. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  19. The interaction of dipole modifiers with polyene-sterol complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S Ostroumova

    Full Text Available Recently, we showed that the effect of dipole modifiers (flavonoids and styrylpyridinium dyes on the conductance of single amphotericin B (AmB channels in sterol-containing lipid bilayers primarily resulted from changes in the membrane dipole potential. The present study examines the effect of dipole modifiers on the AmB multi-channel activity. The addition of phloretin to cholesterol-containing membranes leads to a significant increase in the steady-state AmB-induced transmembrane current. Quercetin significantly decreases and RH 421 increases the current through ergosterol-containing bilayers. Other tested flavonoids and styrylpyridinium dyes do not affect the channel-forming activity of AmB independently on the sterol composition of the bilayers. The effects obtained in these trials may instead be attributed to the direct interaction of dipole modifiers with AmB/sterol complexes and not to the effect of dipole potential changes. The presence of double bonds in the Δ7 and Δ22 positions of sterol molecules, the number of conjugated double bonds and amino sugar residues in polyene molecules, and the conformation and adsorption plane of dipole modifiers are important factors impacting this interaction.

  20. The role of the intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in low frequency proton NMR in polymer melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkullin, Nail; Gubaidullin, Anvar [Kazan State University, Kazan, Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Stapf, Siegfried [Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany). Dept. Technical Physics II; Kimmich, Rainer [University of Ulm (Germany). Sektion Kernresonanzspektroskopie

    2010-07-01

    The different contributions to the dynamic magnetic dipole-dipole correlation function, which is responsible for proton NMR phenomena like the spin-lattice relaxation, the free induction decay, the solid echo, etc., are analyzed. For the anisotropic tube-reptation model the relative weight of the intra-molecular contribution in the time dependent magnetic dipole-dipole correlation function should progressively increase with time, corresponding to lower resonance frequency, compared to the intermolecular contribution. For the isotropic n-Renormalized Rouse model the situation is opposite: with increasing of time/decreasing frequency the relative weight of the intermolecular contribution progressively increases and may eventually dominate. Theoretical estimations and analyses of published experimental results, connected with proton NMR spin-lattice relaxations in polymer melts, directly show that at times longer than and at frequencies below the regime, neglecting the intermolecular contributions to proton NMR phenomena in polymer melts, as had been done in the majority of scientific papers, is incorrect.

  1. Back and forth transfer and coherent coupling in a cold Rydberg dipole gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudrich, M; Zahzam, N.; Vogt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    . Dipole-dipole interaction is observed spectroscopically as avoided level crossing. The coherent character of the process is linked to back and forth transfer in the np+np ns+(n+1)s reaction. Decoherence in the ensemble has two different origins: the atom motion induced by dipole-dipole interaction...

  2. Giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ramiz Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A 23 year old married woman who was diagnosed as a case of giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva measuring about 15 x 8 x 3 cm, irregular surface with multiple projections, oval in shape, firm to hard in consistency, mildly tender, exophytic, cauliflower like growth involving the whole vulva (lower part of mons pubis, labia, vestibule, clitoris, around vaginal opening. Another multiple small lesions were present at perineal region but there was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. She underwent a combined electro cauterization and cryotherapy for small to moderate size multiple primary and recurrent warty lesions and wide surgical excision with fasciocutaneous advancement flaps procedure for a giant lesions in the vulva. Excisional biopsies were performed to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not found histologically. The patient was advised to first follow-up 1 month after operation when multiple small warty lesions were developed and treated and the subsequent follow-ups for 3 months.

  3. Long-range Order in One-dimensional Spinless Fermi Gas with Attractive Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhongbo; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shaolong

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional spinless Fermi gas with attractive dipole-dipole interaction is investigated. Results obtained show when the interaction is weak, the excitation spectrum is linear and the superconducting correlation function decays as power law, indicating the validity of the Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid picture. However, when the interaction reaches a critical value, the excitation spectrum is nonlinear and the superconducting correlation function keeps finite for infinity separation, indi...

  4. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Santosh C; Sachdeva, Ritu; Imamura, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thickening. PMID:23626440

  5. Plasmonic Nanoantennas Enable Forbidden Förster Dipole-Dipole Energy Transfer and Enhance the FRET Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, Juan; Mivelle, Mathieu; Moparthi, Satish Babu; Rigneault, Hervé; Van Hulst, Niek F; García-Parajó, María F; Margeat, Emmanuel; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-10-12

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) plays a key role in biochemistry, organic photovoltaics, and lighting sources. FRET is commonly used as a nanoruler for the short (nanometer) distance between donor and acceptor dyes, yet FRET is equally sensitive to the mutual dipole orientation. The orientation dependence complicates the FRET analysis in biological samples and may even lead to the absence of FRET for perpendicularly oriented donor and acceptor dipoles. Here, we exploit the strongly inhomogeneous and localized fields in plasmonic nanoantennas to open new energy transfer routes, overcoming the limitations from the mutual dipole orientation to ultimately enhance the FRET efficiency. We demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of perpendicular near-field components in the nanoantenna sets favorable energy transfer routes that increase the FRET efficiency up to 50% for nearly perpendicular donor and acceptor dipoles. This new facet of plasmonic nanoantennas enables dipole-dipole energy transfer that would otherwise be forbidden in a homogeneous environment. As such, our approach further increases the applicability of single-molecule FRET over diffraction-limited approaches, with the additional benefits of higher sensitivities and higher concentration ranges toward physiological levels.

  6. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  7. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  8. Giant Cell Arteritis - Who to Refer to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L T; Ah-Kee, E Y; Strang, A; Ferguson, A

    2015-06-29

    Giant cell arteritis is a systemic immune-mediated vasculitis affecting the medium and large arteries. Typical symptoms include new headache, jaw claudication, tender temporal artery, polymyalgia rheumatica, fever and anorexia. Visual loss resulting from giant cell arteritis is an ophthalmic emergency and requires immediate assessment and referral to the ophthalmologist for prompt treatment with steroids. This article provides a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of giant cell arteritis.

  9. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  10. Primary vacuometer based on an ultracold gas in a shallow optical dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalov, V. B.; Martiyanov, K. A.; Turlapov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A calibration-free primary vacuometer based on an ultracold atomic gas in a shallow far-off-resonance optical dipole trap is proposed and demonstrated. The pressure is obtained by measuring the loss of trapped atoms which is caused by collisions with the ambient gas of the vacuum chamber. The loss is related to the ambient-gas pressure via a theoretical model based on first principles. The model is applicable owing to elimination of a number of systematic effects which otherwise preclude or complicate construction of a first-principle model. These systematics include loss unrelated to collisions with the ambient gas as well as loss dependance on the number and energy of trapped atoms. In the demonstrated vacuometer, the atom-number decay is exponential with the rate proportional to the pressure, where the proportionality coefficient is expressed via the gas composition and van der Waals coefficients C 6. Whenever the gas composition is unknown, the systematic error is typically well below that of the hot-cathode ionization gauge. The vacuometer is implemented using a gas of ultracold lithium-6, which is the optimal working body for such a vacuometer. The lowest measured pressure, 2.8× {{10}-9} Pa, is limited by the vacuum in the apparatus, while the dominant error source of 4% is due to uncertainty in the C 6 value and may be improved. Comparison with reading of a hot-cathode ionization gauge is also shown.

  11. On magnetic dipole-dipole interactions of nanoparticles in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Them, Kolja

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic dipole-dipole (MDD) interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles can influence the sensitivity, image resolution and quantification of magnetic particle imaging (MPI). For the first time, the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG) for MDD interactions has been solved to investigate the effect of MDD interactions on the MPI spectrum. It was found that at concentrations above 39 mmol(Fe) l-1, MDD interactions significantly influence MPI spectra. This influence increases with increasing harmonics, which means first harmonics should be preferred for iron quantification. Since  ≈1018 particles are neglected in the LLG compared to in an MPI experiment, the calculated limit below which MDD interactions can be neglected is only a bound. The true limit is therefore below the calculated limit of 39 mmol(Fe) l-1, because all other neglected particles also contribute to deviations in the MPI spectra via MDD interactions. Therefore, a quantum mechanical bound on the influence of MDD interactions is calculated, including up to 1015 particles. Analysis of the bound as a function of the particle number provides a valuable insight into the influence of the large number of particles neglected in numerical simulations. Both results are compared with concentrations in biomedical MPI experiments. We conclude that the standard approximation of an absence of MDD interactions in MPI experiments must be handled more carefully. Our method of incorporating MDD interactions into the LLG can be easily implemented as part of model-based reconstruction to increase the sensitivity, image resolution and quantitative tracer detection during MPI.

  12. Perpendicular hot electron spin-valve effect in a new magnetic field sensor: The spin-valve transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsma, D.J.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.; Dieny, B.

    1995-01-01

    A new magnetic field sensor is presented, based on perpendicular hot electron transport in a giant magnetoresistance (Co/Cu)4 multilayer, which serves as a base region of an n-silicon metal-base transistor structure. A 215% change in collector current is found in 500 Oe (77 K), with typical

  13. An evaluation of the efficacy of using environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wood, Dustin A.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Waters, Shannon C.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Ersan, Julia S.; Skalos, Shannon M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-09-28

    Detecting populations of rare or cryptic species is essential for their conservation. For species like giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas), conventional survey methods can be expensive and inefficient. These sampling difficulties might be overcome by modern techniques that detect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shed by organisms into the environment (eDNA). We evaluated the efficacy of detecting giant gartersnake eDNA in water samples from the laboratory and at locations with known giant gartersnake populations in the Sacramento Valley of California, and failed to detect giant gartersnake DNA in most laboratory and all field samples. Aspects of giant gartersnake biology—such as highly keratinized skin and spending extensive time in the terrestrial environment, as well as hot, sunny, and turbid conditions in wetlands and canals of the Sacramento Valley—likely contributed to low detection probabilities. Although detection of eDNA shows promise under many conditions, further development is needed before sampling for eDNA is a viable option for detecting giant gartersnake populations.

  14. LHC dipoles flood into CERN : the dipole nr 154 crowns the efforts of the LHC teams for increasing the fabrication rate of the magnets.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    On 3 December the "tableau" on the 4th floor in building 30 indicated 1078 dipoles to completion - or in other words, 154 dipoles had by this day been delivered to CERN, enough to complete the first octant of the machine. CERN has also now received enough superconducting cable - the "heart" of the magnets - for 600 dipoles, nearly half the total number of 1232.

  15. On the Composition of Young, Directly Imaged Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. I.; Marley, M. S.; Zahnle, K.; Line, M. R.; Fortney, J. J.; Barman, T. S.; Visscher, C.; Lewis, N. K.; Wolff, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant progress on the direct detection and characterization of young, self-luminous giant planets at wide orbital separations from their host stars. Some of these planets show evidence for disequilibrium processes like transport-induced quenching in their atmospheres; photochemistry may also be important, despite the typically large orbital distances. Disequilibrium chemical processes such as these can alter the expected composition, spectral behavior, thermal structure, and cooling history of the planets, and can potentially confuse determinations of bulk elemental ratios, which provide important insights into planet-formation mechanisms. Using a thermo/photochemical kinetics and transport model, we investigate the extent to which disequilibrium chemical processes affect the composition and spectra of directly imaged giant exoplanets. Results for specific "young Jupiters" such as HR 8799 b and c and 51 Eri b are presented, as are general trends as a function of planetary effective temperature, surface gravity, incident ultraviolet flux, and strength of deep atmospheric convection. We find that quenching is very important on young Jupiters, leading to CO/CH4 and N2/NH3 ratios much greater than; and H2O mixing ratios a factor of a few less than chemical equilibrium predictions. Photochemistry can also be important on such planets, with CO2 and HCN being key photochemical products. Carbon dioxide becomes a particularly major constituent when stratospheric temperatures are low and recycling of water following H2O photolysis becomes stifled. Young Jupiters with effective temperatures less than 700 degrees Kelvin are in a particularly interesting photochemical regime that differs from both transiting hot Jupiters and our own solar-system giant planets.

  16. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  17. Quantum Interference Contribution to the Dipole Moment of Diatomic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Sousa, David Wilian; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2018-02-08

    The interference energy partitioning analysis method developed by our group and used to study the nature of the chemical bond was extended to partition the electric dipole moment in quasi-classical and interference contributions. Our results show that interference participates in charge displacement in polar molecules, providing, directly or indirectly, a relevant contribution for the total dipole moment. A linear correlation was found between the interference contribution of the dipole moment from the bond electron group, μ INT (bond), and the difference of electronegativity of the atoms which form the bond, ΔX AB . This interesting result reinforces the fact that electronegativity is not a property of an atom alone, but rather a property of the atom in the molecule and that ΔX AB can only be associated with that part of the total charge displacement resulting from the formation of the chemical bond. The partitioning of the total dipole moment into quasi-classical and interference contributions provides new insights about the reasons for the failure of the ΔX AB criterion in predicting the correct orientation of the dipole moment in several molecules. The results of the present work also bring additional evidence for the previously proposed mechanism of formation of polar bonds.

  18. Magnetic Light Emitters: Plasmon-enhanced Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Rashid

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, advances in both negative index metamaterials and resonant optical antennas have challenged traditional assumptions about light-matter interactions. While metamaterials research has shown that metallic structures can be engineered to support strong optical frequency magnetic resonances, resonant optical antennas have been designed to amplify and re-direct the emission from electric dipole emitters. In this talk, we explore the intersection of these distinct fields and investigate how resonant optical effects may be used to challenge the electric dipole approximation. Specifically, we will show how Purcell effects may be used to enhance the natural optical frequency magnetic dipole transitions in Lanthanide ions. We will present experimental and numerical results that demonstrate enhanced magnetic dipole emission from trivalent Europium ions near metallic films and nanoparticle composites. We will explore how the varying symmetries of electric and magnetic dipoles can be used to characterize and optimize magnetic light emission. Finally, we will discuss the implications of enhancing and controlling higher-order optical transitions for optical spectroscopy and photonic devices.

  19. The optimised sc dipole of SIS100 for series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Christian; Mierau, Anna; Bleile, Alexander; Fischer, Egbert; Kaether, Florian; Körber, Boris; Schnizer, Pierre; Sugita, Kei; Szwangruber, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    At the international facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, an accelerator complex is developed for fundamental research in various fields of modern physics. In the SIS100 heavy-ion synchrotron, the main accelerator of FAIR, superconducting dipoles are used to bend the particle beam. The fast ramped dipoles are 3 m long super-ferric curved magnets operated at 4.5 K. The demands on field homogeneity required for sufficient beam stability are given by ΔB/B ≤ ±6 · 10-4. An intense measurement program of the First of Series (FoS) dipole showed excellent quench behavior and lower than expected AC losses yielding the main load on the SIS100 cryoplant. The FoS is capable to provide a field strength of 1.9 T. However, with sophisticated measurement systems slight distortions of the dipole field were detected. Those effects were tracked down to mechanical inaccuracies of the yoke proven by appropriate geometrical measurements and simulations. After a survey on alternative fabrication techniques a magnet with a new yoke was built with substantial changes to improve the mechanical accuracy. Its characteristics concerning cryogenic losses, cold geometry and the resulting magnetic-field quality are presented and an outlook on the series production of superconducting dipoles for SIS100 is given.

  20. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  1. The Extragalactic Ultra-high-energy Cosmic-Ray Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Noemie; Piran, Tsvi

    2017-12-01

    We explore the possibility that the recently detected dipole anisotropy in the arrival directions of >8 EeV ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs) arises due to the large-scale structure. We assume that the cosmic-ray sources follow the matter distribution and calculate the flux-weighted UHECRs’ rms dipole amplitude taking into account the diffusive transport in the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). We find that the flux-weighted rms dipole amplitude is ∼8% before entering the Galaxy. The amplitude in the [4–8] EeV is only slightly lower ∼5%. The required IGMF is of the order of 5–30 nG, and the UHECR sources must be relatively nearby, within ∼300 Mpc. The absence of a statistically significant signal in the lower-energy bin can be explained if the same nuclei specie dominates the composition in both energy bins and diffusion in the Galactic magnetic field reduces the dipole of these lower-rigidity particles. Photodisintegration of higher-energy UHECRs could also reduce somewhat the lower-energy dipole.

  2. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Huber, Daniel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Elsworth, Yvonne P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mosser, Benoit [LESIA, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2013-03-10

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 1.8) helium-core-burning red clump, and the higher-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  3. Zonal flow magnetic field interaction in the semi-conducting region of giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-11-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will inevitably interact with the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity. Here we investigate the interaction between zonal flows and magnetic fields in the semi-conducting region of giant planets. Employing mean-field electrodynamics, we show that the interaction will generate detectable poloidal magnetic field perturbations spatially correlated with the deep zonal flows. Assuming the peak amplitude of the dynamo α-effect to be 0.1 mm/s, deep zonal flows on the order of 0.1-1 m/s in the semi-conducting region of Jupiter and Saturn would generate poloidal magnetic perturbations on the order of 0.01%-1% of the background dipole field. These poloidal perturbations should be detectable with the in-situ magnetic field measurements from the Juno mission and the Cassini Grand Finale. This implies that magnetic field measurements can be employed to constrain the properties of deep zonal flows in the semi-conducting region of giant planets.

  4. Experience with hot catchpots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-02-02

    The first part of this report was actually a letter regarding the question, ''could the hot circulating pump be omitted when processing pitch at 700 atm.'' It had been stated that the hot circulation pump could be omitted if the quantity of cold letdown was correspondingly increased. The latest experiences with the catchpot at Poelitz showed the following. When running pitch, tar, or petroleum in the liquid-phase stalls, frequent trouble with the hot catchpot was encountered due to the coking. This coking was caused by irregular letdown yield, which could not be avoided due to small temperature fluctuations in the stall. This caused interruption of the uniform flow in the hot catchpot and the deposition of the solids contained in the letdown, largely catalyst solids, due to the asphalt content. Coking of the product was initiated by this concentration of catalyst solids. A perforated double jacket was inserted in the conical part of the catchpot through which about 3000 m/sup 3/ per hour of cold gas was blown in continuously. By this agitation and cooling in the lowest part of the catchpot, catalyst deposits were prevented from forming and the product received a continuous added supply of hydrogen. Another letter was given discussing the same question and an alternate solution. This second letter described Welheim's design for the hot catchpot. It featured introduction of 5000 to 6000 m/sup 3//hr of cold circulating gas into the lower part of the catchpot, and withdrawal of letdown from a point above the gas inlet. The advantages were continued agitation and cooling of the sludge and constant retention of some cold sludge in the catchpot (which evened out throughput and content fluctuations)

  5. Geometry and Alignment Requirements for the LHC Main Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Savary, F

    2000-01-01

    The 15 m long LHC superconducting dipole magnets, which contain two beam channels in a common mechanical structure, produce a magnetic field of 8.3 T required to deflect protons with 7 TeV/c momentum along a circular trajectory in the already existing LEP tunnel. The dipoles are bent in their horizontal plane to provide the largest possible mechanical aperture to the circulating beam. This paper describes the theoretical geometry of the dipole cold mass and the alignment requirements, which are imposed to satisfy the demands of LHC machine operation. A short description of the measuring and alignment procedures and of the measuring instruments is given. Results of a small series of prototype cold masses are presented and discussed.

  6. Pinning down electroweak dipole operators of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Markus

    2016-08-19

    We consider hadronic top quark pair production and pair production in association with a photon or a $Z$ boson to probe electroweak dipole couplings in $t\\bar{b}W$, $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ interactions. We demonstrate how measurements of these processes at the 13 TeV LHC can be combined to disentangle and constrain anomalous dipole operators. The construction of cross section ratios allows us to significantly reduce various uncertainties and exploit orthogonal sensitivity between the $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ couplings. In addition, we show that angular correlations in $t\\bar{t}$ production can be used to constrain the remaining $t\\bar{b}W$ dipole operator. Our approach yields excellent sensitivity to the anomalous couplings and can be a further step towards precise and direct measurements of the top quark electroweak interactions.

  7. Plasmonic interferometry: probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mollet, O; Genet, C; Huant, S; Drezet, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using near-field scanning optical sources. We compare our approach to Young double hole interferometry experiments using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) discussed in the literature and realize experiments with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) source positioned near a ring like aperture slit milled in a thick gold film. In both cases the agreement between experiments and model is very good. We emphasize the role of dipole orientations and discuss the role of magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the imaging process as well as the directionality of the effective dipoles associated with the various optical and plasmonic sources.

  8. Using biconical dipoles for cost effective EMI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronaugh, E. L.

    1985-06-01

    In order to measure radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the frequency range from 20 to 200 MHz, the U.S. civil and military electromagnetic interference test laboratories use either tuned dipole antennas, broadband antennas, or both. In general, there is an economic advantage in using a broadband antenna and automated frequency scanning in EMI testing. The accuracy of this method and its correlation with methods using other antenna types require that the antenna factor be known throughout the useful bandwidth of the antenna. Relationships regarding the antenna factor and its characteristics are discussed. It is important to calibrate EMI antennas for their intended uses. The biconical dipole antenna, because its dimensions are small relative to the test setup dimensions, can be properly calibrated at three meters and used at all three distances involved. Biconical and tuned dipoles are compared, and details regarding the conduction of the measurements are discussed.

  9. Electric dipoles on magnetic monopoles in spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomskii, D I

    2012-06-19

    The close connection of electricity and magnetism is one of the cornerstones of modern physics. This connection has a crucial role from a fundamental point of view and in practical applications, including spintronics and multiferroic materials. A breakthrough was a recent proposal that in magnetic materials called spin ice the elementary excitations have a magnetic charge and behave as magnetic monopoles. I show that, besides magnetic charge, there should be an electric dipole attached to each magnetic monopole. This opens new possibilities to study and control such monopoles using an electric field. Thus, the electric-magnetic analogy goes even further than usually assumed: whereas electrons have electric charge and magnetic dipole (spin), magnetic monopoles in spin ice, while having magnetic charge, also have an electric dipole.

  10. Theoretical Expectations for the Muon's Electric Dipole Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the muon's electric dipole moment $\\dmu$ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on $\\dmu$ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for $\\dmu$ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for $\\dmu$ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, non-degeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to $\\dmu$ of order $10^{-22}$ e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the $\\dmu$ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. ...

  11. Active cancellation of probing in linear dipole phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2015-01-01

    In this book, a modified improved LMS algorithm is employed for weight adaptation of dipole array for the generation of beam pattern in multiple signal environments. In phased arrays, the generation of adapted pattern according to the signal scenario requires an efficient adaptive algorithm. The antenna array is expected to maintain sufficient gain towards each of the desired source while at the same time suppress the probing sources. This cancels the signal transmission towards each of the hostile probing sources leading to active cancellation. In the book, the performance of dipole phased array is demonstrated in terms of fast convergence, output noise power and output signal-to-interference-and noise ratio. The mutual coupling effect and role of edge elements are taken into account. It is established that dipole array along with an efficient algorithm is able to maintain multilobe beamforming with accurate and deep nulls towards each probing source. This work has application to the active radar cross secti...

  12. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  13. Multiple Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Hiroki; Kojima, Sunao; Kuyama, Naoto; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Araki, Satoshi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Fukui, Toshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and dyspnea associated with ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF. An echocardiogram showed an enlarged mass lesion measuring nearly 80 mm. Coronary angiography showed two giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in the right coronary artery (RCA). CAAs were also seen in the left main trunk and left anterior descending artery. Computed tomography showed the CAA in the RCA was ruptured into the right atrium. We therefore diagnosed this patient with multiple CAAs, myocardial infarction and coronary artery rupture. He underwent successful surgical excision and coronary bypass surgery. PMID:28768966

  14. Rare Giant Prevertebral Thoracic Myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bryan D; Fehnel, Katie P; Butler, William E

    2018-01-01

    Here we report a 72-year-old man who presented with complaint of sudden-onset weakness and impaired sensation in the left lower extremity. Radiographic evaluation revealed a congenital malformation with multiple formation defects including a giant thoracic prevertebral myelomeningocele. Following microsurgical detethering of the spinal cord, the patient recovered ambulation with assist. While thoracic myelomeningoceles are themselves rare, in this case the patient presented at a late age and responded well to conservative management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Giant Rhinolith: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Chang Hsiao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A rhinolith is a stone that forms in the nose. It occurs as a result of the solidification of mucus and nasal debris by mineral salts, calcium, magnesium phosphate and carbonate. It can be seen on radiographs as a radiopaque object in the nasal fossa and may be confused with several pathologic entities that will call for more invasive surgical procedures. We present the first case of a giant rhinolith, possibly arising from aspergillosis, and discuss its clinical and radiologic features.

  16. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  17. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. VI. First chromosphere model of a late-type giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Kučinskas, Arūnas; Klevas, Jonas; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2017-10-01

    Aims: Although observational data unequivocally point to the presence of chromospheres in red giant stars, no attempts have been made so far to model them using 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. We therefore compute an exploratory 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere for a cool red giant in order to study the dynamical and thermodynamic properties of its chromosphere, as well as the influence of the chromosphere on its observable properties. Methods: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations are carried out with the CO5BOLD model atmosphere code for a star with the atmospheric parameters (Teff ≈ 4010 K, log g = 1.5, [ M / H ] = 0.0), which are similar to those of the K-type giant star Aldebaran (α Tau). The computational domain extends from the upper convection zone into the chromosphere (7.4 ≥ log τRoss ≥ - 12.8) and covers several granules in each horizontal direction. Using this model atmosphere, we compute the emergent continuum intensity maps at different wavelengths, spectral line profiles of Ca II K, the Ca II infrared triplet line at 854.2 nm, and Hα, as well as the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the emergent radiative flux. Results: The initial model quickly develops a dynamical chromosphere that is characterised by propagating and interacting shock waves. The peak temperatures in the chromospheric shock fronts reach values of up to 5000 K, although the shock fronts remain quite narrow. Similar to the Sun, the gas temperature distribution in the upper layers of red giant stars is composed of a cool component due to adiabatic cooling in the expanding post-shock regions and a hot component due to shock waves. For this red giant model, the hot component is a rather flat high-temperature tail, which nevertheless affects the resulting average temperatures significantly. Conclusions: The simulations show that the atmospheres of red giant stars are dynamic and intermittent. Consequently, many observable properties cannot be reproduced

  18. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  19. Surgical treatment for giant incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, A; Rosenberg, J; Bisgaard, T

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repair for giant incisional hernias is a challenge due to unacceptable high morbidity and recurrence rates. Several surgical techniques are available, but all are poorly documented. This systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the existing literature on repair for giant...... procedure and severely lack evidence-based research from high-quality, large-scaled randomised studies....

  20. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in micro‑ and macro‑adenomas unless an urgent treatment is necessary. First line treatment is always medical with dopamine agonists. In this report, we presented a patient with pubertal arrest and giant prolactinoma that disappeared in a short time with cabergoline treatment. Keywords: Cabergoline, giant prolactinoma, ...

  1. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  2. Stacked dipole line source excitation of active nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    This work investigates electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by a stac- ked electric dipole line source. The nano-particles consist of a silica nano-core, layered by silver, gold, or copper nano-shell. Attention is devoted to the influence of the source...... location and dipole orientation, the gain constant, and the nano-particle material composition on the electromagnetic field distributions and radiated powers. The results are contrasted to those for the magnetic line source illumination of the nano-particles....

  3. First Computation of Parasitic Fields in LHC Dipole Magnet Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Boncompagni, Yann; Ferapontov, V; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sahner, T; Völlinger, C

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now under construction at CERN, will rely on about 1600 main superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets and over 7400 superconducting corrector magnets distributed around the eight sectors of the machine. Each magnet type is powered by dedicated superconducting busbars running along the sectors and mounted on the iron yokes of the main dipole and quadruple magnets. In the numerous magnet interconnects, the busbars are not magnetically shielded from the beam pipes and produce parasitic fields that can affect beam optics. We review the 3-D models that have been developed with ROXIE to compute the parasitic fields and we discuss their potential impacts on machine performance.

  4. SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole coil production tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  5. A Van Atta reflector consisting of half-wave dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1966-01-01

    The reradiation pattern of a passive Van Atta reflector consisting of half-wave dipoles is investigated. The character of the reradiation pattern first is deduced by qualitative and physical considerations. Various types of array elements are considered and several geometrical configurations...... of these elements are outlined. Following this, an analysis is made of the reradiation pattern of a linear Van Atta array consisting of four equispaced half-wave dipoles. The general form of the reradiation pattern is studied analytically. The influence of scattering and coupling is determined and the dependence...

  6. Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis of metamat......An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...

  7. Status of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Fessia, P; Perini, D; Sanfilippo, S; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L; Wyss, C

    2000-01-01

    The model program for the LHC main dipoles is dedicated to the study and validation of design variants and assembly parameters to achieve reproducible performance and optimise components and assembly costs. The topics investigated in the last year include the material of the coil end spacers, the use of polyimide films from different manufacturers, the definition of optimum azimuthal and longitudinal coil pre-stress values, shimming of coil ends, collaring around the "cold bore" and different layouts of the yoke ends. This paper presents the main characteristics of such recent models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans for the final phase of the model program for the LHC dipoles.

  8. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.

  9. Quantum Electromagnetic Nonlinearity Affecting Charges and Dipole Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.; Shishmarev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of QED, a static charge becomes a magnetic dipole if placed in a magnetic field, and a magnetic monopole on the background is a combination of constant electric and magnetic fields. Already without external field, the cubic Maxwell equation for the field of a point charge has a soliton solution with a finite field energy and finite potential, the energy-momentum vector of a moving soliton being the same as that of a point massive particle. Equations are given for self-coupling dipole moments. Any theoretically found value for a multipole moment of a baryon or a meson should be subjected to nonlinear renormalization.

  10. Low-Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    Three novel electrically small antenna configurations radiating a TE10 spherical mode corresponding to a magnetic dipole are presented and investigated: multiarm spherical helix (MSH) antenna, spherical split ring resonator (S-SRR) antenna, and spherical split ring (SSR) antenna. All three antennas...... are self-resonant, with the input resistance tuned to 50 ohms by an excitation curved dipole/monopole. A prototype of the SSR antenna has been fabricated and measured, yielding results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. Radiation quality factors (Q) of these electrically small antennas (in...

  11. Electric dipole moments as a test of supersymmetric unification

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, S; Hall, L J

    1995-01-01

    In a class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, including those based on the gauge group SO(10), there are new contributions to the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, which arise as a heavy top quark effect. These contributions arise from CKM-like phases, not from phases of the supersymmetry breaking operators, and can be reliably computed in terms of the parameters of the weak scale supersymmetric theory. For the expected ranges of these parameters, the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron are predicted to be close to present experimental limits.

  12. Dipole modulation in tensor modes: signatures in CMB polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Moslem [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Astronomy, P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work we consider a dipole asymmetry in tensor modes and study the effects of this asymmetry on the angular power spectra of CMB. We derive analytical expressions for the C{sub l}{sup TT} and C{sub l}{sup BB} in the presence of such dipole modulation in tensor modes for l < 100. We also discuss on the amplitude of modulation term and show that the C{sub l}{sup BB} is considerably modified due to this term. (orig.) 3.

  13. Stability of electrostatic modes in a levitated dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, J. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Plasma confined in a magnetic dipole is stabilized by the expansion of the magnetic flux. The stability of low beta electrostatic modes in a magnetic dipole field is examined when the distribution function is to lowest order Maxwellian. It is shown that for sufficiently gentle density and temperature gradients the configuration would be expected to be stable to magnetohydrodynamic interchange, as well as to dissipative trapped ion and collisionless trapped particle modes. These results are applicable to any magnetic configuration for which the curvature drift frequency exceeds the diamagnetic drift frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. PERSISTENT CURRENT EFFECTS IN BSCCO COMMON COIL DIPOLES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMPSON,W.B.; GHOSH,A.K.; COZZOLINO,J.P.; HARRISON,M.A.; WANDERER,P.J.

    2000-09-17

    A series of one-meter long racetrack-shaped windings has been fabricated from BSCCO tape conductors obtained from four manufacturers. Two coils were built from each conductor type and tested in the ''common coil'' dipole configuration in liquid helium. The effect of the remnant magnetization currents was determined by measuring the residual dipole and sextupole fields after cycling the magnets to progressively higher currents. Two coil sets have been measured and the results are compared to those obtained from a Nb{sub 3}Sn ribbon magnet of the same geometry.

  15. Giants of eclipse the ζ [Zeta] Aurigae stars and other binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The zeta Aurigae stars are the rare but illustrious sub-group of binary stars that undergo the dramatic phenomenon of "chromospheric eclipse". This book provides detailed descriptions of the ten known systems, illustrates them richly with examples of new spectra, and places them in the context of stellar structure and evolution. Comprised of a large cool giant plus a small hot dwarf, these key eclipsing binaries reveal fascinating changes in their spectra very close to total eclipse, when the hot star shines through differing heights of the "chromosphere", or outer atmosphere, of the giant star. The phenomenon provides astrophysics with the means of analyzing the outer atmosphere of a giant star and how that material is shed into space. The physics of these critical events can be explained qualitatively, but it is more challenging to extract hard facts from the observations, and tough to model the chromosphere in any detail. The book offers current thinking on mechanisms for heating a star's chromosphere an...

  16. Two-phonon giant resonances in sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb, and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U

    CERN Document Server

    Boretzky, K; Aumann, T; Bertulani, C A; Cub, J; Dostal, W; Eberlein, B; Elze, T W; Emling, H; Fallot, M; Grünschloss, A; Holeczek, J; Holzmann, R; Ilievski, S; Kozhuharov, C; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Leifels, Y; Leistenschneider, A; Lubkiewicz, E; Mordechai, S; Ohtsuki, T; Reiter, P; Simon, H; Stelzer, K; Stroth, J; Sümmerer, K; Surowiec, A; Wajda, E; Walús, W

    2003-01-01

    The excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance was observed in heavy projectile nuclei impinging on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500-700 MeV/nucleon. New experimental data are presented for sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U together with further analysis of earlier data on sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb. Differential cross sections d sigma/dE sup * and d sigma/d theta for electromagnetic excitations were deduced. Depending on the isotope, cross sections appear to be enhanced in comparison to those expected from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two-phonon states composed of one dipole and one quadrupole phonon, of predicted anharmoniticies in the double-phonon dipole response, and of damping of the dipole resonance during the collision may account for the discrepancy. In addition, decay properties of two-phonon resonances were studied and compared to that of a statistical decay.

  17. Control of excitons in a bent bunch of molecular aggregates by dipole-dipole interaction with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The nonlocal dipole-dipole interaction is studied between excitations in chromophores forming a bunch or a tube of J-aggregates and closely spaced quantum dots (QDs). Equations describing the evolution of exciton pulses in a quasi-one-dimensional medium are derived taking into account the interaction with the transition resonant to nanoparticles. It is shown that the efficient controllable resonance energy transfer can occur in the system between QDs and an exciton pulse. The efficiency of this process significantly increases if the bunch of aggregates is deformed to bend nanoparticles round. It is shown that the interaction of permanent dipole moments of QDs and chromophores leads to the formation of a potential barrier or a well. It is found that the combined influence of these factors can be used to efficiently control the dynamics of pulses in aggregates.

  18. Inelastic electron-dipole-molecule scattering at sub-milli-electron-volt energies: Possible role of dipole-supported states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. T.; Hill, S. B.; Ling, X.; Smith, K. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    1994-10-01

    Studies of collisions between Rydberg atoms with values of principal quantum number n in the range 100<~n<~400 and H2S and C6H5NO2 are reported. These targets were selected because they have very different dipole moments: 0.97 and 4.22 D, respectively. Analysis of the data using the essentially-free-electron model shows that at micro-electron-volt energies the cross sections for rotationally inelastic electron scattering by these targets have very different energy dependences. This difference suggests that, in the case of C6H5NO2, dipole-supported states might be important in the scattering. To examine this further, the data are compared with the results of calculations using a free-electron cross section that assumes the presence of dipole-supported states, and it is demonstrated that, with a reasonable choice of parameters, it is possible to reproduce the experimental observations.

  19. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  20. [Giant ameloblastoma of the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Z; Isaac, S; Cotton, F; Roch, J; Rousset, M; Bouletreau, P; Breton, P

    2013-04-01

    Giant ameloblastomas are more common in developing countries. They raise a serious problem of management. We present the case of one of the largest ameloblastoma ever reported. A 48-year-old Congolese female patient was referred for mandibular swelling having begun 23 years before and now inducing severe functional disorders. A cephalic CT scan revealed a multicystic mass, 30×18×10cm in size, with a typical "soap bubble" presentation, and with thinned and inflated cortical bone. The treatment was sub-total segmental mandibulectomy with immediate reconstruction using a fibular free flap, modeled on the sampling site by four ostectomies. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a benign follicular and plexiform ameloblastoma. The excess of soft tissue was treated with a right commissuroplasty on the 15th postoperative day. There was no complication. Radical treatment followed by immediate reconstruction using a free flap is the treatment of choice for giant mandibular ameloblastomas, when considering immediate functional and esthetic benefits. This is a prime concern for patients with a difficult access to health care and for whom long-term follow-up is not feasible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. [Giant aneurysm of fast development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J M; Martín-Velasco, V; Rodríguez-Salazar, A

    2002-06-01

    The percentage of aneurysms measuring more than 2'5 cm in diameter ranges from 3 to 13%, and occur more commonly in females. They come to clinical attention later than nongiant aneurysms, but 20% of them appear in patients 20 years of age or younger. Its natural history is incompletely understood. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted following a generalized seizure with postictal dysphasia and right hemiparesis caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured giant aneurysm located in the left temporal fossa, who died few hours later because of rebleeding. This patient had been followed during the last seven years at our unit because of untreated frontal osteomas, without evidence of any intracranial lesion in the computerized axial tomography (CT). Some months before her death, she had suffered a left micotic otitis, and she was studied because of the reappearance of her left cephalalgia without neurological deficit. This case is another evidence of quick appearance of a giant aneurysm, "silent" until the fatal outcome.

  2. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  3. Radiative Decay Rates for Electric Dipole, Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in Triply Ionized Thulium (Tm IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnin Enzonga Yoca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of radiative decay parameters (oscillator strengths, transition probabilities for spectral lines in triply ionized thulium (Tm IV has been obtained within the framework of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR approach. The effects of configuration interaction and core-polarization have been investigated in detail and the quality of the results has been assessed through a comparison between different HFR physical models. The spectroscopic data listed in the present paper cover electric dipole as well as magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in a wide range of wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to near infrared.

  4. Hyperpolarizabilities for the one-dimensional infinite single-electron periodic systems: I. Analytical solutions under dipole-dipole correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shidong; Xu, Minzhong

    2005-01-01

    The analytical solutions for the general-four-wave-mixing hyperpolarizabilities $\\chi^{(3)}(-(w_1+w_2+w_3);w_1,w_2,w_3)$ on infinite chains under both Su-Shrieffer-Heeger and Takayama-Lin-Liu-Maki models of trans-polyacetylene are obtained through the scheme of dipole-dipole correlation. Analytical expressions of DC Kerr effect $\\chi^{(3)}(-w;0,0,w)$, DC-induced second harmonic generation $\\chi^{(3)}(-2w;0,w,w)$, optical Kerr effect $\\chi^{(3)}(-w;w,-w,w)$ and DC-electric-field-induced optica...

  5. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  6. Microscopic model for the isospin fragmentation of the dipole mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, R.; Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1982-12-01

    We use a microscopic approach to derive a schematic Hamiltonian for studying the strengths and the energies of the three components (..delta..T/sub 3/ = +- 1,0) of the dipole excitation. Explicit formulas within the random phase approximation accuracy are given for energies and strengths. A significant isotensor contribution to the isospin splittings is found in agreement with recent experimental data.

  7. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.

  8. On Closely Coupled Dipoles in a Random Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Vincent, L.

    2006-01-01

    Reception of partially correlated fields by two closely coupled electrical dipoles is discussed as a function of load impedances and open-circuit correlations. Two local maxima of the power may be achieved for two different load impedances, but in those cases the output correlations are high...

  9. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  10. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaoliang [KC Science and Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL 60565 (United States); Xu, Bobby [Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Aurora, IL 60506 (United States); He Bin [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  11. On the Purcell effect beyond the dipole approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons in quantum dots beyond the dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wavefunction plays a crucial role. We show explicitly that for spherically symmetric excitons, the Purcell effect is independent of the exciton size and is go...... to the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  12. An Extreme Black Hole with Electric Dipole Moment

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Tada, Tsukasa

    1996-01-01

    We construct a new extreme black hole solution in toroidally compactified heterotic string theory. The black hole saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound, has zero angular momentum, but nonzero electric dipole moment. It is obtained by starting with a higher dimensional rotating charged black hole, and compactifying one direction in the plane of rotation.

  13. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in

  14. Report of the SSC Collider Dipole Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kirk, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). SSC Central Design Group

    1989-06-01

    This report contains the following review on the SSC dipole magnets: subpanel on the R&D program and industrialization; subpanel on magnet measurement; subpanel on cold mass mechanics; subpanel on superconductor; subpanel on cryogenics; subpanel on quench protection; and subpanel on bore tube corrector coils.

  15. The dipole response of nuclei with large neutron excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, K.; Cortina, D.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Elze, T.W.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Gruenschloss, A.; Hellstroem, M.; Ilievski, S.; Iwasa, N.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reiter, P.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schlegel, C.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.

    2003-07-01

    The dipole response of neutron-rich nuclei in the mass range from A=10 to A=22 and with mass to charge ratios of 2.5 to 2.8 has been investigated experimentally utilizing electromagnetic excitation in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies around 600 MeV/u. (orig.)

  16. Resonant Dipole Nanoantenna Arrays for Enhanced Terahertz Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-08-04

    Our recent studies on dipole nanoantenna arrays resonating in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 – 10 THz) will be presented. The main near- and far-field properties of these nanostructures will be shown and their application in enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of tiny quantities of nanomaterials will be discussed.

  17. Constructing stochastic models for dipole fluctuations from paleomagnetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, Bruce; Puranam, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we construct a stochastic model from two recent inversions of paleomagnetic observations for the axial dipole moment. An estimate of the noise term in the stochastic model is recovered from a high-resolution inversion (CALS10k.2), while the drift term is estimated from the low-frequency part of the power spectrum for a long, but lower-resolution inversion (PADM2M). Realizations of the resulting stochastic model yield a composite, broadband power spectrum that agrees well with the spectra from both PADM2M and CALS10k.2. A simple generalization of the stochastic model permits predictions for the mean rate of magnetic reversals. We show that the reversal rate depends on the time-averaged dipole moment, the variance of the dipole moment and a slow timescale that characterizes the adjustment of the dipole toward the time-averaged value. Predictions of the stochastic model give a mean rate of 4.2 Myr-1, which is in good agreement with observations from marine magnetic anomalies.

  18. Atomic electric dipole moments : The Schiff theorem and its corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C. -P.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Haxton, W. C.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    Searches for the permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of diamagnetic atoms provide powerful probes of CP-violating hadronic and semileptonic interactions. The theoretical interpretation of such experiments, however, requires careful implementation of a well-known theorem by Schiff that implies a

  19. Working on an LHC dipole end-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A metal worker constructs an end-cap for an LHC dipole magnet. These magnets will be used to bend the proton beams around the LHC, which is due to start up in 2008. The handmade prototype seen here will be used to make a mold from which the final set of components will be made for the accelerator.

  20. Thermo-magneto coupling in a dipole plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Z; Morikawa, J; Saitoh, H

    2012-01-01

    On a dipole plasma, we observe the generation of magnetic moment, as the movement of the levitating magnet-plasma compound, in response to electron-cyclotron heating and the increase of $\\beta$ (magnetically-confined thermal energy). We formulate a thermodynamic model with interpreting heating as injection of microscopic magnetic moment; the corresponding chemical potential is the ambient magnetic field.

  1. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas with Magnetic Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    This work extends the theory of a spherical magnetic dipole antenna with magnetic core by numerical results for practical antenna configurations that excite higher-order modes besides the main TE10 spherical mode. The multiarm spherical helix (MSH) and the spherical split ring (SSR) antennas...

  2. The LHC Pre-series Dipole Cold Mass Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Savary, F; Skoczen, B; Veness, R J M; Jeanneret, J B

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide the necessary mechanical aperture for the LHC beam, the main dipole cold masses have to match precisely the nominal circular trajectory of the particles beam. The requirements on the dipole cold mass geometry are dictated by the LHC beam optics and by the allowed limits of mechanical deformation of the interconnection bellows. Keeping the tight tolerances that are imposed necessitates a well controlled bending process and the use of a high accuracy 3D measuring instrument for checking the geometry of the cold mass throughout many manufacturing stages up to the final inspection. The dipole cold mass pre-series production started in 2000. It is almost completed at the three sites. In this paper, we report on the problems encountered to shape correctly the cold masses, their effect on interconnection of the dipole cold masses and on the mechanical aperture. On one side measures to improve the production process in terms of accuracy and reproducibility were taken, on the other side the assembl...

  3. Numerical analysis of dipole sound source around high speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Takehisa; Sagawa, Akio; Nagakura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Tatsuo

    2002-06-01

    As the maximum speed of high speed trains increases, the effect of aeroacoustic noise on the sound level on the ground becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the distribution of dipole sound sources at the bogie section of high speed trains is predicted numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady flow around a train is solved by the large eddy simulation technique. The time history of vortices shows that unstable shear layer separation at the leading edge of the bogie section sheds vortices periodically. These vortices travel downstream while growing to finally impinge upon the trailing edge of the section. The wavelength of sound produced by these vortices is large compared to the representative length of the bogie section, so that the source region can be regarded as acoustically compact. Thus a compact Green's function adapted to the shape can be used to determine the sound. By coupling the instantaneous flow properties with the compact Green's function, the distribution of dipole sources is obtained. The results reveal a strong dipole source at the trailing edge of the bogie section where the shape changes greatly and the variation of flow with time is also great. On the other hand, the bottom of the bogie section where the shape does not change, or the leading edge and boundary layer where the variation of flow with time is small, cannot generate a strong dipole source.

  4. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical sensitivity of search for EDMs in atomic radium.

  5. On the Dipole Picture in the Nonforward Direction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, J; Golec-Biernat, K

    2003-01-01

    We calculate, for nonzero momentum transfer, the dipole formula for the high energy behaviour of elastic and quasielastic scattering of a virtual photon. We obtain an expression of the nonforward photon impact factor and of the nonforward photon wave function, and we give a physical interpretation.

  6. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical

  7. A dipole interaction model for the molecular second hyperpolarizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, L; Sylvester-Hvid, KO; Mikkelsen, KV; Astrand, PO

    2003-01-01

    A dipole interaction model (IM) for calculating the molecular second hyperpolarizability, gamma, of aliphatic and aromatic molecules has been investigated. The model has been parametrized from quantum chemical calculations of gamma at the self-consistent field (SCF) level of theory for 72 molecules.

  8. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young

    2016-02-04

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.

  9. Permanent Electric Dipole Moment Search in 129Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasdijk, Jan; Bluemler, P.; Almendinger, F.; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter; Karpuk, S.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas; Repetto, M.; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) implies breakdown of P (parity) and T (time reversal) symmetries. Provided CPT holds, this implies CP violation. Observation of an EDM at achievable experimental sensitivity would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model and limits

  10. Computer-generated diagram of an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    AC Team

    1998-01-01

    This computer-generated image of an LHC dipole magnet shows some of the parts vital for the operation of these components. The magnets must be cooled to 1.9 K (less than –270.3°C) so that the superconducting coils can produce the required 8 T magnetic field strength.

  11. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a New Planck Galaxy Cluster PLCKG171.9-40.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Kale, Ruta; Wik, Daniel R.; Venturi, Tiziana; Markevitch, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in a new, hot, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster recently found by Planck, PLCKG171.9-40.7. The radio halo was found using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz, and in the 1.4 GHz data from a NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey pointing that we have reanalyzed. The diffuse radio emission is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission, has an extent of approx.1 Mpc and a radio power of approx. 5×10(exp 24)W/Hz at 1.4 GHz. Its integrated radio spectrum has a slope of alpha approx. = 1.8 between 235 MHz and 1.4 GHz, steeper than that of a typical giant halo. The analysis of the archival XMMNewton X-ray data shows that the cluster is hot (approx. 10 keV) and disturbed, consistent with X-ray selected clusters hosting radio halos. This is the first giant radio halo discovered in one of the new clusters found by Planck.

  12. Submm Observations of Massive Star Formation in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 6334 : Gas Kinematics with Radiative Transfer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zernickel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Context. How massive stars (M>8 Ms) form and how they accrete gas is still an open research field, but it is known that their influence on the interstellar medium (ISM) is immense. Star formation involves the gravitational collapse of gas from scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) down to dense hot molecular cores (HMCs). Thus, it is important to understand the mass flows and kinematics in the ISM. Aims. This dissertation focuses on the detailed study of the region NGC 6334,...

  13. Tidal Dissipation in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Short-period extrasolar giant planets (hot Jupiters) experience periods of strong tidal dissipation. It is not well known whether tidal energy is deposited primarily in the deep interior or the surface layers of these planets, or what effect the location of tidal heating has on their evolution and observable properties (e.g. radii, spectra, and rate of mass loss in a planetary wind). I present a study of the local tidal heating rate as a function of latitude and depth in the radiative envelope and atmosphere (between pressure levels of about 1 kilobar and 0.001 microbars). Results are based on a nonadiabatic linear analysis of the tide in this region, which takes the form of an upward-propagating train of inertial-gravity waves excited at the interface between the convective interior and the stably-stratified envelope. Radiative damping dominates the dissipation. Careful attention is paid to the computation of the radiative relaxation timescale, using nongray radiative transfer to transition smoothly from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. The potential exists for conversion from inertial-gravity waves to pure inertial waves in the presence of strong radiative damping. This raises the possibility that a significant tidal energy flux can be transported as high as the base of the thermosphere, where it would contribute to driving atmospheric escape. Results can be used to chart local tidal heating rates over the lifetime of a hot Jupiter as its orbit and rotation rate evolve. Although the potential for high-altitude tidal heating is intriguing, I find that over a wide range of orbital parameters the bulk of the energy flux is dissipated nearer the IR photosphere. Tidal heating at those heights (around 0.1-10 bars) has the greatest potential to affect the emergent spectrum, and is least likely to slow the planet's rate of contraction.

  14. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surface on electric and magnetic dipole emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Xingjie; Naik, Gururaj V.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces....

  15. An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2010-01-01

    The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  17. GIANT CONGENITAL NEVUS – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Popovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital nevomelanocitic nevi (CN are benign melanocitic proliferations present at birth. The incidence of giant CN is 0,002% in the newborns. The paper presents the case of a 20-year old female with giant CN on the skin of the right hand. Dermoscopy is very useful in differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Dermoscopic characteristics of CN are the presence of uniform globules - the "pebble stone" pattern. Giant CN overtaking more than 5% of the skin has an increased risk of malignant melanoma. Possible therapy modalities for CN are: excision with grafts, dermabrasion, curettage and laser. Periodical check-ups are necessary.

  18. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Naevi: review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchesi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available giant congenital pigmented naevi is a great reconstructive challenge for the pediatric and plastic surgeons. due to the increased risk of malignant transformation in such lesions, many procedures have been used to remove giant congenital naevi like dermoabrasion, laser treatment or surgical excision combined with reconstruction through skin expansion or skin grafting; among these, only a complete excision can offer an efficacious treatment. in our centre we use the “tissue expansion” technique in order to achieve a sufficient quantity of normal skin to perform a both staged and radical excision of these giant lesions.

  19. A remarkable oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch variable in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia A.; Menzies, John W.; Feast, Michael W.; Marigo, Paola

    2018-01-01

    We report and discuss JHKS photometry for Sgr dIG, a very metal-deficient galaxy in the Local Group, obtained over 3.5 years with the Infrared Survey Facility in South Africa. Three large amplitude asymptotic giant branch variables are identified. One is an oxygen-rich star that has a pulsation period of 950 d, which was until recently undergoing hot bottom burning, with Mbol ∼ -6.7. It is surprising to find a variable of this sort in Sgr dIG, given their rarity in other dwarf irregulars. Despite its long period the star is relatively blue and is fainter, at all wavelengths shorter than 4.5 μm, than anticipated from period-luminosity relations that describe hot bottom burning stars. A comparison with models suggests it had a main-sequence mass Mi ∼ 5 M⊙ and that it is now near the end of its asymptotic giant branch evolution. The other two periodic variables are carbon stars with periods of 670 and 503 d (Mbol ∼ -5.7 and -5.3). They are very similar to other such stars found on the asymptotic giant branch of metal-deficient Local Group galaxies and a comparison with models suggests Mi ∼ 3 M⊙. We compare the number of asymptotic giant branch variables in Sgr dIG to those in NGC 6822 and IC 1613, and suggest that the differences may be due to the high specific star formation rate and low metallicity of Sgr dIG.

  20. Breakdown of the dipole approximation for large quantum dot emitters coupled to an interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Löffler, A.

    2008-01-01

    We measured time-resolved photoluminescence from large quantum dots near a semiconductor-air interface. Far from the interface our data are consistent with dipole theory, but near the interface they question the validity of the dipole approximation.......We measured time-resolved photoluminescence from large quantum dots near a semiconductor-air interface. Far from the interface our data are consistent with dipole theory, but near the interface they question the validity of the dipole approximation....

  1. Morphological aspects of giant cells in giant cell arteritis: an electron-microscopic and immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, E; Bengtsson, B A; Petursdottir, V; Nordborg, C

    1997-01-01

    To compare the morphology of foreign body and Langhans giant cells in the two different inflammatory phases of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Electron microscopy was performed on 6 positive temporal arterial biopsies. Light microscopy and immunocytochemistry for macrophage-associated antigen (KP1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were performed on 16 positive biopsies. A focal granulomatous reaction with foreign body giant cells was found only in association with the internal elastic membrane (IEM) in atrophic arterial segments, which often displayed calcification of the IEM. Diffuse invasion of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages affected non-atrophic as well as atrophic arterial segments. Within such segments Langhans giant cells were found in all layers of the wall. Electron microscopy of biopsies displaying the focal foreign body reaction revealed that large cells devoid of lysosomes but with cytoplasmic densities, tightly packed cytoplasmic filaments and numerous micropinocytotic vesicles formed clusters close to calcified parts of the internal elastic membrane. Furthermore, foreign body giant cells were surrounded by large cells devoid of lysosomes. Lysosomes tended to concentrate in central parts of the foreign body giant cells. In the diffusely inflamed arteries, the Langhans giant cells were surrounded by mononuclear cells rich in lysosomes. The lysosomes in the Langhans giant cells were more evenly distributed than in foreign body giant cells. Immunocytochemistry of biopsies displaying the focal granulomatous reaction revealed an uneven, often central immunoreactivity for the macrophage marker (KP1) in the foreign body giant cells, and immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle antigen (alpha-SMA) showed their poor delineation from the surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. The Langhans giant cells in the diffusely inflamed arteries displayed a strong even cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for KP1 and a distinct delineation from the smooth muscle cells

  2. The nucleon electric dipole form factor from dimension-six time-reversal violation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole form factor of the nucleon that arises as a low-energy manifestation of time-reversal violation in quark-gluon interactions of effective dimension 6: the quark electric and chromoelectric dipole moments, and the gluon chromoelectric dipole moment. We use the

  3. Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…

  4. Hunting for hot Jupiters around young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Louise; MaTYSSE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This conference paper reports the recent discoveries of two hot Jupiters (hJs) around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTS) V830 Tau and TAP 26, through the analysis of spectropolarimetric data gathered within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of massive close-in Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) observation programme. HJs are thought to form in the outskirts of protoplanetary discs, then migrate inwards close to their host stars as a result of either planet-disc type II migration or planet-planet scattering. Looking for hJs around young forming stars provides key information on the nature and time scale of such migration processes, as well as how their migration impacts the subsequent architecture of their planetary system. Young stars are however extremely active, to the point that their radial velocity (RV) jitter is around an order of magnitude larger than the potential signatures of close-in gas giants, making them difficult to detect with velocimetry. Three techniques to filter out this activity jitter are presented here, two using Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) and one using Gaussian Process Regression (GPR).

  5. Are Langhans giant cells precursors of foreign-body giant cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Rhee, H J; Hillebrands, W; Daems, W T

    1978-01-01

    Granulomas were induced in rats by subcutaneous implantation of pieces of Melinex plastic into the dorsum. The pieces of Melinex were removed at intervals varying from 16 h to 14 days, and the adherent cells were studied morphologically and quantitatively. Giant cell formation started about 32 h after implantation. The first giant cells to appear were of the Langhans type. Two days after implantation, most of the giant cells are still Langhans-type cells. A few giant cells of the foreign-body type and transition forms between the Langhans and foreign-body types are also present. From the third day on, the foreign-body type gradually becomes predominant. Independent of the duration of implantation, giant cells with 3, 4, or 5 nuclei are virtually without exception of the Langhans type. The higher the number of nuclei between 6 and 30, the more cells are of the foreign-body type. Giant cells with 30 or more nuclei are all foreign-body type. The findings are discussed in the light of current knowledge concerning giant cell formation. It is concluded that under the present experimental conditions, Langhans-type giant cells are the precursors of foreign-body-type giant cells.

  6. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  7. A giant planet around the massive giant star HD 13189

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, A. P.; Guenther, E. W.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; Döllinger, M. P.; Bedalov, A.

    2005-07-01

    Most extrasolar planet discoveries using radial velocity measurements have been for solar-like G-stars. In order to understand better the role stellar mass for the formation of planets we must learn more about the frequency of planetary companions around both high- and low-mass stars. Radial velocity searches for planets around high mass main-sequence stars are difficult due to the paucity of lines and often rapid rotation of these early-type stars. On the other hand, evolved stars that have moved off the main sequence offer us the possibility of searching for planets around higher mass stars by means of precise radial velocity measurements. Here we present radial velocity measurements for the star HD 13189 using measurements taken at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. We classify the spectral type of this star as K2 with luminosity class II. The radial velocity measurements show long-period variations with a period of 472 days and an amplitude of 173 m s-1. The Ca II S-index is consistent with an inactive star and this shows no variations with the radial velocity period. We also investigated possible changes in the line shapes by measuring spectral line bisectors. These show no variations with the radial velocity period. We interpret the 472-day period as being caused by a sub-stellar companion. Based on the estimated absolute magnitude and a comparison to evolutionary tracks we estimate the mass of the progenitor star between 2 and 7 M_⊙ which results in a projected mass of the companion of m sin i = 8 20 M_J. HD 13189 may be the most massive star known to possess an extrasolar planet. This suggests that the formation of giant planets can also occur around early-type stars. HD 13189 also shows significant short term radial velocity variability on time scales of days that is most likely due to stellar oscillations. This behavior is typical for K giant stars.

  8. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles. Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone. This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged, even as the planet

  9. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time: Response to Sheth's comments and some additional thoughts. Gautam Sen. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 487-488 ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: giant congenital melanocytic nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Giant Congenital Nevus Nevus Outreach: Treatment Options Primary Care Dermatology Society General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are ...

  11. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  12. Prenatally-detected giant lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sværdborg, Mille; Keller, Johnny; Schrøder, Henrik; Petersen, Olav B; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of a giant lymphatic malformation of the chest and abdominal wall that was diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. It was treated by one stage excision with good functional and cosmetic outcomes.

  13. AFSC/ABL: Female Giant Grenadier maturity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Giant grenadiers Albatrossia pectoralis are caught as bycatch in deep-sea commercial fisheries in relatively large numbers. The population appears to be stable,...

  14. Investigation of the dipole response of nickel isotopes in the presence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Dominic M.

    2010-01-25

    The electric dipole response of neutron-rich nickel isotopes has been investigated using the LAND setup at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany). Relativistic secondary beams of {sup 56-57}Ni and {sup 67-72}Ni at approximately 500 AMeV have been generated using projectile fragmentation of stable ions on a 4 g/cm{sup 2} Be target and subsequent separation in the magnetic dipole fields of the FRagment Separator (FRS). After reaching the LAND setup in Cave C, the radioactive ions were excited electromagnetically in the electric field of a Pb target. The decay products have been measured in inverse kinematics using various detectors. Neutron-rich {sup 67-69}Ni isotopes decay by the emission of neutrons, which are detected in the LAND detector. The present analysis concentrates on the ({gamma},n) and ({gamma},2n) channels in these nuclei, since the proton and three-neutron thresholds are unlikely to be reached considering the virtual photon spectrum for nickel ions at 500 AMeV. A measurement of the stable {sup 58}Ni isotope is used as a benchmark to check the accuracy of the present results with previously published data. The measured ({gamma},n) and ({gamma},np) channels are compared with an inclusive photoneutron measurement by Fultz and coworkers, which are consistent within the respective errors. The measured excitation energy distributions of {sup 67-69}Ni contain a large portion of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) strength predicted by the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn energy-weighted sum rule, as well as a significant amount of low-lying E1 strength, that cannot be attributed to the GDR alone. The GDR distribution parameters are calculated using well-established semi-empirical systematic models, providing the peak energies and widths. The GDR strength is extracted from the {chi}{sup 2} minimization of the model GDR to the measured data of the ({gamma},2n) channel, thereby excluding any influence of eventual low-lying strength. The subtraction of the obtained GDR distribution from the

  15. On the origin of 'dividing lines' for late-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Cattaneo, F.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.

    1995-03-01

    We show how a change in the nature of the stellar dyanmo can lead to a transition in the topological character of stellar magnetic fields of evolved stars, from being mainly closed on the blueward side of the giant tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram to being mainly open on their redward side. If such a topological transition occurs, then these stars naturally segregate into two classes: those having hot coronae on the blueward side, and those having massive cool winds on the redward side, thus leading naturally to the so-called dividing lines.

  16. On the origin of 'dividing lines' for late-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Cattaneo, F.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    We show how a change in the nature of the stellar dyanmo can lead to a transition in the topological character of stellar magnetic fields of evolved stars, from being mainly closed on the blueward side of the giant tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram to being mainly open on their redward side. If such a topological transition occurs, then these stars naturally segregate into two classes: those having hot coronae on the blueward side, and those having massive cool winds on the redward side, thus leading naturally to the so-called dividing lines.

  17. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    OpenAIRE

    Duerksen, Donald R; Jewell, Laurence D.; Bain, Vincent G

    1994-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biop...

  18. Large-Spin Expansions of Giant Magnons

    OpenAIRE

    Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    This is a talk delivered at the Workshop on Quantum Fields and Strings of the 2014 Corfu Summer Institute. We discuss how giant magnons emerge in the context of the AdS5/CFT4 correspondence as the gravity duals of N = 4 super Yang-Mills magnon excitations. Then we present a new analytic expression for the dispersion relation of classical finite-size giant magnons with Lambert's W-function.

  19. Granuloma with langhans giant cells: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S Nalin; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Narayan, P Anantha; Muruganandhan, J

    2013-01-01

    Granuloma formation with multinucleated giant cells is seen in numerous diseases. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In this article, we present a case of granuloma formation with multiple Langhans giant cells along with an overview of the differential diagnoses, which include mycobacterium diseases, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoal infections, and...

  20. Granuloma with langhans giant cells: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Nalin; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Narayan, P Anantha; Muruganandhan, J

    2013-09-01

    Granuloma formation with multinucleated giant cells is seen in numerous diseases. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In this article, we present a case of granuloma formation with multiple Langhans giant cells along with an overview of the differential diagnoses, which include mycobacterium diseases, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoal infections, and other granulomatous diseases.

  1. Electric giant resonances in sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 4 sup 8 Ca probed with electron and proton scattering coincidence experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Strauch, S

    1999-01-01

    Excitation and particle decay of electric giant resonances in sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 4 sup 8 Ca are studied with electron and proton beams. Recent results of a sup 4 sup 8 Ca(e,e'n) measurement performed at the S-DALINAC in Darmstadt with kinematics that selectively populate electric monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitations are presented. The extracted B(E1) strength distribution is in good agreement with photo nuclear data and the predictions of microscopic calculations. The summed B(E2+E0) strength distribution, however disagrees with the result of these calculations. The neutron emission of the giant dipole resonance in sup 4 sup 8 Ca shows a large fraction of direct decay to sup 4 sup 7 Ca hole states. In addition, isoscalar giant monopole resonance strength in sup 4 sup 0 Ca was extracted from (e,e'alpha sub 0) and (e,e'alpha sub 1) angular correlations. A study of the quadrupole strength in the alpha sub 0 decay channel of sup 4 sup 0 Ca with a (p,p'alpha) coincidence measurement reiterates the unsol...

  2. Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation of Nearly Touching Plasmonic Au Dimers and Influence of Particle Shape Assembly on Optical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Bin; Wang, Yu-Ying; Yi, Zao; Li, Xi-Bo; Luo, Jiang-Shan; Luo, Bing-Chi; Yi, You-Gen; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The method Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) is used to calculate the extinction spectra and field distribution of three types of dimers. In the paper we provide a systematic analysis of the optical response of different nanoscopic dimer structures with relatively small gap distances. A description is given about how the energy and excitation cross sections of dimer plasmons depend on nanoparticle separation. Resonance peaks of dimers show red-shift compared with single nanoparticle. Dimers formed by different single particle display distinct optical response. Interaction junctions in dimers can serve as hot spots for field enhancement. Field distribution in gaps made of two flat planes is nearly continuous. Changing gaps between two particles in dimers can tune the resonance wavelength effectively as well as different particle ensembles. Existence of sharp corners can attract and change field distribution. It is not effective volume but the effective cross-section that dominates the extinction efficiency.

  3. Direct measurement of excited-state dipole matrix elements using electromagnetically induced transparency in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Daniel J; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2016-01-01

    Applying large magnetic fields to gain access to the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime can isolate three-level systems in a hot alkali metal vapors, thereby simplifying usually complex atom-light interactions. We use this method to make the first direct measurement of the $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}| er||\\mathrm{5D}\\rangle|$ matrix element in $^{87}$Rb. An analytic model with only three-levels accurately models the experimental electromagnetically induced transparency spectra and extracted Rabi-frequencies are used to determine the dipole matrix element. We measure $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}_{3/2}|er||\\mathrm{5D}_{5/2}\\rangle| = (2.290\\pm0.002_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.05_{\\rm syst})~ea_{0}$ which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations of Safronova, Williams and Clark, Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 022509 (2004).

  4. Giant cell ependymoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Dariusz; Dec, Malgorzata; Sobol, Grazyna; Urbanowicz, Barbara; Jaworski, Marian

    2008-02-01

    Ependymomas account for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors. A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist. Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment. CT scanning demonstrated a mass in the left occipital lobe, arising from the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma. Especially striking was the presence of bizzare pleomorphic giant cells which predominated in the tumor tissue. As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established. This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. To date giant cell ependymomas (GCEs) were reported in seven cases in the literature. To the best of our knowledge this is the 8th case in the literature. In spite of apparently "worrisome" histology GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis.

  5. Giant Galaxy's Violent Past Comes Into Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Long-exposure images of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, together with radio observations, have provided spectacular evidence of repetitive outbursts from the vicinity of the galaxy's supermassive black hole. Magnetized rings, bubbles, plumes and jets ranging in size from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand light years point to ongoing violent activity for hundreds of millions of years. "The hot X-ray emitting gas extending for hundreds of thousands of light years around M87 reveals a record of episodes of black hole activity," said Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and an author of an Astrophysical Journal paper describing the latest Chandra observations. "With these detailed observations, we are beginning to understand how the central supermassive black hole transfers enormous amounts of energy over vast reaches of space." M87, located in the middle of the Virgo galaxy cluster, is surrounded by an extensive atmosphere of multi-million degree Celsius gas. Chandra's long-exposure image has allowed astronomers to see in more detail structures discovered by previous observations with Chandra and other X-ray telescopes, to discover new features, and to make specific comparisons with radio images, which trace the presence of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field." X-ray Image of M87 Chandra X-ray Image of M87, Close-Up The picture that emerges is one in which the infall of material toward a central supermassive black hole produces a magnetized jet of high-energy particles that blasts away from the vicinity of the black hole at near the speed of light. As a jet plows into the surrounding gas, a buoyant, magnetized bubble of high-energy particles is created, and an intense sound wave rushes ahead of the expanding bubble. In Chandra's image of M87, X-rays from the jet dominate the central region of the galaxy. The jet is thought to be pointed at a small angle toward the

  6. Nature of the electromagnetic force between classical magnetic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2017-09-01

    The Lorentz force law of classical electrodynamics states that the force 𝑭𝑭 exerted by the magnetic induction 𝑩𝑩 on a particle of charge 𝑞𝑞 moving with velocity 𝑽𝑽 is given by 𝑭𝑭 = 𝑞𝑞𝑽𝑽 × 𝑩𝑩. Since this force is orthogonal to the direction of motion, the magnetic field is said to be incapable of performing mechanical work. Yet there is no denying that a permanent magnet can readily perform mechanical work by pushing/pulling on another permanent magnet or by attracting pieces of magnetizable material such as scrap iron or iron filings. We explain this apparent contradiction by examining the magnetic Lorentz force acting on an Amperian current loop, which is the model for a magnetic dipole. We then extend the discussion by analyzing the Einstein-Laub model of magnetic dipoles in the presence of external magnetic fields.

  7. Superconducting dipole magnet for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilkin P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific goal of the CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR (Darmstadt is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest baryon densities. The physics program of the CBM experiment is complimentary to the programs to be realized at MPD and BMN facilities at NICA and will start with beam derived by the SIS100 synchrotron. The 5.15 MJ superconducting dipole magnet will be used in the silicon tracking system of the CBM detector. The magnet will provide a magnetic field integral of 1 Tm which is required to obtain a momentum resolution of 1% for the track reconstruction. The results of the development of dipole magnet of the CBM experiment are presented.

  8. Pulsar Pair Cascades in a Distorted Magnetic Dipole Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P-P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.

  9. Observation of molecular dipole excitations by attosecond self-streaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A; Pazourek, Renate; Wais, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We propose a protocol to probe the ultrafast evolution and dephasing of coherent electronic excitation in molecules in the time domain by the intrinsic streaking field generated by the molecule itself. Coherent electronic motion in the endohedral fullerene \\Necsixty~is initiated by a moderately intense femtosecond UV-VIS pulse leading to coherent oscillations of the molecular dipole moment that persist after the end of the laser pulse. The resulting time-dependent molecular near-field is probed through the momentum modulation of photoemission from the central neon atom by a time-delayed attosecond XUV pulse. Our ab-initio time-dependent density functional theory and classical trajectory simulations predict that this self-streaking signal accurately traces the molecular dipole oscillations in real time. We discuss the underlying processes and give an analytical model that captures the essence of our ab-initio simulations.

  10. Nb3Sn Dipole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, W. B.; Kiss, S.; Robins, K. E.; McInturff, A. D.

    1978-09-01

    Multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors suitable for use in accelerator magnets have been under development at BNL for a number of years. To date three one meter long dipole magnets have been constructed from braided conductor which had been reacted prior to winding. The first of these dipoles and the method of construction has been described in an earlier paper. The most recent magnet in this series was tested over the temperature range 4.2 K to 15 K using high pressure gas cooling. The maximum field 4.8 T, was achieved at 4.2 K. At higher temperatures the field decreased approximately linearly with temperature passing through 4.0 T at just under 8 K.

  11. Electromagnetic Design of Superconducting Dipoles Based on Sector Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio

    2007-01-01

    We study the coil lay-outs of superconducting dipoles for particle accelerators based on the sector geometry. We show that a simple model based on a sector coil with a wedge allows us to derive an equation giving the short sample field as a function of the aperture, coil width, cable properties and superconducting material. The equation agrees well with the actual results of several dipole coils that have been built in the last 30 years. The improvements due to the grading technique and the iron yoke are also studied. The proposed equation can be used as a benchmark to judge the efficiency of the coil design, and to carry out a global optimization of an accelerator lay-out.

  12. Dipole corrector magnets for the LBNE beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, M.; Velev, G.; Harding, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The conceptual design of a new dipole corrector magnet has been thoroughly studied. The planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) beam line will require correctors capable of greater range and linearity than existing correctors, so a new design is proposed based on the horizontal trim dipole correctors built for the Main Injector synchrotron at Fermilab. The gap, pole shape, length, and number of conductor turns remain the same. To allow operation over a wider range of excitations without overheating, the conductor size is increased, and to maintain better linearity, the back leg thickness is increased. The magnetic simulation was done using ANSYS to optimize the shape and the size of the yoke. The thermal performance was also modeled and analyzed.

  13. Interacting in-plane molecular dipoles in a zigzag chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyang; Otterbach, Johannes; Yelin, Susanne F.

    2017-10-01

    A system with externally polarized dipole molecules at half-filling moving along a one-dimensional zigzag chain is studied, including ground-state phase diagrams. The dipoles are oriented in-plane. Together with the geometry of the chain, this gives rise to a bond-alternating nearest-neighbor interaction due to simultaneous attractive and repulsive interactions. By tuning the ratio between the nearest-neighbor interaction and hopping, various phases can be accessed by controlling the polarization angle. In the ultrastrong coupling limit, the system simplifies to a frustrated extended axial Ising model. For the small coupling limit, qualitative discussion of the ordering behavior using effective field theory arguments is provided. We show that when the chain angle is small, the system mostly exhibits BKT-type phase transitions, whereasa large chain angle would drive the system into a gapped (Ising) dimerized phase, where the hopping strength is closely related to the orientation of dimerized pairs.

  14. Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-11-01

    We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.

  15. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  16. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  17. Leading neutron production at HERA in the color dipole approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study leading neutron production in e + p → e + n + X collisions at high energies and calculate the Feynman xL distribution of these neutrons. The differential cross section is written in terms of the pion flux and of the photon-pion total cross section. We describe this process using the color dipole formalism and, assuming the validity of the additive quark model, we relate the dipole-pion with the well determined dipoleproton cross section. In this formalism we can estimate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies as well as the contribution of gluon saturation effects to leading neutron production. With the parameters constrained by other phenomenological information, we are able to reproduce the basic features of the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra.

  18. Anomalous Effects from Dipole-Environment Quantum Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Porcelli, Elio B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyze anomalous effects observed in the operation of two different technological devices: a magnetic core and a parallel plate (symmetrical or asymmetrical) capacitor. From experimental measurements on both devices, we detected small raised anomalous forces that cannot be explained by known interactions in the traditional theories. As the variations of device inertia have not been completely understood by means of current theories, we here propose a theoretical framework in which the anomalous effects can consistently be explained by a preexisting state of quantum entanglement between the external environment and either magnetic dipoles of magnetic cores or electric dipoles of capacitors, so that the effects would be manifested by the application of a strong magnetic field on the former or an intense electric field on the latter. The values of the macroscopic observables calculated in such a theoretical framework revealed good agreement with the experimental measurements performed in both c...

  19. Quench Performance of the First Twin-aperture 11 T Dipole for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Apollinari, G; Barzi, E; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Stoynev, S; Turrioni, D; Auchmann, B; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Karppinen, M; Rossi, L; Savary, F; Smekens, D

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. A single-aperture 2-m long dipole demonstrator and two 1-m long dipole models have been fabricated and tested at FNAL in 2012-2014. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled into the first twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ demonstrator dipole and tested. Test results of this twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole model are reported and discussed.

  20. First LHC dipole magnet leaves for Prévessin

    CERN Multimedia

    Valeriane Duvivier

    2003-01-01

    On 25 April, the first superconducting dipole magnet for the LHC made the 10-km-an-hour journey from building SM18, where it had been tested and assembled, to the Prévessin site, where it is now being stored before being lowered into the tunnel. CERN's impressive mobile telescopic crane is seen here loading the 15-metre-long magnet onto a lorry.

  1. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Smith; Selim Touati

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mass...

  2. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP -violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mas...

  3. Dipole magnet of the injection system for the SALO recirculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Kononenko, S. G.; Lyashchenko, V. N.; Mytsykov, A. Yu.; Romas'ko, V. P.; Tarasenko, A. S.; Shcherbinin, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    A design of a dipole magnet was developed for the injection system of the SALO recirculator. The constructed prototype magnet has a C-shaped structure with rectangular sections. The pole section is 100 × 100 mm; the aperture is 25 mm. Field distributions in the magnet at a gap induction of 0.05 and 0.2 T were measured. The effective length of the magnet and multipole components of the magnetic field were calculated.

  4. Minimum Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antenna - Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2009-01-01

    The stored energies, radiated power, and quality factor of a magnetic-dipole antenna, consisting of a spherical electrical surface current density enclosing a magnetic core, is obtained through direct spatial integration of the internally and externally radiated field expressed in terms...... of spherical vector waves. The obtained quality factor agrees with that of Wheeler and Thal for vanishing free-space electric radius but holds also for larger radii and facilitates the optimal choice of permeability in the presence of the resonances....

  5. MD 349: Impedance Localization with AC-dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Papotti, Giulia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to measure the distribution of the transverse impedance of the LHC by observing the phase advance variation with intensity between the machine BPMs. Four injected bunches with different intensities are excited with an AC dipole and the turn by turn data is acquired from the BPM system. Through post-processing analysis the phase variation along the machine is depicted and, from this information, first conclusions of the impedance distribution can be drawn.

  6. Simulation Comparisons of Three Different Meander Line Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR...MH. Improving radiation characteristics of UHF RFID antennas by zigzag structures. IEEE Xplore Digital Library, 2014: n. pag. Web. 2 September 2014...3. FEKO. www.feko.info [ Accessed 2 September 2014.] 4. Olaode OO, Palmer WD, Joines WT. Characterization of meander dipole antennas with a

  7. Pouring concrete to form a model LEP dipole yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233,1980. See also 8111529, 8111710X, 7901023X,7908294

  8. Mechanics of nonplanar membranes with force-dipole activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2006-01-01

    A study is made of how active membrane proteins can modify the long wavelength mechanics of fluid membranes. The activity of the proteins is modelled as disturbing the protein surroundings through nonlocal force distributions of which a force-dipole distribution is the simplest example. An analytic...... contributions to mechanical properties such as tension and bending moments become apparent. It is also explained how the activity can induce a hydrodynamic attraction between the active proteins in the membrane....

  9. Hot spin spots in the laser-induced demagnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Si

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced femtosecond magnetism or femtomagnetism simultaneously relies on two distinctive contributions: (a the optical dipole interaction (ODI between a laser field and a magnetic system and (b the spin expectation value change (SEC between two transition states. Surprisingly, up to now, no study has taken both contributions into account simultaneously. Here we do so by introducing a new concept of the optical spin generator, a product of SEC and ODI between transition states. In ferromagnetic nickel, our first-principles calculation demonstrates that the larger the value of optical spin generator is, the larger the dynamic spin moment change is. This simple generator directly links the time-dependent spin moment change ΔMzk(t at every crystal-momentum k point to its intrinsic electronic structure and magnetic properties. Those hot spin spots are a direct manifestation of the optical spin generator, and should be the focus of future research.

  10. A Secular Resonant Origin for the Loneliness of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin

    2017-10-01

    The origin of hot Jupiters, giant planets residing within about one tenth of an AU from their host stars, remains a long-standing problem in exoplanetary science. Traditionally, these objects are thought to form further out, before migrating to their short-period orbits, though the possibility of an in-situ formation pathway has recently gathered theoretical support. A key clue to their formation is their apparent "loneliness,” that all transiting examples except one lack close-in, co-transiting planetary companions. In contrast, the slightly more distant "warm” Jupiters possess close-in planetary companions in about 50% of cases. This dichotomy has led to the suggestion that two separate formation pathways are required to explain the two classes of objects. In this work we will demonstrate that the enhanced loneliness of hot Jupiters naturally arises owing to secular perturbations from the quadrupole moment of the host star soon after dispersal of the protoplanetary disk. In this way, we place warm Jupiters and hot Jupiters into a unified, theoretical framework.

  11. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2012-07-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small fourth dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.

  12. An apparent paradox concerning the field of an ideal dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edward

    2017-03-01

    The electric or magnetic field of an ideal dipole is known to have a Dirac delta function at the origin. The usual textbook derivation of this delta function is rather ad hoc and cannot be used to calculate the delta-function structure for higher multipole moments. Moreover, a naive application of Gauss’s law to the ideal dipole field appears to give an incorrect expression for the dipole’s effective charge density. We derive a general result for the delta-function structure at the origin of an arbitrary ideal multipole field without using any advanced techniques from distribution theory. We find that the divergence of a singular vector field can contain a derivative of a Dirac delta function even if the field itself does not contain a delta function. We also argue that a physical interpretation of the delta function in the dipole field previously given in the literature is perhaps misleading and may require clarification. Both the explanation of and the resolution to this ‘paradox’ should be accessible to someone who has taken a graduate- or advanced undergraduate-level course in classical electrodynamics.

  13. LHC dipole magnets start to roll off the production line

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The first pre-series LHC dipole magnet has been delivered to CERN, a further 1247 are due to be produced by 2005. Their production is the result of technology transfer from CERN to its suppliers. Fifteen metres long, thirty-tonnes in weight, and using several kilometres of superconducting cable, the magnet that has just arrived in hall 181 is a true colossus. It is the first pre-series dipole that will begin service in 2005 in the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. Delivered by the French Alstom-Jeumont Industrie consortium, it is the first of 1248 magnets that will be manufactured over the coming five years. Needless to say, lavish attention has been devoted to this magnet by the engineers and technicians who accompanied it to CERN from Belfort in north east France. The task of the dipole magnets will be to steer the LHC's proton beams on a circular trajectory around the LHC's 27 kilometre circumference. A magnetic field of 8.33 Tesla is required to guide the protons, accelerated to an energy of 7 TeV, aroun...

  14. τ dipole moments via radiative leptonic τ decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidelman, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fael, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mercolli, L. [Federal Office of Public Health FOPH,CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland); Passera, M. [INFN - Sezione di Padova,I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    We propose a new method to probe the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the τ lepton using precise measurements of the differential rates of radiative leptonic τ decays at high-luminosity B factories. Possible deviations of these moments from the Standard Model values are analyzed in an effective Lagrangian approach, thus providing model-independent results. Analytic expressions for the relevant non-standard contributions to the differential decay rates are presented. Earlier proposals to probe the τ dipole moments are examined. A detailed feasibility study of our method is performed in the conditions of the Belle and Belle II experiments at the KEKB and Super-KEKB colliders, respectively. This study shows that our approach, applied to the planned full set of Belle II data for radiative leptonic τ decays, has the potential to improve the present experimental bound on the τ anomalous magnetic moment. On the contrary, its foreseen sensitivity is not expected to lower the current experimental limit on the τ electric dipole moment.

  15. Impact parameter dependent color glass condensate dipole model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, G.; Kowalski, H.

    2008-07-01

    We show that the color glass condensate dipole model of Iancu, Itakura, and Munier, improved to include the impact parameter dependence, gives a good fit to the total γ*p cross section measured at HERA if the anomalous dimension at the saturation scale, γs, is treated as a free parameter. We find that the optimum value of γs=0.46 is close to the value determined from numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. The impact parameter dependent saturation scale is generally less than 0.5GeV2 in the HERA kinematic regime for the most relevant impact parameters btilde 2 3GeV-1. We compare predictions of the model to data on the longitudinal and heavy flavour structure functions, exclusive diffractive vector meson production, and deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA. The model is found to be deficient for observables sensitive to moderately small dipole sizes, where an alternative model with explicit Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution performs better. The energy dependence of exclusive diffractive processes is shown to provide an important discriminator between different dipole model cross sections.

  16. Search for anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Sguazzoni, G; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Ward, J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Schuller, J P; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; Gonzáles, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G

    2003-01-01

    The anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton are measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH from 1990 to 1995 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 155~pb$^{-1}$. Tau leptons produced in the reaction $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\tau^+ \\tau^-$ at energies close to the ${\\rm Z}$ mass are studied using their semileptonic decays to $\\pi$, $\\rho$, $a_1 \\rightarrow \\pi 2\\pi^0$ or $a_1 \\rightarrow 3 \\pi$. The real and imaginary components of both the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment and the CP-violating anomalous weak electric dipole moment, $ {\\rm Re}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Im}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Re}\\,d_{\\tau}$ and ${\\rm Im}\\,d_{\\tau}$, are measured simultaneously by means of a likelihood fit built from the full differential cross section. No evidence of new physics is found. The following bounds are obtained (95\\% CL): $|{\\rm Re}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 1.14 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Im}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 2.65 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Re}\\, d_{\\tau} | < 0.91 \\times 10^{-3}$, and $|{\\rm Im}\\, d_{\\tau} ...

  17. Ordering of Dipoles in Different Types of Microtubule Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpišová, B.; Brown, J. A.

    Microtubules (MTs) are the largest protein polymers in the cytoskeleton of eucaryotic cells in which they perform various functions. They are important in cell division, cell movement, they seem to be the devices through which are transferred signals in the nervous system. In this paper we continued to investigate the hypothesis that MTs can be viewed as assemblies of dipoles which are carried by the MT subunits, tubulin heterodimers. These assemblies were studied by means of the two-dimensional Ising model for both the A- and B-type arrangements of the tubulin subunits in a MT and the number of protofilaments 12, 13 and 14. We found that depending on these parameters and the magnitudes and orientations of the dipoles a MT may be at body temperature in an ordered phase or in a phase characterized by a random configuration of dipoles. The type of the ordered phase is determined by the above parameters as well, and it can be ferroelectric, antiferroelectric or ferrielectric. The dipolar ordering also depends on the presence of microtubule associated proteins, assuming that they can locally alter the dipolar interactions by binding to a MT, and external electric fields. The model presented here started by Tuszyński1-3 can be one of the first steps in the theoretical investigation of the electromagnetic features of MTs and their role in the MT behavior.

  18. Design, manufacture and measurements of permanent dipole magnets for DIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, A; Kasaei, S; Solodko, E; Thonet, P A; Tommasini, D

    2013-01-01

    The one of the aim of the DIRAC experiment is the observation of the long-lived π+π- atoms, using the proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron [1]. Two dipole magnets are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment as high resolution spectrometers. The dipole magnet will be used to identify the long-lived atoms on the high level background of π+π- pairs produced simultaneously with π+π- atoms. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole with a mechanical aperture of 60 mm. The magnet, of a total physical length of 66 mm, is based on Sm2Co17 blocks and provides an integrated field strength of 24·10-3 T×m. The Sm2Co17 was chosen as a material for the permanent magnet blocks due to its radiation hardness and weaker temperature dependence. The magnetic field quality is determined by 2 ferromagnetic poles, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks. The paper describes the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of the magnets.

  19. Probing amphotericin B single channel activity by membrane dipole modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S Ostroumova

    Full Text Available The effects of dipole modifiers and their structural analogs on the single channel activity of amphotericin B in sterol-containing planar phosphocholine membranes are studied. It is shown that the addition of phloretin in solutions bathing membranes containing cholesterol or ergosterol decreases the conductance of single amphotericin B channels. Quercetin decreases the channel conductance in cholesterol-containing bilayers while it does not affect the channel conductance in ergosterol-containing membranes. It is demonstrated that the insertion of styryl dyes, such as RH 421, RH 237 or RH 160, in bilayers with either cholesterol or ergosterol leads to the increase of the current amplitude of amphotericin B pores. Introduction of 5α-androstan-3β-ol into a membrane-forming solution increases the amphotericin B channel conductance in a concentration-dependent manner. All the effects are likely to be attributed to the influence of the membrane dipole potential on the conductance of single amphotericin B channels. However, specific interactions of some dipole modifiers with polyene-sterol complexes might also contribute to the activity of single amphotericin B pores. It has been shown that the channel dwell time increases with increasing sterol concentration, and it is higher for cholesterol-containing membranes than for bilayers including ergosterol, 6-ketocholestanol, 7-ketocholestanol or 5α-androstan-3β-ol. These findings suggest that the processes of association/dissociation of channel forming molecules depend on the membrane fluidity.

  20. Calculations of the dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the Li+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-10-01

    The B-spline configuration-interaction method is applied to the investigations of dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the four lowest triplet states (2 3S, 33S, 23P, and 33P) of the Li+ ion. The accurate energies for the triplet states of n 3S, n 3P, and n 3D, the dipole oscillator strengths for 23S(33S) → n 3P, 23P(33P) → n 3S, and 23P(33P) → n 3D transitions, with the main quantum number n up to 10 are tabulated for references. The dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the four triplet states under a wide range of photon energy are also listed, which provide input data for analyzing the Stark shift of the Li+ ion. Furthermore, the tune-out wavelengths in the range from 100 nm to 1.2 μm for the four triplet states, and the magic wavelengths in the range from 100 nm to 600 nm for the 23S → 33S, 23S → 23P, and 23S → 33P transitions are determined accurately for the experimental design of the Li+ ion. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821305) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474319, 11274348, and 91536102).

  1. Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes in dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners. About dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing ...

  2. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  3. Beamforming correction for dipole measurement using two-dimensional microphone arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Quayle, Alexander R; Dowling, Ann P; Sijtsma, Pieter

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a beamforming correction for identifying dipole sources by means of phased microphone array measurements is presented and implemented numerically and experimentally. Conventional beamforming techniques, which are developed for monopole sources, can lead to significant errors when applied to reconstruct dipole sources. A previous correction technique to microphone signals is extended to account for both source location and source power for two-dimensional microphone arrays. The new dipole-beamforming algorithm is developed by modifying the basic source definition used for beamforming. This technique improves the previous signal correction method and yields a beamformer applicable to sources which are suspected to be dipole in nature. Numerical simulations are performed, which validate the capability of this beamformer to recover ideal dipole sources. The beamforming correction is applied to the identification of realistic aeolian-tone dipoles and shows an improvement of array performance on estimating dipole source powers.

  4. EM design and analysis of dipole arrays on non-planar dielectric substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a simple and systematic description of EM design of antenna arrays. Printed dipole antennas are known to be simple yet more efficient than wire antennas. The dielectric substrate and the presence of ground plane affect the antenna performance and the resonant frequency is shifted. This book includes the EM design and performance analysis of printed dipole arrays on planar and cylindrical substrates. The antenna element is taken as half-wave centre-fed dipole. The substrate is taken as low-loss dielectric. The effect of substrate material, ground plane, and the curvature effect is discussed. Results are presented for both the linear and planar dipole arrays. The performance of dipole array is analyzed in terms of input impedance, return loss, and radiation pattern for different configurations. The effect of curved platform (substrate and ground plane) on the radiation behaviour of dipole array is analyzed. The book explains fundamentals of EM design and analysis of dipole antenna array throu...

  5. The shock-heated atmosphere of an asymptotic giant branch star resolved by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemmings, Wouter; Khouri, Theo; O'Gorman, Eamon; De Beck, Elvire; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Lankhaar, Boy; Maercker, Matthias; Olofsson, Hans; Ramstedt, Sofia; Tafoya, Daniel; Takigawa, Aki

    2017-12-01

    Our current understanding of the chemistry and mass-loss processes in Sun-like stars at the end of their evolution depends critically on the description of convection, pulsations and shocks in the extended stellar atmosphere1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere models provide observational predictions2, but so far the resolution to constrain the complex temperature and velocity structures seen in the models has been lacking. Here we present submillimetre continuum and line observations that resolve the atmosphere of the asymptotic giant branch star W Hydrae. We show that hot gas with chromospheric characteristics exists around the star. Its filling factor is shown to be small. The existence of such gas requires shocks with a cooling time longer than commonly assumed. A shocked hot layer will be an important ingredient in current models of stellar convection, pulsation and chemistry at the late stages of stellar evolution.

  6. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  7. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-06

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  8. Giant hepatocellular adenoma; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitella, F.A.; Coutinho, A.M.N.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign hepatic tumor identified mainly in women during fertility age, with estimated incidence of 4/1000 inhabitants. It is usually unique, well circumscribed, with or without a capsule, size varying from 1 to 30 cm, with possible central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Case Report: A 37-year-old female patient presenting with no comorbities, use of hormonal birth control pills for 18 years, a condition of reduction in the consistency of feces, increase in number of daily defecations, abdominal cramps, and a stuffed sensation after meals for two years. A palpable abdominal mass extending from the right hypochondriac to the right iliac fossa was noticed four months ago. A computerized tomography (CT) showed an extensive hepatic mass on the right which was considered, within the diagnostic hypotheses, hepatic adenomatosis, without ruling out secondary lesions. A hepatic scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA showed an extensive exophytic area from segment V to the right iliac fossa with arterialized blood flow and hepatocytic activity, as well as a hepatic nodule in segment VII with hepatocytic activity consistent with the hepatic adenomas hypothesis. The biopsy confirmed the hepatic adenoma diagnosis and the patient was submitted to a partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy with good clinical evolution. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine may supplement the assessment of hepatic nodules, including giant masses, thus suggesting new hypotheses and direction to therapeutic conduct. (author)

  9. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  10. submitter Quench Protection Heater Study With the 2-m Model Magnet of Beam Separation Dipole for the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kento; Higashi, Norio; Iida, Masahisa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohata, H; Okada, Naoki; Okada, Ryutaro; Sugano, Michinaka; Musso, Andrea; Todesco, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    The beam separation dipole magnet (D1), which is being operated in the large hadron collider (LHC), has to be replaced in accordance with upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC. The new D1 will be equipped with several circuits of heaters by which most of the stored energy is dissipated in the whole of the magnet during its quench, thereby avoiding localization of hot spots. Prior to construction of the production magnet, the 2-m mechanical short model is fabricated, and performance of this quench protection heater is evaluated through a series of the cold tests. As a result, we confirm that the maximum hot spot temperature obtained in the measurement reaches the practical limit of 300 K, and determine to design a new heater circuit. In this paper, we report the heater studies together with the prospect for future design of the quench protection heater.

  11. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    . With this additional information, the criteria can, for the first time, be used to their full potential.The purpose of this paper is to first give an introduction to a stress/strain simulation procedure that can be used in any foundry. Then, some results how to predict the hot cracking tendency in a casting are shown......The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  12. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  13. Hot Jupiters and cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaver, Eva; Mustill, Alexander J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Módulo 8, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Siess, Lionel, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.es [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-10-10

    Close-in planets are in jeopardy, as their host stars evolve off the main sequence (MS) to the subgiant and red giant phases. In this paper, we explore the influences of the stellar mass (in the range 1.5-2 M {sub ☉}), mass-loss prescription, planet mass (from Neptune up to 10 Jupiter masses), and eccentricity on the orbital evolution of planets as their parent stars evolve to become subgiants and red giants. We find that planet engulfment along the red giant branch is not very sensitive to the stellar mass or mass-loss rates adopted in the calculations, but quite sensitive to the planetary mass. The range of initial separations for planet engulfment increases with decreasing mass-loss rates or stellar masses and increasing planetary masses. Regarding the planet's orbital eccentricity, we find that as the star evolves into the red giant phase, stellar tides start to dominate over planetary tides. As a consequence, a transient population of moderately eccentric close-in Jovian planets is created that otherwise would have been expected to be absent from MS stars. We find that very eccentric and distant planets do not experience much eccentricity decay, and that planet engulfment is primarily determined by the pericenter distance and the maximum stellar radius.

  14. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  15. The Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: a Hierarchical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    The atmospheres of extrasolar gas giants that receive strong stellar irradiation, or “hot Jupiters,” are beginning to be characterized as a population. Photometric full-phase light curves of hot Jupiters allow for basic inferences of their atmospheric circulation, providing two key observables. First, they measure the amplitude of brightness variation, which has shown that the fractional brightness temperature difference between the dayside and nightside in the atmospheres of these tidally locked planets can approach unity. Additionally, each planet has a significant observed offset of the brightest point in their light curve, and offsets in the infrared ubiquitously occur before secondary eclipse. These infrared offsets are best explained by strong (~km/s) eastward winds in hot Jupiter atmospheres. Motivated by these observations, we have developed a first-principles analytic theory that predicts dayside-nightside temperature differences and horizontal and vertical wind speeds as a function of incident stellar flux, rotation rate, frictional drag strength, and atmospheric pressure level. To complement and compare with this theory, we have performed a hierarchy of three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulation to explore changes with incident stellar flux, rotation rate, and drag strength. Both the theory and numerical simulations predict that the dayside-nightside temperature differences of hot Jupiters and their wind speeds should increase with increasing incident stellar flux and decrease with increasing drag strength. So far, this has been hinted at in the observed sample of nine hot Jupiter phase curves, but we predict that these broad trends will be robust with a larger observed population. We extend our theory to estimate vertical mixing rates, which is critical for understanding the impact of clouds and disequilibrium chemistry on observations of hot Jupiters. To show the regimes that this theory applies in, we compare

  16. Genetic profile of the giant cell glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraud, A; Watanabe, K; Schwechheimer, K; Yonekawa, Y; Kleihues, P; Ohgaki, H

    1999-02-01

    Giant cell glioblastoma is a rare glioblastoma variant characterized by the presence of large, bizarre, multinucleated giant cells. This glioblastoma subtype develops clinically de novo after a short clinical history and contains a high frequency of p53 mutations. In this study, we screened a series of 18 giant cell glioblastomas for additional genetic alterations. PCR-SSCP followed by DNA sequencing revealed PTEN mutations in 5 of 15 tumors (33%). Of these, two mutations were located in exon 5, two mutations in exon 6, and one mutation each in exons 1 and 9. Four mutations were point mutations and two mutations were deletions. One neoplasm contained two PTEN mutations (exons 5 and 6). None of the giant cell glioblastomas showed a homozygous deletion of PTEN orp16, or amplification of MDM2. Immunohistochemically, MDM2 overexpression was either not observed or detected in only a minor fraction of tumor cells. Differential PCR revealed EGFR amplification in only one of 17 tumors (6%). These results indicate that giant cell glioblastomas occupy a hybrid position, sharing with primary (de novo) glioblastomas a short clinical history, the absence of a less malignant precursor lesion and a 30% frequency of PTEN mutations. With secondary glioblastomas that develop through progression from low-grade astrocytomas, they have in common a younger patient age at manifestation and a high frequency (>70%) of p53 mutations.

  17. Asteroseismology of Red Giants and Galactic Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekker, Saskia

    From the oscillations in red-giant stars measured in time-series data it is possible to derive more accurate stellar parameters (e.g., mass, radius and age) as can be done using only single-epoch spectroscopy or photometry. These stellar parameters combined with chemical composition and the position, distance and velocity of the stars play an important role in studying the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. In this chapter we discuss some key physical phenomena that are at play in (red-giant) stars as well as some important phases in red-giant evolution. Subsequently, oscillation characteristics that are of importance for the determination of stellar parameters (as indicated above) of red-giant stars are introduced followed by a description of the main components of the Milky Way. Finally, the role red giants can play in creating a detailed observational picture of the Milky Way and deciphering the formation and evolution of the Milky Way is discussed.

  18. THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT AND PROTO-HOT JUPITERS. III. A PAUCITY OF PROTO-HOT JUPITERS ON SUPER-ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Rebekah I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: rdawson@berkeley.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Gas giant planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars are unlikely to have formed in situ and are evidence for planetary migration. It is debated whether the typical hot Jupiter smoothly migrated inward from its formation location through the proto-planetary disk, or was perturbed by another body onto a highly eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrank and circularized during close stellar passages. Socrates and collaborators predicted that the latter model should produce a population of super-eccentric proto-hot Jupiters readily observable by Kepler. We find a paucity of such planets in the Kepler sample, which is inconsistent with the theoretical prediction with 96.9% confidence. Observational effects are unlikely to explain this discrepancy. We find that the fraction of hot Jupiters with an orbital period P > 3 days produced by the star-planet Kozai mechanism does not exceed (at two-sigma) 44%. Our results may indicate that disk migration is the dominant channel for producing hot Jupiters with P > 3 days. Alternatively, the typical hot Jupiter may have been perturbed to a high eccentricity by interactions with a planetary rather than stellar companion, and began tidal circularization much interior to 1 AU after multiple scatterings. A final alternative is that early in the tidal circularization process at high eccentricities tidal circularization occurs much more rapidly than later in the process at low eccentricities, although this is contrary to current tidal theories.

  19. An outburst powered by the merging of two stars inside the envelope of a giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillel, Shlomi; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2017-11-01

    We conduct 3D hydrodynamical simulations of energy deposition into the envelope of a red giant star as a result of the merger of two close main sequence stars or brown dwarfs, and show that the outcome is a highly non-spherical outflow. Such a violent interaction of a triple stellar system can explain the formation of `messy', I.e. lacking any kind of symmetry, planetary nebulae and similar nebulae around evolved stars. We do not simulate the merging process, but simply assume that after the tight binary system enters the envelope of the giant star the interaction with the envelope causes the two components, stars or brown dwarfs, to merge and liberate gravitational energy. We deposit the energy over a time period of about 9 h, which is about 1 per cent of the the orbital period of the merger product around the centre of the giant star. The ejection of the fast hot gas and its collision with previously ejected mass are very likely to lead to a transient event, I.e. an intermediate luminosity optical transient.

  20. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.